Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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2005


Acypreste, C.S.; Juliano, R.S.; Riveira, F.E.B.; Silva, L.A.F. da; Fioravanti, M.C.S.; Dias Filho, F. de C. Uso da tecnica do ELISA indireto na deteccao de anticorpos anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis em vacas em lactacao.[ELISA indirect technique for identification of immunoglobulin anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cows in Goias, Brazil.] Ciencia Animal Brasileira. 2005; 6(1): 55-59. ISSN: 1518-2797. Note: In Portuguese with an English summary.
URL: http://www.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/vet
Descriptors: cattle, nursing cows, antibody prevalence of Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, serum sampling, indirect ELISA on 166 samples, 60% positive for MAP, Goias, Brazil.

Alvarez, J.; Juan, L. de; Briones, V.; Romero, B.; Aranaz, A.; Fernandez-Garayzabal, J.F.; Mateos, A.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in fallow deer and wild boar in Spain.  Veterinary Record.  2005; 156(7): 212-213.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease incidence, fallow deer, wild boar, Spain.

Aly, S.S.; Thurmond, M.C.  Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of dairy cows attributable to infection status of the dam.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 227(3): 450-454.  ISSN: 0003-1488.
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cow infection, transmission levels from mother to calves.

Anonymous.  3rd Annual Symposium of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Bet Dagan, Israel.  Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 60(1): 33-38.  ISSN:  0334-9152.
Descriptors:  domestic animals, cats, dogs, cattle, pigs, West Nile virus, Streptococcus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, laboratory animals, fish, various topics, infectious diseases, immunology.

Aradaib, I.E.; Abbas, Z.A.; Abbas, B.; El Sanousi, S.M.  Evaluation of conventional methods and nested PCR (nPCR) for detection of paratuberculosis in goats.  Veterinary Research Communications.  2005; 29(5): 381-385. ISSN:  0165-7380.  
URL:  http://www.springerlink.com/(adb1ua55ubfoab45vpcz30vb)/app/home/journal.asp?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresults,1:103009,1
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V38
Descriptors:  goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnostic methods, PCR, animal pathology, case reports, paratuberculosis, postmortem examinations, Sudan. 

Archuleta, Rebecca Joy; Hoppes, Patricia Yvonne; Primm, Todd P.  Mycobacterium avium, enters a state of metabolic dormancy in response to starvation.  Tuberculosis.  2005; 85(3): 147-158.  ISSN:  1472-9792.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14729792
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, biphasic response to starvation, lipid catabolism, mycolate modification, loss of catalase and urease activities, sensitivity reduction to antibiotics, atanine tRNA synthetase decline, increase in ribonuclease E levels, metabolic dormancy, primary reservoir is natural and municipal water.

Barrett , D.C. Cattle Review 2005 Parts 38-40.Cattle Practice. 2005; 13(3): 273-276. ISSN: 0969-1251
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy bulls, animal breeding, animal nutrition, bulls, feed intake, dry matter feed, reproductive cycle, estrous cycle, progesterone, pregnancy complications, uterine diseases, disease diagnosis, endometritis, mathematical models, neosporosis, protozoal infections, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Pasteurella haemolytica, Proteus, Streptococcaceae, Mannheimia, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurellales.

Baselga, R.; Belen-Fernandez, A.; Moreno, B.; Chacon, G.; Albizu, I. Toma de muestras. [Taking of samples in cutaneous, articular, nervous and ocular symptoms of infectious origin.]Albeitar. 2005; (91): 24-26. Note: In Spanish.
URL: http://www.albeitar.com/
Descriptors: cattle, tissue sampling, various conditions and diseases, cutaneous abscesses, articular problems, conjunctivitis, neurological symptoms, paratuberculosis.

Basler, T.; Goethe, R.  IRG1 is differentially regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level in LPS stimulated and Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis infected murine macrophages.  Immunobiology.  2005; 210(6-8): 395.  ISSN:  0171-2985.  Note: Joint Annual Meeting of the German and Scandinavian Societies of Immunology, Kiel, Germany, September 21-24, 2005. 
NAL Call No.:  QR180.Z4
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, IRG1 gene, gene expression, in vitro, murine macrophages.

Baumgartner, W.; Damoser, J.; Khol, J.L. Vergleich zweier serologischer Untersuchungen der osterreichischen Rinderpopulation zur Verbreitung der bovinen Paratuberkulose (Johne'sche Krankheit) in den Jahren 1995-97 und 2002/03 sowie Vorstellung geplanter Bekampfungsmassnahmen. [Comparison of two studies concerning the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Austrian cattle in the years 1995-97 and 2002/03.] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2005; 92(11): 274-277. ISSN: 0043-535X. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: cattle, cattle farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, serum testing, Allied ELISA (Allied Monitor, Fayette, USA), antibody detection testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, disease surveillance, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, seroepidemiology, Austria.

Begg, D.J.; O'Brien, R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Griffin, J.F.T.  Experimental infection model for Johne's disease in sheep. Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(9): 5603-5611.  ISSN: 0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  Johne's disease in ruminants results in chronic enteritis caused by the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  This study examined two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains (JD3 and W), using different doses and routes of infection, to establish the optimal time postchallenge when predictable levels of infection, gut lesions, and clinical disease occur in a large proportion of sheep.  While a small proportion (25%) of sheep challenged with a low-passage-number laboratory culture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (strain W) became infected, no infection was found in animals exposed to a high-passage-number culture isolate of strain W.  In contrast, a primary tissue homogenate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (JD3) resulted in high (90%) infection rates and gut histopathology following oral or intratonsillar challenge.  The optimal conditions necessary to produce Johne's disease involve oral inoculation of 3-month-old lambs with four doses of 5 x 108 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated directly from the gut lymphatic tissues of clinically affected sheep.  This resulted in consistent gut histopathology at 9 months and the onset of clinical disease by 11 months postchallenge.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, strain comparison, strain W, strain JD3, animal disease model, oral inoculations of lambs, dosing regimen, optimum conditions, dosing age.

Begg, D.J.; Griffin, J.F.T.  Vaccination of sheep against M. paratuberculosis: immune parameters and protective efficacy.  Vaccine.  2005; 23(42): 4999-5008.  ISSN:  0264-410X.
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Neoparasec (TM) vaccine, comparison study, aqueous formulation of Map 316F (AquaVax), tested in sheep,  vaccination and challenge with virulent strain, immunological study, blood, lymphoid tissue in gut, CD4(+), CD8(+), CD25(+), B cells.

Berghaus, Roy D.; Lombard, Jason E.; Gardner,-Ian A.; Farver, Thomas B. Factor analysis of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire with evaluation of factor scores and a subset of original questions as predictors of observed clinical paratuberculosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 72(3-4): 291-309. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, questionnaire, Johne’s disease infection risks, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, computational biology, factor analysis, 38 variables, risk assessment variable relationships analysed, recommend reduced number of questions.

Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Thorel, Marie Francoise; Guilloteau, Laurence A.  Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC).  Veterinary Research. 2005; 36(3): 411-436.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
NAL Call No.:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  livestock, cattle, humans, wildlife, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, disease control programs, environmental reservoirs of pathogens, epidemiology, tuberculosis, zoonoses, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease.

Bires, J.; Juras, M.; Beracova, L.  Plan kontroly a eradikacie paratuberkulozy na Slovensku.  [Plan for paratuberculosis control and eradication in Slovakia.]  Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis.  2005; 30(4): 221-223. ISSN:  1335-0099.  Note:  In Slovakian.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control programs, disease prevalence, disease prevention, epidemiology, paratuberculosis.

Blajan, L. [Editor] Journee AEEMA: 19 Mai 2005. [Proceedings of the AEEMA Meeting, 19 May 2005.] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2005; (47): 1-92. ISSN: 0754-2186. Note: In French. Contains 11 papers dealing with the use of models in studying the epidemiology of various animal diseases.
URL: http://aeema.vet-alfort.fr/public/php/sommaire.php?lang=1
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Puumala virus, rabies virus, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, vector borne diseases, disease control, disease prevalence, disease prevention, disease surveys, disease transmission, disease vectors, epidemics, epidemiology, geographical distribution, horizontal transmission, models, risk assessment, stochastic models, cost benefit analysis, deterministic models, trends, Europe, Belgium, France, Spain.

Bogli-Stuber, K.; Kohler, C.; Seitert, G.; Glanemann, B.; Antognoli, M.C.; Salman, M.D.; Wittenbrink, M.M.; Wittwer, M.; Wassenaar, T.; Jemmi, T.; Bissig-Choisat, B.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Swiss dairy cattle by real-time PCR and culture: a comparison of the two assays.  Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2005; 99(3): 587-597.  ISSN:  1364-5072.
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1364-5072
NAL Call No.:  QR1.J687
Descriptors:  Swiss dairy cattle, diagnostic assays, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal sampling, 13 dairy herds, in vitro culture, real time PCR, alternative method, Switzerland.

Bolton , M.W.; Grooms, D.L.; Kaneene, J.B. Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in calves: implications for disease control and management. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater. Note: In French and English. 2005; 163.
Descriptors: diary cows, dairy calves, disease control programs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, disease control, disease transmission, Michigan, USA.

Bradley, T.L.; Cannon, R.M.  Determining the sensitivity of abattoir surveillance for ovine Johne's disease. Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(10): 633-636.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Johne's disease, intestinal tract lesions, post slaughter sampling, diagnostic test validation, histopathological examination, experienced meat inspectors, sheep identification, inspector surveillance was 70%.

Brugere-Picoux, J.; Maillard, R.; Douart, A.  Paratubercolosi: quali test diagnostici utilizzare?  [Paratuberculosis: which diagnostic tests to use?]  Summa.  2005; 22(6): 50-54, 2.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic assays, fecal culture, PCR, mesenteric lymph note biopsy, immunological methods, complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence, gel precipitation test, ELISA, review of advantages and disadvantages.

Buelte, Michael; Schoenenbruecher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir. From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp.paratuberculosis (MAP) als Zoonoseerreger? [From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) as zoonotic agent?] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2005; 118(9-10): 377-385. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In German.
URL: www.vetline.de/bmtw/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Descriptors: humans, ruminants, domestic and wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, possible zoonotic pathogen, epidemiology, transmission between humans and animals, good diagnostics needed.

Bujnakova, D.; Melicharek, I.; Feckova, M.; Skarbova, B.; Kmet', V.  Detekcia a kvantifikacia Mycobacterium paratuberculosis pomocou Real Time PCR u hovadzieho dobytka.  [Detection and quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis using the real time PCR in cattle.]  Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis.  2005; 30(3): 174-175.  ISSN:  1335-0099.  Note:  In Slovakian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, fecal sampling, PCR, IS900, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection method, quantitative analysis, Slovakia.

Bulte, Michael; Schoenenbruecher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir.  From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) als Zoonoseerreger?  [From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) as zoonotic agent?]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2005; 118(9-10): 377-385. ISSN:  0005-9366.  Note:  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, potential zoonotic disease, transmission from infected animals to humans, intensive research for diagnosis, valid epidemiological investigations.

Cabre, O.; Gonthier, A.; Davoust, B. Inspection sanitaire des animaux de boucherie. 1 - Petits ruminants. [Health inspection of slaughtered animals. 1 - Small ruminants.] Medecine Tropicale. 2005; 65(1): 27-31. ISSN: 0025-682X. Note: In French with an English summary.
Descriptors: goats, sheep, Taenia ovis,Toxoplasma gondii, tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, anthrax, foot and mouth or contagious ecthyma, diarrhea, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, colibacillosis, yersiniosis, zoonotic diseases, clinical signs antemortem, postmortem tissue surveys, abnormal behaviors, lesions, food protection, meat inspection.

Campbell , J.R.; Power, C.; Hood, R.; Olaloku, N.; Mainar-Jaime, R.; Waldner, C. Seroprevalence of Johnes disease, Neospora caninum and bovine leukosis virus in Canadian cow-calf herds. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 212. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: calves, cows, herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, neosporosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, serological surveys, seroprevalence, Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Cheng, J.; Bull, T.J.; Dalton, P.; Cen, S.; Finlayson, C.; Hermon Taylor, J.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the inflamed gut tissues of patients with Crohn's disease in China and its potential relationship to the consumption of cow's milk:  A preliminary study.  World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.  2005; 21(6-7): 1175-1179.  ISSN:  0959-3993.
URL:http://www.springerlink.com/(dtfvovf5jv3uot2uol4kxtvj)/app/home/journal.asp?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresults,1:100229,1
NAL Call No.:  QR1.M562
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, milk production and consumption increases in China, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestines of human’s with Crohn’s, possible association with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, recommend testing dairy herds and retail milk.

Collins, M.T.; Wells, S.J; Petrini, K.R.; Collins, J.E.; Schultz, R.D.; Whitlock, R.H. Evaluation of five antibody detection tests for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12(6): 685-692. ISSN: 1071-412X
URL: http://cdli.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/6/685
DOI : doi:10.1128/CDLI.12.6.685-692.2005
Abstract: Five diagnostic tests based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology for bovine paratuberculosis were evaluated by using individual serum or milk samples from 359 dairy cattle in seven paratuberculosis-free herds and 2,094 dairy cattle in seven Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected dairy herds. Three independent laboratories using three different culture procedures completed faecal cultures for M. paratuberculosis on these cattle and found 417 cows to be shedding M. paratuberculosis in their faeces. An animal that was faecal culture positive for M. paratuberculosis by any of the three laboratories was considered a confirmed case of infection. The specificity of three ELISAs (two on serum and one on milk) was >=99.8%. The specificity of the remaining two ELISAs, both done on serum, was 94.9 and 84.7%. Four of the five ELISAs evaluated produced similar sensitivity in detecting faecal culture-positive cattle (27.8 to 28.9%). Serum ELISA "D" had the lowest specificity (84.7%) and the highest sensitivity (44.5%), but if the cutoff value defining a positive test was changed from 125 to 250% (of the positive control) the sensitivity and specificity, 31.8 and 97.5%, respectively, were comparable to those of the other four assays. If the case definition for M. paratuberculosis infection was based on the culture results of a single laboratory instead of the combined results of three laboratories, ELISA sensitivity estimates were 45.7 to 50.0%. With the exception of ELISA D, assay agreement was high (kappa 0.66 to 0.85) for categorical assay interpretations (positive or negative), but linear regression of quantitative results showed low correlation coefficients (r2=0.40 to 0.68) due to the fact that ELISA results for some cows were high in one assay but low in another assay. Likelihood ratio analysis showed a direct relationship between the magnitude of ELISA result and the odds of a cow shedding M. paratuberculosis in its faeces. If used judiciously and interpreted quantitatively, these ELISAs are useful tools in support of paratuberculosis control programs in dairy herds.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, fecal testing, accuracy, antibody testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, antibody detection, serological diagnosis, serological techniques.

Conraths, F.J.; Kohler, H.; Werner, O.; Beer, M.; Depner, K.R.; Geue, L.; Kaden,V.; Staubach, C.; Potzsch, C.; Schares, G.; Mettenleiter, T.C.  The "Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut": past, present and future of research in infectious diseases of animals.  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2005; 118(9/10): 354-364.  ISSN:  0005-9366. Note:  In English with a German summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, research accomplishments, history, poultry, pigs, livestock, animal diseases, aquatic animals, infectious diseases, biosafety, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, foot and mouth disease, neosporosis, parasitoses, paratuberculosis, prion diseases, swine fever, zoonoses, Aphthovirus, avian influenza, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, swine fever virus, Germany.  

Corn, Joseph L.; Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Fischer, John R.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging birds and mammals on livestock premises.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(11): 6963-6967.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  dairy farms, 25 mammalian species sampled, 22 avian species sampled, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, feces, radiometric culture, acid fast isolates, 16S/IS900/IS1311 PCR and mycobactin dependency testing, 9 mammals and 3 avian species were positive, effect probably negative compared to manure, Wisconsin, Georgia, United States.

Coussens, P.M.; Pudrith, C.B.; Skovgaard, K.; Ren, X.; Suchyta, S.P.; Stabel, J.R.; Heegaard, P.M.H.  Johne's disease in cattle is associated with enhanced expression of genes encoding IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2, and factors promoting apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005; 105(3-4): 221-234.  ISSN: 0165-2427.  Note:  In the special issue: Functional Genomics of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Species of Veterinary Importance, edited by E.J. Glass and P.M. Coussens.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776
NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle disease, peripheral mononuclear blood cells, enhanced gene expression, IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors, metalloproteinases 1 and 2, apoptosis.

Crossley, Beate M.; Zagmutt Vergara, Francisco J.; Fyock, Terry L.; Whitlock, Robert H.; Gardner, Ian A.  Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dairy cows. Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 107(3-4): 257-263. ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  786 dairy cows; shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 93 dairy herds, disease prevalence, fecal sampling, cultured in Herrold's egg yolk medium, livestock numbers, seasonal variation, herd size, multivariable negative binomial model, Pennsylvania.

D'Haese, E.; Dumon, I.; Werbrouck, H.; de Jonghe, V.; Herman, L.  Improved detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.  Journal of Dairy Research.  2005; 72(Special issue): 125-128.  ISSN:  0022-0299.
URL:  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=DAR&bVolume=y
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J823
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection in milk samples, sample pretreatment, solid phase cytometry, detection of viable cells in 1 day.

Deutz, Armin; Spergser, Joachim; Wagner, Peter; Rosengarten, Renate; Koefer, Josef.  Nachweise von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis bei wildtieren und rindern in der Steiermark/Osterreich.  [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animal species and cattle in Styria/Austria.]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenshrift.  2005; 118(7-8): 314-320.  ISSN:  0005-9366.  Note:  In German.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  clinical aspects, diarrhea, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, fetus, histopathology, liver, lungs, lymph nodes, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, wild animals, cattle, Capra ibex, Capreolus capreolus, red deer, Cervus elaphus, chamois, fallow deer, foxes, hares, mouflon, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Austria.

Djonne, B.; Pavlik, I.; Svastova, P.; Bartos, M.; Holstad, G.  IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from goats and cattle in Norway. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica.  2005; 46(1/2): 13-18.  ISSN:  1751-0147.  Note:  In English with a Danish summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87
Descriptors:  cattle, goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, genotype variation, 51 isolates from goats, 4 isolates from cattle, IS900 RFLP analysis, no differences in host origin, epidemiological surveys, 5 new RFLP found, epidemiology, genetic variation, genotypes, paratuberculosis, Norway.

Donat, K.; Eulenberger, Karin; Kaempfer, Petra.  Blutserologische Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung von Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis in sachsischen Rinderbestanden.  [Seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle in Saxony.]  Tieraerztliche Umschau.  2005; 60(9): 497-501.  ISSN:  0049-3864.  Note:  In German.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 T445
Descriptors:  Saxon cattle herds, blood sampling (55,394) for antibody testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, commercial test IDEXX Worrstadt, prevalence testing, data on herd positives, Saxony, Germany. 

Douart, A.; Maillard, R.  Il controllo della paratubercolosi bovina.  [Monitoring of bovine paratuberculosis.] Summa. 2005; 22(6): 45-48, 2.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR,  monitoring programs, disease surveys, control programs, disease prevention and control, vaccination, paratuberculosis, Italy.

Dufour, B.; Durand, B.; Pouillot, R. Utilisation des modeles pour une etude cout/benefice de la paratuberculose en France. [Use of models for a cost/benefit study of paratuberculosis in France.] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2005; (47): 83-92. ISSN: 0754-2186. Note: In French with an English summary.
URL: http://aeema.vet-alfort.fr/public/php/sommaire.php?lang=1
Descriptors: livestock, cost benefit analysis of paratuberculosis certification, Association for Certification in Animal Health (ACERSA), Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, two models, herd dynamics infection model, economic model, stochastic model, deterministic model, hypotheses and results, France.

Dunn, J.R.; Kaneene, J.B.; Grooms, D.L.; Bolin, S.R.; Bolin, C.A.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.  Effects of positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces or antibody ELISA on results of caudal fold tuberculin test and interferon-gamma assay for tuberculosis in cattle.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 226(3): 429-435.  ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture, antibody ELISA, caudal fold TB test, interferon-gamma assay.

Dupont, Chris; Thompson, Keith; Heuer, Cord; Gicquel, Brigitte; Murray, Alan. Identification and characterization of an immunogenic 22 kDa exported protein of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Journal of Medical Microbiology.  2005; 54(11): 1083-1092.  ISSN:  0022-2615.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, exported 22 kDa putative lipoprotein, alkaline phosphatase gene fusion library, LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins, antibody to p22, detected in vaccinated sheep, clinical and subclinical infected cows.

Durham, S.  ARS collaborates in regional dairy quality management alliance.  Agricultural Research.  2005; 53(4): 20.  ISSN: 0002-161X.
URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/
NAL Call No.:  1.98 AG84
Descriptors:  USDA, Agricultural Research Service, dairy industry, quality control, best management practices, dairy products, dairy cows, food safety, animal health, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, food pathogens, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, genetic techniques and protocols, milk analysis, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont.

Eastern States Veterinary Association. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. Large Animal. Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. By the Association, Gainsville, FL. 2005. 530 pp. Note: A proceedings with a focus on large animal veterinary care. 38 papers on bovines, 91 papers on horses, 16 papers on small ruminants, 10 papers on pigs, 78 papers on veterinary practice management and legal issues.
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: cattle, alpacas, llamas, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, zoonotic diseases, bacterial diseases Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Streptococcus equi, viral diseases, eye diseases, tooth diseases, urinary tract diseases, skin diseases, foot diseases, heart diseases, joint diseases, reproductive disorders, metabolic disorders, colic, colitis, myositis, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, reproductive disorders, wounds, acupuncture, anesthesia, anesthetics, animal behavior, animal nutrition, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, emergencies, euthanasia, fluid therapy, healing, lameness, law, management, marketing, personnel management, pregnancy diagnosis, prognosis, dermatology, surgery, vaccination, veterinary practice.

Elad, D.  The 3rd Annual Symposium of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology. Bet-Dagan, Israel. December 2004.  Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 60(1): 33-38, He 28-29.  ISSN:  0334-9152.
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, monkeys, cats, dogs, mice, pigs, fish, various animal diseases, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, ELISA, epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomes, immunology, macrophages, immune responses, paratuberculosis, gastroenteritis, relapsing fever, West Nile fever, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Borrelia, Streptococcus iniae, Israel.

Ellingson, J.L.E.; Stabel, J.R.; Radcliff, R.P.; Whitlock, R.H.; Miller, J.M.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free-ranging bison (Bison bison) by PCR.  Molecular and Cellular Probes.  2005; 19(3): 219-225.  ISSN:  0890-8508.  
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6959&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=a1d954773ca83f03ff7b5c0d870580ef
NAL Call No.:  RB43.7.M63
Descriptors:  North American Bison, free ranging animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection with PCR, 25 animals with clinical signs of Johne’s disease, frozen and paraffin-embedded ileum, jejuniun, ileocecal lymph nodes, post slaughter, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found.

Elzo, M.A.; Rae, D.O.; Lanhart, S.; Wasdin, J.; Dixon, P.; Jones, J. Factors associated with ELISA sample/positive ratio scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle. R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. 2005; 213. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 213. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: beef cattle breeds,Aberdeen Angus, Brahman, zebu, multibreed beef cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, body weight, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, environmental factors, genetic factors, paratuberculosis.

Eppleston, J.; Reddacliff, L.; Windsor, P.; Links, I.; Whittington, R.  Preliminary observations on the prevalence of sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after 3 years of a vaccination program for ovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(10): 637-638.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, sheep, vaccination, shedding, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Gudair, immunologic drug, immunostimulant drug, immunology, disease prevention and control, Australia.

Ezanno, P.; Van Schaik, G.; Weber, M.F.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.  A modeling study on the sustainability of a certification-and-monitoring program for paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Research.  2005; 36(5/6): 811-826.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
NAL Call No.:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  cattle, cattle herd health, disease monitoring, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Dutch disease control programs, certification disease control, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, computer model.

Fischer, O.A.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Bartos, M; Weston, R.T.; Kopecna, M.; Trcka, I.; Pavlik, I. Potential risk of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis spread by syrphid flies in infected cattle farms. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2005 Dec; 19(4): 360-366. ISSN: 0269-283X
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0269-283X&site=1
NAL Call No.: SF639.M44
Abstract: The syrphid Eristalis tenax Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae) may be found in and around dung storage pits at cattle farms at various developmental stages of their life cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in 1044 E. tenax samples at various developmental stages, as well as fresh and stored dung originating from nine cattle farms. Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from one (1.5%) larva from the vicinity of three paratuberculosis-free herds of cattle. Mycobacterium a. paratuberculosis was isolated from 111 (21.4%) of E. tenax larvae collected from two of seven farms known to be infected with the causal agent of paratuberculosis. Mycobacteria were not isolated from any of the 340 pupae, 41 adults of 78 samples of exoskeletal exuviae. Mycobacterium a. paratuberculosis isolates from E. tenax larvae were of the IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type B-C1, identical to that detected in faecal samples from cattle herds infected with paratuberculosis. Larvae artificially infected with mycobacteria of IS900 RFLP type B-C9 did not contain statistically more CFU of identical IS900 RFLP type B-C9 in the intestinal tract and internal organs than on the body surface. These results show that M. a. paratuberculosis can survive in the intestinal tract and internal organs of E. tenax.
Descriptors: cattle,Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, insect vectors of disease, Eristalis tenax, disease prevalence, developmental stages, disease transmission, paratuberculosis, fecal contamination, pathogen identification, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP. pathogen survival, epidemiology, disease risks, Czech Republic. Slovakia.

Gao Anli; Odumeru, J.; Raymond, M.; Mutharia, L. Development of improved method for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bulk tank milk: effect of age of milk, centrifugation, and decontamination. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2005; 69(2): 81-87. ISSN: 0830-9000. Note: In English with a French summary.
NAL Call No.: SF601. C24
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microbial contamination, bulk milk, raw milk, milk hygiene, centrifugation, pathogen partitions into cream and pellet fraction. decontamination, food additives, food contamination, hexadecylpyridinium chloride.

Georgiadis, M.P.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A.  Sample size determination for estimation of the accuracy of two conditionally independent tests in the absence of a gold standard.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 71(1/2): 1-10.  ISSN:  0167-5877.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, screening, testing accuracy, calculation, estimation, sample size, statistical analysis, techniques, Excel spreadsheet template http://www.epi.ucdavis.edu/diagnostictests/

Godfroid, J.; Delcorps, C.; Irenge, L.M.; Walravens, K.; Marche, S.; Gala, J.L.  Definitive differentiation between single and mixed mycobacterial infections in red deer (Cervus elaphus) by a combination of duplex amplification of p34 and f57 sequences and Hpy188I enzymatic restriction of duplex amplicons.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(9): 4640-4648.  
Descriptors:  wild red deer, diagnose molecular methods for species specific identification of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, DNA banding patterns, before and after treatment with Hpy188I restriction of f57-upstream (us)-p34 duplex amplicons, duplex us-p34-f57 PCR and Hpy188I restriction excluded Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Belgium.

Goldova, M.; Pilipcinec, E. 48th year of Student Scientific Conference (SSC). Folia Veterinaria. 2005; 49(2): 112-116. ISSN: 0015-5748
URL: www.uvm.sk/dept/journals/ folia.html
Descriptors: wild birds, pheasants, cattle, dogs, Przewalski's horses, pigs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal ecology, diagnosis, food hygiene, meat quality, poultry meat, tooth diseases, medetomidine, butorphanol, Slovakia.

Gonzalez, J.; Geijo, M.V.; Garcia-Pariente, C.; Verna, A.; Corpa, J.M.; Reyes, L.E.; Ferreras, M.C.; Juste, R.A.; Marin, J.F. Garcia; Perez, V.  Histopathological classification of lesions associated with natural paratuberculosis infection in cattle.  Journal of Comparative Pathology.  2005; 133(2-3): 184-196.  ISSN:  0021-9975.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6861&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=6091bef4d15aae1adbceffba708c6eb8 NAL Call No.:  41.8 J82
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle lesions, adult cows, with and without clinical signs, gut lymphoid tissue, 5 categories of lesions, ileum, jejunum, intestinal villi, thickening of intestinal wall.

Grant, I.R. Zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: the current position. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2005; 98(6): 1282-1293. ISSN: 1364-5072. Note: In the symposium issue: Adams M., G.F. Fitzgerald; Gilmour A.; Godfree, A.F.; Hill C.; Ross R.P. [Editors]. Dairy and Food Microbiology: Challenges and Opportunities, Held July 2004, Cork, Republic of Ireland. Note: Includes references. Literature review.
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1364-5072&site=1
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, disease transmission, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, zoonoses, Crohn’s disease, cattle diseases, human health.

Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald.  Efficacy of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions in combination with homogenization on inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(6): 2853-2861.  ISSN:  0099-2240.  
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk contamination, homogenization, pathogen inactivation, time/temperature conditions, HTST pasteurization.

Grant, I.R.; Williams, A.G.; Rowe, M.T.; Muir, D.D.  Investigation of the impact of simulated commercial centrifugation and microfiltration conditions on levels of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk. International Journal of Dairy Technology.  2005; 58(3): 138-142.  ISSN:  1364-727X.
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=idt
NAL Call No.:  SF221.I58
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, microbial contaminate of raw milk, milk processing, decontamination process, centrifugation, microfiltration.

Griffin, J. Frank T.; Spittle, Evelyn; Rodgers, Christie R.; Liggett, Simon; Cooper, Marc; Bakker, Douwe; Bannantine, John P.  Immunoglobulin G1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease in red deer (Cervus elaphus).  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2005; 12(12): 1401-1409.  ISSN:  1071-412X.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=84
Descriptors:  farmed red deer, serodiagnosis, Johne’s disease, denatured purified protein derivative (PPDj), undenatured protoplasmic antigen (PpAg), ELISA, antigen reactivity of IgG1, compared non pathological and those with pathological diseases.

Groenendaal, H.  Control programs for Johne's disease.  Advances in Dairy Technology Proceedings of the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar.  2005; 17: 81-94.  ISSN: 1184-0684. Note:  Seminar held March 8-11, 2005, Red Deer, Alberta.
URL:  http://www.wcds.afns.ualberta.ca/
NAL Call No.:  SF223.W478
Descriptors:  dairy herds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease surveillance, disease control, simulation models, culling animals, dairy herd management, United States, The Netherlands.

Groenendaal, H. Epidemiologic and Economic Risk Analysis of Johne's Disease Control. Published by Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Universiteit. 2005; 160 pp. ISBN: 9085042135. Note: A thesis. In English with a Dutch summary.
NAL Call No.:  DISS F2005041
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, risk analysis, decision making, economics, epidemiological models, disease control, Netherlands.

Harris, N.B.; Robbe-Austerman, .S; Payeur, J.B. Effect of egg yolk on the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the ESP II liquid culture system. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2005 Nov; 17(6): 554-560. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Rapid diagnosis of paratuberculosis in infected cattle is important for the successful control of Johne disease within herds. Thus, improving culture methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) will aid in the identification of asymptomatic animals. Egg yolk is a component of the media used for growing M. paratuberculosis, but its requirement as a supplement has not been reported. Using the ESP II liquid culture system, 2 different sources and 5 concentrations (3.3%, 1.6%, 0.8%, 0.4%, and 0%) of egg yolk were analyzed. Egg yolk source did not affect either recovery rate or time to detection, but both parameters were significantly improved when the 3.3% egg yolk concentrations (final volume) were used over media containing no egg yolk. This study also assessed the recovery of M. paratuberculosis from fecal samples that were cultured multiple times using Herrold egg yolk agar (HEY). Specimens containing greater than 70 cfu/g feces could routinely be identified as positive for M. paratuberculosis after only 1 culture attempt, whereas specimens with fewer bacteria were only intermittently positive, even after 5 replicate cultures. Therefore, this study indicates that the sensitivity of the Trek Diagnostic ESP II liquid culture system for M. paratuberculosis is affected by egg yolk concentration and that single culture attempts using HEY solid media may not identify specimens containing low numbers of bacteria.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, egg yolk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, rapid methods, paratuberculosis, disease detection, culture media, ESP II liquid culture system.

Harwood, D.  My goat's got diarrhoea: common causes and disease management.  Veterinary Times.  2005; 35(41): 20-21.  ISSN:  1352-9374.
Descriptors:  goats, kids, diarrhea, cause, disease management and control, fluids, acidosis, mineral deficiencies and therapy, poisonings, common pathogens, etiology, diagnosis, fascioliasis, parasitoses, salmonellosis, sulfonamides, Clostridium perfringens, Cryptosporidium parvum, Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Escherichia coli, Fasciola, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, Trichostrongylus, Secernentea, Strongylida, treatments, anthelmintics, antibiotics, sulfonamides, United Kingdom.

Hendrick, S.; Duffield, T.; Leslie, K.; Lissemore, K.; Archambault, M.; Kelton, D. The prevalence of milk and serum antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy herds in Ontario. Canadian Veterinary Journal-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2005 Dec; 46(12): 1126-1129. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: This study randomly surveyed 50 dairy herds in Ontario; 18% and 30% of herds had 2 or more milk or serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive cows, respectively. The apparent cow level prevalence was 1.7% and 2.6% on the milk and serum ELISA, respectively. The serum and milk assays agreed moderately.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, disease prevalence, antibodies, antibody detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy herd, paratuberculosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, milk analysis, hematologic tests, Ontario, Canada.

Hendrick, S.H.; Duffield, T.F.; Kelton, D.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of paratuberculosis in lactating dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005 Feb 1; 226(3): 424-428. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, milk, blood serum, disease diagnosis, feces, cell culture, validity, Ontario, Canada.

Hendrick, Steven H.; Kelton, David F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Archambault, Marie; Duffield, Todd F.  Effect of paratuberculosis on culling, milk production, and milk quality in dairy herds.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 227(8): 1302-1308.  ISSN:  0003-1488.  
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, 9 infected dairy herds, disease effects, culling, milk production, milk quality, fecal sampling, mycobacterial culture, serum sampling, ELISA testing, mixed effect and proportional hazards models, disease effects on: 305-day milk levels, fat, protein production, somatic cell count linear score, potential cow longevity. 

Hendrick, S.H.; Kelton, D.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M.; Bagg, R.; Dick, P.; Duffield, T.F. Efficacy of monensin sodium for the reduction of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in infected dairy cattle. In: R.A. Smith [Editor] Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005; 167. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control programs, monensin treatment, efficacy.

Hendrick, Steven H.; Kelton, David F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Archambault, Marie; Duffield, Todd F.  Effect of paratuberculosis on culling, milk production, and milk quality in dairy herds.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 227(8): 1302-1308.  ISSN:  0003-1488.  
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, 9 infected dairy herds, disease effects, culling, milk production, milk quality, fecal sampling, mycobacterial culture, serum sampling, ELISA testing, mixed effect and proportional hazards models, disease effects on: 305-day milk levels, fat, protein production, somatic cell count linear score, potential cow longevity. 

Holstad, G.; Sigurdardottir, O.G.; Storset, A.K.; Tharaldsen, J.; Nyberg, O.; Schonheit, J.; Djonne, B.  Description of the infection status in a Norwegian cattle herd naturally infected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica.  2005; 46(1/2): 45-56.  ISSN:  0044-605X.  Note:  In English with a Danish summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, age differences, serological survey, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, antibodies, antibody testing, histopathology, immunoassay, immunodiagnosis, interferon, paratuberculosis, RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology seroprevalence, surveillance and control program, Norway.

Hostetter,J.; Huffman, E.; Byl, K.; Steadham, E.  Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the granulomatous intestinal lesions of naturally occurring bovine Johne's disease.  Veterinary Pathology.  2005; 42(3): 241-249.  ISSN: 0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/content/by/year
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Abstract:  Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is important in the control of a number of intracellular pathogens, including mycobacteria, and is a marker of classic macrophage activation.  In human granulomatous diseases such as leprosy, a spectrum of granulomatous lesions is described, ranging from the tuberculoid to lepromatous types.  Tuberculoid granulomas are associated with enhanced iNOS production and improved clinical outcomes over the lepromatous types.  The aim of this study is to determine whether an association exists between morphology of bovine Johne's disease granulomas and lesion macrophage effector functions.  To accomplish this, we retrospectively evaluated 24 cases of bovine Johne's disease.  In each case, we recorded the predominant granuloma morphology and evaluated iNOS immunoreactivity and bacterial burden by acid-fast stains and mycobacterial immunolabeling.  The results of this study demonstrate that all cases had granulomas with features most similar to the lepromatous type. This morphology correlated with heavy bacterial burdens demonstrated by acid-fast staining and mycobacterial immunoreactivity.  None of the cases had high expression of iNOS in mycobacterial-positive granulomas.  When iNOS immunoreactivity was identified, it was usually located near the crypts and was distinct from the granulomatous foci.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, iNOS, morphology of bovine Johne's disease granulomas, lesion macrophage effector functions, granuloma morphology, acid-fast stains, mycobacterial immunolabeling, crypts.

Hostetter, Jesse Michael; Steadham, Edward.  Immune scrum opsonization effects on non-tuberculous mycobacterial interaction with macrophages.  FASEB Journal.  2005; 19(5, Suppl. S, Pt. 2): A1515. ISSN:  0892-6638.  Note:  Experimental Biology 2005 Meeting, 35th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, San Diego, CA, USA; March 31 -April 06, 2005.
URL:  http://www.fasebj.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  QH301.F3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antibody is opsonizing, may promote killing, independent of nitric oxide and phagosome acidification.

Hostetter, J.; Kagan, R.; Steadham, E.  Opsonization effects on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-macrophage interactions.  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12(6): 793-796.  ISSN:  1071-412X.
URL:  http://www.fasebj.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  RB46.5
Descriptors:  macrophages, ability to limit proliferation of bacteria, opsonized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Hovingh, E. Map in the environment.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 13
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, disease transmission, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal contamination of environment, pastures, soil, water, microbial contamination of the environment.

Hovingh, E. Risk assessment-based Johne's Disease programs. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 14-17
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: dairy cattle, heifers, bulls, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, risk assessment, risk factors, disease control, disease transmission factors, parptuberculosis, bacterial pathogen.

Hughes, M.S.; Ball, N.W.; McCarroll, J.; Erskine, M.; Taylor, M.J.; Pollock, J.M.; Skuce, R.A.; Neill, S.D.  Molecular analyses of mycobacteria other than the M-tuberculosis complex isolated from Northern Ireland cattle.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 108(1-2): 101-112.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  cattle, antigens, genes, bovine tuberculosis, Johne’s disease, diagnostic techniques, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium bohemicum, Mycobacterium holsaticum, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, Mycobacterium palustre, Mycobacterium sp. IWGMT-90210, Mycobacterium sp. LIV-2129, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Huntley, J.F.J.; Whitlock, R.H.; Bannantine, J.P.; Stabel, J.R.  Comparison of diagnostic detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in North American Bison.  Veterinary Pathology.  2005; 42(1): 42-51.  ISSN: 0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/content/by/year
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Abstract:  Tissues and fecal material were collected from 14 North American Bison (Bison bison) that were suspected of having Johne's disease and analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis).  Sections of ileum, ileal-cecal lymph node, and three sequential sections of jejunum with their associated mesenteric lymph nodes were taken from each animal.  Fecal culture indicated that 5 of 14 (35.7%) animals were infected, whereas cultures from tissues detected 12 of 14 (85.7%) animals as infected and 59 of 111 (53.2%) of the tissues as positive for M. paratuberculosis.  Polymerase chain reaction analysis identified infection in 14 of 14 (100%) animals and in 91 of 112 (81.2%) tissues.  In addition, tissues were processed for Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining, auramine O/acridine orange fluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining. Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine O staining identified 7 of 14 (50%) and 5 of 14 (35.7%) animals as infected and 24 of 112 (21.4%) and 28 of 112 (25%) tissues as positive, respectively.  Immunohistochemical analyses of bison tissues, using antisera collected from rabbits immunized with four different preparations of M. paratuberculosis, identified a greater percentage of infected animals (ranging from 57 to 93%) and positive tissues (ranging from 28 to 46%).  Collectively, these data indicate that DNA-based detection of M. paratuberculosis was more sensitive than bacterial culture or staining, identified infection in all the bison, and detected the greatest number of positive tissues within each animal.
Descriptors:  North American Bison, possible Johne’s disease, tissue and fecal sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ileum, ileal-cecal lymph node, and three sequential sections of jejunum & associated mesenteric lymph nodes, fecal culture, PCR analysis, Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining, auramine O/acridine orange fluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining, sensitivity of various detection methods.

Huntley, J.F.; Stabel, J.R.; Paustian, M.L.; Reinhardt, T.A.; Bannantine, J.P.  Expression library immunization confers protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infectionInfection and Immunity.  2005; 73(10): 6877-6884.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  expression library immunization, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, DNA vaccines, mice immunization, gene gun delivery, live virulent strain challenge, 26 antigens seem to generate protection.

Huntley, Jason F.J.; Stabel, Judith R.; Bannantine, John P.  Immunoreactivity of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein.  BMC Microbiology.  2005; 5(January 21).  ISSN:  1471-2180.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=44
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, gene encoding 19-kDa lipoprotein, immunomodulator, Johne’s disease, MAP0261, IFN gamma production measured in infected cows, sera testing, not sensitive enough for an assay.

Ikiz, Serkan; Bagcigil, A. Funda; Ak, Seyyal; Ozgur, N. Yakut; Lgaz, Atilla.  Paratuberculosis in cattle in Turkey detected by PCR.  Medycyna Weterynaryjna.  2005; 61(8): 881-883.  ISSN:  0025-8628.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 M463
Descriptors:  cattle, adult animals, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR, IS900 gene, results negative, recommended further studies, Trakya, Turkey.

Jansen, J.; Godkin, A.  Raising Johne's-free calves.  Advances in Dairy Technology.  Proceedings of the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar.  2005; 17: 217-225.  ISSN: 1184-0684.  Note:  Seminar held March 8-11, 2005, Red Deer, Alberta.
URL:  http://www.wcds.afns.ualberta.ca/
NAL Call No.:  SF223.W478
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease prevention, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, dairy herd management, cattle manure management.  

Jin, Hai Lin; Zahang, Yuan; Zhao, Li Feng; Huang, Hai Long; Cui, Huan Zhong; Zhang, Yi. Study of the deer paratuberculosis case report.Journal of Economic Animal. 2005; 9(4): 209-210. ISSN: 1007-7448. Note: In Chinese. With an English summary.
URL: http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/vol7/iss1/art35/
Descriptors: deer, Cervus Nippon, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, pathology, mortality rate, China.

Jovanovic, M.; Knezevic, Milijana. Paratuberkuloza (Johnova Bolest) - Osnovne Karakteristike I Stanje U Nasoj Zemlji. [Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) - Basic characteristics and current situation locally.] Veterinarski Glasnik. 2005; 59(5-6): 507-519. ISSN: 0350-2457. Note: In Czech.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J93
Descriptors: sheep, the II de France breed, cattle, young animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sources of pathogen, fecal material, colostrum of disease animals, intro-uterine infection, complement binding reaction (CBR), the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), immunioenzyme test (ELISA), testing of tissue samples, patho-anatomical or patho-histological findings, disease severity.

Juan, L. de ; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L.; Sharp, J.M.; Stevenson, K.  Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from goats detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 106(3-4): 249-257.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  goats, sheep, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 44 clinical isolates characterized, epidemiology, diagnostic techniques, genetic diversity, genotypes, PCR, pulsed field electrophoresis, RFLP.

Jubb, T.F.  The effect of interpreting an ELISA at a lower cut-off on detection of clinical cases of bovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(5): 305-307.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis, ELISA testing, positive results interpretation.

Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Allcroft, David J.; Hutchings, Michael R. Clustering of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits and the environment: How hot is a hot spot.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(10): 6033-6038.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  Clustering of pathogens in the environment leads to hot spots of diseases at local, regional, national, and international levels.  Scotland contains regional hot spots of Johne's disease (caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in rabbits, and there is increasing evidence of a link between paratuberculosis infections in rabbits and cattle.  The spatial and temporal dynamics of paratuberculosis in rabbits within a hot spot region were studied with the overall aim of determining environmental patterns of infection and thus the risk of interspecies transmission to livestock.  The specific aims were to determine if prevalence of paratuberculosis in rabbits varies temporally between seasons and whether the heterogeneous spatial environmental distribution of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a large scale (i.e., regional hot spots) is replicated at finer resolutions within a hot spot.  The overall prevalence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits was 39.7%; the temporal distribution of infection in rabbits followed a cyclical pattern, with a peak in spring of 55.4% and a low in summer of 19.4%.  Spatially, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected rabbits and, thus, the risk of interspecies transmission were highly clustered in the environment.  However, this is mostly due to the clustered distribution of rabbits.  The patterns of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in rabbits are discussed in relation to the host's socioecology and risk to livestock.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, epidemiology, rabbits are a reservoirs, spatial and temporal dynamics, environmental patterns of infection, seasonal effects, spatial distribution of pathogen, Johne’s disease, disease transmission, disease prevalence, seasonal variation, risk to livestock, Scotland.  

Judge, J.; Greig, A.; Kyriazakis, I.; Hutchings, M.R.  Ingestion of faeces by grazing herbivores - risk of inter-species disease transmission.  Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.  2005; 107(2/3): 267-274.  ISSN:  0167-8809.
URL:   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01678809
NAL Call No.:  S601.A34
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, rabbits, contaminated rabbit droppings, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, contaminated pastures, disease transmission via ingestion of feces while grazing, risks to herbivores, grazing study, no avoidance of droppings, plant-height affects levels of ingestion of rabbit droppings, United Kingdom.

Juste, R.A.; Garrido, J.M.; Geijo, M.; Elguezabal, N.; Aduriz, G.; Atxaerandio, R.; Sevilla, IComparison of blood polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and sheep.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17(4): 354-359.  ISSN:  1040-6387.
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.:
  SF774.J68
Abstract: A study was carried out to compare the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep. For cattle, a set of 278 samples from 1 paratuberculosis-affected Friesian farm was used; it included 80 ELISA-positive samples and 198 ELISA-negative samples from an age-matched group. Ninety-four samples were from heifers and 184 were from 2-5-year-old cows. The overall analysis showed a clear association (Fisher exact test FET P = 0.0049) but a weak negative agreement (45.3%, kappa = -0.1665 +/- 0.0994) between the 2 tests. It reflected a moderate agreement among heifers (87.7%, kappa = 0.4471 +/- 0.2435) and a moderate disagreement among cows (62.7%, kappa = -0.3670 +/- 0.1057). For sheep, 496 blood samples from 53 Latxa dairy flocks were used; 180 of the blood samples were from dam/offspring pairs. The overall association between the 2 tests on ovine samples was strong (FET, P = 0.0005), whereas the agreement was low (kappa = 0.1622 +/- 0.1188). There was slightly better agreement for ewes (kappa = 0.2135 +/- 0.1992) than for lambs (kappa = 0.1193 +/- 0.1301). There was also a highly unlikely proportion of dam/offspring positive results (FET, P < 0.0001, kappa = 0.6269 +/- 0.1854). Four of 6 lambs that were necropsied 1 year after testing had paratuberculosis microscopic lesions in the ileocecal valve (3 lambs) or a PCR-positive result (4 lambs). These results suggest that blood PCR testing might be a potentially useful new approach in paratuberculosis diagnosis, especially in young animals.
Descriptors:
  cattle, cows, heifers, sheep, ewes, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, Johne’s disease, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA assay, PCR, blood test comparison, test accuracy.

Katayama, Nobuya. Studies on the physical and chemical influence to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis on roughage. Bulletin of the Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University. 2005; (54): 99-102. ISSN: 0373-8361
URL: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/journal/B/S0144B/2000.php
NAL Call No.: SF604.N6
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, various treatments, inactivation of pathogen, effects on dietary roughage in intestine.

Kiehnbaum, L.A.; Amonsin, A.; Wells, S.J.; Kapur, V.  Amplified fragment length polymorphism to detect clonal diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in selected Minnesota dairy cattle.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  July 2005; 17(4): 311-315.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Abstract: The molecular ecology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is not well understood in the United States. In this study, a DNA fingerprinting method, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), was used to subtype the pathogen and assess the clonal diversity of MAP in Minnesota dairy herds. Fifty-six fecal culture test-positive isolates from various Minnesota counties and culture dates were analyzed in this study. The AFLP identified 11 profiles with 50% of isolates representing 1 major profile. The major profile was distributed across the state. The genetic diversity of bovine MAP clones in Minnesota based on AFLP analysis of this data appears to be relatively low.
Descriptors:
  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial clones, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length, polymorphism, methods, Minnesota.

Koo, HyeCheong; Park,YongHo; Ahn, JongSam; Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Hamilton, M.J.; Barrington, G; Mosaad, A.A.; Park, KunTaek; Jung,WooKyung; Hwang, InYeong; Cho, SangNae; Shin, S.J.; Davis, W.C.  Use of rMPB70 protein and ESAT-6 peptide as antigens for comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent, immunochromatographic, and latex bead agglutination assays for serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(9): 4498-4506.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT6-p) and a recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rMPB70), recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rMPB70) of Mycobacterium bovis, assays, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, mycobacterial diseases, tuberculosis.

Kudahl, A.B.  Economic consequences of paratuberculosis control in dairy cattle herds.  DIAS Report, Animal Husbandry.  2005; (63): 127 p.  ISSN:  1397-9892.  Note:  A thesis from the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Tjele, Denmark
URL:  www.digisource.dk
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, dairy herds, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, economics impact of disease, different control strategies, simulation model, herd specific decision support for dairy farmers.

Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cullor, J.S.; Zeng, N.X.; Truong, T.D.; Essert, T.K.; Smith, W.L.; Pina, C. Disinfection of dairy and animal farm wastewater with radiofrequency power.Journal of Dairy Science. 2005 Nov; 88(11): 4120-4131. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Radiofrequency (RF) power was investigated as a new, physical (nonchemical), thermal process to disinfect wastewater from dairy and animal facilities. Samples (n = 38) from 8 dairy, 2 calf, and 3 swine facilities in California were collected over a 3-yr period and characterized for their dielectric properties, chemical composition, and suitability for thermal processing using RF power. To establish efficacy for disinfection, selected samples were inoculated with high levels (10 superscript 6 to 10 superscript 9 cfu/mL) of bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and processed with an RF prototype system. The capabilities of RF power as a method for thermal disinfection of wastewater were demonstrated when bacteria pathogens were completely and rapidly (<1 min) inactivated when temperatures of 60 to 65degrees C were achieved. Furthermore, RF technology can be used for large-scale, batch or continuous and portable applications, allowing significant improvements in energy-use efficiencies compared with conventional thermal (surface heating) technologies. Therefore, RF power has potential as an alternative to disinfect dairy/animal farm wastewater before recycling.
Descriptors: dairy farms, animal facilities, calf facilities, swine operations, disinfection of waste water, wastewater treatment, heat inactivation, heat treatment, energy conservation, animal pathogenic bacteria, California, USA.

Langelaar, Merel F.M.; Weber, Corinna N.; Overdijk, Marije B.; Mueller, Kerstin E.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.  Cytokine gene expression profiles of bovine dendritic cells after interaction with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (M.a.p.), Escherichia coli (E coli) or recombinant M.a.p. heat shock protein 70.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005; 107(1-2): 153-161.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776
NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, recombinant heat shock protein 70 (M.a.p.) cytokine gene expression, bovine dendritic cells, bovine IL-12 gene, bovine interleukin-12 gene, expression, bovine IL-1 beta gene, interleukin-1 beta gene, expression, bovine IL-6 gene expression.

Langelaar, M.F.M.; Hope, J.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Van Eden, W.; Koets, A.P.  Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis recombinant heat shock protein 70 interaction with different bovine antigen-presenting cells.  Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.  2005; 61(3): 242-250.  ISSN:  0300-9475.  
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=sji
NAL Call No.:  QR180.53
Descriptors:  recombinant Hsp 70, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CD14 (+), characterized monocyte-derived macrophages, monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC), BoMac, an immortalized bovine macrophage cell line.

Lei, Liying; Hostetter, Jesse M.  Effects of Mycobacteria avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection on bovine dendritic cell surface marker expression.  FASEB Journal.  2005; 19(4, Suppl. S, Pt. 1): A965.  ISSN:  0892-6638.  Note:  Experimental Biology 2005 Meeting, 35th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, San Diego, CA, USA; March 31 -April 06, 2005.
URL:  http://www.fasebj.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  QH301.F3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infected bovine CD14(+) monocytes, cultured for dendritic cell differentiation in vivo, host immune response, down-regulation of MHCII expression on DCs.

Leine, N.  Smittesaneringsprosjektet "Friskere geiter".  [Disease eradication project "Healthier goats.”]  Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift.  2005; 117(5): 360-362.  ISSN:  0332-5741.  Note:  In Norweigian.
Descriptors:  goats, goat diseases, preventive medicine, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis, Norway.

Li, Lingling; Bannantine, John P.; Zhang, Qing; Amonsin, Alongkorn; May, Barbara J.; Alt, David; Banerji, Nilanjana; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek.  The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  2005; 102(35): 12344-12349.  ISSN:  0027-8424.  
URL:  http://www.pnas.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  500 N21P
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, strain K-10, pathogenic strain of Johne’s, cattle, ruminants, sequence data, description of the genome, comparison with Mtb.

Lindstedt, Bjorn Arne.  Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis for genetic fingerprinting of pathogenic bacteria.  Electrophoresis.  2005; 26(13): 2567-2582.  ISSN:  0173-0835. 
Descriptors:  DNA fingerprinting, identifying, tracing, preventing dissemination, pathogenic bacteria, review article, VNTRs, MLVA, advantages and disadvantages, many species listed including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

Lombard , J.E.; Smith, R.L.; Wagner, B.A.; McCluskey, B.J. Evaluation of environmental sampling to determine distribution and dairy herd infection status for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 190. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy herd, cattle, infection rates, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental factors contributing to disease spread, feces, pens, floors, manure spreaders, milking parlors, blood serum testing, risk factors for disease spread, USA.

Lombard , J.E.; Wagner, B.A.; McCluskey, B.J.; Garry, F.B. Production effects of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection based on diagnostic test results. R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 189. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: cows, dairy cattle, production systems, impacts on infection rates, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, milk production, milk yield, paratuberculosis.

Lombard, Jason E.; Garry, Franklyn B.; McCluskey, Brian J.; Wagner, Bruce A. Risk of removal and effects on milk production associated with paratuberculosis status in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005; 227(12): 1975-1981. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective-To determine effects on production and risk of removal related to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) infection at the individual animal level in dairy cattle. Design-Longitudinal study.Animals-7,879 dairy cows from 38 herds in 16 states. Procedure-A subset of dairy cattle operations that participated in the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2002 study was evaluated via a serum ELISA for antibodies against MAP and categorized according to ELISA score. Dairy Herd Improvement Association records were obtained to collect current and historical lactation data and removal (ie, culling) information. Production variables were evaluated on the basis of serum ELISA category. Results-Cows with strong positive results had mature equivalent (ME) 305-day milk production, ME 305-day maximum milk production, and total lifetime milk production that were significantly lower than cows in other categories. No differences were observed for ME 305-day fat and protein percentages, age, lactation, and lactation mean linear somatic cell count score between cows with strong positive results and those with negative results. After accounting for lactation number and relative herd-level milk production, cows with strong positive results were significantly more likely to have been removed by 1 year after testing. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Without management changes designed to reduce the farm-level prevalence of MAP infection, paratuberculosis will continue to reduce farm income by decreasing milk production and potentially increasing premature removal from the herd.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, economic losses, Johne’s disease, culling infected animals, premature removal, milk production, serum testing, ELISA, USA.

Losinger, W.C.  Economic impact of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA.  Journal of Dairy Research.  2005; 72(4): 425-432.  ISSN:  0022-0299.
URL:  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=DAR&bVolume=y
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J823
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, dairy cattle, reduced milk production, economic impact, United States

Lutze-Wallace, C.; Turcotte, C. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Canada for calendar year 2004. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 46(9): 797-799. ISSN: 0008-5286.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: bison, cattle, red deer, Cervus elaphus, elephants, equines, cats, livestock, wild animals, domestic animals, zoo animals, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium triviale, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Machackova-Kopecna, M.; Bartos, M.; Straka, M.; Ludvik, V.; Svastova, P.; Alvarez, J.; Lamka, J.; Trcka, I.; Treml, F.; Parmova, I.; Pavlik, I.  Paratuberculosis and avian tuberculosis infections in one red deer farm studied by IS900 and IS901 RFLP analysis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 105(3-4): 261-268.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  red deer farm herd, Cervus elaphus, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal slaughter, levels of infection of different Mycobacterium species, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, tuberculosis, Johne’s disease, mixed infections, paratuberculosis, RFLP,  restriction fragment length polymorphism.

Mackintosh, C.G.; Labes, R.E.; Griffin, J.F.T. The effect of Johne's vaccination on tuberculin testing in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2005; 53(4): 216-222.  ISSN:  0048-0169.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  farmed red deer, Cervus elaphus, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, vaccination, oil adjuvanted versus aqueous formulation, live attenuated Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strain 316F, possible cross reaction with tuberculin testing, antibodies, cell mediated-immunity, humoral immunity, immune response, lymphocyte transformation.

Marassi, Carla Dray; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Ristow, Paula; Ferreira, Rachel; Lilenbaum, Walter; Oelemann, Walter M.R. Improvement of an in-house ELISA for bovine paratuberculosis serology in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2005; 36(2): 118-122. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors : cattle, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, PPA-ELISA protocol improvement, testing for sensitivity and specificity, sera sampling, low cost method, diagnostic tool, Brazil.

Marsh, I.B.; Whittington, R.J.  Deletion of an mmpL gene and multiple associated genes from the genome of the S strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis identified by representational difference analysis and in silico analysis.  Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2005; 19(6): 371-384.  ISSN:  0890-8508.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6959&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=a1d954773ca83f03ff7b5c0d870580ef
NAL Call No.:  RB43.7.M63
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains, strain differences, unique genetic differences, DNA deletions, loss of mmpL5 and mrnpS5 genes, homologues of M. tuberculosis genes, Rv2002 (fabG3), Rv2017c (lipW), Rv3132c (devS), Rv2032 (acg), conserved hypothetical genes Rv2005c and Rv2026c.

Martini, A.; Marconi, P.; Ponzetta, M.P.; Giorgetti, A.; Viliani, M. Sanitary monitoring models for wild ungulate stock farms in Tuscany.Veterinary Research Communications. 2005; 29(Supp. 2): 77-82. ISSN: 0165-7380. Note: Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Italian Society for Veterinary Sciences (SISVET), Grado, Italy, 2004.
URL: www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0165-7380
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Descriptors: wild boar, Sus scrofa, red deer, Cervus elaphus and fallow deer, Dama dama, captive animals/game farms, Sanitary Monitoring Project for Wild Fauna in Stock Farms, farm management procedures and protocols, animal health survey, disease prevalence, tissue sampling, blood sampling, fecal and rectal sampling, various organs sampled, molds in stored feeds, many parasites and pathogens found, coccidiosis, ascaridiosis, strongylosis, acanthocephalids, encephalomyocarditis virus, pseudorabies, antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava, pleuropericarditis, hemorrhagic myocarditis and catarrhal enteritis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, trichuriasis, Yersinia enterocolitica, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Tuscany Region, Italy.

McDonald, Wendy L.; O'Riley, Kimberly J.; Schroen, Christopher J; Condron, Robin J.  Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(4): 1785-1789.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, raw milk, heat treatment, effective pasteurization, 3 temperature levels, 3 time levels, industrial pasteurizer, equipment size and flow rates, spiked raw milk, all experimental time and temperature levels were effective.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Keefe, G.P.; McClure, J.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Barkema, H.W. Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2005 Sept; 17(5): 463-466. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are used in Johne's disease (JD) control programs as a first screening for presence of the disease in a herd. A high sensitivity of the ELISA is therefore important, yet the commonly used ELISAs have relatively low sensitivity. The inclusion of an absorption phase, although improving specificity, potentially decreases sensitivity. Sera and feces of 383 adult dairy cows in 8 herds were used to compare the test characteristics of an absorbed and a nonabsorbed indirect ELISA for the detection of JD. The absorbed ELISA is based on a protoplasmic antigen, whereas the nonabsorbed uses a lipoarabinomannan-based antigen. The potential advantage of the nonabsorbed ELISA is that it may be less specific and more sensitive. Two herds certified free of JD were used to compare the specificity of the ELISAs. The other herds used to compare sensitivity were either infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis or had unknown status. Using fecal culture as a gold standard, the diagnostic specificity for the absorbed and nonabsorbed ELISAs were 98.4% and 87.9%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity was 72.4% and 65.5% for the absorbed and the nonabsorbed ELISA, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison using a fecal DNA probe as the comparison standard resulted in both ELISAs having a sensitivity of 61.9%. Agreement between the 2 ELISAs was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.58. The nonabsorbed ELISA did not have a higher sensitivity and had a lower specificity than the absorbed ELISA. Therefore, in this population, there was no advantage gained with using the nonabsorbed ELISA.
Descriptors: adult cows, sera and fecal testing, comparison study, diagnostic tests, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, disease diagnosis, serodiagnosis, diagnostic techniques, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, disease control, dairy cows, accuracy, herd health.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Barkema, H.W.; Sockett, D.C.  Evaluation of three ELISAs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using tissue and fecal culture as comparison standards.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 110(1-2): 105-111.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ELISA, antibody detection sensitivity, post mortem tissue and fecal sampling, dairy cattle, non-absorbed indirect assay, absorbed indirect assays, comparison study.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Keefe, G.P.; McClure, J.; Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Barkema, H.W.  Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17(5): 463-466. ISSN:  1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/cgi/reprint/17/5/463?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=McKenna%2C+S&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  383 dairy cows, 8 herds, Johne’s disease, sera and fecal testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, protoplasmic antigen, lipoarabinomannan-based antigen, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, absorbed ELISA was best, non-absorbed ELISA, specificity, sensitivity, immunodiagnosis, paratuberculosis, Wisconsin, United States.

McMartin, S.; Godden, S.; Feirtag, J.; Metzger, L.; Bey, R.; Goyal, S. Effect of pasteurization temperature on immunoglobulin G, viscosity and pathogen viability in bovine colostrum. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 158. Note: In English and French.
Descriptors: calves, feeding of colostrum, effect of pasteurization termperatures on IgG, colostral immunity, bacterial diseases, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovis, Salmonella.

Mitchell, R.M.; Stehman, S.M.; Whitlock, R.H.; Benedictus, A.; Schukken, Y.H. A deterministic mathematical model of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) transmission on commercial US dairy farms. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. 2005: 165.
Descriptors: dairy farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, deterministic mathematical models, USA.

Monincova, M.; Jesenska, A.; Pavlova, M.; Strouhal, M.; Tisinska, I.; Chaloupkova, R.; Prokop, Z.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I.; Rychlik, I.; Mobius, P.; Nagata, Y.; Damborsky, J. Mycobacterial haloalkane dehalogenases. FEBS Journal. 2005; 272(Suppl. 1): 514-515. ISSN: 1742-464X, 1742-4658. Note: 30th Congress of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS)/9th IUBMB Conference, Budapest, Hungary; July 02 -07, 2005
URL: http://www.febsjournal.org/
Descriptors: Escherichia coli , expression system; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC2-155, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain K10, Mycobacterium bovis strain 5032-66, molecular genetics, genomics, enzymes.

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Strother, Megan; Theus, Natalie E.; Stich, Roger W.; Byrum, Beverly; Shulaw, William P.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand.  Rapid detection and typing of strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from broth cultures.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(5): 2111-2117.  ISSN: 0095-1137.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=81
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Abstract:  A liquid culture followed by molecular confirmation was evaluated for potential to improve sensitivity and reduce time to diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.  Fecal samples from 240 animals from Ohio farms were assessed for presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using four different protocols: (i) sedimentation processing followed by inoculation on Herrold's Egg Yolk media (HEYM) slants (monitored biweekly up to 16 weeks), (ii) double centrifugation processing followed by inoculation on HEYM slants (monitored biweekly up to 16 weeks), (iii) liquid-solid double culture method using modified 7H9 broth (8 weeks) followed by subculture on HEYM slants (monitored up to 8 weeks), and (iv) liquid culture using modified 7H9 broth (8 weeks) followed by molecular assays for the presence of two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific targets.  The number of positive samples detected by each protocol was 37, 53, 65, and 76, respectively.  Twenty-seven samples were positive by all four methods. Based on samples positive by at least one method (n = 81), the sensitivities for sedimentation processing, double centrifugation processing, liquid-solid double culture, and liquid culture followed by molecular confirmation were 46%, 65%, 80%, and 94%, respectively.  Fingerprinting of the positive samples using two polymorphic (G and GGT) short sequence repeat regions identified varying levels of within-farm and between-farm diversity.  Our data indicate that liquid culture followed by molecular confirmation can significantly improve sensitivity and reduce time-to-diagnosis (from 16 to 8 weeks) of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and can also be efficiently employed for the systematic differentiation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains to understand the epidemiology of Johne's disease.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic methods, strain typing, fingerprinting, polymorphic G and GGT short sequence repeat regions, fecal samples, liquid cultures, molecular confirmation, sensitivity of diagnostic testing, 4 testing protocols, potential in epidemiological studies, Ohio, United States.

Mukherjee, F. Comparison of semen characteristics of non-reactors and tuberculin and Johnin reactor buffaloes from a semen station. Buffalo Journal. 2005; 21(1): 39-51. ISSN: 0857-1554
Descriptors: buffalo, Murrah and Surti breeds, bulls, tuberculin and Johnin reactors, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ejaculate volume, mass activity, sperm concentration, post thaw motility, live sperm percentages, increased abnormal sperms, Surti bulls most affected.

Munjal, S.K.; Tripathi, B.N.; Paliwal, O.P.  Progressive immunopathological changes during early stages of experimental infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Pathology.  2005; 42(4):427-436.  ISSN: 0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/content/by/year
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Abstract:  A dose of 1010 Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was administered orally on seven occasions to produce experimental paratuberculosis infection in 10 5-8-week-old goat kids.  Bacteriological, immunological, and histopathological changes, their relationships, and the efficacy of the commonly used diagnostic methods were studied during the progressive disease up to 270 days postinfection (DPI).  Significant lymphocyte proliferative responses in the peripheral blood of five goats were detected as early as 60 DPI.  A lymphoproliferative test was also performed on lymphocytes purified from different compartments of the guts of five infected and five control goats.  Significant proliferative responses were observed in lymphocytes of jejunal compartments of all five goats, of which four had also significant lymphocyte proliferation in the blood.  The ileal lymphocytes from two goats, one each at 120 and 270 DPI, had significant proliferation.  The histological lesions were mainly observed in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues of the ileocecal valve, the ileum, and the terminal jejunum.  Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the lesions of two goats at 60 and 210 DPI.  Bacterial culture showed poor sensitivity, detecting positive results for only one goat in the fecal and tissue samples at 210 DPI, whereas polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected one goat in fecal sample at 210 DPI and two goats in tissue samples at 60 and 210 DPIs, respectively.  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agar gel immunodiffusion test were found to be 100% sensitive from 180 and 210 DPI onwards, respectively.
Descriptors:  young goat kids, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, oral administration, experimental infection, bacteriological, immunological, and histopathological changes, lymphocyte proliferative testing, gut, blood, fecal and tissue sampling, ELISA assay, agar gel immunodiffusion test.

Nagata, Reiko; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Yoshihara, Kazuhiro; Yokomizo, Yuichi; Mori, Yasuyuki.  Expression cloning of gamma interferon-inducing antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(6): 3778-3782.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infected cattle, recombinant proteins, Map10, Map39, and Map41, gamma interferon production, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infected cattle.

Naser , S.A. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease: is there a link? Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 20-22
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: humans, animals, zoonotic bacterial diseases, etiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Crohn's disease, immunological deficiency, predisposition.

National Animal Health Monitoring System (U.S.).  Dairy 2002: Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations, 2002.  U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Animal Health Monitoring System.  Fort Collins, Colorado.  [2005]; vi, 170 p., ill.  Note:  Other title:  Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations, 2002.
NAL Call No.:  SF967.P33 D35 2005
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, disease incidence, survey, cattle diseases, United States.

Olsen, Ingrid; Boysen, Preben; Kulberg, Siri; Hope, Jayne C.; Jungersen, Gregers; Storset, Anne K.  Bovine NK cells can produce gamma interferon in response to the secreted mycobacterial proteins ESAT-6 and MPP14 but not in response to MPB70.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(9): 5628-5635.  ISSN:  0019-9567.  
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  IFN-gamma of NK cells, antigen presenting cell, secreted mycobacterial proteins, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ESAT-6, MPP14, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, PPD, interleukin 12, young cattle response.

Orpin, P.; Duthie, S.; Grove-White, D.H. The use of targeted sampling and risk factor analysis to investigate the presence of Johne's disease in dairy herds. Cattle Practice. 2005; 13(3): 219-225. ISSN: 0969-1251
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, ELISA, risk factors, sub-clinical infection, policy for replacement stock, and milk and serum sampling, targeted sampling.

Osterstock, J.B.; Mansell, J.L.; Roussel, A.J., Jr. Protothecal enteritis as a cause of protein-losing enteropathy in a bull. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005; 227(9): 1476-1479. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI: doi:10.2460/javma.2005.227.1476
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: A 5-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated at the Texas Veterinary Medical Centre, Texas, USA [date not given], because of a history of diarrhoea and weight loss. The history and physical examination and clinicopathological findings were similar to those associated with granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which is the most common protein-losing enteropathy of cattle. However, diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis yielded negative results. Biopsy specimens from the ileum, jejunum and ileocaecal lymph node were collected for histological examination and preparation of tissue impression smears and Prototheca-like organisms were identified. Because of the lack of safe and economical therapeutic agents for cattle, the owner decided to have the bull euthanized. Infection with Prototheca organisms was confirmed postmortem. As this case illustrates, protothecosis may be a cause of granulomatous enteritis in cattle.
Descriptors: Brahman crossbull, case report, clinical aspects, enteritis, intestinal diseases, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, histopathology, protothecosis, Texas, USA.

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Stoffregen, William C.; Carpenter, Jeremy G.; Stabel, Judith R.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with MAP-infected cattle.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2005; 41(3): 629-635.  ISSN:  0090-3558.  
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, possible non-cattle disease reservoirs, feral cats, mice, opossums, mesenteric lymph node, ileum sampling, interspecies transmission, ingestion of infected feces, infected prey, Mid Western dairy farm, United States.

Paustian, Michael L.; Kapur, Vivek; Bannantine, John P.  Comparative genomic hybridizations reveal genetic regions within the Mycobacterium avium complex that are divergent from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates.  Journal of Bacteriology.  2005; 187(7): 2406-2415.  ISSN:  0021-9193.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=88
NAL Call No.:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  comparative genomic study, coding sequence, genomic DNA, open reading frame, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, whole genome microarray, Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium smegmatis, differentiation with multiple clusters of divergent ORFs.

Pavlas, M.  New findings of pathogenesis, diagnostics and control of paratuberculosis in cattle.  Acta Veterinaria Brno.  2005; 74(1): 73-79.  ISSN:  0001-7213.  
NAL Call No.:  SF604.B7
Descriptors:  3620 cattle, 18 farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacteriology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, separation bacterioscopic method, fecal sampling, young animals, PCR IS900.

Peddie, S.; Stott, A.; Oglethorpe, D.; Gunn, G.  Communicating food-safety risks to key stakeholders.  Eurochoices.  2005; 4(2): 42-49.  ISSN:  1478-0917.  Note:  In English with summaries in German and French.  
Descriptors:  cattle, cattle disease, Johne’s disease as a case studies, communication about food safety, information regarding risk and uncertainty, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, risk management, Codex Alimentarius.

Perez, O.A. Mycobacterium avium implicated in zoonoses.Revista de Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires. 2005; 86(6): 263-264. ISSN: Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: zoonotic diseases, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, avian tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, taxonomy and sub species identification, animal diseases, immunological testing, seroagglutination testing, disease prevelance.

Pickup, R.W.; Rhodes, G.; Arnott, S; Sidi Boumedine, K.; Bull, T.J.; Weightman, A.; Hurley, M.; Hermon-Taylor, J.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the catchment area and water of the river Taff in South Wales, United Kingdom, an its potential relationship to clustering of Crohn's disease cases in the city of Cardiff.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(4): 2130-2139.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  pastures, livestock grazing, pasture runoff, bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine strains, water pollution, Taff River, river water sampling, 32% of samples IS900 PCR positive, river aerosols, reservoirs, zoonotic potential, Crohn's disease levels in local humans, epidemiology, human diseases, Cardiff, Wales.

Pillars, R.; Kaneene, J.B.; Grooms, D. Using ELISA adjusted optical density (OD) measures to predict Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis shedding status of individual dairy cattle. In: R.A.Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 166. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ELISA, diagnostic testing, absorbance, optical density, fecal shedding.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S. M. Clinical and subclinical diseases predisposing to Johne's disease in dairy cattle. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 164. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, asymptomatic infections, clinical aspects, subclinical disease transmission; risk factors.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J. Environmental sampling for Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 58
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: dairy cattle, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, microbiology.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Jordan, P.A.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Bey, R.R.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging deer and rabbits surrounding Minnesota dairy herds.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 69(1): 32-38.  ISSN:  0830-9000.  Note:  In English with a French summary.  
URL:   http://canadianveterinarians.net/publications-journal-issue.aspx
NAL Call No.:  SF601.C24
Descriptors:  dairy cows, 108 dairy herds surveyed, fecal sampling and culture, dairy farm management practices, wild animals, disease reservoir for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, estimates of disease prevalence in deer and rabbits, production practices effecting disease transmission, pasture, dry lot use, manure spreading on crop fields, disease vectors, Minnesota, United States.

Rajeev, Sreekumari; Zhang, Yan; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Motiwala, Alifiya S; Byrum, Beverly.  Evaluation of multiple genomic targets for identification and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates using real-time PCR.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 105(3-4): 215-221.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  multiple genomic targets, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolates, diagnostic techniques, DNA, genomes, identification, nucleotide sequences, real time PCR.

Rast, L.; Whittington, R.J.  Longitudinal study of the spread of ovine Johne's disease in a sheep flock in southeastern New South Wales.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(4) 227-232.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease spread, longitudinal study, New South Wales, Australia.

Ravva, Subbarao V.; Stanker, Larry H.  Real-time quantitative PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and differentiation from other mycobacteria using SYBR Green and TaqMan assays.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2005; 63(3): 305-317.  ISSN:  0167-7012.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=4932&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=541315e5c987176039c95a3602129114
NAL Call No.:  QR65.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 2 detection methods, diagnostic methods, SYBR Green bound to PCR products, cleavage of a fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe, level of sensitivity, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain ATCC 19698, direct cell detection, other mycobacterium species not detected.

Reddacliff, L.A.; Beh, K.; McGregor, H.; Whittington, R.J.  A preliminary study of possible genetic influences on the susceptibility of sheep to Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(7): 435-441.  ISSN: 0005-0423.  
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, susceptibility to Johne’s disease, genetic aspects.

Ridge, S.E.; Baker, I.M.; Hannah, M.  Effect of compliance with recommended calf-rearing practices on control of bovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  Jan/Feb 2005; 83(1-2): 85-90.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control practices for calves, on the farm prevention, effects of compliance, Australia.

Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; D'Agostino, Martin; Herrewegh, Arnold; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel; Ikonomopoulos, John.  Real-time PCR-based methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water and milk.  International Journal of Food Microbiology.  2005; 101(1): 93-104.  ISSN:  0168-1605.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5061&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=b5ac5281dbf42fb6f6dba9a0316091c5
NAL Call No.:  QR115.I57
Descriptors:  PCR assay, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 18 isolates, 17 other Mycobacteria strains, pathogen detection, milk contamination, drinking water contamination, drinking water, food contamination, methodology, detection levels of less than 3 genomic DNA copies, 12 cell detection.

Romano, M.I.; Amadio, A.; Bigi, F.; Klepp, L.; Etchechoury, I.; Noto-Llana, M.; Morsella, C.; Paolicchi, F.; Pavlik, I.; Bartos, M.  Further analysis of VNTR and MIRU in the genome of Mycobacterium avium complex, and application to molecular epidemiology of isolates from South America.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 110 (3-4): 221-237.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, animal pathogenic bacteria, loci, genes, genome, epidemiology, minisatellite repeats, tandem repeat sequences, genetic markers, codons, nucleotide sequences, genetic variation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bioinformatics, molecular epidemiology, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominisuis, South America.

Roussel, A.J.; Libal, M.C.; Whitlock, R.L.; Hairgrove, T.B.; Barling, K.S.; Thompson, J.A.  Prevalence of and risk factors for paratuberculosis in purebred beef cattle.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 226(5): 773-778.  ISSN:  0003-1488.  
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  4,579 purebred beef cattle, 115 beef ranches, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, serum antibody testing, commercial ELISA, culturing of feces from seropositive animals, disease prevalence, antibodies, risk factors, water source, dairy type nurse cows, previous clinical signs of Johne’s, species of cattle (Bos taurus vs Bos indicus), location, possible unexpected serologic results in herds, Texas, United States.

Salem, M.; Zeid, A.A.; Hassan, D.; El Sayed, A.; Zschoeck, M.  Studies on Johne's disease in Egyptian cattle.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2005; 52(3): 134-137.  ISSN:  0931-1793.  
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jvb
NAL Call No.:  41.8 Z52
Descriptors:  160 Egyptian cows tested, 40 German cows tested, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, diagnosis, various diagnostic methods, microscopic examination, fecal culture, PCR, disease distribution, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, Egypt, Germany.

Salgado, M.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T.  Performance of a Johne's disease enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay adapted for milk samples from goats.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17(4): 350-354.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Abstract: Antibody detection-based tests for paratuberculosis offer speed and economy, 2 diagnostic test attributes important to animal industries with narrow profit margins. Application of such tests to individual milk samples instead of serum samples can further improve testing efficiency and decrease testing cost. Accuracy of a commercial bovine paratuberculosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) adapted for use on goat serum and milk samples was determined. Fecal, blood, and milk samples were collected from 159 goats belonging to 2 Wisconsin goat herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis and 1 herd of 50 goats from a paratuberculosis-free Wisconsin herd. Fecal samples were cultured using the modified BACTEC 12B media. Sera were tested according to the manufacturer's instructions for bovine samples. Milk samples were centrifuged and mixed with the ELISA kit's Mycobacterium phlei-containing diluent at a ratio of 1:2. Using fecal culture as the "gold standard," the sensitivity of the ELISA on goat serum was 64% and the sensitivity of the ELISA on goat milk was 48%. The milk ELISA had higher agreement with fecal culture results (kappa = 0.525) than the serum ELISA (kappa = 0.425). ELISA specificity was 100% on both serum and milk. Regression analysis also showed good correlation between serum and milk S/P values (r2 = 0.67). Although less sensitive, the ELISA on goat milk samples appears to offer a useful, low-cost alternative for detection of goats with paratuberculosis that have progressed to the stage of shedding M. paratuberculosis in their feces.
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ELISA, goat’s milk samples.

Santos Acypreste, Cleverson; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Riveira, Fred Emil Brautingan; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Franco; Clorinda, Maria; Fioravanti, Soares; de Carvalho Dias Filho, Francisco. Uso da tecnica do elisa indireto na deteccao de anticorpos anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis em vacas em lactacao. [ELISA indirect technique for identification of imunoglobulin anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cows in Goias, Brazil] Ciencia Animal Brasileira. 2005; 6(1): 55-59. ISSN: 1518-2797. Note: In Portuguese.
URL: http://www.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/vet
Descriptors: 17 farms, lactating cows, nursing cows, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, serum sampling, indirect ELISA, Johne’s disease prevalence, bovine brucellosis, Goias, Brazil.

Schaik, G. van; Stehman, S.M.; Jacobson, R.H.; Schukken, Y.H.; Shin, S.J.; Lein, D.H. Cow level evaluation of a kinetics ELISA with multiple cutoff values to detect fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in New York State dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 72(3/4): 221-236. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control programs, unabsorbed kinetics ELISA (KELA) testing, potential for fecal testing for sensitivity and specificity, comparing results form serum and feces testing, similar for moderate to heavy fecal shedding, New York State, USA.

Schleig, P.M.; Buergelt, C.D.; Davis, J.K.; Williams, E.; Monif, G.R.G.; Davidson, M.K.  Attachment of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis to bovine intestinal organ cultures: Method development and strain differences.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005 July; 108(3-4): 271-279.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  bovine intestinal epithelial cells, organ cultures, bacterial attachment, bacterial strain differences, methods, attachment process method, radiolabelled Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, mucosal epithelium, goblet cells, effects of coating with fibronectin.

Seaman, J.T. Buying sheep can be a health hazard.Agfact NSW Agriculture. 2005; (A3.9.42(1st edition)): 6 pp. ISSN: 0725-7759
Descriptors: sheep, disease transmission, introduction of new sick animals, sheep diseases, brucellosis, fascioliasis, foot rot, helminthoses, hydatids, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Clostridium, Dichelobacter nodosus, paratuberculosis, fluke infections, poisoning, poisonous plants, toxicity, disease prevention, drug residues, recommended strategies to reduce risks for each disease, Australia.

Semret, M.; Alexander, D.C.; Turenne, C.Y.; de Haas, P.; Overduin, P.;  Van Soolingen, D.; Cousins, D.; Behr, M.A.  Genomic polymorphisms for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis diagnostics.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(8): 3704-3712.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=81
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, animal pathogen, potential zoonotic disease, differential diagnostic assays, comparative genomic approach, genomic differences, DNA microarray based assay, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strain 104, MAP K10, absence of LSPA8 was specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Sevilla, I.; Singh, S.V.; Garrido, J.M.; Aduriz, G.; Rodriguez, S.; Geijo, M.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Saunders, V.; Whitlock, R.H.; Juste, R.A. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains from different hosts and regions. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2005; 24(3): 1061-1066. ISSN: 0253-1933
NAL call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goat, bison, 38 Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates, IS1311 PCR endonuclease analysis, genetic difference, types, C-type, S-type, geographic and hosts lead to genetic differences, India, Spain, North America.

Seitzinger, A.H.; Paarlberg, P.L.; Lee, J.G. Economic impacts of eradicating scrapie, ovine progressive pneumonia and Johne's disease on US sheep, lamb, sheep meat and lamb meat markets. In: S.R Koontz; D.L. Hoag; D.D Thilmany; J.W. Green; J.L Grannis [Editors]. The Economics of Livestock Disease Insurance: Concepts, Issues and International Case Studies. CABI Publishing. 2005; 193-206. ISBN: 0851990770; 9780851990774
NAL Call No.: HG9968.6.F25 2005
Descriptors: sheep flocks, sheep diseases, scrapie, ovine progressive pneumonia, ovine Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, model of US lamb, lamb meat, sheep and sheep meat markets, simulation, consequences of disease eradication on prices, domestic output, domestic use, and trace; welfare economics, USA.

Sharma, S.K.; Soodan, J.S. John's disease: an update.North East Veterinarian. 2005; 5(2): 27-28. ISSN: 0973-2004
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease transmission, control programs, epidemiology, immunodiagnosis, pathogenesis, disease control, vaccination, vaccines.

Shin, Sung Jae; Chang, Chao Fu; Chang, Ching Dong; McDonough, Sean P.; Thompson, Belinda; Yoo, Han Sang; Chang, Yung FuIn vitro cellular immune responses to recombinant antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(8): 5074-5085.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, in vitro, recombinant antigens, Ags, 85A, 85B, 85C, superoxide dismutase [SOD], 35-kDa protein, ability to stimulate peripheral mononuclear ear cells, fecal culture, bacterial shedding cows, gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-12, TNF alpha, possibly important for vaccine production.

Sigurdardottir, Olof G.; Bakke-McKellep, Anne Marie; Djonne, Berit; Evensen, Oystein.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis enters the small intestinal mucosa of goat kids in areas with and without Peyer's patches as demonstrated with the everted sleeve method.  Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.  2005; 28(3): 223-230.  ISSN:  0147-9571.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5003&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=d84c7d4df471489f36fcab6d30fb7920
NAL Call No.:  QR180.C62
Descriptors:  goats, young animals, kids, entry point, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, small intestine, in vitro absorption, everted sleeve method, with and without Peyer’s patchers, M cells, enterocytes, jejunium.

Simutis, F.J.; Cheville, N.F.; Jones, D.E.  Investigation of antigen-specific T-cell responses and subcutaneous granuloma development during experimental sensitization of calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 66(3): 474-482.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL:  http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr?cookieSet=1
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  calves, experimental infection and sensitization, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antigen specific T cell responses, granulomas.

Sivakumar, P.; Nem Singh; Tripathi,.B.N.; Kumar, A.A.; Singh, U.M.; Saravanan, D. Comparison of faecal culture, faecal PCR and Serological Tests for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2005; 29(1): 13-15. ISSN: 0250-4758
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&type=home
Descriptors: buffalo, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic tests, for paratuberculosis, efficacy of fecal culture, fecal PCR, serological methods ELISA and AGID, comparison study, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion tests, antibody-based diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity.

Sivakumar, P.; Tripathi, B.N.; Singh, Nem.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestinal and lymph node tissues of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by PCR and bacterial culture.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 108(3-4): 263-270.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  water buffalo, animal pathogen, intestines, differential diagnosis, genes, histopathology, lymph nodes, nucleotide sequences, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, PCR, polymerase chain reaction.

Smith, D.R.; Schomer, T.J.; Hinkley, S.; Clowser, S.; Galeota, J.A.; Weiss, J.C.; Akin, K.J. An estimate of the proportion of beef cattle herds with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-infected cattle and associated risk factors. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005; 214. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: beef cattle, calving herds levels of disease, clinical aspects, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, risk factors, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Nebraska, USA.

Smith, M.C. Recognizing common infectious diseases of small ruminants. In: Smith, R.A. [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005; 128-132. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: small ruminants, infectious diseases, ruminants, caseous lymphadenitis, paratuberculosis, ovine progressive pneumonia, caprine arthritis encephalitis, soremouth, infectious kerato conjunctivitis, diagnosis, detection of subclinical infection for culling.

Spraker, T.R. Diseases of free-ranging and captive North American cervids. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 326-330.
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: Cervidae, deer, free ranging, captive animals, animal diseases, etiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Elaeophora schneideri, Bacillus anthracis, Brucella, Secernentea,Spirurida, anthrax, brucellosis, malignant catarrhal fever virus, blue tongue virus, tuberculosis, bovine diarrhea virus, clinical aspects, lesions, diarrhea, histopathology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease distribution, disease prevention, disease transmission, treatments, epidemiology, geographical distribution, host range, North America.

St Amand, A.L.; Frank, D.N.; Groote, M.A. de; Pace, N.R. Use of specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes for microscopic detection of Mycobacterium avium complex organisms in tissue. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2005; 43(4): 1505-1514. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/4/1505
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: cattle, humans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, culture independent, insitu hubridization assays, diagnosis test of culture, sputum and tissue, animals tissues, lungs, oligonucleotides, ribosomal RNA, RNA probes.

Stanley , J.R. Inspection and enforcement issues on commercial goats milking units.Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2005; 21: 11-13. ISSN: 0961-2548
Descriptors: goats, teats, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal health, dairy goat farms, dairy goat hygiene, dairy goat industry, food safety, goat milk, inspection, livestock numbers; microbial contamination, milk, milk hygiene, milk production, milking.

Stewart, W.C.; Pollock, K.G.J.; Browning, L.M.; Young, D.; Smith-Palmer, A.; Reilly, W.J. Survey of zoonoses recorded in Scotland between 1993 and 2002. Veterinary Record. 2005; 157(22): 697-702. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/cgi/content/abstract/157/22/697
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: humans; animals; zoonotic disease reports; veterinary reports; medical laboratories; animal pathogens reported: Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Chlamydia and Campylobacter species and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; locations within Scotland; new and emerging diseases: Rhodococcus species, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Leishmania species, Pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy/variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; Health Protection Scotland.

Stokka, G.L.; Lardy, G.P.  Health management programs: integrating biological and management principles in analysis, design, and implementation of programs for two-year-old beef cows.  Professional Animal Scientist.  2005; 21(3): 159-163.  ISSN:  1080-7446.
NAL Call No.:  SF51.P76
Descriptors:  beef cows, beef production, cattle diseases, productions costs, vaccination, disease control programs, immunity, leptospirosis, bovine diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora, Trichomonas, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.

Storset, A.K.; Berg, I.; Djonne, B.  Evaluation of the gamma interferon test for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in goats.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005; 107(1/2): 87-94.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776
NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  goats, goat herd testing, vaccinated and unvaccinated herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, gamma interferon test, age differences, clinical aspects, immune response, paratuberculosis, vaccination. 

Stott, A.W.; Jones, G.M.; Humphry, R.W.; Gunn, G.J.  Financial incentive to control paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) on dairy farms in the United Kingdom.  Veterinary Record. 2005 June 25; 156(26): 825-831.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  dairy cows, paratuberculosis, dairy farm management, disease control, costs and returns, dynamic programming, estimates of financial incentive for disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk prices, United Kingdom.

Stratmann, J.; Homuth, M.; Gerlach, G.F.  Uberlegungen zur Kontrolle und Bekampfung der Paratuberkulose in Milchviehbestanden.  [Considerations with respect to control and eradication of Johne's disease in dairy herds.]  DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift). 2005; 112(8): 304-306.  ISSN:  0341-6593.  Note:  In German.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 D482
Descrptors:  dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 5-15% infected, environmental reservoirs, non-ruminant animals, isolation of heavy shedding herds, potential disease control strategy, Germany.

Strickland, S.J.; Scott, H.M.; Libal, M.C.; Roussel, A.J.; Jordan, E.R.  Effects of seasonal climatic conditions on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2005; 88(7): 2432-2440.  ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Abstract:  Validity of Johne's disease programs and control protocols that rely on established cut points [e.g., specified sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios] for ELISA serological tests depends on interpreted results that are not susceptible to variable test accuracy.  It was hypothesized that seasonal variability exists in serological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection.  Further, a reciprocal response may occur, resulting in greater risk of fecal shedding in subclinically infected animals.  A testing regimen was invoked that included multiple testing of individual adult cows during the 4 seasons.  Serum was collected on a cyclic, monthly basis from 3 randomly selected cohorts of dairy cows, and fecal samples were collected from the 20% of cows with the greatest ELISA test S/P ratios.  Staggered, quarterly sampling was continued for 1 yr, and at the conclusion, serum was analyzed en masse.  The ELISA outcome values (i.e., S/P ratio) were treated both as categorical and continuous variables.  The potential lagged effects of temperature-related seasonality on S/P ratio, as well as the potential for a change in test result caused by temperature were assessed.  Results for fecal culture were analyzed on a categorical scale and compared with the ELISA results to explore the possibility of reciprocal fecal shedding. No significant seasonal effects on either S/P ratios or the proportion of cows seropositive to MAP were observed.  Furthermore, no evidence was found linking temperature-related seasonality to a reciprocal increase in the risk of fecal culture positivity for MAP.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, control protocols, diagnostic variations, no seasonal variations, multiple testing during all 4 seasons, serum testing, fecal testing, ELISA test S/P ratios, temperature effects.

Suanes, A.; Nunez, A.; Piaggio, J.; de Freitas, J.; Zaffaroni, R.; Gil, A.  Evaluation of diagnostic tests for the early detection of Johne's disease in a dairy herd in Uruguay.  Krynski, A.; Wrzesien, R. [Editors].  Animals and Environment.  Volume 1: Proceedings of the XIIth ISAH Congress on Animal Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland, 4-8 September 2005.  BEL Studio sp. z.o.o. of Warsaw, Poland.  2005; 205-208.  ISBN:  8389968312.  
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, interferon, antibodies, antigens, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, paratuberculosis, skin tests, tuberculin.

Szteyn, J.; Wiszniewska, A.; Fus-Szewczyk, M.M.  Przeciwciaa swoiste dla Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis u byda mlecznego ponocno-wschodniej Polski.  [Antibodies specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows in northeast Poland.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna.  2005; 61(8): 884-886.  ISSN:  0025-8628.  Note:  In Polish with an English summary.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 M463
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, 495 samples, 20 preselected herds, seroprevalence, antibody testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, IDEXX and ELISA kit, recommend a control program, Poland.

Tanaka, S.; Sato, M.; Onitsuka, T.; Kamata, H.; Yokomizo, Y. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in different types of granulomatous lesions during asymptomatic stages of bovine paratuberculosis. Veterinary Pathology. 2005; 42(5): 579-588
DOI: doi:10.1354/vp.42-5-579
Descriptors: cattle, cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease course, genes, granuloma, tumor necrosis factor, histopathology, immunopathology, interferon, interleukin 1, interleukin 10, interleukin 2, interleukin 4.

Tasara, T.; Hoelzle, L.E.; Stephan, R.  Development and evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) specific multiplex PCR assayInternational Journal of Food Microbiology.  2005; 104(3): 279-287.  ISSN:  0168-1605.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681605
NAL Call No .: QR115.I57
Abstract: There are specificity questions inherent in most of the current PCR systems that amplify the MAP IS900 sequence as an indicator for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) presence due to false positives associated with IS900-like sequences that exists in other Mycobacterium species besides MAP. We developed a multiplex PCR system designed to enhance specificity for MAP detection in a single PCR reaction. This PCR assay co-amplifies the mycobacterium species 16S rRNA gene, MAP IS900 and f57 sequences. The assay incorporates an internal PCR amplification control (IC) template system enabling PCR amplification conditions to be assessed in each reaction. The assay's specificity was confirmed by testing 10 isolates of MAP and 59 isolates of other bacterial species. In parallel we also applied on the same samples, one of the established nested PCR systems that targets only the IS900 sequence. The multiplex PCR assay was highly specific for MAP, the nested PCR system was also positive with several other Mycobacterium species. In this context, we report for the first time false positive IS900 PCR signals in Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium terrae and Mycobacterium xenopi strains associated with one of the established PCR systems widely used for MAP detection. Finally, the potential application of this multiplex PCR system in milk analysis is demonstrated through analysis of raw milk samples artificially contaminated with MAP.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,16S-rRNA gene; detection assays, PCR, co-amplifies 16S rRNA gene, MAP IS900 and f57 sequences, specificity, false positive IS900 PCR signals in Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium terrae, Mvcobacterium xenopi.

Tasara, T.; Stephan, R.  Development of an F57 sequence-based real-time PCR assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(10):5957-5968.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed.  This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction.  The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species.  The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and 33 other bacterial strains.  The LC-PCR assay has a broad linear range (2 x 101 to 2 x106 copies) for quantitative estimation of the number of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis F57 target copies in positive samples.  To maximize the assay's detection sensitivity, an efficient strategy for isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA from spiked milk samples was also developed.  The integrated procedure combining optimal M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA isolation and real-time PCR detection had a reproducible detection limit of about 10 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells per ml when a starting sample volume of 10 ml of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked milk was analyzed.  The entire process can be completed within a single working day and is suitable for routine monitoring of milk samples for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination.  The applicability of this protocol for naturally contaminated milk was also demonstrated using milk samples from symptomatic M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cows, as well as pooled samples from a dairy herd with a confirmed history of paratuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, individual dairy cows, dairy herds pooled milk samples, microbial detection assay for milk, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, F57 sequence element amplification, evaluation, assay specificity, animal pathogenic bacteria, disease diagnosis, Johne’s disease, cattle diseases.

Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.; Keefe, G.P.; Haddad, J.P.  Effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum on culling in dairy cattle in four Canadian provinces.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005.  109(3-4): 147-158.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, bovine diarrhea virus, blood sampling, seropositivity, culling of infected cattle, Canada.

Toft, N.; Nielsen, S.S.; Jorgensen, E.  Continuous-data diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis as a multistage disease.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2005; 88(11): 3923-3931. ISSN:  0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture testing scheme, linked to indirect ELISA, adjustments for covariates, optical density, Bayesian network.

Tuboly, S.; Kovacs, A.; Lami, E.; Nagy, G.  Az ember Crohn-es a szarvasmarha Johne-betegsege (paratuberculosisa) kozotti osszefuggesek.  [Connections between Crohn’s disease in humans and Johne’s disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle.]  Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja.  2005; 127(2): 106-112.  ISSN:  0025-004X.  Note:  In Hungarian with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, goats, wild and captive ruminants, deer, mouflon, antelope, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serological screening, fecal culture, etiology, animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology, pathogenesis, Crohn’s disease, immunodiagnosis, zoonotic potential, Hungary.

U.S Department of Agriculture, Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations, 2002 - Annual Report. Published by the Department. Washington D.C. 2005: 170 p.
NAL Call No.: SF967.P33 D35 2005
Abstract: This annual report is divided into three sections. The first section presents the population estimates of Johne's disease and herd-level management factors. The second section is a risk assessment in the calving area, preweaned and postweaned heifer calves, bred heifers and cows. The third section is about Johne's disease testing and disease prevalence. This report was prepared from materials received and analysed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Veterinary Services (VS) during a study of animal health and health management on U.S. dairy operations.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy farms, dairy herds, cows, calving, risk assessment in calving ares, preweaning and post weaning of heifer calves, disease surveys, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, USA.

Underwood, S.C.; Carfagnini, J.C. Comparacion de dos criterios para la interpretacion de la prueba tuberculinica cervical comparativa en caprinos.[Comparison between two criterions to interpret the tuberculin cervical comparative test in caprines.]Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2005; 25(3/4): 199-205. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.aapa.org.ar/revistas/2005.html
Abstract: The cervical comparative test (CCT) with PPD tuberculins is a method used to diagnose tuberculosis and Johne's diseases in veterinary medicine. In Argentina, there are no specific criterion to interpret the caprine test. Because of this, the bovine criterion is being used. The aim of this work was to compare the results obtained using the interpretation rules established by the OIE for bovines and the results obtained using the caprine specific criterion proposed by Garcia Marin and Gutierrez Cancela. A total of 279 CCT were evaluated. The OIE criterion classified 94% of the CCT as negative and 6% as inconclusive tuberculosis reaction, while 63% of the CCT were negative and 37% were inconclusive reaction to Johne's disease. The Garcia Marin and Gutierrez Cancela criterion classified 14% as positive and 86% as negative tuberculosis reactions and 50% as positive and negative reaction for Johne's disease. The bovine criterion from OIE and the specific caprine criterion produced different results, with positive results for tuberculosis and Johne's diseases observed in the latter criterion. Both diseases are different in bovines and caprines and more studies are needed to determine which on is a more suitable criterion to interpret CCT in caprines.
Descriptors: sheep, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis, tuberculin, tuberculosis.

University of Minnesota . Veterinary Continuing Education. Minnesota Dairy Health Conference (2005: University of Minnesota). Johne's Disease Control Update. 2005. Note: Cover title. With: Control of Johne's Disease with Focus on Herd Management / SJ Wells and SM Godden.
Descriptors: cattle, herd management, control measures, new research, Minnesota, USA.

Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lansink, A.G.J.M.O.; Huirne, R.B.M.  Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2005; 88(4): 1601-1612.  ISSN:  0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/cgi/content/abstract/88/4/1601
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  milk, production of pasteurized milk, food safety, residues, quality control, diary farms, antibiotics, dioxins, consumer preferences, dairy farms, dioxins, feeds, bacterial contaminants, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus.

Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Forsythe, L.A.; Tiwari, A.; Chartier, R.  Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 46(1): 56-58.  ISSN: 0008-5286. Note:  In English with a French summary. 
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, immune response, seroprevalence of antibodies, animal pathogens, bovine leukemia virus, bovine diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora canium, Saskatchewan, Canada.

van Schaik, Gerdien; Stehman, Susan M.; Jacobson, Richard H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Shin, Sang J.; Lein, Donald H. Cow-level evaluation of a kinetics ELISA with multiple cutoff values to detect fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in New York State dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 72(3-4): 221-236. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: In control programs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the infection status of the cows in a herd is often obtained by testing (a sample of) the herd with an ELISA that may lack some sensitivity and specificity but that is fast and inexpensive. In New York State (NYS), an unabsorbed kinetics ELISA (KELA) has been used extensively for Map control. The objective of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of the KELA for detection of fecal shedding of Map for the NYS dairy cow population, taking into account possible confounders such as different antigen batches and Map prevalence in a herd.different antigen batches and Map prevalence in a herd. The data for the study consisted of all serum samples from NYS dairy cows with concur-rent fecal culture results submitted to the NY Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (NYAHDL) between 1991 and 1996 (n = 10,562). The data represented cows with different levels of fecal shedding from herds with different within-herd Map prevalence, including herds that were whole herd fecal culture negative on repeated testing. The cutoff values were based on the predictive value for fecal shedding obtained with a multiple logistic regression model that included variables for the three antigen batches and the Map prevalence in the herd. The KELA could not distinguish between non-shedders and low shedders (<= 30 total colony forming units (TCFU)) and thus the predictive value of the KELA to detect moderate to heavy fecal shedders (> 30 TCFU) was modeled. The three cutoff values of 65, 135 and 170 were based on low (< 0.2), moderate (< 0.80) and high (> 0.95) probabilities for moderate to heavy fecal shedding. The sensitivity and specificity values relative to culture were 67% and 95.2%, 31% and 99.7%, and 11% and 99.9% for the three cutoff values, respectively. Cutoff values for the KELA decreased for herds with increasing within-herd Map prevalence. For the best positive predictive value of a KELA for moderate to heavy fecal shedding, the cutoff values should be determined based on the apparent within-herd prevalence in a herd. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, prevention and control programs, unabsorbed kinetics ELISA (KELA) test, specificity and sensitivity levels, multiple logistic regression model, test not good for low level shedders, New York State, USA.

Vansnick, E.; Vercammen, F.; Bauwens, L.; D'Haese, E.; Nelis, H.; Geysen, D.  A survey for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.  Veterinary Journal.  2005; 170(2):  249-256.  ISSN: 1090-0233.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=7163&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f68d9c40dd58509407a11a133122c879
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, survey, European zoo survey, ruminant survey, fecal and post mortem sampling, IS900 PCR, serum tested with ELISA kit, some level of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.

Vaughan, J.A.; Lenghaus, C.; Stewart, D.J.; Tizard, M.L.; Michalski, W.P.  Development of a Johne's disease infection model in laboratory rabbits following oral administration of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 105(3-4): 207-213.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, laboratory animal model, oral dosing model.

Waldner, C.L. Serological status for N. caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus at pregnancy testing and reproductive performance in beef herds. Animal Reproduction Science. 2005 Dec; 90(3-4): 219-242. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Descriptors: beef cows, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, cattle diseases, seroprevalence, serodiagnosis, pregnancy diagnosis, animal reproduction, calving rate, herds, pregnancy, abortion-(animals), fetal death, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Walker, B. Bovine Johne's disease (BJD): current situation and new policy directions. Moving from Research to Industry Adoption NSW Department of Primary Industries and CRC for Cattle and Beef Quality Conference, Quality Resort Nautilus, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, 3-5 May 2005. Published by NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange Australia. 2005: 107-109
Descriptors: beef cattle, cattle farming, dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevention, herds, paratuberculosis, policy, risk, Australia.

Walker, Belinda; Yunamu, Yuni and NSW Agriculture.  Division of Animal Industries. NSW Department of Primary Industries.  Bovine Johne's disease: Australian Johne's disease market assurance program for cattle (CattleMAP). 1st ed.  Agnote NSW Agriculture; 330.  [2005].  Note:  Other title:  Australian Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for Cattle (CattleMAP).  This Agnote is based on an earlier Agnote (DAI-96) written by Tim Jessep, former Technical Specialist BJD, Goulburn.
URL:  http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/health/specific/cattle/bjd/market/cattlemap.  Title from web site (viewed June 3, 2005).
NAL Call No.:  SF55.A8 A36 no. 330
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, prevention, marketing impacts, beef herds, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevention, quality assurance program, CattleMAP, an Australian Market Assurance Programme, participants have herds free of Johne’s disease, Australia.

Walker, B.; Jessep, T. Keeping bovine Johne's disease off your property.Agnote NSW Agriculture. 2005; (DAI-50(Fourth Edition)): 3 pp.
URL: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/health/specific/cattle/bjd/control/keeping-bjd-off-property
Descriptors: cattle, herd health, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, strategies for protecting uninfected herds, Australian Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for Cattle, disease surveys, epidemiology, Australia.

Wells, S.J. The economics of Johne's disease. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 57.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, mortality, epidemiology, clinical aspects, farm management, control programs, costs, disease control, disease prevalence, economic losses.

Wells, S.J. Is milk or feces more important in transmission of map?Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 55-56.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease transmission risks, milk, feces, control programs, bioscecurity.

Wells, S.J. Selecting a rational testing strategy for Johne's disease.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 59-60.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy farms, diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic testing, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, epidemiology, seroprevalence, disease control and eradication.

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O.A.; Souza, C. de; Abrahamsen, M.S.  A critical role of interleukin-10 in the response of bovine macrophages to infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 66(4): 721-726.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  immune response, in vitro cell cultures, bovine macrophages, infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O.A.; Souza, C.D.  Expression of interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 associated with susceptibility of cattle to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  July 2005; 66(7): 1114-1120.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, disease susceptibility, interleukin 10 expression, suppression of cytokine signaling-3, Johne’s disease, disease resistance, immune response, cytokines, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, monocytes from cows with subclinical infection, phagocytes, phagocytosis, phagosomes, tumor necrosis factor, zoonotic diseases.

Wernery, U.  The most important infectious diseases in camelids.  In:  Faye, B; Esenov, P. [Editors].  Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashkabad, Turkmenistan, April 19-21, 2004.  2005; 67-69.  ISBN:  1586034731.
Descriptors:  dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, list of many diseases, bacterial, viral, and various ecto and endo parasites, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Western Australia.  Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: management options.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture,  2001; 4631. [2005?], [4] p., col. ill. 
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4631
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease management possibilities, disease control strategies, Australia.

Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: minimise the risk.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture,  2001; 4634.  [2005?], 1 sheet (2 p.), col. ill.
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4634
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, management strategies to reduce risk of infection, Australia.

Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: SheepMAP.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001; 4633.  [2005?], 1 sheet (2 p.), col. ill.
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4633
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogen strains in sheep, Australia.

Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: the disease.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001; 4630.  [2005?], [4] p., col. ill. 
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4630
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, sheep, description of the disease, pathology, Australia.

Western Australia.  Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: vaccination.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001; 4632.  [2005?], [4] p., col. ill. 
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4632
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, control, vaccination, Australia.

Whan, L.; Ball, H.J.; Grant, I.R.; Rowe, M.T.  Development of an IMS-PCR assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis in water.  Letters in Applied Microbiology.  2005; 40(4): 269-273.  ISSN:  0266-8254.  
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=lam
NAL Call No.:  QR1.L47
Descriptors: human diseases, animal diseases, polluted water, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection, centrifugation, methodology, immunomagnetic separation polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR), IS900 PCR, Tween 80 concentration, sensitive method.

Whan, Lynne; Ball, Hywel J.; Grant, Irene R.; Rowe, Michael T.  Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water in Northern Ireland.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(11): 7107-7112.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the known cause of Johne's disease of both domestic and wild ruminants and has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans.  The organism is shed in the feces of infected animals and can survive for protracted periods in the environment and hence could be present in catchment areas receiving agricultural runoff.  A limited survey was undertaken in Northern Ireland to test for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water entering nine water treatment works (WTWs) over a 1-year period.  Three detection methods were employed, viz., immunomagnetic separation-PCR and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and BACTEC 12B medium, the latter both supplemented with mycobactins.  Of the 192 untreated water samples tested, 15 (8%) tested M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis positive by one or more of the three detection methods.  M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was successfully isolated from eight untreated water samples, three by BACTEC culture and five by culture on HEYM.  Although the highest incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in spring, overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the seasons.  No significant correlation was found between numbers of coliforms or fecal coliforms and the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  In general, a higher incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in untreated water entering those WTWs that had a high mean water pH value over the sampling period.  This work indicates the need to determine the efficacy of water treatment processes to either kill or remove M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from untreated water and the possible risks posed by contact with recreational water sources.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial agent of Johne’s disease of ruminants, possible cause of Crohn’s disease in humans, survey testing of untreated water, 3 detection methods, immunomagnetic separation-PCR, culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM), BACTEC 12B medium, 15% positive, efficacy of water treatment, possible contamination of recreational water sources, seasonal differences, Northern Ireland. 

Whitaker, K. Diagnosis of Johne's disease in goats.Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2005; 21: 16-20. ISSN: 0961-2548
Descriptors: goats, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control measures for herd health, improved hygiene, vaccination, clinical and subclinical infections, pathogen shedding, rapid culture method, PCR, diagnostic techniques.

Whitlock, R.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Fyock, T.; McAdams, S.; Gardner, I.A.; McClary, D.G. Johne's disease: the effect of feeding monensin to reduce the bioburden of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in neonatal calves. In: Smith, R.A. [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005: 191-192. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: neonatal calves, feed intake, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monensin feed supplement, rumensin, attempt to control paratuberculosis pathogen levels, monitoring liveweight gain.

Whitlock, R.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Fyock, T. MAP super-shedders: another factor in the control of Johne's disease. R.A.Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005: 193-194. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle manure, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, clinical picture, fecal shedding of pathogens, bacterial count, clinical aspects.

Whitlock, R.H. Can Johne's disease be treated?Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005:73.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial shedding, disease transmission, disease control programs, drug therapy, drug combinations, treatment, aminoglycoside antibiotics, clofazimine, isoniazid, rifampicin.

Whitlock, R.H. Serologic testing for Johne's disease.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 81-82.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiffusion, serology, Pennsylvania, USA.

Whitlock, R.H. Johne's disease organism detection testing.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 77-78.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, feces, bacterial shedding, cell culture, diagnostic techniques, PCR, Pennsylvania, USA.

Whitlock, R.H. JD in a dairy herd - case #1.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 74
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: dairy cattle, calves, dairy cows, heifers, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial shedding, bacterial, diseases, disease control programs, culling infected disease control, disease prevalence, epidemiology, Pennsylvania, USA.

Whitlock, R.H. Johne's disease in small ruminants and other species. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 75-76.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: deer, goats, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control.

Whitlock, R.H. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis/Johne's disease: review & update.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 79-80.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors
: cattle, calves, heifers, zoonotic bacterial disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, carrier state, disease control, disease prevention, disease, transmission,vaccines, vaccination, immune response, immunity, immunization, review article.

Whittington, R.J.; Marsh, I.B.; Reddacliff, L.A. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dam water and sediment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2005; 71(9): 5304-5308. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 Ap5
Abstract: In a previous longitudinal study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis survived for 55 weeks in fecal material in the shade, but for much shorter periods in exposed locations. In this experiment, the survival of the organism was studied in 250 liters of dam water and sediment in large water troughs that were placed in either a semiexposed location or in a shaded location and compared to survival in fecal material and soil in the shaded location. Survival in water and/or sediment in the shade was for up to 48 weeks compared to 36 weeks in the semiexposed location. Survival in sediment was 12 to 26 weeks longer than survival in the water column. Survival in soil and fecal material in the terrestrial environment in the shaded location was only 12 weeks. Although disturbance to sediment could not be ruled out as a factor, there was evidence of dormancy in both the water column and the sediment, since the organism could not be recovered for several months before again becoming detectable. The results suggest that water may be a significant reservoir of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Further research on the biology of the organism in aquatic environments is warranted. Animal health authorities will need to provide appropriate advice to farmers to minimize exposure of livestock to potentially infected water sources. Survival of the organism in water destined for human consumption will need to be addressed if the organism is found to be involved in the etiology of Crohn's disease..
Descriptors: sheep, sheep dung,microbial contamination, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental features, sediment, soil, water, pathogen survival, Australia.

Winden, S. van; Stevens, K.; Guitian, J.; McGowan, M. Preliminary findings of a systematic review and expert opinion workshop on biosecurity on cattle farms in the UK. Cattle Practice. 2005; 13(2): 135-140. ISSN: 0969-1251
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Descriptors: animal health, cattle diseases, salmonellosis, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pestivirus, risk factors.


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Last update: October 24, 2011