Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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2006


Alfaro, C; Rolo, M de; Clavijo, A; Valle, A. Caracterizacion de la paratuberculosis bovina en ganado doble proposito de los llanos de Monagas, Venezuela.[Characterization of bovine paratuberculosis in dual purpose cattle at the plains of Monagas state, Venezuela.] Zootecnia Tropical. 2006; 24(3): 321-332. ISSN: 0798-7269. Note:XIII congreso de Produccion e Industria Animal 2006. Maracay, Venezuela: Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP). In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?pid=0798-7269&script=sci_serial
NAL Call No.: SF1Z665
Abstract: The prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis in dual purpose cattle of Monagas plains, Venezuela was determined using the skin (Johnina) and ELISA tests. 30 animals from each of the 8 selected production systems in high and low agroecological zones were used in the study and analysed using the Z-test in establishing farm disease prevalence and risk factors. Results revealed that significant differences in disease prevalence among the farms were 4.16 and 72.15% using the Johnina and ELISA tests, respectively. A significant difference was observed between agroecologic zones with 61.7 and 82.25% for high and low plains, respectively. The farm management conditions were 69.9 and 77.3% for the open and close systems, respectively. It is concluded that disease control strategies should be applied for each production system to minimize zoonotic risk and economic losses. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, farm management, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, ELISA, intradermal tests, skin tests, serological diagnosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, immunodiagnosis, risk factors, Venezuela.

Animal Welfare Information Center ( U.S.). Disease Publications. Published by the Animal Welfare Information Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, National Agricultural Library. [ Beltsville, Md.]: [2006]. Note: Title from CD label. "March 2006." System requirements: CD-ROM drive. Contents: Avian influenza; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Johne's; Newcastle; Tuberculosis; West Nile virus; Zoonotic diseases.
NAL Call No.: aZ6674.D57 2006
Descriptors: a compilation of seven full text documents, information resources, bibliographic information, Web resources, zoonotic diseases, avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathies, BSE, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium diseases in animals, West Nile Virus.

Anonymous. 3rd Annual Meeting of the Israel Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology Association, Bet Dagan, Israel; 200412. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2006; 61(3-4): 97-98. ISSN: 0334-9152.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R25
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, livestock, swine, goats, sheep, dairy cattle, foxes, Vulpes vulpes, wolf, Canis lupus, golden jackal, Canis aureus, horses, Corynebacterium equi,Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Rhodococcus equi, Clostridium botulinus, humans, bacterial infections, epidemiology of disease, bacterial cell counting in milk, detection of Clostridium toxin antibodies, role of inducible nitric oxide in mycobacterial infections, Israel.

Aranaz, Alicia; De Juan, Lucia; Bezos, Javier; Alvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Lozano, Francisco; Paramio, Jose L.; Lopez-Sanchez, Jesus; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas. Assessment of diagnostic tools for eradication of bovine tuberculosis in cattle co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and M-avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Research (Les Ulis). 2006; 37(4): 593-606. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.vetres.org/content/view/104/116/lang,en/
NAL Call No. SF602.A5
Descriptors: cattle, wildlife, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle herd with dual infections, testing performance of diagnostic tests, intradermal tuberculin (IDTB) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay, 3.5 year study, false positives, cross-reactivity, need for several diagnostic techniques in dual infections.

Arbuckle, B. Herd prevalence of Johne's disease.Veterinary Record. 2006; 159(19): 644. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
Descriptors: cattle, herd management, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, culling infected cattle, disease control, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease surveillance, UK.

Bach, Horacio; Sun, Jim; Hmama, Zakaria; Av Gay, Yossef. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA is an endogenous tyrosine phosphatase secreted during infection.Infection and Immunity IAI. 2006 Dec; 74(12): 6540-6546. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: Adaptive gene expression in prokaryotes is mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. These regulatory proteins mediate phosphorylation of histidine or aspartate in two-component systems and serine/threonine or tyrosine in eukaryotic and eukaryote-like protein kinase systems. The genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, does not possess a defined tyrosine kinase. Nevertheless, it encodes for protein tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we report that Map1985, is a functional low-molecular tyrosine phosphatase that is secreted intracellularly upon macrophage infection. This finding suggests that Map1985 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dephosphorylating essential macrophage signaling and/or adaptor molecules.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, regulatory proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, pathogensis, dephosphorylation of host moleculres, Map1985, secreted intracellularily in macrophage infection,
 

Bae,YouChan; Kim, HaYoung; Kim, HeuiJin; Yoon, SoonSeek; Park, JungWon; Jean, YongHwa; Cho, KyoungOh; Kang, MunIl. Paratuberculosis in mouflon (Ovis musimon): a case report.Korean Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 46(3): 271-274. ISSN: Note: In Korean with an English summary.
Abstract: A 2-years-old female domesticated mouflon with a clinical history of chronic diarrhea and emaciation was submitted to NVRQS. Grossly, there were severe thickening of small intestine wall and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Microscopically, severe granulomatous inflammation was found in small and large intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver. By Ziehl-Neelsen stain, innumerable acid-fast rod bacteria were found in the cytoplasm of epithelioid and Langhans type giant cells present in these organs. By PCR assay with primer pair specific for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (IS 900) with small intestine sample, strong positive reaction was detected, although the organism was not isolated from this organ. Based on the results of histopathology and PCR, we concluded that the case was a typical paratuberculosis in mouflon. As far as we know, this is the first case report of paratuberculosis in mouflon in Korea.
Descriptors: mouflon, first case report, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques, PCR, histopathology, PCR, postmortem examinations, postmortem sampling, autopsy, Korea Republic.

Bannantine, J.P.; Waters, W.R.; Stabel, J.R.; Kapur, V.; Paustian, M.L. Development and use of a Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis partial protein array for discovery of novel antigens. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: cattle, rabbits, mice, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, novel antigens, partial protein array, bioassay techniques.
 

Bannantine, John P.; Paustian, Michael L. Identification of Diagnostic Proteins in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by a Whole Genome Analysis Approach. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, NJ. USA. 2006. ISSN: 1064-3745. ISBN: 158829594X
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, whole genome, diagnostic proteins, search for simple, rapid, non-invasive tests, 39 genes identified and amplified, serum antigens in cattle, protein antigens specific to paratuberculosis.

Barrett, D.J.; Good, M.; Hayes, M.; More, S.J. The economic impact of Johne's disease in an Irish dairy herd: a case study.Irish Veterinary Journal. 2006; 59(5): 282-288. ISSN: 0368-0762
URL: http://www.veterinary-ireland.org
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Descriptors: Irish dairy herd, epidemiological study, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, transmission from infected heifers from the Netherlands, feeding pooled colostrum milk, economic impact, reduced milk yields, culling infection animals, reduced cull cow values, case study, Ireland.

Barrington , G.M.; Allen, A.J.; Parish, S.M.; Tibary, A. Biosecurity and biocontainment in alpaca operations. Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 61(2/3): 217-225. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: alpacas, South American camelids production operations, measures to prevent introduction and spread of diseases, infectious diseases, coccidians, Giardia, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, prevention and treatment, proper nutrition, housing, implementation of appropriate vaccination program, cleaning and disinfection procedures, feeding, treatment of equipment, disease factors, South America.

Bartos, Milan; Hlozek, Pavel; Svastova, Petra; Dvorska, Lenka; Bull, Tim; Matlova, Ludmila; Parmova, Ilona; Kuhn, Isolde; Stubbs, Janine; Moravkova, Monika; Kintr, Jaromir; Beran, Vladimir; Melicharek, Ivan; Ocepek, Matjaz; Pavlik, Ivo. Identification of members of Mycobacterium avium species by Accu-Probes, serotyping, and single IS900, IS901, IS1245 and IS901-flanking region PCR with internal standards. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2006; 64(3): 333-345. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Abstract: From Mycobacterium avium species Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 961), Mycobacterium a. avium (n = 677), Mycobacterium a. silvaticum (n = 5), and Mycobacterium a. hominissuis (n = 1566) were examined, and from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex M. tuberculosis (n = 2), Mycobacterium bovis (n = 13), M. bovis BCG (n = 4), and Mycobacterium caprae (n = 10) were examined. From other mycobacterial species Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 60) and atypical mycobacteria (n = 256) including Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium gastri and other species of conditionally pathogenic mycobacteria were analysed. The internal standard molecules corresponding to insertion sequences IS900, IS901, IS1245, and flanking region (FR300) of IS901 were produced by PCR of alfalfa genome segment and inserted into plasmid vector. The resulting recombinant plasmid molecules were used as internal standards in coamplification with a total of 4729 mycobacterial collection strains and field isolates between 1996 and 2003. The size differences between amplicons obtained from IS900 (258 bp), IS901 (1108 bp), IS1245 (427 bp), and FR300 (300 bp) and from corresponding internal standard molecules ISIS900 (591 bp), ISIS901 (1336 bp), ISIS1245 (583 bp), and IS901 flanking region of 300 bp ISFR300 (488 bp), respectively, allowed easy discrimination. The internal amplicons were visible by naked aye on agarose gel when 10(1), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(2) molecules for ISIS900, ISIS901, ISIS 1245, and ISFR300 were used in the PCR, respectively, when no bacterial DNA was added to the reaction. The system was tested to define the amount of internal standards that could be used in the PCR without affecting the amplification of the specific segment. Non-specific amplifications were observed in M. fortuitum with IS1245 PCR and mixed infections with M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis from pigs and cattle were found. PCR results of typing were compared with serotyping and Accu-Probes analyses in selected field isolates. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: identification testing, many species of Mycobacterium, recombinant DNA vectors, 4719 strains and field isolates tested, amplifications, mixed infection of pigs and cattle, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium avium silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium hominissuis.

Basagoudanavar, S.H.; Goswami, P.P.; Tiwari, V. Cellular immune responses to 35 kDa recombinant antigen of Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosis.Veterinary Research Communications. 2006 May; 30(4): 357-367. ISSN: 0165-7380
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3253-0
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne disease, a chronic ulcerative intestinal condition in ruminant animals. Owing to the predominance of cellular response in subclinical forms of the infection, identification of M. a. paratuberculosis antigens eliciting host cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction is crucial for early control of the disease. A 35 kDa protein of M. a. paratuberculosis was studied for its ability to elicit CMI responses using a mouse model. Lymphoproliferation and IFN-(Sd(B response were used to measure the CMI response. Recombinant 35 kDa protein (P35) stimulated proliferation of mouse mononuclear splenocytes sensitized with M. a. paratuberculosis. The P35 elicited increased nitrite production from mononuclear splenocytes from M. a. paratuberculosis-sensitized mice. In addition, RT-PCR-based semiquantitative IFN-(Sd(B measurement showed that stimulation with P35 is associated with significant expression of IFN-(Sd(B mRNA in M. a. paratuberculosis-sensitized mouse splenocytes. The results indicate that the 35 kDa protein of M. a. paratuberculosis is associated with CMI response in the host.
Descriptors: ruminants, animal diseases, digestive system diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease detection, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immune response, antibody detection, cell mediated immunity, bacterial proteins, recombinant proteins, antigen antibody reactions, bacterial antigens, animal disease models, mice.

Basler, Tina; Jeckstadt, Sabine; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and lipopolysaccharide induce different transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the IRG1 gene in murine macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2006; 79(3): 628-638. ISSN: 0741-5400
URL: http://www.jleukbio.org/
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain DSM-44135, Mycobacterium smegnatis, molecular mechanisms, murine macrophage activation or deactivation, post-infection with MAP, subtractive hybridization, cDNA, immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), compared lipopolysaccharide stimulated and MAP infected.

Baumgartner, A. Auswirkungen auf die Lebensmittel-kontrolle. [New food related pathogens - impact on the official food safety control.] Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(1): 58-69. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: New food-Related Pathogens - Eine Herausforderung fur die Lebensmittelhygiene? 38th Symposium of the Swiss Society of Food Hygiene, Zurich, Switzerland, 16 September 2005. In German, English and French.
URL: http://www.speciation.net/Appl/Literature/Source/sources.html?id=200
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: animal-based feed products, food contamination, food safety, microbial contamination, public health, regulations, risk-assessment, Enterobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Switzerland.

Baumgartner, W.; Khol, J.L. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants - an ongoing story.Slovenian Veterinary Research. 2006; 43(1): 5-10. ISSN: 1580-4003. Note: Review papers. 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress, Radenci, Slovenia, 2006. In: English with a Slovenian summary. A review article.
NAL Call No.: SF604.L52
Descriptors: domestic and wild rumanints, dairy cattle, calves, infected colostrum, transmission of Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, modes of transmission depending on the animals age and exposures, clinical signs, subclinical infections, prognosis emaciation and death, testing methods, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, fecal culture, PCR, ELISA, hygienic measures, prevention and control measures.

Bazant, J. Narodni ozdravovaci program od IBR v CR byl zahajen.[National health schemes from IBR was commenced in the Czech Republic.] Veterinarstvi. 2006; 56(4): 237...248. ISSN: 0506-8231. Note: In Czech with an English summary.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, negative status of many disease in the Republic, Czech programs, collaboration between veterinarians and breeders, qualitative diagnosis, research support, officially disease free state in 2004, EU cattle market, dealing with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) and paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Czech Republic.

Beran, V.; Havelkova, M.; Kaustova, J.; Dvorska, L.; Pavlik, I. Cell wall deficient forms of mycobacteria: a review. Veterinarni Medicina. 2006; 51(7): 365-389. ISSN: 0375-8427
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: humans, livestock, mycobacterial cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cell walls, Johne’s disease, Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, spheroplasts, reviews.

Berger, Sven; Hinz, Dominik; Bannantine, John P.; Griffin, J. Frank T. Isolation of high-affinity single-chain antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis surface proteins from sheep with Johne's disease. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(9): 1022-1029. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: sheep with Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, surface protens, single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for surface proteins, diagnostic and detection tools, 34-kDa proteinase-susceptible determinant, heavy chain and lambda light-chain variable regions, expressing in fusion with gene III of filamentous phages, 2 clones, cross-reactivity with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, non-reactive with against Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium phlei, surface binding did not impede pathogen growth, potential as diagnostic agents.

Berger, Sven T.; Griffin, Frank T. A comparison of ovine monocyte-derived macrophage function following infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp avium and Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis.Immunology and Cell Biology. 2006; 84(4): 349-356. ISSN: 0818-9641
URL: http://www.nature.com/icb/index.html
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, 1 strain of each tested, characteristis of strains, survivability, induce cytokines, suppress MHC class I and II expression, induce apoptosis, or necrosis in monocyte-derived macrophages, intracellular survival, secression of IL1, TNF-alpha, downregulation of MHC class I and II, some difference in apoptosis.

Berghaus, R.D.; Farver, T.B.; Anderson, R.J.; Adaska, J.M.; Gardner, I.A. Use of age and milk production data to improve the ability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test results to predict Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal culture status. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 May; 18(3): 233-242. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Cows from 2 California dairies were tested for paratuberculosis at the end of lactation by using fecal culture and a commercially available serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Individual cow characteristics and production variables were evaluated along with ELISA testing results as predictors of fecal culture status. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age and a herd-standardized version of 305-day mature equivalent (305 ME) milk production were significant predictors of fecal culture status after adjusting for herd, quarter of the study year, and ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio. The area under a nonparametric receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly greater for a multivariable model that included age and the level of milk production when compared with a model without these covariates. In conclusion, consideration of cow-level covariates was useful as an aid in predicting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) fecal culture status. For a given ELISA S/P ratio, older cows and those with lower 305 ME milk production relative to other cows in the herd were significantly more likely to be shedding MAP in their feces at the end of lactation.
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, pathogen shedding, paratuberculosis, milk yield, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, disease diagnosis, feces, diagnostic techniques, animal age, cattle diseases, California, USA.

Berghaus, R. D.; Farver, T.B.; Anderson, R. J.; Jaravata, C.C.; Gardner, I.A. Environmental sampling for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on large California dairies.Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Mar; 89(3): 963-970. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Environmental samples collected from each of 3 locations on 23 large California dairies were cultured to evaluate the utility of this approach for identifying herds infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Results were compared with concurrent ELISA testing of [>/=] 60 animals in each herd, and with previously performed individual and pooled fecal cultures of 60 animals. The estimated proportions of infected herds did not differ significantly among the testing methods (environmental sampling, 74%; previous fecal culture, 70%; and concurrent ELISA testing, 65%). Measures of agreement between environmental sampling and the results of previous fecal cultures were 70% (observed agreement), 85% (positive agreement), 62% (negative agreement), and 0.47 (kappa), whereas agreement between environmental sampling and concurrent ELISA testing was 65, 75, and 43%, and 0.19, for the same measures, respectively. The proportion of positive environmental samples on each farm was significantly correlated with the proportion of seropositive animals (r = 0.53), suggesting that environmental sampling may also provide a qualitative estimate of within-herd prevalence. Of the sampling locations that were evaluated, samples of lagoon water (15/23; 65%) were significantly more likely to yield a positive result than were composite manure samples (8/22; 36%) collected from the sick/fresh cow pen or from the alleyway (9/23; 39%) where cows exited from the milking parlor. Environmental sampling was an effective and inexpensive method of identifying herds infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dairy cows, dairy herds, herd health, paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, screening, sampling, dairy manure, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, herd size, California, USA.

Bhide, M.; Chakurkar, E.; Tkacikova, L.; Barbuddhe, S.; Novak, M.; Mikula, I. IS900-PCR-based detection and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from buffy coat of cattle and sheep.Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Jan 10; 112(1): 33-41. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: cattle sheep, disease detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, sheep diseases, nucleotide sequences, leukocytes, single stranded conformational polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, molecular sequence data.

Bielanski, A.; Algire, .J; Randall, G.C.B.; Surujballi, O. Risk of transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by embryo transfer of in vivo and in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. Theriogenology. 2006 July 15; 66(2): 260-266. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.11.010
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Over a 5-year interval, experiments were conducted to determine if Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) is associated with in vivo and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos and whether it can be transmitted by embryo transfer. The present studies included: collection of embryos from five asymptomatic, naturally infected donors and transfer to uninfected recipients; collection of oocytes from two naturally infected donors with overt clinical signs; exposure of in vivo and IVF embryos to Map and transfer to uninfected recipients; and the inoculation (transfer) of "clean" IVF embryos to the uterine lumen of infected cows. The presence of Map was confirmed in the uterine horns of all asymptomatic, infected donors. None of the tested embryos, which were not used for embryo transfer, or unfertilized ova (two per batch), were positive for Map, as determined by culture (n = 19) or by PCR (n = 13). However, all in vivo fertilized embryos exposed to Map in vitro (and subsequently sequentially washed) tested positive for Map, by both culture (12 batches) and PCR (15 batches), whereas IVF embryos treated in the same manner tested positive on culture (51%, 18/35 batches) and by PCR (28%, 20/71 batches). Transferring both in vivo embryos and IVF embryos potentially contaminated with Map into 28 recipients resulted in 13 pregnancies and eight calves born without evidence of disease transmission to either the recipients or the offspring over the following 5-year period. In samples collected from one of the clinically infected animals, two of seven (28%) cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) and follicular fluid tested positive by PCR and 10/10 cumulus oocyte complexes on culture for Map. From the second clinically infected cow, three of five batches of IVF embryos (n = 20) were positive on PCR and two of four batches containing unfertilized oocytes and embryos were positive on culture. Only 10% of embryos reached the morula and blastocyst stage 10 days after fertilization. In conclusion, Map is unlikely to be transmitted by embryo transfer when the embryos have been washed as recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society.
Descriptors: cattle, embryo transfer, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, disease transmission, in vitro fertilization, superovulation, zona pellucida, oocytes cattle embryos, International Embryo Transfer Society.

Bielanski, A.; Algire, J.; Randall, G.; Surujballi, O. Risks of transmitting Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis by transfer of in vivo-derived and in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos. Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2006; 18(1-2): 212. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: 32nd Annual Conference of the International-Embryo Transfer Society, Orlando, FL, USA; January 07-11, 2006.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/44.htm
NAL Call No.: QP251.R47
Descriptors : cattle, bovine embryos, in vitro fertilization, transmission risk of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, potential for transmission to recipient, economic losses.

Bolton, M.W.; Grooms, D.L.; Kaneene, J.B. Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in calves: implications for disease control and management. Note: In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Stillwater, USA. 2005:163. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy calves, disease control programs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, disease control, disease transmission, Michigan, USA.

Bosshard, C.; Stephan, R.; Tasara, T. Application of an F57 sequence-based real-time PCR assay for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis detection in bulk tank raw milk and slaughtered healthy dairy cows. Journal of Food Protection. 2006 July; 69(7): 1662-1667. ISSN: 0362-028X
URL: http://www.foodprotection.org
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824
Abstract: A light cycler-based real-time PCR assay that targets the F57 sequence was used to collect data on the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in 100 bulk tank raw milk samples and in a population of 101 slaughtered dairy cattle. The assay's reproducible detection limit in total genomic DNA templates isolated from 10-ml samples of MAP-spiked raw milk was 100 cells per ml. Similarly, the evaluation of MAP-spiked bovine feces also demonstrated that the assay had a reproducible detection limit of 100 cells if they were contained within 200 mg of fecal sample material. Among the 100 bulk tank milk samples that were tested, we found 3 samples (3%) to be positive for MAP. In the slaughterhouse part of the study, 8.9% (9 of 101) of the cows were positive for MAP DNA in fecal samples, 4.9% (5 of 101) in mesenteric lymph nodes, 0.9% (1 of 101) in ileum tissue, and 3.6% (3 of 84) in milk. Meanwhile, for 2.9% (3 of 101) of the culled cows, MAP DNA was detected in samples of diaphragmatic muscles.
Descriptors: dairies, dairy cows, culling diseased animals, bulk milk, milk tanks, raw milk, slaughterhouses, beef carcasses, fecal sampling, microbial detection, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, food pathogens, bacterial contamination, food contamination, virulence, genes, genomics, genomic libraries, nucleotide sequences, Switzerland.

Bowen, J.S. Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners.Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 263-267.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: goats, sheep, farm management, ruminants, animal health, animal nutrition, bacterial diseases, coccidiosis, control programs, disease control, drug residues, metabolic disorders, nutrient requirements animal diseases, zoonotic diseases, prion diseases, scrapie, prion proteins, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Clostridium perfringens, Corynebacterium ovis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis,Eimeria, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma mycoides, ovine progressive pneumonia virus, prions.

Bowen, J.S. Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 649-653.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: small ruminants, sheep, goats, various diseases, small animal veterinarians, disease prevention and control, clinical aspects, clinical examination, colostrum, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, drug residues, drug therapy, enterotoxemia, enterotoxins, lymphadenitis, metabolic disorders; zoonotic diseases, coccidiosis, coccidiostats, mycoplasmosis, paratuberculosis, prion diseases, scrapie, tetanus toxoid, vaccination, Campylobacter, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Chlamydia, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, contagious ecthyma virus, Corynebacterium ovis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Eimeria, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma mycoides, ovine progressive pneumonia virus, prions.

Brey, Becky J.; Radcliff, Roy P.; Clark, Dorn L.; Ellingson, Jay L.E. Design and development of an internal control plasmid for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis using real-time PCR. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2006; 20(1): 51-59. ISSN: 0890-8508
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08908508
Abstract : Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. The hspX gene and insertion sequence IS900 can be used to diagnose Johne's with PCR. Generally, a single PCR tube containing the DNA sequence of interest is run as a positive control with each set of reactions. Single reactions within a PCR run can fail while the positive control does not. Thus, a single positive control tube does not determine if all PCR reactions worked properly. Our objective was to construct a plasmid to use as an internal control in each reaction. A plasmid containing an insert of M. bovis-hspX-M. bovis DNA was modified to remove a portion of the hspX insert used by the reverse hspX primer. The remaining insert was ligated back together and transformed into competent cells. Sequencing confirmed removal of 71 bp. PCR reactions using three primers (TB/M. bovis reverse, hspX forward and reverse) for hspX gene detection and four primers (IS900 forward and reverse, hspX forward, and TB/M. bovis reverse) for IS900 detection were optimized by titrating various amounts of plasmid against varied amounts of MAP genomic DNA. Plasmid insert amplification confirms a successful PCR reaction and identifies true positives and negatives within each individual reaction. The optimal plasmid amounts are 10 fg/reaction (hspX detection) and 1 fg/reaction (IS900 detection). (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, internal control plasmid, detection methods.

Buergelt, C D.; Williams, E.; Monif, G.R.G.; Pinedo, P.; Decker, J.H. Nested polymerase chain reaction and prenatal detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in bovine allantoic fluid and fetuses. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine. 2006; 4(3): 232-238. ISSN: 1559-470X
URL: http://www.jarvm.com
NAL Call No.: SF601.J63
Descriptors: 11 Holstein dairy cows, in utero transmission of pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, blood and/or milk testing, fetal infection, fetal tissues or allantoic fluid, PCR.

Burton , Jeanne L.; Rosa, Guilherme J.M. Physiological genomics special issue on animal functional genomics. Physiological Genomics. 2006; 28(1): 1-4. ISSN: 1094-8341
Descriptors: animals, cattle, humans, mice, pigs, functional genetics, infectious diseases responses, bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Trypanosoma congolense, small intestine, neutrophils, cytoplasm, oocytes, Peyer's patch, gene expression, espressed sequence tag, glucocorticoid, Africa.

Bush, A. Effect of pasteurization on the survival of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 157. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors : cattle-based products, milk, zoonotic potential contaminated foods, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk, organoleptic properties, pasteurization, survival of pathogenic contaminants.

Bush, R.D.; Toribio, J.A.L.M.L.; Windsor, P.A. The impact of malnutrition and other causes of losses of adult sheep in 12 flocks during drought. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006 July; 84(7): 254-260. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: Objective: To establish the range and cost of losses in Merino flocks in southern New South Wales during drought conditions by determining the cause of death, morbidity or wasting in adult sheep. Design and population: Pathological studies were performed on 392 dead or moribund adult sheep from 12 Ovine Johne's disease (OJD)-infected flocks during 2002 and a further 58 sheep culled due to wasting from one of these flocks in 2003. Flocks ranged between 3,500 and 20 000 sheep. Method: The most likely cause of death, morbidity or wasting was determined following consideration of the environment in which the animal was found, clinical and gross pathological findings, plus histopathology of tissues collected during necropsy. Results: A most likely cause of death, morbidity or wasting was determined for 362 sheep in 2002 and 58 sheep in 2003. OJD contributed to the death of 250 sheep in 2002, and wasting of 48 sheep in 2003. Of the sheep that died or were euthanased due to other causes, malnutrition was a contributing factor in the death of 70 sheep (63%) in 2002 and 2 sheep (20%) in 2003. Losses were not evenly distributed across flocks, with 57% of mortalities caused by malnutrition in 2002 occurring in one flock. Malnutrition accounted for 18% of the annual cost of all deaths among adult sheep in 2002 with an average cost of $16 882 per farm. Losses not attributed to malnutrition included a range of infectious and non-infectious disorders. These included balanoposthitis, clostridial enterotoxaemia, cutaneous myiasis, endoparasitism, enteritis, intestinal adenocarcinoma, misadventure, peritonitis, periparturient death of ewes, photosensitisation, pneumonia, post-shearing stress and squamous cell carcinoma of the perineum. Conclusion: Almost one third of mortalities in OJD-infected flocks during drought were unrelated to OJD and could be reduced by improving nutritional and disease management practices. The importance of close supervision of the flock is highlighted so that early management intervention can be instituted, including the culling of cases of welfare concern. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, flocks, mortality, drought, water stress, malnutrition, economic impact, farm income, morbidity, culling of infected animals, wasting syndrome, geographical distribution of sheep paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease incidence, animal welfare, New South Wales, Australia.

Bush, R.D.; Windsor, P.A.; Toribio, J.A.L.M.L. Losses of adult sheep due to ovine Johne's disease in 12 infected flocks over a 3-year period. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006 July; 84(7): 246-253. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: Objective: To measure the biological and financial impact of ovine Johne's disease (OJD) mortalities on 12 infected flocks within the endemic area of southern New South Wales over a 3-year period. Design and population: An observational study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 on sheep from 12 OJD-infected flocks from southern NSW. Flocks ranged from between 3,500 and 20 000 sheep. At the start of the study owner estimates of OJD mortality were 5% or greater. Method: Annual mortality rates were estimated from farm records provided by owners. The proportion of OJD mortalities was assessed after histological examination of tissues collected from dead and moribund sheep during 5-day necropsy inspections conducted in autumn, winter, spring and summer in 2002. The financial impact was estimated using a gross margin analysis for each of the three study years and by placing a financial value on the necropsied sheep. Results: On the 12 farms, the average OJD mortality rate was 6.2% (range 2.1% to 17.5%) in 2002, 7.8% (range 1.8% to 14.6%) in 2003 and 6.4% (range 2% to 11.9%) in 2004. The average decrease in gross margin due to OJD infection on a farm in 2002 was 6.4% (range 2.2% to 15.4%), 8.5% (range 3.1% to 15.8%) in 2003 and 7.4% (range 1.5% to 15.4%) in 2004. This equates to an average reduction in annual income of $13 715 per farm per year. OJD losses accounted on average for two thirds of the total estimated financial loss associated with sheep deaths. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the significant biological and financial impact of OJD on sheep flocks. These findings are of relevance to all Australian sheep flocks infected or at risk of OJD infection. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep flocks, adult animals, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sheep diseases, disease incidence, mortalities, economic impact, histopathology, farm income, New South Wales, Australia.

Catanho, M.; Mascarenhas, D.; Degrave, W.; Miranda, A.B. de. GenoMycDB: a database for comparative analysis of mycobacterial genes and genomes. Genetics and Molecular Research. 2006; 5(1): 115-126. Note: S. J. De Souza [Editor]. X meeting 1st International Conference of the AB3C, Caxambu, MG, Brazil, 4-7 October 2005.
URL: http://www.funpecrp.com.br/gmr/year2006/vol1-5/xm0003_abstract.htm
Abstract: Several databases and computational tools have been created with the aim of organizing, integrating and analyzing the wealth of information generated by large-scale sequencing projects of mycobacterial genomes and those of other organisms. However, with very few exceptions, these databases and tools do not allow for massive and/or dynamic comparison of these data. GenoMycDB (http://www.dbbm.fiocruz.br/GenoMycDB) is a relational database built for large-scale comparative analyses of completely sequenced mycobacterial genomes, based on their predicted protein content. Its central structure is composed of the results obtained after pair-wise sequence alignments among all the predicted proteins coded by the genomes of six mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strains H37Rv and CDC1551), M. bovis AF2122/97, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10, M. leprae TN, and M. smegmatis MC2 155. The database stores the computed similarity parameters of every aligned pair, providing for each protein sequence the predicted subcellular localization, the assigned cluster of orthologous groups, the features of the corresponding gene, and links to several important databases. Tables containing pairs or groups of potential homologs between selected species/strains can be produced dynamically by user-defined criteria, based on one or multiple sequence similarity parameters. In addition, searches can be restricted according to the predicted subcellular localization of the protein, the DNA strand of the corresponding gene and/or the description of the protein. Massive data search and/or retrieval are available, and different ways of exporting the result are offered. GenoMycDB provides an on-line resource for the functional classification of mycobacterial proteins as well as for the analysis of genome structure, organization, and evolution. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, amino acid sequences, bacterial proteins, databases, evolution, genes, genome analysis, genomes, genotypes, nucleotide sequences, data banks, gene sequences, protein sequences.

Cemicchiaro, N.; Wells, S.J.; Munoz-Zanzi, C.; Gaulke, J.; Wees, C. Use of a Fecal PCR assay on environmental samples: Implications for detection of dairy cattle herds infected with Johne's disease. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental sampling, pathogen load.

Champ, P. Christoph; Binnewies, Tim T.; Nielsen, Natasja; Zinman, Guy; Kiil, Kristoffer; Wu, Heng; Bohlin, Jon; Ussery, David W. Genome update: purine strand bias in 280 bacterial genomes. Microbiology. 2006; 152(Part 3): 579-583. Print ISSN: 1350-0872. E-ISSN: 1465-2080
URL: http://mic.sgmjournals.org/misc/about.shtml
Descriptors: population genetics, purine standard bias, bacterial genomes, Candidatus pelagibacter ubique strain HTCC1062, Chlamydia trachomatis strain A HAR 13, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain TAC125, Streptococcus agalactiae strain A909, Staphylococcus saprophyticus saprophyticus strain ATCC 15305, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola 1448A, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria 85-10.

Chandrasekaran, S.; Eckstein, T.M.; Chatterjee, D.; Belisle, J.T.; Inamine, J.M. Structural and serological characterization of lipoarabinomannan from different isolates of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 609. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, different isolates, characterization of lipoarabinomannan.

Chitra, M. Ananda; Ram, G.C.; Goswami, T.K. Characterization of antigen presenting function of caprine macrophages and B cells. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2006; 83(1): 7-10. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors : goats, Streptococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain III, and strain V, immune rsponses, milk contamination.

Chitra, M.A.; Ram, G.C. Effect of indomethacin on caprine antigen presenting cells.Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2006; 2(5): 171-177.
Descriptors: goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, tetanus toxid, T cell proliferation assessed, indometacin-treated caprine B cells and macrophage cultures, some dual treatment with dexamathasone and indometacin, cytotoxicity, immunostimulatory properties, immunogens.

Cho, D.H.; Sung, N.M.; Collins, M.T. Identification of proteins of potential diagnostic value for bovine paratuberculosis. Proteomics. 2006; 6(21): 5785-5794. ISSN: 1615-9853
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113388677/ABSTRACT
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, proteins of diagnostic value, culture filtrates, sera of infected cows, antigens for serodiagnosis, bovine paratuberculosis.

Cho, Donghee; Collins, Michael T. Comparison of the proteosomes and antigenicities of secreted and cellular proteins produced by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(10): 1155-1161. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, test development for early detection, protein expression profiles, antigenicities, culture filtrates, pathogen cell extracts, cattle serum reactions.

Choi, Y.K.; Johnson, W.O.; Collins, M.T.; Gardner, I.A. Bayesian inferences for receiver operating characteristic curves in the absence of a gold standard. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics. 2006 June; 11(2): 210-229. ISSN: 1085-7117
NAL Call No.: S566.55.J68
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, diagnostic techniques, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, statistical analysis, Monte Carlo method, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Bayesian analysis.

Collette, D.; Minicucci, L.; Wells, S.J. Evaluation of a risk assessment tool in characterizing environmental Salmonella and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis status in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 135. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09-13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, diary herds, Salmonella, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, biosecurity, risk assessment tool, Minnesota, USA.

Collins, M.T.; Gardner, I.A.; Garry, F.B.; Roussel, A.J.; Wells, S.J. Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006 Dec 15; 229(12): 1912-1919. ISSN: 0003-1488. Note: A literature review.
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: The report provided here contains a simplified set of diagnostic testing recommendations. These recommendations were developed on the basis of research funded by the USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Veterinary Services through a cooperative agreement. The report is intended to provide simple, practical, cost-effective consensus testing recommendations for cattle herds that are not enrolled in the US Test-Negative Program. The information has been reviewed by paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) experts at the USDA and academic centers as well as stakeholders in various segments of the cattle industry. The recommendations were accepted by the National Johne's Working Group and Johne's Disease Committee of the US Animal Health Association during their annual meetings in October 2006. The report is intended to aid veterinarians who work with cattle producers in the United States. The recommendations are based on information available up to October 2006. There is a paucity of large-scale, high-quality studies of multiple tests conducted on samples obtained from the same cattle. It is understood that there may be special circumstances that require deviation from these recommendations. Furthermore, as new information becomes available and assays are improved and their accuracy is critically evaluated, changes to these recommendations may be necessary. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Dscriptors: cattle, herd health, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease detection, disease diagnosis, disease surveillance, milk, blood serum, testing, screening, guidelines, bioassays, antibody detection, pathogen identification, in vitro culture, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, disease control, food safety, USA.

Cook, K.L. Targeting Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in the environment. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 561. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006
Descriptors: dairy farm location, environmental contaminant, pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease etiology, bacterial infection, locating pathogen in water and soil.

Crawford, G.C.; Ziccardi, M.H.; Gonzales, B.J.; Woods, L.M.; Fischer, J.K.; Manning, E.J.; Mazet, J.A. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infections in a tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) herd. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006 Oct; 42(4): 715-723. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Between 2 August and 22 September 2000, 37 hunter-killed tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) were evaluated at the Grizzly Island Wildlife Area, California, USA, for evidence of paratuberculosis. Elk were examined post-mortem, and tissue and fecal samples were submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. Acid-fast isolates were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that discriminates among members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Histopathologic evaluations were completed, and animals were tested for antibodies using a Johne's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion. In addition, 104 fecal samples from tule elk remaining in the herd were collected from the ground and submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. No gross lesions were detected in any of the hunter-killed animals. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was cultured once from ileocecal tissue of one adult elk and was determined to be a strain (A18) found commonly in infected cattle. One or more isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) were isolated from tissues of five additional adult elk. Gastrointestinal tract and lymph node tissues from 17 of the 37 elk (46%) examined had histopathologic lesions commonly seen with mycobacterial infection; however, acid-fast bacteria were not observed. All MAC infections were detected from adult elk (P=0.023). In adult elk, a statistically significant association was found between MAA infection and ELISA sample-to-positive ratio (S/P)>=0.25 (P=0.021); four of five MAA culture-positive elk tested positive by ELISA. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA S/P>=0.25 for detection of MAA in adult elk were 50% and 93%, respectively. No significant associations were found between MAC infection and sex or histopathologic lesions. Bacteriologic culture confirmed infection with MAP and MAA in this asymptomatic tule elk herd. The Johne's ELISA was useful in signaling mycobacterial infection on a population basis but could not discriminate between MAA and MAP antibodies. The multiplex PCR was useful in discriminating among the closely related species belonging to MAC. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: elk, Cervus elaphus, wildlife diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacteriumavium subsp avium, bacterial infections, histopathology, California, USA.

De Juan, L.; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Romero, B.; Bezos, J.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L. Molecular epidemiology of Types I/III strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolated from goats and cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 115(1-3): 102-110. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) isolates classifies them into three groups: cattle or Type II, sheep or Type I, and intermediate or Type III. To avoid problems associated with characterization of extremely slow growth strains, PCR-based techniques that divide the M. a. paratuberculosis strains in two main groups (cattle or Type II, and sheep or Types I/III) can be performed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the M. a. paratuberculosis isolates identified by different PCR-based tests (IS1311-PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR test based on a DNA sequence difference, and a PCR aimed at three Type I-specific loci), and to determine the clinical and epidemiological implications of Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains in livestock. One hundred and fifty-eight M. a. paratuberculosis strains from domestic ruminants were analyzed. One hundred and six M. a. paratuberculosis isolates (61 from goats and 45 from cattle) were classified as Type II strains; and 52 (29 from cows, 20 from goats, and three from sheep) were included in the Types VIII. The Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains were associated to Spanish native breeds. The majority of these animals had not been in direct or indirect contact with sheep flocks infected with M. a. paratuberculosis. This fact should be taken into account when implementing paratuberculosis control programs. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors : cattle; goats; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis types I, II, III MC; molecular characterization, various PCR-based tests.

DeHaven, W.R.; Goldberg, R. Animal health: foundation of a safe, secure, and abundant food supply.Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 2006; 33(4): 496-501. ISSN: 0748-321X
URL: http://www.jvmeonline.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.J62
Abstract: During the past century, reductions in animal diseases have resulted in a safer, more uniform, and more economical food supply. In the United States, the passage of the 1906 Federal Meat Inspection Act mandated better sanitary conditions for slaughter and processing, as well as inspection of live animals and their processed products. Following World War II, Congress passed the Poultry Products Inspection Act. Both acts are regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for regulations governing the health of live animals prior to slaughter. This article is a brief overview of the ways in which the current predominance of zoonotics among emerging diseases underscores the importance of veterinary health professionals and the need for continued coordination between animal-health and public-health officials. Examples of intersections between animal- and public-health concerns include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and Johne's disease, as well as extending beyond food safety to diseases such as avian influenza (AI). In the United States, we have in place an extensive public and private infrastructure to address animal-health issues, including the necessary expertise and resources to address animal-health emergencies. However, many challenges remain, including a critical shortage of food-animal veterinarians. These challenges can be met by recruiting and training, a cadre of additional food-supply veterinarians, pursuing new technologies, collaborating with public-health officials to create solutions, and sending a clear and consistent message to the public about important animal-health issues. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: livestock, animal production systems, animal diseases, animal health, food hygiene, food safety, legislation and regulations regarding food safety, zoonotic diseases, USA.

Dorshorst , N.C. ; Collins, M.T.; Lombard, J.E. Decision analysis model for paratuberculosis control in commercial dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 July 17; 75(1-2): 92-122. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.02.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, decision support systems, production economics, decision analysis econometric models, computer software, dairy farm management, disease diagnosis, cost benefit analysis, milk quality, culling sick animals, herd health.

Dreier, S.; Khol, J.L.; Stein B.; Fuchs, K.; Gutler, S.; Baumgartner, W. Serological, bacteriological and molecularbiological survey of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) in Austrian cattle.Journal of Veterinary Medicine B. 2006 Dec; 53(10): 477-481. ISSN: 0931-1793
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00997.x
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Because of its long incubation period, high economic losses, difficulties in diagnosis and possible links to Morbus Crohn in humans, paratuberculosis is one of the most important diseases of ruminants today. An abattoir-based nationwide survey on the occurrence of MAP in the Austrian cattle population was performed using serology (SVANOVIRTM-ELISA) as well as culture, ZN-stain and IS900-PCR on faeces and lymph node samples. A total of 756 Austrian slaughter cattle were serologically, bacteriologically and molecularbiologically tested for the occurrence of MAP and specific antibodies respectively. Samples were collected following a statistical plan to obtain balanced specimens from the whole country. Nineteen per cent of the animals tested were serological positive, 10.1% gave an inconclusive result and 70.9% showed no specific antibodies against MAP. Only in four individuals MAP could be detected by stain, bacteriology or Polymerase Chain Reaction. The calculated prevalence of 19.0% positive cattle, each representing one farm, showing specific antibodies against MAP is rather high in terms of animal-level but low in herd level prevalence compared with other countries. When this study is compared with a similar study performed in Austria 1999, a significant increase of positive cattle and farms could be seen in Austria.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, disease surveillance, serodiagnosis, bacteriology, molecular epidemiology; paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control, statistical analysis, Crohns disease antibody detection zoonoses, Austria.

Duffield, T.; Hendrick, S. Impact of ionophores on Johne's disease.Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006: 23-25.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ionophores, monensin, paratuberculosis, disease prevention and control programs, clinical aspects, bacterial shedding.

Dukkipati, V.S.R.; Blair, H.T.; Garrick, D.J.; Murray, A. 'Ovar-Mhc' - ovine major histocompatibility complex: role in genetic resistance to diseases. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(4): 153-160. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: sheep, bovine leukemia virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Dichelobacter nodosus, Nematoda, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antigenicity histocompatibility complex, immunity reactions, immunogens, immunological reactions, resistance to disease, T cells.

Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert Behandlung der Milch mit gepulsten elektrischen Feldern - eine Alternative zur Warmebehandlung. [Treatment of milk with pulsed electric fields - an alternative heat treatment.] Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(6): 407-432. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: In German.
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: milk, alternative heat treatment,pulsed electric field, survival of microorganisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Byssochlamys nivea, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin, Staphylococcus aureus,Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strain ATCC 19698, strain ATCC 43105, Pseudomonas fluorescent, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

Eckstein, Torsten M.; Chandrasekaran, Sukantha; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; McNeil, Michael R.; Chatterjee, Delphi; Rithner, Christopher D.; Ryan, Philip W.; Belisle, John T.; Inamine, Julia M. A major cell wall lipopeptide of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2006 Feb 24; 281(8): 5209-5215. ISSN: 0021-9258
URL: http://www.jbc.org/
NAL Call no.: 381.J824
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne disease in cattle and other ruminants, is proposed to be at least one of the causes of Crohn’s disease in humans. MAP and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, a closely related opportunistic environmental bacterium, share 95% of their genes and exhibit homologies of more than 99% between these genes. The identification of molecules specific for MAP is essential for understanding its pathogenicity and for development of useful diagnostic tools. The application of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance led to the structural identification of a major cell wall lipopeptide of MAP, termed Para-LP-01, defined as C20 fatty acyl-D-Phe-N-Me-L-Val-L-Ile-L-Phe-L-Ala methyl ester. Variations of this lipopeptide with different fatty acyl moieties (C16 fatty acyl through C17, C18, C19, C21 to C22) were also identified. Besides the specificity of this lipopeptide for MAP, the presence of an N-Me-L-valine represents the first reported N-methylated amino acid within an immunogenic lipopeptide of mycobacteria. Sera from animals with Johne disease, but not sera from uninfected cattle, reacted with this lipopeptide, indicating potential biological importance.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cell wall structural biochemistry, lipopeptide, bacterial pathogen of zoonotic potential, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, pathogenicity, search for diagnostic tools, cattle sera testing, infected and uninfected cattle.

Eda, S.; Scott, M.C.; Barmantine, J.P.; Waters, W.R.; Mori, Y.; Whitlock, R.H.; Speer, C.A. A novel ELISA for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infections (Johne's disease) in cattle. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 601. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, diagnostic tests, ELISA.

Eda, Shigetoshi; Bannantine, John P.; Waters, W.R.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Whitlock, Robert H.; Scott, M. Cathy; Speer, C.A. A highly sensitive and subspecies-specific surface antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(8): 837-844. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: livestock and ruminants, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, surface antigen-based test, ethanol vortex enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (EVELISA), diagnostic speficity and sensitivity testing, serum and fecal testing, compared to Biocor ELISA test, newly developed test was better.

Elzo, M.A.; Rae, D.O.; Lanhart, S.E.; Wasdin, J.G.; Dixon, W.P.; Jones, J.L. Association between reproduction and preweaning growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of cattle. Proceedings of the 8 th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 13-18 August, 2006. 2006; 03-36. ISBN: 8560088016
Descriptors: cattle, cows, Brahman cows, Angus cows, multi-breed herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ELISA scores may predict health and reproduction, calf weights, genetic effects, growth preweaning, production, regression analysis, breed traits.

Elzo, M.A.; Rae, D.O.; Lanhart, S.E.; Wasdin, J.G.; Dixon, W.P.; Jones, J.L. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.Journal of Animal Science. 2006 Jan; 84(1): 41-48. ISSN: 0021-8812
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract : Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 ([3/4] A [1/4] B); 45 ([1/2] A [1/2] B); 34 ([1/4] A [3/4] B); and 33 Brangus ([5/8] A [3/8] B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors identified as associated with ELISA scores could help producers with culling decisions related to paratuberculosis control and eradication in beef cattle.
Descriptors: Angus-Brahman multibreed cattle herds, herd health, cattle breeds, cattle diseases, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease course, body weight.

Ewer, Katie; Cockle, Paul; Gordon, Steve; Mansoor, Huma; Govaerts, Marc; Walravens, Karl; Marche, Sylvie; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin. Antigen mining with iterative genome screens identifies novel diagnostics for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(1): 90-97. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: cattle, infected with various pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovisMycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium avium, Streptomyces coelicolor, novel diagnostics, high throughput peptide-based screening system, differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals, pharmacology, comparative molecular genetics potential antigens Mb2555, Mb2890, Mb3895, antigenic cross reactivity, protein sequencing.

Ferrouillet, C.; Wells, S. Results from Minnesota Johne's disease demonstration herd control program.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 133. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, beef cattle,Johne’s disease, demonstration herd disease control program, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, Minnesota, USA.

Foster, D.M.; Smith, G.W.; Sanner, T.R.; Basso, G.V. Evaluation of two colostrum replacer products in dairy calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 722. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0891-6640&site=1
NAL Call No.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: dairy cattle, newborn male calves, Holstein, Salmonella, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, passive disease transfer of pathogen, colostrum as animal feed, dairy product.

Fthenakis, G.C.; McKellar, Q.A (editors). Keynote Lectures of the 6th International Sheep Veterinary Congress, Hersonnisos, Crete, Greece, 17-21 June 2005. Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 62(1/2): vi + 147 pp. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: Special issue of 28 papers.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors : sheep, health and welfare, sheep production levels in some countries, control of various infections and diseases, parasites, bacterial pathogens, viruses, disease prevention and control, diagnosis, prophylaxis, vaccination, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Brucella, Coxiella burnetii;Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma, Chlamydophila abortus, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Neospora caninum.

Fus-Szewczyk, M.M.; Szteyn, J.; Wiszniewska, A. Changes in raw milk quality in herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Puawy. 2006; 50(1): 69-72. ISSN: 0042-4870
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, effect of Johne’s on raw milk quality, milk production, milk yield, raw milk, serological surveys, seroprevalence, somatic cell count.

Ghisleni, G.; Caniatti, M. Citopatologia clinica: l'esame citologico. [A cytological examination.]Summa, Animali da Reddito. 2006; 1(9): 69-70. ISSN: 1125-6745. Note: In Italian.
Descriptors: Friesian cow, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection and symptoms, cytological examination, diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

Gioffrae, A.; Caimi, K.; Zumaarraga, M.J.; Meikle, V.; Morsella, C.; Bigi, F.; Alito, A.; Santaangelo, M.P.; Paolicchi, F.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A. Lpp34, a novel putative Lipoprotein from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Journal of Veterinary Medicine=Zentralblatt feur Veterinearmedizin Reihe B. 2006 Feb; 53(1): 34-41. ISSN: 0931-1793
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00905.x
Abstract: A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis expression library in lambda ZAP was screened with immunized mice sera. One clone was selected, sequenced and further characterized. The sequence analysis of the hypothetical open-reading frame (ORF) predicts a protein of 20.8 kDa with a probable signal sequence compatible with Cys-acylation at Cys24, characteristic of lipoproteins. In consequence, the protein was termed Lpp34. Recombinant expression of Lpp34 was achieved by cloning the lpp34 gene into the histidine-tag expression vector pRSET-A. Western blot analysis showed a protein band with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The native protein was localized in the membrane fraction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and extracted in the detergent phase of Triton X-114. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction showed that the gene is absent from all the non-M. avium complex mycobacterial genomes tested. Humoral reactivity using bovine sera demonstrated that this protein is widely recognized by both the infected and non-infected animals. This could partly be due to the conserved sequence in close-related environmental bacteria such as M. avium subsp. avium and to the presence of a conserved epitope in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli. In conclusion, these findings show that Lpp34 is a membrane protein and a putative lipoprotein present in M. avium complex mycobacteria and absent in the M. tuberculosis complex.
Descriptors: cattle, food animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, lipoproteins, bacterial proteins, gene expression, open reading frames, amino acid sequences, molecular weight, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, Western blotting, humoral immunity, bacterial antigens, membrane proteins, microbial genetics, sequence analysis, molecular sequence data.

Glawischnig, W.; Steineck, T.; Spergser, J. Infections caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) in Austria, 2001-2004. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006 Oct; 42(4): 724-731. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No .: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2004, 14 Austrian free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) infected by Mycobacterium avium species were observed. Eight of the cases were from different geographical regions, and six originated from the same hunting area. The affected animals had signs of diarrhea, severe weight loss, and emaciation. On post-mortem examination, lymphadenitis associated with grossly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes as well as multiple caseous or purulent nodular lesions in the thickened wall of the intestines were present in all animals. In 10 cases M. avium subsp. avium and in four cases M. a. hominissuis were isolated. In three red deer, a mixed infection with M. a. hominissuis and M. a. paratuberculosis was evident. Typing of M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis isolates was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of insertion sequence IS901 and the virulence-associated macrophage-induced gene (mig), inverted repeat (IR) typing (IS1245/IS1311), and random amplified polymorph DNA (RAPD) analysis. While all M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis contained the mig gene, IS901 was detected only in M. a. avium. The prevalence of IS901-positive isolates correlated well with the geographic location of affected animals. The IS901-containing isolates were shown to be genotypically closely related, as they exhibit similar patterns in IR-typing and in RAPD analysis. In contrast, IS901-negative isolates (M. a. hominissuis) displayed distinct profiles in both molecular systems. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Cervus elaphus , wild free-ranging red deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, bacterial infections, wildlife diseases, Austria.

Godden, S.; McMartin, S.; Feirtag, J.; Stabel, J.; Bey, R.; Goyal, S.; Metzger, L.; Fetrow, J.; Wells, S.; Chester-Jones, H. Heat treatment of bovine colostrum. II: Effects of heating duration on pathogen viability and immunoglobulin G.Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Sept; 89(9): 3476-3483. ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrum, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (10i cfu/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (10e cfu/mL), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10e cfu/mL), Salmonella enteritidis (10e cfu/mL), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 10pd cfu/mL), were heat-treated at 60pC for 120 min in a commercial on-farm batch pasteurizer system. Duplicate 50-mL subsamples of colostrum were collected at 15-min intervals throughout the heat-treatment process for the purpose of bacterial culture and for measurement of IgG concentration (mg/mL) and antibody activity [log(bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer)]. Four replicate batches of colostrum were run for each of the 5 pathogens studied. There was no effect of heating moderate- to high-quality colostrum at 60pC for at least 120 min on mean IgG concentration (pre = 60.5 mg/mL; post = 59.1 mg/mL). Similarly, there was no effect of heat-treatment on the mean log bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer (pre = 12.3; post = 12.0). Viable M. bovis, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enteritidis added to colostrum could not be detected after the colostrum was heat-treated at 60pC for 30 min. Average bacteria counts showed that Map was not detected when batches were heated at 60pC for 60 min. Although the authors believe that heat-treating colostrum at 60pC for 60 min should be sufficient to eliminate Map from colostrum in most situations, further research is needed to determine whether these findings may be replicated, given that variability was observed in Map culture results.
Descriptors: cow colostrum, pasteurization, pasteurizers, heat treatment, duration, immunoglobulin G, plate count, pasteurization, pathogen survival, Mycoplasma bovis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Gonda, M. G.; Chang, Y.M.; Shook, G.E.; Collins, M.T.; Kirkpatrick, B.W. Genetic Variation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins.Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 May; 89(5): 1804-1812. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate genetic variability of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Blood and fecal samples were collected primarily from daughters of 12 bulls in their second or third lactation. Routine disease testing of the sires documented that they were not infected. Herds without a "suspect" or positive ELISA (sample/positive ratio [>/=] 0.10) or positive fecal culture test were deleted from the data set. The remaining 4,603 cows from 238 herds and 46 sires were used to estimate heritability of M. paratuberculosis infection. Heritability was estimated with 3 Johne's disease diagnostic tests: 1) fecal culture alone, 2) serum antibody ELISA alone, and 3) both tests (combined) with a positive animal defined as all animals with either a positive fecal culture or ELISA test. Four statistical models were used to estimate heritability: 1) linear (ELISA), 2) threshold (fecal culture and combined), 3) ordered threshold (ELISA), and 4) bivariate linear-threshold (ELISA-fecal culture). A sire model and Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used in each case. Heritability of infection based on the fecal culture test was 0.153 [posterior standard deviation (PSD) = 0.115]. Heritability with the ELISA was 0.159 (PSD = 0.090) with a linear model and 0.091 (PSD = 0.053) with an ordered threshold model. Heritability of the combined tests was 0.102 (PSD = 0.066). Heritability estimates of fecal culture and ELISA with the bivariate model varied slightly from estimates obtained with the univariate models (0.125 and 0.183, respectively), with a corresponding increase in precision (PSD = 0.096 and 0.082, respectively). This study demonstrates that exploitable genetic variation exists in dairy cattle for M. paratuberculosis infection susceptibility.
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease resistance, sire evaluation, heritability, statistical analysis, linear models, USA.

Grant, I.R. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(1): 2-9. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: New Food Related Pathogens - Eine Herausforderung fur die Lebensmittelhygiene? 38th Symposium of the Swiss Society of Food Hygiene, Zurich, Switzerland, 16 September 2005. In English, German and French.
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, humans,Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, pathogens in milk and feces, pathogen in blood and tissues, transmission via animal derived food products, milk, beef, water, MAP cultured from retail raw and pasteurized milk and cheese, public health concerns, goal to reduce Johne’s disease in cattle worldwide.

Grant, Irene R. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in foods: current evidence and potential consequences.International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2006 May; 59(2): 112-117. ISSN: 1364-727X. Note: Paper presented at the "Bacteria in Food and Health Conference", March 14, 2005, Dublin, Ireland. A literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2006.00248.x
NAL Call No.: SF221.I58
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of Johne's disease in cattle, sheep and goats, may have a role in Crohn's disease in humans. Animals with Johne's disease shed viable MAP in their milk and faeces. The organism is also widely disseminated in the blood and tissues of infected animals. Consequently, transmission to humans via consumption of animal-derived foods is a distinct possibility. Milk, other dairy products, beef and water have been identified as possible food vehicles of transmission. To date, viable MAP has been cultured from raw cows', sheep and goats' milk, retail pasteurized cows' milk, and some retail cheeses in several countries during recent studies. MAP has not been isolated from retail beef to date, although limited testing has been carried out. The public health consequences, if any, of low numbers of viable MAP being periodically consumed by susceptible individuals are uncertain. An association between MAP and Crohn's disease is not proven, but neither can it be discounted on the basis of current evidence. A precautionary approach is therefore warranted in relation to the existence of MAP in food, and action is needed to reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease in the cattle population worldwide, in order to minimize public exposure to this potential human pathogen.
Descriptors: beef, dairy cattle, ruminant-based foods, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, food microbiology, food contamination, food pathogens, etiology, milk, feces, disease transmission, dairy products, beef, water, ewe milk, goat milk, cheeses, pasteurized milk, public health, disease incidence, disease prevalence, zoonoses, pathogen shedding.

Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C. Jr. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and other zoonotic pathogens during simulated composting, manure packing, and liquid storage of dairy manure. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(1): 565-574. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 10(6) CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55 degrees C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M. paratuberculosis was detected by standard culture only on day 0 in all the treatments, but was undetectable in any treatment at 3 and 7 days. On days 14, 28, and 56, M. paratuberculosis was detected in the liquid storage treatment but remained undetectable in the compost and pack treatments. However, M. paratuberculosis DNA was detectable through day 56 in all treatments and up to day 175 in liquid storage treatments. Taken together, the results indicate that high-temperature composting is more effective than pack storage or liquid storage of manure in reducing these pathogens in dairy manure. Therefore, thermophilic composting is recommended for treatment of manures destined for pathogen-sensitive environments such as those for vegetable production, residential gardening, or application to rapidly draining fields.
Descriptors: livestock manures, dairy manure, pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella ssp, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, pathogen persistence, artificial inoculation with pathogens, various treatments, thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), liquid lagoon storage.

Griffiths , M.W. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. 2006: 522-556. ISBN: 9781855739635; 1855739631. Note: a book chapter.
Descriptors: livestock animals, humans, zoonotic bacterial pathogen, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, pathogen prevalence in animals and food products, epidemiology, possible transmission routes, detection tests, typing of MAP, strategies for effective control.

Gumber, S.; Eamens, G.; Whittington, R.J. Evaluation of a Pourquier ELISA kit in relation to agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for assessment of the humoral immune response in sheep and goats with and without Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 June 15; 115(1-3): 91-101. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.01.003
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate a commercial ELISA kit (Institut Pourquier) for the diagnosis of ovine and caprine paratuberculosis under Australian conditions and to compare its accuracy with the existing AGID test. The sensitivity of the ELISA in sheep and goats was 34.9% and 56.4%, with a specificity of 98.8% and 100.0%, respectively. Sensitivity of AGID was 13.8% for sheep and 39.5% for goats, with specificity of 100.0% for both species. The sensitivity of the ELISA in sheep depended on the category of histological lesions. AGID and ELISA were conditionally independent, and appeared to detect overlapping but distinct subgroups of infected animals. The ELISA was significantly more sensitive than the AGID. The ELISA was simple to perform, robust and repeatable. Coefficients of variation of <12.0% were observed for positive and negative controls included on 193 plates over a 10-month period and there was a high level of intraassay repeatability with 12.0% of the duplicate samples having CV of >15.0%.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, analytical kits, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, agar, immunodiffusion tests, humoral immunity, immune response, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical trials, accuracy, disease control.

Gwozdz, J.M. Comparative evaluation of two decontamination methods for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from faecal slurry and sewage.Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 July 20; 115(4): 358-363. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.02.016
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Faecal slurry of animal origin from sale yards and raw sewage from a sewage treatment plant were sampled for the radiometric culture over 5 months at approximately weekly intervals. Before the radiometric culture, samples were decontaminated using the double incubation method. One set of triplicate samples of slurry and sewage was decontaminated at 37 AC and the other set was decontaminated at 42 AC. M. a. paratuberculosis or its DNA was detected in seven of 45 cultures (15.6%) of slurry decontaminated at 37 AC and in 14 of 39 cultures (35.9%) of slurry decontaminated at 42 AC. The contamination rates in cultures of slurry processed at 37 AC and 42 AC were 82.2% and 69.2%, respectively. M. a. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in one of 45 cultures (2.2%) of sewage decontaminated at 42 AC. The contamination rates in samples of sewage processed at 37 AC and 42 AC were 84.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Results of this study warrant further investigations to evaluate the suitability of a decontamination method at 42 AC for the isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from faeces, tissues and milk.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, feces, slurries, sewage, DNA, decontamination, heat treatment, microbial genetics, microbial detection, microbial contamination, in vitro culture.

Hagman, D.; Johnson, J.; Godden, S.; Molitor, T.; Ames, T.; Bandrick, M.; Becker, M.; Steffenhagen, K. The effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in dairy calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 721-722. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0891-6640&site=1
NAL Call No.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine leukosis virus, feeding heat treated colostrum, effect on immune system.

Hajikolaei, M.R.H.; Ghorbanpoor, M.; Solaymani, M. The prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in ileocaecal valve of cattle slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir, southern Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 7(2(Ser.15)): 77-80. ISSN: 1728-1997. Note: In English with a summary in Persian.
URL: http://www.shirazu.ac.ir/en/index.php?page_id=60
Descriptors: cattle, prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, tissue from slaughtered animals. ileocacecal valve, rectal mucosa, ileocaecal lymph node, fecal sampling, histopathology, smears by Ziehl-Neelsen, 5 of 250 animals positive, Iran.

Harris, N. Beth; Payeur, Janet B.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand. Short sequence repeat analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates collected from animals throughout the United States reveals both stability of loci and extensive diversity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-- JCM. 2006 Aug; 44(8): 2970-2973. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
Abstract: We analyzed the multilocus short sequence repeats (SSRs) of 211 and 56 isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, respectively. The M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates could be differentiated into 61 genotypes. The M. avium subsp. avium isolates showed limited diversity. These SSRs are stable and suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: bacterial pathogens of animals, isolates, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, short sequence repeats, genetic stability and diversity, molecular epidemiology.

Hasonova, L.; Pavlik, I. Economic impact of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds: a review.Veterinarni Medicina. 2006; 51(5): 193-211. ISSN: 0375-8427. Note: A review article.
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: dairy cattle, herds, livestock losses, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, economic losses, loss of milk production, changes in milk composition, contaminats, poor body condition, mortality, culling of sick animals, herd replacements, lost progeny costs, subclinical disease, production systems effects.

Hearn, M. Alonso; Patel, D.; Bermudez, L.E. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis 3464 gene encodes an oxidoreductase involved in invasion of bovine epithelial cells through the interaction with host cell Cdc 42. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602-603. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain 3464, oxidoreductase, gene of pathogen, invasion process of bovine epithelial cells, Cdc 42, host and pathogen cell interactions, ABC transporter, RhoA, activation, GTPase, fibronectin attachment protein.

Hendrick, S.H.; Duffield, T.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M;. Bagg, R.; Dick, P.; Kelton, D.F. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Oct 17; 76(3-4): 237-248. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.05.007
NAL Call No: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy herds, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease incidence, disease detection, seroprevalence, disease transmission, disease prevention, chemoprevention, monensin-sodium feed additive to milking cows, role in protection from Johne’s disease, cross-sectional study, summer months study, composite milk samples, milk ELISA sampling, calf hutches, impact of monensin on disease transmission is unknown, Ontario, Canada.

Hendrick, S.H.; Kelton, D.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M;. Bagg, R.; Dick, P.; Duffield.T.F. Efficacy of monensin sodium for the reduction of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in infected dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Aug 17; 75(3-4): 206-220. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.03.001
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, drug therapy, drug evaluation, monensin-sodium, randomized clinical trials, laboratory techniques, fecal egg count, serodiagnosis, in vitro culture, pathogen shedding.

Hermoso de Mendoza, J.; Parra, A.; Tato, A.; Alonso, J.M.; Rey, J.M.; Pena, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Larrasa, J.; Teixido, J.; Manzano, G. Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and cattle (Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004). Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 May 17; 74(2-3): 239-247. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.10.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, wildlife, wild boars, Sus scrofa, red deer, Cervus elaphus, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, epidemiological studies, disease transmission, wildlife livestock relations, game animals as disease resevoirs, risk assessment, ecosystems, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, disease detection, wildlife management, Spain.

Herthnek, D.; Bolske, G. New PCR systems to confirm real-time PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. BMC Microbiology. 2006; 6(87): (04 October 2006). ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-6-87.pdf
Descriptors : livestock disease, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, 267 strains, 56 fecal samples, PCR-based diagnostic methods, MAP-specific gene IS900 and F57 gene, 2 real time PCR systems, fecal testing, sensitivity and specificity of tests, DH3 PCR system on the F57 gene, DH1 and DH2 PCR.

Herthnek, D.; Englund, S.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Bolske, G. Sensitive detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine semen by real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2006 May; 100(5): 1095-1102. ISSN: 1364-5072
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02924.x
DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02924.x
Abstract: To develop a fast and sensitive protocol for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine semen and to make a critical evaluation of the analytical sensitivity. Processed semen was spiked with known amounts of MAP. Semen from different bulls as well as semen of different dilutions was tested. The samples were treated with lysing agents and beadbeating and the DNA was extracted with phenol and chloroform. Real-time PCR with a fluorescent probe targeting the insertion element IS900 detected as few as 10 organisms per sample of 100 [mu]l semen. PCR-inhibition was monitored by inclusion of an internal control. Pre-treatment with immunomagnetic separation was also evaluated, but was not shown to improve the overall sensitivity. Real-time PCR is a sensitive method for detection of MAP in bovine semen. Lysis by mechanical disruption followed by phenol and chloroform extraction efficiently isolated DNA and removed PCR-inhibitors. The high sensitivity of the applied method allows reliable testing of bovine semen used for artificial insemination to prevent the spread of Johne's disease, caused by MAP.
Descriptors : bull semen, spiked with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection methods, different dilutions, test procedure, PCR, insertion element IS900, sensitivity, prevention of disease spread through artificial insemination.

Hodgson, J.C.; Watkins, C.A.; Bayne, C.W. Contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006 July 15; 112(1-2): 12-23. ISSN: 0165-2427. Note: In a special issue: P. Kaiser and D. Werling [Editors]. Innate Immunity and Vaccination. Includes references. Literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.03.008
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. Alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. However, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. This review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical methods for oxygen-dependent mechanisms of respiratory burst in phagocytes initiated by soluble and particulate activators. Particular reference is given to the study in vitro of phagocytes from healthy and diseased ruminants during either natural infection with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis or experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida or Mannheimia haemolytica.
Descriptors: immunology, immunopathology, respiratory physiology, immune response, animal health, chemiluminescence, ruminants, phagocytes, in vivo studies, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Pasteurella multocida,Mannheimia haemolytica, respiratory burst measurement.

Hoe, F.G.H.; Ruegg, P.L. Opinions and practices of Wisconsin dairy producers about biosecurity and animal well-being.Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 June; 89(6): 2297-2308. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize opinions and practices of Wisconsin dairy producers about biosecurity and animal wellbeing. Wisconsin dairy producers were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire and responder herds were categorized based on the number of lactating cows: very small herds (<=50 lactating cows; n = 279); small herds (51 to 100 lactating cows; n = 202); medium herds (101 to 200 lactating cows; n = 42); and large herds (>200 lactating cows; n = 37). Producers from large herds adopted more biosecurity practices than those from small herds, but biosecurity risks were common. Almost half of the responders indicated that they purchased cattle, but few (49.4%) performed diagnostic testing of those cattle. The frequency of diagnostic testing and examination of purchased cattle increased with herd size. Producers generally (80%) believed that they used the "right amount" of antibiotics, but the use of written treatment protocols increased with herd size. Producers from large and medium herds reported much higher usage of computerized (65.7 and 17.5%, respectively) and paper records (42.9 and 22.5%, respectively) compared with producers from smaller herds. Almost all (92.6%) believed that Johne's disease was an important issue for the dairy industry, but only 9% had enrolled in the official Wisconsin control program. Most producers (88.6%) believed that dehorning caused at least a small amount of pain, but the majority (81%) did not use local anesthetics. Producers minimized risks with which they were most familiar. Drinking raw milk was not considered a human health risk by almost half the responders, whereas bovine spongiform encephalopathy was considered "no risk" to only 37%. Raw milk was consumed by more than 60%, but regular consumption of raw milk decreased from 47.7% (very small herds) to 24.3% (large herds); perception of the risk of raw milk increased from 46.2% (very small herds) to 56.8% (large herds) with herd size. Larger farms had more knowledge of personal health risks related to zoonotic pathogens. Overall, most management practices were associated with herd size, but many beliefs regarding important dairy farm issues were consistent.
Descriptors: dairy farming, survey of farmers' attitudes, livestock biosecurity, risks of humans drinking raw milk, farmer health risks, herd size, paratuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, awareness of zoonotic risks, zoonoses, Wisconsin, USA.

Hodgson, J.C.; Watkins, C.A.; Bayne, C.W. Contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006; 112(1-2): 12-23. ISSN: 0165-2427. Note: A review.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652427
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. Alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. However, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. This review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical methods for oxygen-dependent mechanisms of respiratory burst in phagocytes initiated by soluble and particulate activators. Particular reference is given to the study in vitro of phagocytes from healthy and diseased ruminants during either natural infection with Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosis or experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida or Mannheimia haemolytica. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, in vitro phagocytes from healthy and disease ruminants.

Hostetter, J.; Zhang, W.; Simutis, F. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection of cattle does not diminish peripheral blood-derived macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Immunology Letters. 2006; 107(1): 76-79. ISSN: 0165-2478
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652478
Abstract: Ruminants infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis consistently develop a multibacillary form of disease that is centred on the ileum. Mechanisms responsible for failure of macrophage function during multibacillary disease are incompletely characterized. Our data suggest that mycobactericidal functions are present, and potentially enhanced, in monocyte-derived macrophages from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected cattle. Addition of CD4+ T cells from infected animals to autologous in vitro infected macrophages did not increase bacterial killing. In contrast, CD4+ T cells from non-infected animals did increase bacterial killing in autologous macrophages. In macrophages from both infected and non-infected cattle, bacterial killing appeared to be independent of interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma ) and nitric oxide production. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: infectedcattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, ileum centered damage, T lymphocytes cells, macrophage activation, macrophages, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, IFN gamma.

Hovingh, E.; Whitlock, R.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Fyock, T.; Wolfgang, D.R.; Smith, J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Van-Kessel, J.S. Identification and implications of MAP supershedders.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09-13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors : cattle, supershedders of pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microbial shedding, identifying infected animals, risks, culling of infected animals.

Humphry, R.W.; Stott, A.W.; Adams, C.; Gunn, G.J. A model of the relationship between the epidemiology of Johne's disease and the environment in suckler-beef herds. Veterinary Journal. 2006 Nov; 172(3): 432-445. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.07.017
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: A non-predictive, dynamic and stochastic herd-level simulation model of an outbreak of Johne's in a suckler-beef herd is reported. Importantly, the model incorporates, with a simple method, the environment as the primary source of infection, reflecting the consensual understanding of the disease. The model also takes into account the density of the infectious agent in the environment. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the model is highly and equally sensitive to certain parameters (probability of infection in the presence of one unit of bacterial density, infectious area and bacterial shedding rate). Mathematical reasons for this similarity in sensitivity are presented. Compared to many other diseases, data for Johne's are scarce. Therefore models of Johne's outbreaks including this one cannot be predictive or easily validated. The qualitative results: (a) demonstrate the modelled effect of inclusion of infection via the environment; (b) suggest management factors that could be tested by experimentation or observation. Estimates for the rate of transmission, arising from the model output, are similar to published empirical estimates. The results of future empirical research should aid scientific understanding of the disease, help validate this model and might bring economic benefits through improved management.
Descriptors: beef cattle,calves, calving, herd health, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental factors, disease models,

Huygen, Kris. DNA vaccines against mycobacterial diseases.Future Microbiology. 2006; 1(1): 63-73. ISSN: 1746-0913
URL: http://www.futuremedicine.com/loi/fmb
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, humans, mice,plasmid DNA vaccination, booting with recombinant protein, recombinant pox viruses, Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette Guerin.

Hutchings, Michael R.; Judge, Johanna; Gordon, Iain J.; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Kyriazakis, Ilias. Use of trade-off theory to advance understanding of herbivore-parasite interactions. Mammal Review. 2006; 36(1): 1-16. Print ISSN: 0305-1838. E-ISSN: 1365-2907
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0305-1838&site=1
Descriptors: Alouatta seniculus , red howler monkey, Alouatta palliate, mantled howler monkey, Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit, Meles meles, badger, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, herbivore-parasite relationship, forage environments, parasite aquired in forage situations, host behaviors, host avoidance of parasites, avoidance of contaminated areas, diets that increase resistance, foods selections with anti-parasitic properties, transmission via the fecal-oral route, trade offs between nutrients and parasite exposure.

Janagama, H.K.; Jeong, K.I.; Kapur, V.; Coussens, P.; Sreevatsan, S. Cytokine responses of bovine macrophages to diverse clinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains. BMC Microbiology. 2006; 6(10): (14 February 2006). ISSN: 1471-2180.
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-6-10.pdf
Abstract:M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. While it is established that substantial genotypic variation exists among MAP, evidence for the correlates that associate specific MAP genotypes with clinical or subclinical disease phenotypes is presently unknown. Thus we studied strain differences in intracellular MAP survival and host responses in a bovine monocyte derived macrophage (MDM) system. Intracellular survival studies showed that a bovine MAP isolate (B1018) and a human MAP isolate (Hu6) persisted in relatively higher numbers when compared with a sheep MAP isolate (S7565) at 24-, 48- and 96-h postinfection (PI). MDMs stimulated with B1018 upregulated IL-10 at the transcript level and downregulated TNF Alpha at the protein and transcript levels compared with stimulations by the S7565 and Hu6. MDMs infected with Hu6 showed a down regulatory pattern of IL-10 and TNF Alpha compared to stimulations by S7565. Cells stimulated with B1018 and Hu6 had low levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) and high levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) at 96-h PI relative to MDMs stimulated by S7565. These results suggest that the bovine (B1018) and the human (Hu6) MAP isolates lead to antiinflammatory and anti-invasive pathways in the macrophage environment, whereas the sheep (S7565) MAP isolate induces a pro-inflammatory pathway. Thus the infecting strain genotype may play a role in polarizing the host immune responses and dictate the clinicopathological outcomes in this economically important disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : cattle, cattle diseases, sheep, sheep diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, infection and survival in host macrophages, cytokines, immune response, immunity, interleukin 10, metalloproteinases, tumour necrosis factor, cachectin, cachexin, immunological reactions.

Jaravata, C.V.; Smith, W.L.; Rensen, G.J.; Ruzante, J.M.; Cullor, J.S. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine manure using Whatman FTA card technology and lightcycler real-time PCR. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2006; 3(2): 212-215. ISSN: 1535-3141
URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/fpd.2006.3.212
NAL Call No.: QR115.F6637
Abstract: A modified forensic DNA extraction and real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay has been evaluated for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine faecal samples using primers and fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes targeting the IS900 gene sequence of MAP. DNA was successfully extracted from manure samples by utilizing the Whatman FTAReg. card technology, which allows for simple processing and storage of samples at room temperature. The FTAReg. cards were washed and subjected to a Chelex-100 incubation to remove any remaining polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors and to elute the DNA from the FTAReg. card. This isolated DNA was then subjected to direct real time fluorescent PCR analysis. Detection of MAP DNA from bovine faecal samples spiked with known concentrations of viable MAP cells was obtained. The detection limits of the assay was consistently found to be between 102 and 104 colony forming units [CFU]/g, with some samples containing as low as 10 CFU/g, yielding positive assay results. This cost-efficient assay allows reporting of results as early as 4 h after faecal collection, which can be particularly useful in high-throughput herd screening..
Descriptors: bovine fecal samples, manures, screening and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, analysis, assays, DNA extraction, PCR, inhibitors.

Jensen, S.; Wagner, B.; Garber, L. Preliminary results from the national Johne's Disease demonstration herd project.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 133. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk production impacts, demonstration dairy herd, National Johne’s Disease Herd Project, preliminary program results, USA.

Johansen, K.A.; Hugen, E.E.; Payeur, J.B. Growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the presence of hexadecylpyridinium chloride, natamycin, and vancomycin.Journal of Food Protection. 2006 Apr; 69(4): 878-883. ISSN: 0362-028X
URL: http://www.foodprotection.org/publications/jfp.asp
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824
Abstract: A design-of-experiments approach was used to examine the effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), alone or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin and natamycin, on the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). At concentrations above 74.4 microgram/ml, HPC had a highly significant detrimental effect on the growth of MAP, whereas natamycin at 10.8 and 21.6 microgram/ml and vancomycin at 5.2 and 10.4 microgram/ml did not have such an effect. Titration of the amount of HPC tolerated by MAP indicated that growth can occur in the presence of 24.8 microgram/ml or lower. Processing of bovine fecal specimens indicated that reducing the concentration of HPC from 32.22 to 1.07 mg/ml during decontamination may improve detection when cultures are grown on solid medium but not when cultures are grown in liquid medium. Further investigation into optimizing HPC concentration during processing of fecal samples is warranted. Natamycin, in conjunction with vancomycin, may be useful for controlling fungal contamination during isolation of MAP from fecal samples.
Descriptors: ruminants,fecal sampling, enteropathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, bacterial infections, animal pathogenic bacteria, natamycin, antifungal agents, antibiotics, veterinary drugs, antibacterial properties, culture media, pathogen survival, chlorides, drug interactions.

Jones, P.H.; Farver, T.B.; Beaman, B.; Cetnkaya, B.; Morgan, K.L. Crohn's disease in people exposed to clinical cases of bovine paratuberculosis.Epidemiology and Infection. 2006; 134(1): 49-56. ISSN: 0950-2688
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=HYG
Descriptors: cattle, humans, dairy cattle, farmers, risk factors for zoonotic diseases from infected animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, work related illness, questionnaire survey of dairy farmers with and without infected animals, levels of Crohn’s disease, no association due to association with bovine paratuberculosis, univariate association with geographical region, univariate association with age, frequency of contact with cattle and smoking, UK.

Juan, L. de; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Romero, B.; Bezos, J.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L. Molecular epidemiology of types I.Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 June 15; 115(1-3): 102-110. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.01.008
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) isolates classifies them into three groups: cattle or Type II, sheep or Type I, and intermediate or Type III. To avoid problems associated with characterization of extremely slow growth strains, PCR-based techniques that divide the M. a. paratuberculosis strains in two main groups (cattle or Type II, and sheep or Types I/III) can be performed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the M. a. paratuberculosis isolates identified by different PCR-based tests (IS1311-PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR test based on a DNA sequence difference, and a PCR aimed at three Type I-specific loci), and to determine the clinical and epidemiological implications of Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains in livestock. One hundred and fifty-eight M. a. paratuberculosis strains from domestic ruminants were analyzed. One hundred and six M. a. paratuberculosis isolates (61 from goats and 45 from cattle) were classified as Type II strains; and 52 (29 from cows, 20 from goats, and three from sheep) were included in the Types I/III. The Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains were associated to Spanish native breeds. The majority of these animals had not been in direct or indirect contact with sheep flocks infected with M. a. paratuberculosis. This fact should be taken into account when implementing paratuberculosis control programs.
Descriptors: goats, goat diseases, cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis strains, molecular epidemiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strain differences, disease control.

Juan, Lucia de; Alvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Castellanos, Elena; Aranaz, Alicia; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas. Comparison of four different culture media for isolation and growth of type II and type I.Applied and Environmental Microbiology-AEM. 2006 Sept; 72(9): 5927-5932. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Culture is considered the definitive technique for Johne's disease diagnosis, and it is essential for later applications of certain molecular typing techniques. In this study, we have tested four solid media (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEYM] with sodium pyruvate and mycobactin [HEYMm-SP], HEYM with mycobactin and without sodium pyruvate [HEYMm], Middlebrook 7H11 with mycobactin [Mm], and Lowenstein-Jensen with mycobactin [LJm]) for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains in 319 tissue samples from cattle herds and goat flocks. We have shown that each of the two main groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (type II and type I/III) has different requirements for growth in the culture media studied. The recommended solid media for isolation of type I/III strains are LJm and Mm, since the combination of both media allowed the recovery of all these strains. The most widespread culture medium, HEYM, is not suitable for the isolation of this group of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Regarding the type II strains, HEYMm-SP was the medium where more strains were isolated, but the other three media are also needed in order to recover all type II strains. The incubation period is also related to the strain type. In conclusion, because the type of strain cannot be known in advance of culture, coupled with the fact that cattle and goats can be infected with both groups of strains, we recommend the use of the four solid media and the prolongation of the incubation period to more than 6 months to detect paratuberculous herds/flocks and to determine the true prevalence of the infection.
Descriptors: culture media, cell culture, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, isolation, 4 culture methods compared, cattle herds, goat flocks, paratuberculosis, pathogen identification, bacterial strains, strain differences, disease detection, disease diagnosis.

Juan, L. de; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Bezos, J.; Romero, B.; Rufian, L.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L.; Travnicek, M. Epizootologia a diagnostika mykobakterialnych infekcii. Cast' II. Paratuberkuloza.[Epidemiology and diagnostics of mycobacterial infections. Part II. Paratuberculosis.] Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis. 2006; 31(3): 168-172. ISSN: 1335-0099. Note: In Slovakian with an English summary.
URL: http://www.uvm.sk/dept/journals/svc.html
Descriptors: humans, animals, mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis,Johne’s disease, zoonotic diseases, etiology, epidemiology, disease prevention, clinical aspects, Crohn's disease, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevention, histopathology, identification, isolation techniques, molecular genetics,disease control, vaccination.

Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Davidson, Ross S.; Hutchings, Michael R. Routes of intraspecies transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a field study.Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 72(1): 398-403. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Rabbits have been increasingly linked to the persistence of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in domestic ruminants in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to determine the routes of intraspecies transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in rabbits and to estimate the probability of transmission via each route, in order to gain understanding of the dynamics of MAP in this host. Rabbits were sampled from two sites where MAP had previously been isolated from the livestock and rabbit populations. No pathology was noted in any animals, but the overall prevalence of MAP in rabbits was high at both sites studied, 39.7% and 23.0%, respectively. MAP was isolated from the testes, uterus, placenta, fetuses, and milk. This is the first time that the bacterium has been isolated from any of these tissues in a nonruminant wildlife species. These results suggest that transmission may occur vertically, pseudovertically, and horizontally. Vertical, i.e., transplacental, and/or pseudo-vertical, i.e., through the ingestion of contaminated milk and/or feces, transmission occurred in 14% of offspring entering the population at 1 month of age. As infection via these routes is only possible from infected adult females, this equates to a probability of infection via this route of 0.326. Probability of infection via horizontal transmission (including interspecies transmission) occurred at up to 0.037 per month. The presence of these routes of transmission within natural rabbit populations will contribute to the maintenance of MAP infections within such populations and, therefore, the environment.
Descriptors: Oryctolagus cuniculus , wild rabbits, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, intraspecies disease transmission, epidemiology, transplacental transmission, animal diseases, disease reservoirs, pathogens in numerous organs, vertical transmission, pseudo-vertically, horizontal transmission, Scotland.

Kapur, V. Johne's Disease integrated program - An overview. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle diseases, integrated program, production systems, disease elimination and control, animal biosecurity, pharmacology, education.

Kapur, V.; Bannantine, J.P.; Li, L.L.; Zhang, Q.; Amonsin, A. Mycobacterial diagnostics. United States Department of Agriculture Patents. 2006 July 11, no US 7,074,559 B2.
NAL Call No.: aT223.V4A4
Abstract : The present invention provides nucleic acid molecules unique to M. paratuberculosis. The invention also provides the polypeptides encoded by the M. paratuberculosis-specific nucleic acid molecules of the invention, and antibodies having specific binding affinity for the polypeptides encoded by the M. paratuberculosis-specific nucleic acid molecules. The invention further provides for methods of detecting M. paratuberculosis in a sample using nucleic acid molecules, polypeptides, and antibodies of the invention. The invention additionally provides methods of preventing a M. paratuberculosis infection in an animal.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, U.S. patent, antibody-based diagnostic, polypetides, method to prevent MAP in animals, USA.

Kemp, R.; Caldow, G.; Strain, S. Herd prevalence of Johne's disease. Veterinary Record. 2006; 159(17): 572. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, genetic diversity, paratuberculosis, risk factors, seasonal variations, UK.

Khol, J. L.; Stein, B.; Dreier, S.; Baumgartner, W. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in small ruminants in Austria. Slovenian Veterinary Research. 2006; 43(Supplement 10): 129-130. ISSN: 1580-4003. Note: 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress, Radenci, Slovenia, 29 March-1 April 2006.
NAL Call No.: SF604.L52
Descriptors: goats, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, prevalence, serum testing, fecal testing, organ sampling, MAP antibody testing, commercial ELISA, pathogen culture on Herold’s Yolk Medium, Ziehl Neelsen stain, PCR, Austria.

Koets, Ad; Hoek, Aad; Langelaar, Merel; Overdijk, Marije; Santema, Wiebren; Franken, Peter; van Eden, Willem; Rutten, Victor Mycobacterial 70 kD heat-shock protein is an effective subunit vaccine against bovine paratuberculosis. Vaccine. 2006; 24(14): 2550-2559. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Descriptors : cattle, experimental infection, cattle pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain 316F, economic losses from premature culling and production losses, recombinant MAP Hsp70 as a subunit vaccine, reduced fecal shedding.

Kooten, H.C.J. van; Mackintosh, C.G.; Koets, A.P. Intra-uterine transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in farmed red deer.New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(1): 16-20. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: farmed red deer, Cervus elaphus, pregnant hinds, intra-uterine transmission of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, tissue sampling of hinds, hepatic, ileocaecal and mesenteric lymph nodes, posterior ileum, fetuses sampling, lung, liver, spleen, jejunum, ileum, tissues cultured in BACTEC system, hinds and fetuses were positive, maternal transmission, New Zealand.

Kopecna, M.; Lamka, J.; Parmova, I.; Trcka, I.; Svastova, P.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I. Paratuberculosis in wild ruminants in the Czech Republic from 1997 to 2004.Veterinarski Arhiv. 2006; 76(Supplement): S19-S26. ISSN: 0372-5480. Note: “Game and Ecology.” Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium, Brijuni Islands, Croatia, 10-13 October 2005.
URL: http://www.vef.hr/vetarhiv
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6416
Descriptors: ruminants, Capra, goats, Capra aegagrus, Capreolus capreolus, red deer, Cervus elaphus, fallow deer, Cervus nippon; chamois, mouflon, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, Johne's disease, resistance to disease, disease prevalence, disease resistance, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, Czech Republic.

Kopecna, Marketa; Ondrus, Stanislav; Literak, Ivan; Klimes, Jiri; Horvathova, Alica; Moravkova,-Monika; Bartos, Milan; Trcka, Ivo; Pavlik, Ivo. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in two brown bears in the central European Carpathians. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006; 42(3): 691-695. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.wildlifedisease.org
NAL Call no.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: The incidence of mycobacterial infections was monitored in brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the National Park Low Tatras in the central European Carpathians in Slovakia. Tissue samples of 20 brown bears were examined microscopically and by culture for the presence of mycobacteria. Acid-fast rods were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining in a smear from the kidney of one brown bear, although the culture was negative for mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, was isolated from the intestinal mucosa of another two brown bears. The isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction for the specific insertion sequence IS900. Using standardized IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the M. a. paratuberculosis isolates were classified as RFLP type B-C1, which also were detected in the infected cattle in surrounding area. This study describes the first isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from a brown bear. Our results confirm that animal species other than ruminants can become infected with M. a. paratuberculosis and can act as potential vectors and/or reservoirs of the infection. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: brown bears,Ursus arctos, tissue sampling, kidneys, intestinal mucosa, IS900 RFLP analysis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, RFLP type B-CL, first known isolation from a brown bear, wildlife as potential vector and disease reservoir, National Park Low Tatras, central European Carpathians, Slovakia.

Kostoulas, P.; Leontides, L.; Billinis, C.; Florou, M. Application of a semi-dependent latent model in the Bayesian estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of two faecal culture methods for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sub-clinically infected Greek dairy sheep and goats. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Sept 15; 76(1-2): 121-134. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.04.008
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: sheep, goats, sheep diseases, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection, diagnostic techniques, culture media, feces, fecal shedding and sampling, Bayesian theory, latent class model, validity, disease prevalence, probabilistic models, estimation, accuracy, analytical kits, Greece.

Kostoulas, P.; Leontides, L.; Enoe, C.; Billinis, C.; Florou, M.; Sofia, M. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of serum ELISA and faecal culture for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in Greek dairy sheep and goats. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Sept 15; 76(1-2): 56-73. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.04.006
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease detection, disease diagnosis, seroprevalence, blood serum, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, feces, fecal culture, testing, analytical kits, accuracy, probabilistic models, Bayesian theory, estimation, latent class models, validity, Greece.

Kostoulas, P.; Leontides, L.; Billinis, C.; Amiridis, G.S.; Florou, M. The association of sub-clinical paratuberculosis with the fertility of Greek dairy ewes and goats varies with parity.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 May 17; 74(2-3): 226-238. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.12.001
NAL Call No .: SF601.P7
Descriptors: sheep diseases, nanny goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal reproduction, animal fertility, vivipary (animals), parity (reproduction), female fertility, ewes, epidemiological studies, disease prevalence, cross sectional studies, disease detection, seroprevalence, feces, logit analysis, Greece.

Kovich, D.A.; Wells, S.J.; Friendshuh, K. Evaluation of the voluntary Johne's disease herd status program as a source of replacement cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Sept; 89(9): 3466-3470. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the perceived value that enrolled producers gained from participation in the Voluntary Johne's Disease Herd Status Program (VJDHSP), and to evaluate the risk of infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) of cattle reared in a presumed Johne's free environment vs. cattle raised in an environment of unknown Johne's status. Producers enrolled in level 3 or 4 of the VJDHSP (98 and 99% probability, respectively, of being free from MAP infection) were interviewed via telephone. Producers were asked questions pertaining to their participation in the VJDHSP, and asked to identify herds to which they had sold replacement heifers. These cattle were presumed to be uninfected before sale. Fifty-nine cattle (identified as having been purchased into infected herds as heifers) were identified as having been raised in uninfected herds and sold to producers with herds of unknown Johne's disease status. On the purchasing farm, fecal and blood samples were collected from each cow of VJDHSP origin and 3 randomly selected home-reared cows per VJDHSP cow matched by lactation as controls. Samples were tested using commercial ELISA (serum) and bacterial culture (feces). Results indicated that enrolled producers saw value in VJDHSP participation, and that cattle reared in VJDHSP herds were less likely to be infected with MAP than herdmates as measured by serum ELISA MAP antibody and by fecal culture. This study provides evidence of the value of the VJDHSP in providing economic value to participants and supports the promotion of VJDHSP herds as a source of replacement cattle of low infection risk for MAP.
Descriptors: dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease incidence, specific pathogen free animals, heifers, bacterial infections, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, Minnesota, USA.

Kruze, J.; Salgado, M.; Paredes, E.; Mella, A.; Collins, M.T. Goat paratuberculosis in Chile: first isolation and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in a dairy goat. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Sept; 18(5): 476-479. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descripators : goats, food animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, animal diseases, disease diagnosis, pathogen identification, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), histopathology, animal pathology, new geographic records, paucibacillary paratuberculosis, Chile.

Kumar, A.A.; Tripathi, B.N.; Jolhe, D.K. Immunohistochemical demonstration of mycobacterial antigens in sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2006; 30(2): 1-4. ISSN 0250-4758, E-ISSN: 0873-970X
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&type=home
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of indirect immunoperoxidase (IPT) and Ziehl Neelsen's (ZN) methods in the histological confirmation of paratuberculosis. 15 lambs were orally infected with a caprine isolate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A group of 8 lambs were kept in the contact with the infected group and 8 lambs as uninfected control. The animals of the infected and in-contact groups were classified as suspected (2), mild (9), moderate (3) and severe (3) infection categories on the basis of severity of histological lesions and positivity in other diagnostic tests. The efficacy of demonstration of acid-fast bacilli and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen in tissues of 15 experimentally infected sheep were compared. Two sheep showing no lesions were negative in both tests. Out of 2 suspected and 9 mild cases, only IPT detected 1 and 6 cases, respectively. In moderate and severe cases, both IPT and ZN methods were equally sensitive, with the former giving more positive signals than the latter. The overall sensitivity of IPT (76.5%) was found to be far superior as compared with ZN method (35.3%). These results suggest the utility of IPT in the diagnostic confirmation of histological lesions without demonstrable AFB. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, peroxidase labeled antibody technique, experimental infection, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunoperoxidase technique, paratuberculosis.

Kuralkar, S.V.; Sahatpure, S.K.; Waghmare, S.P.; Shyam-Sharma. Prevalence of tuberculosis and Johne's disease in an organized dairy farm.Intas Polivet. 2006; 7(2): 251-254. ISSN: 0972-1738
Abstract: The prevalence of tuberculosis and Johne's disease in an organized dairy farm in India was studied. Of the 1132 animals tested, 15 (1.32%) and 1 (0.095%) were positive to tuberculin and Johnin tests, while there were 54 (4.77%) and 6 (0.53%) doubtful reactions for tuberculin and Johnin tests, respectively. Three animals were positive to both tuberculin and Johnin tests. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: 1132 cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, organized dairy farm, prevalence of paratuberculosis, skin testing, tuberculin and Johnin testing, epidemiological survey, India.

Laopez-Pedemonte, Tomaas; Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M.; Aduriz, Gorka; Guamis, Buenaventura; Juste, Ramaon A.; Roig Saguaes, Artur X. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cow's milk by means of high hydrostatic pressure at mild temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 June; 72(6): 4446-4449. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Two strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (3644/02 and ATCC 19698) were inoculated (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) into sterilized milk to evaluate inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure. Reductions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis increased with pressure level. Significant differences were also found between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains and between the media used. Average reductions of 4 log CFU/ml after treatment with 500 MPa are comparable to those caused by thermal treatments.
Descriptors: sterilized milk, spiking with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, food contamination, bacterial contamination, decontamination, high pressure treatment, temperature inactivation of bacterial contaminants, food microbiology, food processing, high hydrostatic pressure.

Le Puil, M.; Biggerstaff, J.P.; Weidow, B.L.; Price, J.R.; Naser, S.A.; White, D.C.; Alberte, R.S. A novel fluorescence imaging technique combining deconvolution microscopy and spectral analysis for quantitative detection of opportunistic pathogens. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2006; 67(3): 597-602. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors : Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, public health, pathogen identification, methods and techniques, public health concerns, fluorescence imaging technique, deconvolution microscopy, spectral analysis, rapid and specific test.

Lee, Kyung Woo; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Moon, Oun Kyoung; Yang, Dong Kun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kweon, Chang Hee. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Korean Black Goats (Capra hircus aegagrus). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2006; 68(12): 1379-1381. ISSN: 0916-7250
NAL Call No.: SF604.J342
Abstract: 582 sera from 116 black goat herds were analysed by a commercially available ELISA kit to monitor the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus). The mean number of goats sampled per herd was 5.11, 4.66, and 5.38 for the northern, central, and southern regions of Korea, respectively. The apparent regional prevalence of Mpt was estimated at 18.2-38.2% and 4.6-15.3% for herds and goats, respectively. The Mpt-positive goats were predominantly detected in the south (n=28), compared to either the northern (n=9) or central (n=11) regions ( chi =14.459, P<0.05). Our findings indicate that Mpt is prevalent among the goat population, but regional variation exists. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: 116 black goat herds, Capra hircus aegagrus, 582 serum samples, ELISA kit, disease survey, seroprevalance of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, regional variation exists, Korea.

Lehtola, Markku J.; Torvinen, Eila; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Keevil, C. William. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes for rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in potable-water biofilms.Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 72(1): 848-853. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 Ap5
Abstract: Here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting Mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies M. avium subsp. avium,M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. There is evidence that M. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive and grow in drinking-water biofilms and possibly transmit via drinking water. The designed PNA probe (MAV148) specificity was tested with several bacterial species, including other mycobacteria and mycolic acid-containing bacteria. From the range of bacterial strains tested, only M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were hybridized. The PNA FISH method was applied successfully to detect M. avium subsp. avium spiked in water samples and biofilm established within a Propella biofilm reactor fed with potable water from a distribution supply.
Descriptors: testing potable water, biofilms, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium,Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, successful detection method, high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence, testing for several bacterial species, mycolic acid containing bacteria, experimental spiking of water samples.

Li, L.L.; Munir, S.; Bannantine, J.P.; Sreevatsan, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Kapur, V. Rapid expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins for antigen discovery.Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(1): 102-105. ISSN: 1556-6811.
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: cattle, ruminants, other species, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease detection, serological diagnosis, utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins, antigen discovery, MAP1272c protein.

Liandris, E.; Piccinini, R.; Dapra, V.; Cesaris, L.; Zecconi, A. Controllo della paratubercolosi applicazione di un programma pilota in allevamenti di bovine da latte della Lombardia.[Control of paratuberculosis. Application of a pilot programme on dairy farms in Lombardy.] Obiettiv e Documenti Veterinari. 2006; 27(4): 27-31. ISSN: 0392-1913. Note: In Italian with an English summary.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, paratuberculosis disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control program, Lombardy, Italy.

Lisle, G.W. de; Cannon, M.C.; Yates, G.F.; Collins, D.M. Use of a polymerase chain reaction to subtype Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, an increasingly important pathogen from farmed deer in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(4): 195-197. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: farmed deer, 600 infected herds, confirmed cases, Johne’s disease, disease prevalence, cattle strains, sheep strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, IS900 PCR testing, epidemiology, January 2001 to October 2005, New Zealand.

Ljubljani University . Review papers. 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress, Radenci, Slovenia, 2006.Slovenian Veterinary Research. 2006; 43(1): 5-49. ISSN: 1580-4003. Note: A proceedings, in English.
NAL Call No.: SF604.L52
Descriptors: cattle, dogs, dairy cows, uterine infection, inherited disorders, milk production, fertility, diseases, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, periodontal diseases, PCR, reviews, Slovenia.

Lombard , J.E.; Byrem, T.M.; Wagner, B.A.; McCluskey, B.J. Comparison of milk and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Sept; 18(5): 448-458. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Milk and serum samples from 35 dairy herds in 17 states were evaluated for cow- and herd-level Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody test agreement. Evaluation of 6,349 samples suggested moderate agreement between milk and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, with a kappa value of 0.50. Cow-level sensitivity (Se) for 18 dairy operations with 1,921 animals was evaluated relative to fecal culture results. At the cow level, the milk ELISA relative Se was not significantly different from that of the serum ELISA (21.2 and 23.5%, respectively). Logistic regression models revealed a positive association between lactation number and milk ELISA status. Non-Holstein cows were more likely to test milk ELISA positive than Holstein cows. Cows in the first 2 weeks of lactation and after week 45 of lactation were more likely to test milk ELISA positive than cows between 3 and 12 weeks of lactation. Milk production >80% of herd average was negatively associated with testing milk ELISA positive. Animals in the West and Midwest regions were less likely than animals in the Southeast region to test ELISA positive by either test. Estimates for herd-level sensitivity for the milk and serum ELISA, relative to fecal culture results, ranged from 56 to 83%. At the cow and herd levels, milk ELISA performed equivalent to serum ELISA using fecal culture as a reference for MAP infection and has the advantage of decreased labor costs on farms that use Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing..
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, cow and herd levels of Johne’s disease, milk sampling, serum sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, immunological techniques, ELISA, fecal culture reference, Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing, USA.

Lombard, J.E.; Wagner, B.A . ; Smith, R.L.; McCluskey, B.J.; Harris, B.N.; Payeur, J.B.; Garry, F. B.; Salman, M.D. Evaluation of environmental sampling and culture tod Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis distribution and herd infection status on US dairy operations. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Nov; 89(11): 4163-4171. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in the environment and assess the relationship between the culture status of MAP in the farm environment and herd infection status. The National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2002 study surveyed dairy operations in 21 states. One component of the study involved collection and culturing of environmental samples for MAP from areas on farms where manure accumulated from a majority of a herd's cows. Operations were selected for inclusion based on perceived risk factors for MAP infection identified in a previously administered questionnaire. Individual animal and environmental samples were collected and used to determine the efficiency of environmental sampling for determination of herd infection status. Individual animal fecal, serum, and milk samples were used to classify herds as infected or not infected based on the presence of at least one test-positive animal in the herd. A total of 483 environmental samples (approximately 5 per farm) were collected, and 218 (45.1%) were culture-positive for MAP. A similar percentage of environmental cultures collected from all designated areas were positive [parlor exits (52.3%), floors of holding pens (49.1%), common alleyways (48.8%), lagoons (47.4%), manure spreaders (42.3%), and manure pits (41.5%)]. Of the 98 operations tested with the environmental sample culture, 97 had individual serum ELISA results, 60 had individual fecal culture results, and 34 had individual milk ELISA results. Sixty-nine of the 98 operations (70.4%) had at least one environmental sample that was culture-positive. Of the 50 herds classified as infected by fecal culture, 38 (76.0%) were identified by environmental culture. Two of the 10 operations classified as not infected based on individual animal fecal culture were environmental culture-positive. Of the 80 operations classified as infected based on serum ELISA-positive results, 61 (76.3%) were identified as environmental-positive, whereas 20 of the 28 (71.4%) operations identified as infected based on milk ELISA were detected by environmental sampling. Environmental sample culturing is less costly than individual animal sampling, does not require animal restraint, and identified more than 70% of infected operations. Environmental sampling is another diagnostic tool that veterinarians and dairy producers can use to determine herd infection status for MAP.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, herd health, sampling, disease transmission, dairy farm management, bacterial contamination, milk quality, environmental contamination.

Lopez-Pedemonte, Tomas; Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M.; Aduriz, Gorka; Guamis, Buenaventura; Juste, Ramon A.; Roig-Sagues, Artur X. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in cow's milk by means of high hydrostatic pressure at mild temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(6): 4446-4449. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Two strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (3644/02 and ATCC 19698) were inoculated (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) into sterilized milk to evaluate inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure. Reductions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis increased with pressure level. Significant differences were also found between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains and between the media used. Average reductions of 4 log CFU/ml after treatment with 500 MPa are comparable to those caused by thermal treatments.
Descriptors: cow’s milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains ATCC-19698 and 3644-02, spiked samples of milk, inactivation parameters, temperature and pressure, strain differences.

Losinger, W.C. Welfare effects of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive versus Johne's-negative dairy operations.Journal of Dairy Research. 2006 Aug; 73(3): 378-384. ISSN: 0022-0299
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002007
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract : An examination of the economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive and Johne's-negative dairy operations indicated that, if Johne's disease had not existed in US dairy cows in 1996, then the economic surplus of Johne's-negative operations would have been $600 millionpl $530 million lower, while the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations would have been higher by $28 millionpl$79 million, which was not significantly different from zero. The data available for projecting changes in surplus were not sufficiently precise to allow an exact statement on whether Johne's-positive operations would have been better or worse off economically, in terms of the value received for producing more milk if they had not been affected by Johne's disease. The changes in producer surplus, based upon eliminating specific epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease, were disaggregated between Johne's-positive dairy operations exposed to the risk factor and all other US dairy operations. Eliminating the risk factor of having any cows not born on the operation would have had a significant positive effect on the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations that had any cows not born on the operation.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy farming, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, milk yield, milk production, profitability, economic impact, economic analysis, epidemiology, risk factors, economic welfare.

Losinger, Willard C. Economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA. Journal of Dairy Research. 2006; 73(1): 33-43. ISSN: 0022-0299
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=DAR
Descriptors: dairy cows, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, milk production, regional and herd size differences in disease levels, multiple cow maternity housing, multiple preweaned calf housing, risk of adding cows from outside the operation, GUM Workbench, uncertainties of economic impacts.

Lyche, Jan L.; Larsen, Hans J.S.; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Tverdal, Aage; Johansen, Grethe M.; Ropstad, Erik. Perinatal exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunity in goat kids. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A. 2006; 69(1-2): 139-158. ISSN: 1528-7394.
URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/15287394.html
Descriptors: goat does, goat kids, oral dosing with PCB153 and PCB 126, DES intramuscular injection, blood sampling, effects on immunity, disease susceptibility, suppressed maternal and neonatal immunity, maternal IgG and specific antibodies to environmental microbes and pathogens, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mannheimia haemolytica, reovirus (REO-1), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, equine influenza virus, variation between PCB types.

Malamo, M.; Sakoda, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Kida, H. Development of ELISA to detect antibodies specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with truncated 34 kDa proteins. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 54(2/3): 99-107. ISSN: 0047-1917.
URL: http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/bulletin/jjvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6446
Abstract: To develop ELISA to detect antibodies specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), the carboxyl termini of the 34 kDa proteins of M. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. avium) were expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. Antibodies specific to M. paratuberculosis were detected with the truncated 34 kDa protein of M. paratuberculosis in ELISA after pre-absorption of serum samples with the truncated 34 kDa protein of M. avium. All the serum samples from cattle confirmed to be infected with M. paratuberculosis were positive and those from healthy cattle were negative in the present ELISA system. These results indicate that the established ELISA detects antibodies specific to M. paratuberculosis with high specificity and sensitivity and is an useful tool for the screening of Johne's disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, screening tests, serum testing, antibodies, detection, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immune response.

Manzer, S.N.; Cogswell, D.R.; Eckstein, T.M.; Chatterjee, D.; Belisle, J.T.; Inamine, J.M. Structural and serological characterization of two polar lipids specific to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 609. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, cell wall, phospholipid, lipopeptide, glycophospholipid, polar lipids, Johne’s disease.

Marcos, J.; Garcia, A. Trabajo de campo desarrollado durante cinco anos de vacunacion con Gudair Paratuberculosis ovina, un grave problema que se puede resolver. [Ovine paratuberculosis, a serious problem that could be resolved.] Albeitar. 2006; (93): 54-55. ISSN: 1699-7883. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ovine Johne’s disease, vaccination, Guidair vaccine, efficacy of vaccine tested, clinical disease, mortality and subclinical diseases, fecal excretion and immune responses, New South Wales, Australia.

Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Bannantine, John P.; Golding, Geoffrey B. Comparative genomics of metabolic pathways in Mycobacterium species: gene duplication, gene decay and lateral gene transfer. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 2006 Nov; 30(6): 906-925. ISSN: 0168-6445
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2006.00041.x
NAL Call No.: QR1.F46
Abstract: The genus Mycobacterium comprises significant pathogenic species that infect both humans and animals. One species within this genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the primary killer of humans resulting from bacterial infections. Five mycobacterial genomes belonging to four different species (M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium avium ssp. Paratuberculosis) have been sequenced to date and another 14 mycobacterial genomes are at various stages of completion. A comparative analysis of the gene products of key metabolic pathways revealed that the major differences among these species are in the gene products constituting the cell wall and the gene families encoding the acidic glycine-rich (PE/PPE/PGRS) proteins. Mycobacterium leprae has evolved by retaining a minimal gene set for most of the gene families, whereas M. avium ssp. Paratuberculosis has acquired some of the virulence factors by lateral gene transfer.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium species, biochemical pathways, pathogenicity, protein variances, comparative Mycobacterium genomics.

Marri, P.R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Paustian, M.L.; Golding, G.B. Lateral gene transfer in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 2006 June; 52(6): 560-569. ISSN: 0008-4166. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/W06-001
NAL Call No.: 448.8 C162
Abstract: Lateral gene transfer is an integral part of genome evolution in most bacteria. Bacteria can readily change the contents of their genomes to increase adaptability to ever-changing surroundings and to generate evolutionary novelty. Here, we report instances of lateral gene transfer in subsp. paratuberculosis, a pathogenic bacteria that causes Johne's disease in cattle. A set of 275 genes are identified that are likely to have been recently acquired by lateral gene transfer. The analysis indicated that 53 of the 275 genes were acquired after the divergence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from M. avium subsp. avium, whereas the remaining 222 genes were possibly acquired by a common ancestor of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium after its divergence from the ancestor of M. tuberculosis complex. Many of the acquired genes were from proteobacteria or soil dwelling actinobacteria. Prominent among the predicted laterally transferred genes is the gene rsbR, a possible regulator of sigma factor, and the genes designated MAP3614 and MAP3757, which are similar to genes in eukaryotes. The results of this study suggest that like most other bacteria, lateral gene transfers seem to be a common feature in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and that the proteobacteria contribute most of these genetic exchanges. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, evolution, genes, introgression, phylogeny, microbial genetics, animal pathogenic bacteria, lateral gene transfer, unique genes.

Marsh, Ian B.; Bannantine, John P.; Paustian,-Michael L.; Tizard, Mark L.; Kapur, Vivek; Whittington, Richard J. Genomic comparison of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis sheep and cattle strains by microarray hybridization. Journal of Bacteriology. 2006; 188(6): 2290-2293. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL: http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Microarray-based comparisons of three Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates, including one sheep strain and two cattle strains, identified three large genomic deletions in the sheep strain, totaling 29,208 bp and involving 24 open reading frames. These deletions may help explain some of the differences in pathogenicity and host specificity observed between the cattle and sheep strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: cattle pathogen, sheep pathogen, genomics, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strain comparisons, host specificity.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Dohoo, I.R. Using and interpreting diagnostic tests.Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice. 2006; 22(1): 195-205. ISSN: 0749-0720
URL: http://www.vetfood.theclinics.com/
NAL Call No.: SF601.V535
Descriptors: livstock herd health, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic testing, animal health, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease surveys, infectious diseases, prediction disease, disease screening, statistical analysis.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.; Barkema, H.W. Johne's disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Nov; 47(11): 1089-1099. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English and French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, risk factors, economic impact, disease control programs, dairy farm management, literature reviews, disease diagnosis, pathophysiology, disease transmission, milk production, culling of infected animals, animal age; strains, Canada, Australia, USA, Netherlands.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Vanleeuwen, J.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Jansen, J.T.; Hauer, G; Hendrick, S.H.; Cote, G.; Salsberg, E.B.; Empringham, R.E. Proposed Canadian Voluntary National Johne's Disease Prevention and Control Program. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue-Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 June; 47(6): 539-541. ISSN: 0008-5286
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases,paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control programs, disease prevention, zoonoses, literature reviews, Canada.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Barkema, H.W.; Keefe, G.P.; Sockett, D.C. Agreement between three ELISAs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 May 31; 114(3-4): 285-291. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.12.002
NAL CallNo.: SF601.V44
Abstract: During a 10-month period in 1999, 994 serum and tissue samples were collected from dairy cows at slaughter in eastern Canada. The sources of these cattle were from all four Atlantic Canadian provinces along with some cows from the state of Maine. The sera were used to assess the agreement of three commercially available ELISAs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two ELISAs were indirect absorbed ELISAs licensed for use in North America, the third was an indirect non-absorbed ELISA licensed for use in Europe. Overall, there was poor agreement between the three ELISAs. The highest and lowest (Sm(B values were 0.33 and 0.18, which is fair and poor agreement, respectively. However, when only tissue culture-positive cattle were compared, the ELISAs had better agreement ((Sm(B = 0.37-0.51). The proportions of positive tests, however, were significantly different among the three ELISAs. The poor agreement among the three ELISAs is as concerning as the fact that these tests have low sensitivity. The implications are greatest when the tests are used at the cow level to make individual animal decisions, which is not the recommended method on the product labels. At the cow level, if the result obtained from one ELISA is positive, using a different ELISA in a pre-clinical animal has a high likelihood of giving a different result due to low predictive values of positive test results.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, analytical kits, disease prevalence, disease detection, disease diagnosis, blood serum, tissue culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, field experimentation, screening, validity, statistical analysis, prediction, disease surveillance, veterinary medicine, North America, Canada, Maine, Europe.

Metzger Boddien, Christoph; Khaschabi, Daryush; Schoenbauer, Michael; Boddien, Sylvia; Schlederer, Thomas; Kehle, Johannes. Automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation-PCR for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bovine milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2006; 110(3): 201-208. ISSN: 0168-1605
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681605
NAL Call No.: QR115.I57
Descriptors: naturally infected dairy herds; bulk milk; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; detection tests development; two monoclonal antibody-mediated immunomagnetic separation PCR kits (AnDiaTec ParaTub-S (R) IMS-PCR-ELISA; ParaTub-SL (R) IMS-real time PCR); testing diagnostics for sensitivity, specificity, speed; acceptable costs; detection threshold levels; tests acceptible for screening for paratuberculosis pathogen.

Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Baldwin, Charles A. Preliminary pathologic findings in bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) and green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae collected from farm ponds in Tennessee. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. 2006; 13: 1-3.
Descriptors: bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, green frog, Rana clamitans, larvae, fresh water farm ponds, impact of farm runoff, ponds with and without cattle grazing, infected tadpoles, microbial diseases, larval pathology, parasites, diseases, disorders, tadpoles as vectors of disease, Iridovirus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium spp. Mycobacterium spp., Crossville, Tennessee, USA.

Miller, R.A.; Kaneene, J.B. Evaluation of historical factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection among wildlife in Michigan.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 67(4): 604-615. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
DOI: doi:10.2460/ajvr.67.4.604
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: cattle, deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, habitat destruction, history, starvation, tuberculosis, Michigan, USA.

Milne, E.; Scott, P. Cost-effective biochemistry and haematology in sheep. In Practice. 2006 Sept; 28(8): 454-456. ISSN: 0263-841X
URL: http://inpractice.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
Descriptors : sheep, ewes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, lambs, hematology, hematologic tests, hematocrit, serum albumin, globulins, trace elements, blood glucose, 3 hydroxybutyric acid, creatinine, body condition, fascioliasis, urinary calculi, paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis.

Morris , C.A. ; Hickey, S.M.; Henderson, H.V. The effect of Johne's disease on production traits in Romney, Merino and Merino x Romney-cross ewes.New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(5): 204-209. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: sheep, Romney, Merino breed, Merino x Romney crossbred-ewes, lamb size, lamb weight, effects of infection in Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, performance, age differences, body weight, breed differences, diagnosis, enteritis, fleece weight, lifetime performance, performance traits.

Motarjemi, Y; Adams, M. [Editors]. Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. Published by Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Cambridge , UK. 2006; xxii + 634 pp. ISBN: 9781855739635; 1855739631
Descriptors: emerging foodborne pathogens, animal and human diseases, zoonotic diseases, evolution of pathogens, risks, surveillance systems, individual pathogens described, characteristics, dectction, control measures, Arcobacter, Campylobacter, Trematoda, Eucestoda, Nematoda, Escherichia coli, hepatitis A and E viruses, prions, Vibrio, Yersinia, Listeria, Helicobacter pylori, Enterobacteriaceae, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Enterococcus.

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Janagama, Harish K.; Paustian, Michael L.; Zhu, Xiaochun; Bannantine, John P.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand. Comparative transcriptional analysis of human macrophages exposed to animal and human isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with diverse genotypes. Infection and Immunity. 2006; 74(11): 6046-6056. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in animals and has been hypothesized to be associated with Crohn's disease in humans. Recently, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from Crohn's disease patients were shown to have limited diversity, implying the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals (A. H. Ghadiali et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:5345-5348, 2004). To explore whether these genotypic differences or similarities among human and animal isolates translated to functionally significant attributes such as variance in host preference and/or difference in magnitude of infections, we performed a global scale analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates that were representative of different genotypes and host species using DNA microarrays. Genome-wide characterization of the transcriptional changes was carried out using a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) in response to different genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from various hosts. We identified several differentially expressed genes during early intracellular infection, including those involved in common canonical pathways such as NF-kappa B, interleukin-6 (IL-6), mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase signaling, as well as genes involved in T helper type 1 (Th1) responses (such as CCL5 ligand) and those that encode several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine receptors. The cattle and human isolates of M. avium subsp.paratuberculosis, regardless of their short sequence repeat (SSR) genotype, induced similar global gene expression patterns in THP-1 cells. They differentially regulated genes necessary for cell survival without causing major alterations in proinflammatory genes. In contrast, the sheep isolates representing diverse SSR genotypes closely resembled the global gene expression pattern of an M. avium subsp. avium isolate, and they significantly up-regulated proinflammatory genes related to IL-6, T-cell receptor, B-cell receptor, and death receptor signaling within THP-1 cells. Additionally, we demonstrated consistency among infecting genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from diverse hosts [cattle (n = 2), human (n = 3), sheep (n = 2), and bison (n = 1)] in quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of seven differentially expressed genes. While the levels of expression induced by the bison isolate were different compared with cattle or human isolates, they followed the common anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic trend. Our data suggest that the macrophage responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and human sources, regardless of genotype, follow a common theme of anti-inflammatory responses, an attribute likely associated with successful infection and persistence. However, these expression patterns differ significantly from those in THP-1 cells infected with sheep isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or the M. avium subsp. avium isolate. These data provide a transcriptional basis for a variety of pathophysiological changes observed during early stages of infection by different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a first step in understanding trait-allele association in this economically important disease.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosi, isolates from cattle, sheep, bison, human; early infection stages; pathophysiology, human macrophages.

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand. Current understanding of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Microbes and Infection. 2006; 8(5): 1406-1418. ISSN: 1286-4579
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12864579
NAL Call No.: QR180.M53
Descriptors: sheep; cattle; Johne’s disease; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; genetic diversity of pathogen; pathogen (i) mobile genetic elements, (ii) repetitive elements, (iii) single nucleotide polymorphisms, (iv) whole-genome comparisons; molecular epidemiology, advantages and disadvantages of each.

Mura, Manuela; Bull, Tim J.; Evans, Hugh; Sidi Boumedine, Karim; McMinn, Liz; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger; Hermon-Taylor, John. Replication and long-term persistence of bovine and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga.Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 72(1): 854-859. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Free-living protists are ubiquitous in the environment and form a potential reservoir for the persistence of animal and human pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease, a systemic infection accompanied by chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many animals, including primates. Most humans with Crohn's disease are infected with this chronic enteric pathogen. Subclinical infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in domestic livestock. Infected animals excrete large numbers of robust organisms into the environment, but little is known about their ability to replicate and persist in protists. In the present study we fed laboratory cultures of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with bovine and human strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Real-time PCR showed that the numbers of the pathogens fell over the first 4 to 8 days and recovered by 12 to 16 days. Encystment of the amoebic cultures after 4 weeks resulted in a 2-log reduction in the level of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which returned to the original level by 24 weeks. Extracts of resection samples of human gut from 39 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were fed to cultures of A. polyphaga. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detected by nested IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing and visualized by IS900 in situ hybridization and auramine-rhodamine staining was found in cultures derived from 13 of the patients and was still present in the cultures after almost 4 years of incubation. Control cultures were negative. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has the potential for long-term persistence in environmental protists.
Descriptors: humans, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain isolation, paratuberculosis, infection of Acanthamoebapolyphaga, cell division, protists as disease reservoirs.

Murphy, Judith T.; Sommer, Sandra; Kabara, Edward A.; Verman, Nitin; Kuelbs, Michael A.; Saama, Peter; Halgren, Robert; Coussens, Paul M. Gene expression profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages following infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Physiological Genomics. 2006; 28(1): 67-75 ISSN: 1094-8341
URL: http://physiolgenomics.physiology.org/
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, mature bovine monocyte-derived macrophages, infection affects, genes differentially express in infected cells of the two pathogens, comparative study, prolonged activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 by MAA, relative to MAP.

Navetat, H.; Schelcher, F. [Editor]. 24th World Buiatrics Congress, Nice, France, 15-19 October, 2006. World Association for Buiatrics. Paris, France. 2006. 531 p. ISBN: 2903623407. Note: 51 papers grouped in 5 general topics related to diseases and society, many diseases and disorders are mentioned, medicine and surgery, zoonotic disease, food safety, animal welfare, herd medicine, production techniques.
Descriptors: beef cattle,dairy cattle, animal diseases and conditions, Lyme disease, bovine mastitis, Johne’s disease, animal breeding, animal welfare, diarrhea, digestive disorders, disease vectors, parasites, protozoa infections, reproductive performance, milk production, respiratory diseases, lameness, diagnosis, epidemiology, testing, drug therapy, epidemiology, lipidosis, meat production, metabolic disorders, nutrient requirements, physiopathology, surgery, teaching, therapy, vaccination veterinary care, food safety, Anaplasma phagocytophila, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etc.

Nebbia, P.; Robino, P.; Zoppi, S.; De-Meneghi, D. Detection and excretion pattern of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of asymptomatic sheep and goats by Nested-PCR. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 Nov; 66(1-3): 116-120. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.07.049
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: IS900 Nested-PCR was applied to milk from asymptomatic sheep and goats known to have a history of Johne's disease in order to detect the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Experimental animals were from two MAP seropositive flocks (90 heads) in Piedmont, North-western Italy. During a 6-month period, milk samples were collected from 29 lambing and kidding animals (20 sheep and 9 goats, five milk collections per animal). MAP DNA was intermittently recovered in milk samples from 13 out of 29 animals (44.8% prevalence). MAP was particularly found in 9 out of 15 seropositive animals, and in 4 out of 14 seronegative. Sensitivity of Nested-PCR was assessed by analyzing a serial dilution of MAP DNA. Results suggest that sheep and goats' raw milk may represent a potential vehicle for transmitting MAP to off-springs. Control measures could be usefully applied to small ruminants as already used for cattle. Taking into account the possible link between MAP, Crohn's disease and consumption of raw milk products, it is suggested that there should be more careful collaboration in veterinary and public health services, livestock breeders and dairy producers, as well as improved diagnostic tools for routine tests.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, maternal milk, progeny, disease detection, raw milk, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, risk assessment, food pathogens, foodborne illness, goat cheese, zoonotic diseases, Crohn’s disease, human diseases, Italy.

Nielsen, S.S.; Ersbcill, A.K. Age at occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in naturally infected dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Dec; 89(12): 4557-4566. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants and other species caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Establishing test strategies for paratuberculosis will require insight into the temporal aspects of certainty with a given test. In this study, the age at which cows tested positive by ELISA and fecal culture (FC) was investigated by use of time-to-event analyses. The effects of herd, parity, and shedding group were evaluated at the age of test-positive ELISA and FC, respectively. Finally, the test frequency was investigated for the probability of cows being tested ELISA-positive. Milk and fecal samples were collected repeatedly over a 3-yr period from 1,776 Danish dairy cows from 8 herds. The milk samples were tested for the presence of antibodies by using an ELISA, and an FC test was used for detection of Map. Repeated ELISA testing detected 98 and 95% of cows classified as high and low shedders, respectively, suggesting that most infected cows develop antibodies. Among the high shedders, 50% were positive before 4.3 yr of age (quartiles 1 to 3: 3.4 to 5.7 yr of age). Repeated FC detected only 72% of the cows that were ELISA-positive, and 50% of the ELISA-positive cows were detected by FC at 7.6 yr of age. The age with the highest probability of testing positive was determined as the interval with the steepest slope in the survival probability plots. The highest probability of testing positive by ELISA was from 2.5 to 4.5 yr of age. The highest probability of testing positive by FC was from 2.5 to 5.5 yr of age. For both ELISA and FC, testing positive was highest in the first 300 d in milk. For cows younger than 4 yr of age, monthly testing with ELISA, compared with testing every 2 yr, could increase the probability of detecting cows with antibodies by 19%. In older cows, there were no apparent differences in the probability of testing positive by monthly sampling compared with sampling every second year. Therefore, for older animals the effect of more frequent sampling would be for early detection rather than to obtain additional information. Cows shedding high numbers of Map will produce antibodies, although not necessarily concomitantly with the shedding. These antibodies can be detected by ELISA with a test strategy that is different for younger and older cows. We suggest testing younger cows more frequently than older cows and that testing should be done prior to 350 d in milk.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, animal age, disease incidence, disease surveillance, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, feces, fecal sampling, parity-(reproduction), disease transmission, antibodies, early diagnosis, disease detection, pathogen shedding.

Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. Age-specific characteristics of ELISA and fecal culture for purpose-specific testing for paratuberculosis.Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Feb; 89(2): 569-579. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection, and animals are not equally affected by it. Therefore, diagnostic tests that are able to detect different stages of the infection are needed for objective decision making. A longitudinal study was carried out to describe the ability of 2 tests to predict 2 conditions in dairy cattle: "infection" and "infectious," exemplifying 2 different purposes of testing. "Infection" is the term of choice for certification and eradication purposes, and "infectious" is more relevant for control purposes. In the study period of 3 yr, repeated sampling of milk (n = 23,219) and feces (n = 8,832) was performed. A total of 1,985 Danish dairy cows provided material for the study. Milk samples were analyzed for antibodies using an ELISA, and fecal samples were analyzed for mycobacteria by culture. A reference test to correctly classify cattle antemortem does not exist; thus, "infection" and "infectious" were defined by repeated testing using one test as the condition to be detected by the other test. Fecal culture responses were evaluated against antibody status, and ELISA responses were evaluated against detected bacterial shedding. The results of this study indicate that the ability of both tests to detect "infection" increases almost linearly from 2 to 5 yr of age, whereas the ability of both tests to detect "infectious" is not affected by age. Purpose-specific tests are required to appropriately interpret and use test results for management of paratuberculosis, and relevant covariates, such as age, should be included when possible.
Descriptors: dairy cows, bacterial shedding, antibody detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal age, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, Denmark.

O' Brien, R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.; Kopecna, M.; Pavlik, I.; Griffin, J.F.T. Immunological and molecular characterization of susceptibility in relationship to bacterial strain differences in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 June; 74(6): 3530-3537. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) infection, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, represents a major disease problem in farmed ruminants. Although JD has been well characterized in cattle and sheep, little is known of the infection dynamics or immunological response in deer. In this study, typing of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from intestinal lymphatic tissues from 74 JD-infected animals showed that clinical isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from New Zealand farmed red deer were exclusively of the bovine strain genotype. The susceptibility of deer to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was further investigated by experimental oral-route infection studies using defined isolates of virulent bovine and ovine M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Oral inoculation with high (10[superscript 9] CFU/animal) or medium (10[superscript 7] CFU/animal) doses of the bovine strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis established 100% infection rates, compared to 69% infection following inoculation with a medium dose of the ovine strain. The high susceptibility of deer to the bovine strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was confirmed by a 50% infection rate following experimental inoculation with a low dose of bacteria (10[superscript 3] CFU/animal). This study is the first to report experimental M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in red deer, and it outlines the strong infectivity of bovine-strain M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates for cervines.
Descriptors: farmed ruminants, infected red deer, Cervus elaphus, bovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dynamics of infection, experimental inoculation with 10 3CFU, strong infectivity of strain.

Olson, K.E. Producer focused Johne's information.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, producer oriented information resources, educational resources, disease monitoring, epidemiology, production systems, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Europs, Japan, North America.

Park, K.T.; Ahn, J.; Davis, W.C.; Koo, H.C.; Kwon, N.H.; Jung, W.K.; Kim, J.M.; Hong, S.K.; Park, Y.H. Analysis of the seroprevalence of bovine paratuberculosis and the application of modified absorbed ELISA to field sample testing in Korea.Journal of Veterinary Science. 2006 Dec; 7(4): 349-354. ISSN: 1229-845X
URL: http://www.ksvs.or.kr
NAL Call No.: SF604.J68
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a major disease problem worldwide, and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. Although PTB has been reported in Korea, no studies have been conducted to determine its prevalence and no program has been developed to control the disease. In this study, the sera of beef (n=1,056) and dairy cattle (n=1,105) from all provinces in Korea were tested to determine the prevalence of PTB using two different ELISA: an 'in house' modified absorbed ELISA (P-ELISA) based on sonicated antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698, and a commercial ELISA (C-ELISA). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the cutoff point for P-ELISA. Based on C-ELISA results, the area under the curve for P-ELISA was 0.913 (95% CI, 0.883 to 0.943). Using a cutoff point of 0.100, P-ELISA showed a sensitivity of 62.0% and a specificity of 93.7%. The kappa value and the percent agreement between the two ELISAs were 0.322 and 92.5%, respectively. Both ELISAs showed a significant correlation between age and seropositivity (p<0.01). According to C-ELISA, 71 of 2,161 sera (3.3%, 95 CI, 2.6% to 4.1%) were test-positive. The national true prevalence of PTB was estimated to be 7.1%. The findings suggest that a control program should be implemented to limit the spread of this disease, and that P-ELISA could be used as a screening test that produces results similar to C-ELISA. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, antibody detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, animal age, Korea Republic.

Patel, Dilip; Danelishvili, Lia; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Alonso, Marta; Paustian, Michael L.; Bannantine, John P.; Meunier Goddik, Lisbeth; Bermudez, Luiz E. The ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to enter bovine epithelial cells is influenced by preexposure to a hyperosmolar environment and intracellular passage in bovine mammary epithelial cells.Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 May; 74(5): 2849-2855. ISSN: 1098-5522
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of the bovine host is not well understood; however, it is assumed that crossing the bovine intestinal mucosa is important in order for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to establish infection. To examine the ability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to infect bovine epithelial cells in vitro, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells were exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. It was observed that bacteria can establish infection and replicate within MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis also has been reported to infect mammary tissue and milk, and we showed that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line). Using polarized MAC-T cell monolayers, it was also determined that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis crosses apical and basolateral surfaces with approximately the same degree of efficiency. Because M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be delivered to the naive host by milk, it was investigated whether incubation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with milk has an effect on invasion of MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to milk entered epithelial cells with greater efficiency than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to broth medium or water (P < 0.01). Growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within MAC-T cells also resulted in augmented ability to subsequently infect bovine MDBK cells (P < 0.001). Microarray analysis of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis RNA indicates the increased transcription of genes which might be associated with an invasive phenotype.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, infection related factors, ability to cross intestinal mucosa, infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney epithelial cells in vitro, bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line), effect of prior exposure to milk, transcription of genes.

Paustian, M.L.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Lippolis, J.D.; Stabel, J.R.; Bannantine, J.P. Identification of differences in the protein content of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis purified protein derivative preparations with different skin test specificities. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strain ATCC 19698, strain Johnin 0202, skin testing,differences in protein content, diagnositic techniques, protein derivative synthesis, lipid synthesis, degradation.

Pence, M. Georgia Johne's disease demonstration herd.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132-133. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: beef cattle, new borns, adults, demonstration herd, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, infection rates, sanitation, environmental contamination, epidemiology, population studies, diagnostic methods and techniques, Georgia.

Perry, G.H.; Vivanco, H.; Holmes, I.; Gwozdz, J.M.; Bourne, J. No evidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in in vitro produced cryopreserved embryos derived from subclinically infected cows. Theriogenology. 2006 Sept 15; 66(5): 1267-1273. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.02.052
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: The aim of the project was to ascertain if Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) could be cultured from frozen-thawed in vitro produced (IVP) embryos derived from cows with subclinical Johne's disease (JD). Straws of 109 IVP embryos were obtained from 267 cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) collected from 12 clinically normal cows in which antibodies against Map were detected in blood by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These embryos were processed, washed using the standard protocol as described by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) and frozen in a commercial IVP embryo laboratory. Of the 12 donor cows, 11 had histopathological or bacteriological evidence of infection at post-mortem inspection. The frozen embryos were thawed and the contents of the straws were cultured using the radiometric mycobacterial culture method. No Map was detected in any of the 109 embryos or freezing media. This suggests that the use of in vitro produced and cryopreserved embryos derived from cows with subclinical JD poses very low, if any, risk of spreading infection to susceptible animals.
Descriptors : dairy cows, serodiagnosis, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, latent period, animal embryos, embryo culture, cryopreservation of embryos, disease transmission via commercial invitro produced embryos, Australia.

Pickup, R.W.; Rhodes, G.; Bull, T.J.; Arnott, S.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Hurley, M.; Hermon Taylor, J. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lake catchments, in river water abstracted for domestic use, and in effluent from domestic sewage treatment works: Diverse opportunities for environmental cycling and human exposure.Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 June; 72(6): 4067-4077. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. We studied the River Tywi in South Wales, United Kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km[superscript 2] containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. The River Tywi is abstracted for the domestic water supply. Between August 2002 and April 2003, 48 of 70 (68.8%) twice-weekly river water samples tested positive by IS900 PCR. In river water, the organisms were associated with a suspended solid which was depleted by the water treatment process. Disposal of contaminated slurry back onto the land established a cycle of environmental persistence. A concentrate from 100 liters of finished water tested negative, but 1 of 54 domestic cold water tanks tested positive, indicating the potential for these pathogens to access domestic outlets. In the separate English Lake District region, with hills up to 980 m, tests for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the high hill lakes and sediments were usually negative, but streams and sediments became positive lower down the catchment. Sediments from 9 of 10 major lakes receiving inflow from these catchments were positive, with sediment cores indicating deposition over at least 40 to 50 years. Two of 12 monthly 1-liter samples of effluent and a single 100-liter sample from the Ambleside sewage treatment works were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Since Lake Ambleside discharges into Lake Windermere, which is available for domestic supply, there is a potential for these organisms to cycle within human populations.
Descriptors: infected animals, fecal runoff, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pasture contamination, agricultural watersheds, water pollution, bacterial contamination, surface water, rivers, sewage effluent, sediment contamination, lakes, water treatment, drinking water, water resources, epidemiology, Wales, England.

Pittius, N.C.G. van; Sampson, S.L.; Lee, HyeYoung; Kim, Yeun; Helden, P.D. van; Warren, R.M. Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2006; 6(95): (15 November 2006)
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-6-95.pdf
Abstracts: Background: The PE and PPE multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis comprise about 10% of the coding potential of the genome. The function of the proteins encoded by these large gene families remains unknown, although they have been proposed to be involved in antigenic variation and disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, some members of the PE and PPE families are associated with the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, which are regions of immunopathogenic importance, and encode a system dedicated to the secretion of members of the potent T-cell antigen ESAT-6 family. This study investigates the duplication characteristics of the PE and PPE gene families and their association with the ESAT-6 gene clusters, using a combination of phylogenetic analyses, DNA hybridization, and comparative genomics, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary history and distribution in the genus Mycobacterium. Results: The results showed that the expansion of the PE and PPE gene families is linked to the duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, and that members situated in and associated with the clusters represent the most ancestral copies of the two gene families. Furthermore, the emergence of the repeat protein PGRS and MPTR subfamilies is a recent evolutionary event, occurring at defined branching points in the evolution of the genus Mycobacterium. These gene subfamilies are thus present in multiple copies only in the members of the complex and close relatives. The study provides a complete analysis of all the PE and PPE genes found in the sequenced genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium such as M. smegmatis, M. aviumparatuberculosis, M. leprae, M. ulcerans, and M. tuberculosis. Conclusion: This work provides insight into the evolutionary history for the PE and PPE gene families of the mycobacteria, linking the expansion of these families to the duplications of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, and showing that they are composed of subgroups with distinct evolutionary (and possibly functional) differences.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium family, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium ulcerans, phylogeny, gemone analysis, evolution genes, multigene families, nucleotide sequences.

Platt, R.; Roth, J.A.; Royer, R.L.; Thoen, C.O. Monitoring responses by use of five-color flow cytometry in subsets of peripheral T cells obtained from cattle inoculated with a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis vaccine. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 Dec; 67(12): 2050-2058. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: cattle, food animals, animal ages, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, flow cytometry, T lymphocytes, inactivated vaccines, vaccination, bacterial antigens, immune response, cell mediated immunity, bioassays, interferons.

Radosevich, T.J.; Stabel, J.R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Lippolis, J.D.; Reinhardt, T.A. Proteome and differential expression analysis of membrane and cytosolic proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains K10 and 187. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strains K10 and K 187, proteoms, membrane proteins, cytosolic prteins, RpmD regulation, MAP2433 regulations, Tuf regulation, DesA1 regulation, differential expression analysis, lab techniques.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Fetrow, J.; Friendshuh, K; Oakes, J.M. Characterization of Minnesota dairy herds participating in a Johne's disease control program and evaluation of the program risk assessment tool. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 July 17; 75(1-2): 22-33. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.01.012
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herd health, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiological studies, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorben assay, ELISA, blood serum, disease control, risk assessment, validity, dairy farm management, herd size, milk production, disease control programs, program evaluation, culling diseased animals, Minnesota.

Raizman, E.A.; Fetrow, J.; Godden, S.M.; Wells, S.J. The impact of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis fecal shedding and clinical Johne's disease on lactation performance. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle,infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s effects on lactation, fecal shedding, milk production.

Rajeev, S.; Shulaw, W.; Berghaus, R.; Zhang, Y.; Byrum, B. A testing scheme for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine feces utilizing the ESP Para-JEM liquid culture system. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Nov; 18(6): 529-535. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, feces, disease detection, pathogen identification, diagnostic techniques, real time polymerase chain reaction, PCR, culture media.

Rajukumar, K.; Tripathi, B.N.; Kurade, N.P.; Parihar, N.S. A dot-enzyme immunoassay for large scale screening of sera for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2006; 29(1): 49-52. ISSN: 0971-2119
Abstract: A simple and effective dot-enzyme immunoassay procedure for large scale screening of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated using sequential sera from goats experimentally infected with M. a. paratuberculosis. Field evaluation of the test was carried out on 168 serum samples from three goat flocks. The diagnostic value of the dot-EIA was comparable to that of plate ELISA. The sensitivities and specificities for the dot-EIA were found to be 65.6% and 92.9% and for plate ELISA 78% and 89%, respectively. Significant differences were not found in the positive and negative predictive values of both tests. The test design is suitable for screening of sera for antibodies to M. a. paratuberculosis at the field level.
Descriptors: goats, experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dot-ELISA, sensitivity and specificity of test, screening of sera, field testing.

Reddacliff, L.; Eppleston, J.; Windsor, P.; Whittington, R.; Jones, S. Efficacy of a killed vaccine for the control of paratuberculosis in Australian sheep flocks. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 June 15; 115(1-3): 77-90. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.12.021
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: A field trial was undertaken from 1999 until 2004 to determine the efficacy of a killed M. a. paratuberculosis vaccine, Gudair, for the control of ovine Johne's disease (OJD) in merino sheep run under Australian pastoral conditions. On each of three farms experiencing significant OJD losses (5-15% per annum), 200 merino lambs (age 1-4 months) were vaccinated, and 200 lambs were left unvaccinated. Animal assessments and sample collections were conducted twice yearly until 4 or 5 years of age. The impact of vaccination on mortality rate, faecal shedding of M. a. paratuberculosis (by pooled and individual faecal culture), liveweight, wool productivity, vaccine injection site lesions and cellular (BOVIGAM) and humoral (PARACHEK) immunity was examined. Vaccination stimulated cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, reduced mortalities due to OJD by 90% and delayed faecal shedding for the first year post-vaccination. Thereafter, the prevalence of shedders among vaccinates was reduced by 90%. The numbers of M. a. paratuberculosis excreted by the vaccinated groups were also reduced by at least 90% at most sampling times. However, high levels of excretion by vaccinates occurred on some occasions, and although only 7 of 600 vaccinates died from OJD, all 7 had multibacillary lesions. Thus there remains a risk that some vaccinated sheep will transfer the disease. Small reductions in liveweight were found in vaccinated lambs in the first year, but there was little effect on wool production. Vaccine injection site lesions were detected in almost 50% of sheep after 2 months, and these persisted for at least 4 years in 20-25% of vaccinates. Data from this trial enabled the registration of Gudair in Australia in 2002 and underpins the pivotal role of vaccination in the current management of OJD.
Descriptors: Merino sheep, sheep diseases, flock health,inactivated vaccines, disease control, paratuberculosis, field experimentation, vaccination, immune response, Australia.

Rigden, Rachael C.; Jandhyala, Dakshina M.; Dupont, Chris; Crosbie Caird, Dianna; Lopez Villalobos, Nicolas; Maeda, Norihiro; Gicque, Brigitte; Murray, Alan. Humoral and cellular immune responses in sheep immunized with a 22 kilodalton exported protein of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2006; 55(12): 1735-1740. ISSN: 0022-2615
URL: http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
Abstract: An immunogenic 22 kilodalton exported Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) lipoprotein (P22) was previously identified, and found to belong to the LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins. N-terminal polyhistidine-tagged P22 was produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Antibody recognition of P22, and interferon-gamma (IFN- gamma ) responses in vitro using blood from a sheep vaccinated with Neoparasec, confirmed its immunogenicity. To evaluate the immunogenicity of P22 in vivo, five sheep were immunized with a single dose containing 0.8 mg recombinant P22 protein in adjuvant. Blood was collected at 4, 13 and 29 weeks post-immunization (p.i.) and tested for anti-P22 antibodies and P22-specific IFN- gamma production. P22-specific antibodies were detected by Western blot analysis in all five Neoparasec-immunized sheep at the three time points. Three out of five P22-immunized sheep produced P22-specific antibodies for up to 13 weeks p.i., and two gave a response at 29 weeks p.i. Recombinant P22 was able to stimulate significant IFN- gamma production in blood of P22-immunized sheep at 13 and 29 weeks p.i. Recombinant P22 also elicited an IFN- gamma response in blood of sheep immunized with Neoparasec.
Descriptors: New Romney sheep, Escherichia coli strain XL 1 Blue, strain BL 21 CodonPlus- (DE3-)RP, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain 316F, humoral immune response, cellular immune response, LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins, immunogenicity of recombinant P22 protein, antibody testing, vaccination with Neoparasec, IFN gamma production, serum testing.

Ristow, Paula; Silva, Marlei Gomes; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Lilenbaum, Walter. Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis faecal culture protocols and media. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 2006; 26(1): 1-4. ISSN: 0100-736X
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0100-736X&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: cattle, herds, serological surveys, isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, in vitro culture, 3 formulations of Herrold’s egg yolk agar with mycobactinj, 4 fecal culture protocols, centrifugation protocol and HEYM of OIE best, Brazil.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Stabel, J.R.; Palmer, M.V. Evaluation of the gamma interferon ELISA in sheep subclinically infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a whole-cell sonicate or a johnin purified-protein derivative.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Mar; 18(2): 189-194. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, interferons, disease diagnosis, infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, microbial detection, diagnostic techniques, bacterial antigens, antibody detection, cell mediated immunity, subclinical infection, whole cell sonicate, purified protein derivatives, gamma interferon.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Krull, A.C.; Stabel, J.R. Time delay, temperature effects and assessment of positive controls on whole blood for the gamma interferon ELISA to detect paratuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine –Zentralblatt feur Veterinearmedizin Reihe B. 2006 June; 53(5): 213-217. ISSN: 0931-1793
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00944.x
Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of time and temperature on whole blood used in the gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IFN-[gamma] ELISA) for paratuberculosis along with evaluating four potential positive controls, and four different mycobacterial antigens for the ELISA. Nine adult Holstein cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis were used in a randomized complete block design. Forty-nine blood tubes were collected from each animal and held at 48.9, 37.8, 26.7, 21.1, 15.6 and 4.4AC for 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 72 h. Each blood tube was tested with four mycobacterial antigens (two johnin PPDs, an avain PPD and a whole cell sonicate) and four potential positive controls [concanavalin A (conA), phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA)]. After incubation for 24 h, the plasma was assayed with a commercial IFN-[gamma] ELISA. Blood stored at 21.1 and 15.6AC maintained the highest ELISA optical densities (OD) over time with severe reduction in OD values at or above 37.8AC. None of the potential positive controls exactly mimicked the antigen response. SEA and PWM were able to elicit a response after the whole blood quit responding to the antigen and conA underestimated the responsiveness. Phytohemagglutinin A was similar to the antigens on an average, but there was significant disagreement among samples. The PPDs were more potent at stimulating IFN-[gamma] production than the whole cell sonicate. In conclusion, whole blood should be stored/transported at ambient room temperature and stimulated within 12 h of collection.
Descriptors: Holstein cattle,infected withMycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, whole blood testing, ELISA, effects of storage and transport parameters—time and temperature, detection methods.

Robbe Austerman, Suelee; Gardner, Ian A.; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Morrical, Daniel G.; Martin, Barbara M.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thoene, Charles O.; Ewing, Chad. Sensitivity and specificity of the agar-gel-immunodiffusion test, ELISA and the skin test for detection of paratuberculosis in United States Midwest sheep populations. Veterinary Research (Les Ulis). 2006; 37(4): 553-564. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.vetres.org/content/view/104/116/lang,en/
NAL Call No. SF602.A5
Descriptors: sheep, 14 flocks, infected and non-infected, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, skin testing, blood sampling, agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), ELISA, comparison study of methods, sensitivity and specificity of tests, Bayesian 3 test and 1-population model fitted in WinBugs, USA.

Rocca, S.; Sanna, M.P.; Farigu, S.; Leoni, A.; Nieddu, A.M.; Pirino, S.; Appino, S. Map lesions: In situ investigation on samples of multibacillar and paucibacillar ovine PTBC. Veterinary Research Communications. 2006; 30(Suppl. 1): 265-268. ISSN: 0165-7380
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0165-7380
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Descriptors : sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, lesions, organ sampling, pathogen sampling.

Rock, K.E.; Secott, T.E. Effect of oxygen depletion and conditioned media on the recovery in culture of dormant Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 297. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s pathogen, in vitro culturing, pathogen in dormant state.

Rosseels, Valaerie; Roupie, Virginie; Zinniel, Denise; Barletta, Raaul G.; Huygen, Kris. Development of luminescent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis for rapid screening of vaccine candidates in mice. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 June; 74(6): 3684-3686. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a slowly growing mycobacterial species, requiring 6 to 8 weeks of culture before colonies can be counted visually. Here, we describe the development of luminescent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis expressing luxAB genes of Vibrio harveyi and its use for vaccine testing in an experimental mouse model, replacing fastidious CFU counting by rapid luminometry.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, luminescent test, luxAB genes of Vibrio harveyi, vaccine testing, replacement for CFU counting.

Rosseels, Valerie; Marche, Sylvie; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Godfroid, Jacques; Walravens, Karl; Huygen, Kris. Members of the 30- to 32-Kilodalton mycolyl transferase family (Ag85) from culture filtrate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis are immunodominant Th1-Type antigens recognized early upon infection in mice and cattle. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 Jan; 74(1): 202-212. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: The characterization of protective antigens is essential for the development of an effective, subunit-based vaccine against paratuberculosis. Surface-exposed and secreted antigens, present abundantly in mycobacterial culture filtrate (CF), are among the well-known protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Culture filtrate, prepared from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698 grown as a surface pellicle on synthetic Sauton medium, was strongly and early recognized in experimentally infected B6 bg/bg beige mice and cattle, as indicated by elevated spleen cell gamma interferon (IFN-[gamma]) secretion and lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Strong proliferative and ex vivo IFN-[gamma] responses against antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (a major protein component from M. bovis BCG culture filtrate) could be detected in cattle as early as 10 weeks after oral M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Synthetic peptides from the Ag85A and Ag85B components of this complex were strongly recognized, whereas T-cell responses were weaker against peptides from the Ag85C protein. A promiscuous T-cell epitope spanning amino acids 145 to 162 of Ag85B (identical sequence in M. bovis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) was identified in experimentally infected cattle. Finally, young calves, born from cows with confirmed paratuberculosis, demonstrated proliferative responses to purified, recombinant Ag85A and Ag85B from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results indicate that the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis Ag85 homologues are immunodominant T-cell antigens that are recognized early in experimental and natural infection of cattle.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, sub-unit-based vaccine, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Ag85 protein, Ag85 homologues, immunodominant T cell antigens, experimental and natural infections.


Rowe, J.D. Control programmes for chronic goat diseases. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 290-293.
URL :http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: goats, goat diseases, disease prevalence, scrapie, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasmamycoides subsp mycoides, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, prion diseases, viral shedding, chronic course, disease control programs, culling of infected animals, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, milk heat treatment, pasteurization.

Rowe, M.T.; Grant, I.R. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and its potential survival tactics.Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2006 Apr; 42(4): 305-311. ISSN: 0266-8254. Note: Literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01873.x
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) is an important animal pathogen with a potential, but as yet unproven, role in human disease. This review briefly describes the characteristics of Map that distinguish it from other Mycobacterium spp., presenting new information arising from completion of the sequencing of the Map genome. It then focuses on the potential mechanisms Map might employ to survive and disseminate in the environment, including interaction with protozoa and insects, dormancy, biofilm formation and aerosolization.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, enteropathogen, microbial genetics, genomics, pathogen survival, disease transmission, disease vectors, paratuberculosis, animal diseases.

Ruzante, J.M.; Smith, W.L.; Gardner, I.A.; Thornton, C.G.; Cullor, J.S. Modified culture protocol for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from raw milk. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2006; 3(4): 457-460.
URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/fpd.2006.3.457
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium complex, culture techniques for raw milk, screening and detection method, detection, milk, egg yolk, eggs, enzymes.

Sajid, M.S.; Iqbal, Z.; Muhammad, G.; Iqbal, M.U. Immunomodulatory effect of various anti-parasitics: a review. Parasitology. 2006; 132(Part 3): 301-313. ISSN: 0031-1820
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=PAR
Abstract: This paper reviews the immunomodulatory effects (immunosuppression or immunoactivation) of various anthelmintics including levamisole, fenvalerate, dieldrin, carbofuron, aminocarb, thiabendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole and ivermectin. The induced modulation of immune function may occur via direct and/or indirect mechanisms. The immunomodulatory effects of these anti-parasitics have been studied in a variety of bacterial (e.g. brucellois, salmonellosis, paratuberculosis, mastitis), viral (e.g. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Herpes, foot and mouth disease, parasitic (e.g. onchocerciasis, coccidiosis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis) and neoplastic diseases. Some antiparasitics have also been used to boost immunity in a number of human diseases including leprosy, Hodgekin's disease, rhumatoid arthritis, and in adjuvanted therapy of colerectal cancer. The ability to stimulate the immune response of animals offers a new means of disease intervention. Future research on immunomodulatory effects of anti-parasitics, for humans and domestic farm animals, will provide additional methods of treating immunosuppressed subjects. The immunopotentiating or immunosuppressing activity of anti-parasitics will dictate whether co-administration of vaccines and anthelmintics or administration of vaccine during the window of immunoactivation is justified or not.
Descriptors: animals, humans, immunomodulation, immunosupression, immunoactivation, of antihelmintics, anti-parasitics, affects on various bacterial pathogens,

Savuta, G.; Matei, I.; Murat, S.; Anita, D. Epidemiologia paratuberculozei rumegatoarelor in Romania. [The epidemiology of ruminants paratuberculosis in Romania.]Lucrai Stiinifice Medicina Veterinara, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iasi. 2006; 49(8): 845-849. ISSN: 1454-7406. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Descriptors : cattle, goats, sheep, disease prevalence, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Schaik, G. van; Haro, F.; Mella, A.; Kruze, J. Test validation of a commercial ELISA to detect paratuberculosis in dairy herds of Southern Chile. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Exeter, UK, 29-31 March 2006. 2006: 141-151. ISBN: 0948073748. Note: Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A.M. [Editors]. Published by the Society, Roslin, UK.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, paratuberculosis disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, serum testing, fecal testing, ELISA testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, statistical analysis, Bayesian theory, mathematical models, Chile.

Schonenbrucher, H.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M. Real Time-PCR zum Nachweis des Erregers der Paratuberkulose. [Real Time-PCR-assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Development and validation.] Fleischwirtschaft. 2006; 86(9): 123-125. ISSN: 0015-363X. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.fleischwirtschaft.de
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, seroprevalance, herd prevalence rates, Real Time-PCR-assay combines oligonucleotides, two MAP-marker genes "ISMav2", "F57", internal amplification control (IAC), potential for routine diagnosis, Germany.

Scott, H.M.; Sorensen, O.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Chow, E.Y.W.; Manninen, K.; VanLeeuwen, J.A. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Bovine leukemia virus, and Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in Alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivity. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Oct; 47(10): 981-991. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English and French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, neosporosis, bovine leukemia virus, enzootic bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine respiratory disease, bovine viral diarrhea, seroprevalence, agroecological risk factors, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, heifers, soil water, arid lands, soil pH, Alberta, Canada.

Sechi, Leonardo A.; Ahmed, Niyaz; Felis, Giovanna E.; Dupre, Earia; Cannas, Sara; Fadda, Giovanni; Bua, Alessandra; Zanetti, Stefania. Immunogenicity and cytoadherence of recombinant heparin binding haemagglutinin (HBHA) of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis: Functional promiscuity or a role in virulence?Vaccine. 2006; 24(3): 236-243. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Descriptors: cattle, humans, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, analysis of species-specific proteins, pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases, the recombinant heprin binding, hemagglutinin of MAP complex bacilli, host humoral responses, adherent to Caco2 cell lines in vitro, virulence mechanisms.

Sechi, L.A.; Mara, L.; Cappai, P.; Frothingam, R.; Ortu, S.; Leoni, A.; Ahmed, N.; Zanetti, S. Immunization with DNA vaccines encoding different mycobacterial antigens elicits a Th1 type immune response in lambs and protects against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Vaccine. 2006; 24(3): 229-235. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Descriptors: sheep; Sarda lambs; paratuberculosis; Johne's disease; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; experimental infection; oral dosing with live MAP; DNA vaccinations; 3 different mycobacterial antigens in cloned mammalian expression vector; fusion protein with enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-N1); evaluate type of immune response; various vaccination regimines: 1) physiological solution; 2) Gudair (TM), 3) p-85A-Mav; 4) p-85A-BCG; 5) p-Hsp65).

Semret, M.; Turenne, C.Y.; Behr, M.A. Insertion sequence IS900 revisited.Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006; 44(3): 1081-1083. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: Many studies investigating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease have used molecular detection of IS900 in clinical samples, but some have described polymorphisms in IS900 as variants of this organism. Analysis of 23 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates revealed that IS900 is highly conserved, with only two sequevars distinguishing sheep and cattle lineages. Amplification of IS900-like sequences is not sufficient as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, humans, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, IS900, Crohn’s disease, zoonotic diseases, nucleotide sequences, transposable elements.

Semret, Makeda; Turenne, Christine Y.; de Haas, Petra; Collins, Desmond M;. Behr, Marcel A. Differentiating host-associated variants of Mycobacterium avium by PCR for detection of large sequence polymorphisms. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006 Mar; 44(3): 881-887. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: The Mycobacterium avium species consists of a group of organisms that are genetically related but phenotypically diverse, with certain variants presenting clear differences in terms of their host association and disease manifestations. The ability to distinguish between these subtypes is of relevance for accurate diagnosis and for control programs. Using a comparative genomics approach, we have uncovered large sequence polymorphisms that are, respectively, absent from bird-type M. avium isolates and from cattle types and sheep types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. By evaluating the distribution of these genomic polymorphisms across a panel of strains, we were able to assign unique genomic signatures to these host-associated variants. We propose a simple PCR-based strategy based on these polymorphisms that can rapidly type M. avium isolates into these subgroups.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, genetic testing, large sequence polymorphisms, comparative genomics, genomic uniqueness, PCR-based strategy for rapid typing.

Shin, Sung Jae; Wu, Chia wei; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M. Identification of novel virulence determinants in Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by screening a library of insertional mutants.Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 July; 74(7): 3825-3833. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection, is a worldwide problem for the dairy industry and has a possible involvement in Crohn's disease in humans. To identify virulence determinants of this economically important pathogen, a library of 5,060 transposon mutants was constructed using Tn5367 insertion mutagenesis, followed by large-scale sequencing to identify disrupted genes. In this report, 1,150 mutants were analyzed and 970 unique insertion sites were identified. Sequence analysis of the disrupted genes indicated that the insertion of Tn5367 was more prevalent in genomic regions with G+C content (50.5 to 60.5%) lower than the average G+C content (69.3%) of the rest of the genome. Phenotypic screening of the library identified disruptions of genes involved in iron, tryptophan, or mycolic acid metabolic pathways that displayed unique growth characteristics. Bioinformatic analysis of disrupted genes identified a list of potential virulence determinants for further testing with animals. Mouse infection studies showed a significant decrease in tissue colonization by mutants with a disruption in the gcpE, pstA, kdpC, papA2, impA, umaA1, or fabG2_2 gene. Attenuation phenotypes were tissue specific (e.g., for the umaA1 mutant) as well as time specific (e.g., for the impA mutant), suggesting that those genes may be involved in different virulence mechanisms. The identified potential virulence determinants represent novel functional classes that could be necessary for mycobacterial survival during infection and could provide suitable targets for vaccine and drug development against Johne's and Crohn's diseases.
Descriptors: dairy industry;Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection; worldwide problem; possible cause of Crohn's disease; zoonotic disease; humans.virulenct determinants; 5,060 transposon mutants; constructed Tn5367 insertion mutagenesis; unique site identified; gene disruptions in: gcpE, pstA, kdpC, papA2, impA, umaA1, or fabG2_2; possible targets for vaccine and drug development.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Makharia, G.; Naser, S.A.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Crohn's disease and Johne's disease: a comparison with reference to national and international perspective and public health significance. Intas Polivet. 2006; 7(2): 275-300. ISSN: 0972-1738
Abstract: This paper reviews the present perspective of Johne's disease (JD) and Crohn's disease (CD) both nationally ( India) and internationally, with reference to their public health significance. The production losses brought about by JD worldwide, the economic impact of CD and the prevalence of both diseases are presented. The clinical features, histopathological lesions, diagnosis, control and prevention of JD and CD are discussed.
Descriptors: ruminants, buffaloes, sheep, goats, cattle, humans, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, host range, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, prevalence of both diseases, production and economic losses, dairy products, possible zoonotic aspects, inflammatory bowel disease, clinical picture, disease progression, immunity, immunological reactions, serological diagnosis, chemotherapy, animal disease control, culling of infected animals, drug therapy, vaccination, public health concerns, contaminated animal-based products, India, worldwide.

Sivakumar, P.; Tripathi, B.N.; Singh, N.; Sharma, A.K. Pathology of naturally occurring paratuberculosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).Veterinary Pathology. 2006 July; 43(4): 455-462. ISSN: 0300-9858
URL: http://vet.sagepub.com/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P28
Abstract: Gross and histologic lesions of paratuberculosis were studied in water buffaloes. Small intestines and associated mesenteric lymph nodes of 405 water buffaloes were examined. Of these, 20 animals having visible changes of intestinal thickening, mucosal corrugations, and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes exhibited histologic alteration characteristics of mild to moderate granulomatous inflammation. The histologic lesions observed in these animals were classified into 3 grades on the basis of type of cellular infiltration, granuloma formation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli. Grade-1 lesions observed in 8 animals were marked by the presence of scattered epithelioid macrophages amid large number of lymphocytes in the intestinal villi and in the paracortical regions of the associated mesenteric lymph nodes. Another 8 animals classified under grade-2 revealed microgranulomas, infiltration with a larger number of epithelioid macrophages besides lymphocytes in the intestinal villi, and granulomas in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Grade-3 lesions observed in 4 animals were characterized by the presence of epithelioid granulomas and giant cells in the intestines and the mesenteric lymph nodes. The Ziehl-Neelsen's stained tissue sections revealed acid-fast bacilli in grade-3 and -2 animals and acid-fast granular debris in grade-1 animals. Among these 20 buffaloes, 14 (70%) were positive in the IS900 specific polymerase chain reaction and 6 (30%) were positive in the bacterial culture.
Descriptors: water buffalo, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease course, disease resistance, histopathology, disease prevalence, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, India.

Skovgaard, K.; Grell, S.N.; Heegaard, P.M.H.; Jungersen, G.; Pudrith, C.B.; Coussens, P.M. Differential expression of genes encoding CD30L and P-selectin in cattle with Johne's disease: Progress toward a diagnostic gene expression signature. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006 Aug 15; 112(3-4): 210-224. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.02.006
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (paraTB) or Johne's disease in ruminants, is a health problem for the global cattle industry with significant economic losses related to decreased milk production and reduced fertility. Commonly paraTB in cattle is diagnosed by antibody detection by serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by detection of the pathogen by cultivation of individual faecal samples, or by in vitro measurement of cell mediated immune responses using the IFN-(Sd(B test. There is an ongoing need for developing new diagnostic approaches as all currently available diagnostic tests for paraTB may fail to detect sub-clinical infection. We used cDNA microarrays to simultaneously measure expression of over 1300 host genes to help identify a subset of gene expression changes that might provide a unique gene expression signature for paraTB infection. In the present study, non-stimulated leukocytes isolated from 10 sub-clinical paraTB infected cows were examined for genes being expressed at significantly different levels than in similar cells from control cows with the same herd background. We included cattle (Holstein) from two locations ( Denmark and USA) for the microarray experiment. Our results indicate that expression profiles of at least 52 genes are different in leukocytes from M. paratuberculosis infected cattle compared to control cattle. Gene expression differences were verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) on the same group of cattle ( Holstein) used for the microarray experiment. In order to assess the generality of the observed gene expression, a second and different group of cattle ( Jersey) was also examined using qRT-PCR. Out of the seven genes selected for qRT-PCR, CD30 ligand (CD30L) and P-selectin were consistently differentially expressed in freshly isolated leukocytes from paraTB infected and control animals of both breeds of cattle. Although further work is clearly needed to develop a more complete gene expression signature specific for paraTB, our results demonstrate that a subset of genes in leukocytes are consistently expressed at different levels, depending upon M. paratuberculosis infection status.
Descriptors: animal genetics, gene expression, cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microarray technology, new methods, genes, leukocytes, CD30L, P selectin.

Smith, M.C. Veterinary experiences with the Cornell STAR system of accelerated lambing. Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 62(1-2): 125-128. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The system of five lambing periods per year limits risks associated with having the entire flock pregnant or in the barn at one time, and favours coccidiosis control by the small spread in lamb age. However, continual presence of susceptible sheep perpetuates contagious ectlayma and amplifies worm burdens on pasture. Pregnancy toxaemia threatens early lambing prolific ewes, paratuberculosis is easily spread if thin ewes are housed with the lambing flock, and newly weaned lambs are exposed to diseases carried by unthrifty lambs from the preceding lambing period if management is not excellent. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: sheep management system, various lambing periods, effects on a various common diseases, animal diseases and conditions, ovine paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A; Weiss, D.J. Mitogen activated protein kinasep38 pathway is an important component of the anti-inflammatory response in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2006; 41(2/3): 59-66. ISSN: 0882-4010
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08824010
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Abstract: We investigated the role of cell signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase-p38 (MAPKp38) pathway on the antimicrobial functions and cytokine expression by bovine monocytes after ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We evaluated the dynamic secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- alpha ) as well as phagosome acidification and organism killing at several time points after in vitro infection of bovine monocytes with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Monocytes treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had a significant increase in IL-10 expression at 2, 4, and 6 h postinfection and an increase expression of TNF- alpha at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h postinfection. In contrast, IL-12 expression did not increase at any time point postinfection. Moreover, MAPKp38 was rapidly phosphorylated at 10 and 60 min after M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ingestion. Chemical inhibition of the MAPKp38 signalling pathway (SB203580) resulted in decreased expression of IL-10 and increased expression of IL-12 at 6 h postinfection. Chemically blocking the MAPKp38 pathway also increased acidification of phagosomes as well as increasing the capacity of macrophages to kill organisms. Taken together, these results indicated that selective activation of MAPKp38 may be a major mechanism exploited by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to circumvent the antimycobacterial effects of mononuclear phagocytes.
Descriptors: cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, bovine monocytes post ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- alpha ), phagosome acidification, organism killing, MAPKp38 was rapidly phosphorylated, several time points, in vitro infection.

Souza, Cleverson D.; Evanson, Oral A.; Weiss, Douglas J. Regulation by Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase of cytokine expression in Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 67(10): 1760-1765. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To evaluate activation of Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in bovine monocytes after incubation with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Mptb) organisms. Sample Population-Bovine monocytes obtained from 4 healthy adult Holstein dairy cows. Procedures-Bovine monocytes were incubated with Mptb organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the JNK/SAPK pathway (SP600125) for 2, 6, 24, or 72 hours. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18; transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta); and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the capacity of Mptb-infected monocytes to acidify phagosomes and kill Mptb organisms were evaluated. Phosphorylation status of JNK/SAPK was evaluated at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after Mptb incubation. Results-Compared with uninfected control monocytes, Mptb-infected monocytes had increased expression of IL-10 at 2 and 6 hours after incubation and had increased expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-18, and TGF-beta at 2, 4, and 6 hours. Additionally, Mptb-infected monocytes had increased expression of IL-12 at 6 and 24 hours. Addition of SP600125 (specific chemical inhibitor of JNK/SAPK) resulted in a decrease in TNF-a expression at 2, 6, and 24 hours, compared with untreated Mptb-infected cells. Addition of SP600125 resulted in a decrease in TGF-beta expression at 24 hours and an increase in IL-18 expression at 6 hours. Addition of SP600125 failed to alter phagosome acidification but did enhance the capacity of monocytes to kill Mptb organisms. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Activation of JNK/SAPK may be an important mechanism used by Mptb to regulate cytokine expression in bovine monocytes for survival and to alter inflammatory and immune responses.
Descriptors: cattle, cows, bovine monocytes, incubation with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway, pathogen regulates pathway in bovine cells.

Speer, C.A.; Scott, M. Cathy; Bannantine, John P.; Waters, W. Ray; Mori, Yasuyuki; Whitlock, Robert H.; Eda,-Shigetoshi. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infections (Johne's disease) in cattle. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(5): 535-540. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: infected and non-infectedcattle, Johne’s disease, ELISA, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium avium, whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde, surface antigens from treatment with formaldehyde and sonicated, serum testing, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity with sonicated prduct was best.

Spergser, J.; Fuchs, K.; Deutz, A. Molekulare Charakterisierung von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Isolaten aus Rindern und Wild-tieren in der Steiermark. [Molecular characterisation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from cattle and wild animal species from Styria.]Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2006; 93(2): 47-52. ISSN: 0043-535X Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345
Abstract: This study was conducted to analyse isolates from cattle and wild animal species from Austria and to investigate their genetic relationships. A total of 58 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains isolated from cattle (n=27) and wild animal species (n=31) were investigated by multiplex PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis. Three distinct PFGE profiles designated [1,1], [5,5] and [3,4] were detected in both bovine and wildlife isolates. RAPD analysis revealed an identical grouping of the investigated strains (A, B and C), confirming the results obtained by PFGE analysis. No correlation between profile type and host species of origin was detected, but significant differences between the occurrence of certain profile types in different geographical regions were evident. Multiplex PFGE and RAPD analysis were appropriate molecular typing methods to study the genetic relationship of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. As profile types correlated with geographical location but not with host species of origin, transmission might occur between cattle and wild animal species or vice versa. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, disease transmission, genetic analysis, geographical distribution, paratuberculosis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, Johne's disease, molecular characterization, pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Stabel, J.R. Host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a complex arsenal. Animal Health Research Reviews. 2006; 7(1/2): 61-70. ISSN: 1466-2523
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=AHR
NAL Call No.: SF601.A547
Abstract: The immune system is not always successful in recognizing and destroying pathogens it may encounter. Host immunity to mycobacteria is characterized by a very complex series of events, designed to clear the infection. The first line of defense is uptake and processing of the pathogen by macrophages, followed by the initiation of cell-mediated immunity. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN- gamma is credited with containment of mycobacterial infections. Yet it is clear that activated T-cells may contain but fail to clear the infection in some hosts. Further, it is recognized that if infection progresses to a more clinical state, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is suppressed and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines is increased. It is unclear what defines a host that can successfully contain the infection versus one that succumbs to severe immunopathologic disease. This review will address some of the key elements in host immunity to mycobacterial pathogens, with an emphasis on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), in an attempt to understand the dialogue between immune cells and their mediators during infection and what causes this discourse to go awry.
Descriptors: domestic animals, wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, T lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity, cytokines, defence mechanisms, hosts, cellular immune response, immune system, immunity, inflammation, interferon, macrophages, defense mechanisms.

Stabel, J.R. Paratuberculosis: an update. In: H. Navetat and F. Schelcher [Editors]. 24 th World Buiatrics Congress, Nice, France, 15-19 October, 2006. Published by the World Association for Buiatrics. 2006: 315-321. ISBN: 2903623407
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease transmission, milk, colostrum, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, antigens, cytokines, disease prevention and control, fecal testing, vaccines, vaccination.

Stabel, J.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Kimura, K. Early diagnosis of Johne's Disease: evaluation of methods. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 133-134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, early diagnosis, diagnostic methods, diagnostic tests, accuracy of detection methods.

Stephan, R. New food-related pathogens - eine Herausforderung fur die Lebensmittelhygiene? 38th Symposium of the Swiss Society of Food Hygiene, Zurich, Switzerland, 16 September 2005. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(1): 1-72. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: In English and German. Includes 7 papers presented at the Symposium.
URL: http://www.bag.admin.ch/dokumentation/publikationen/02212/index.html?lang=de
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: new foodborne pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Enterobacter sakazakii, shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Norovirus, contaminated animal-based food products.

Stewart, D.J.; Vaughan, J.A.; Stiles, P.L.; Noske, P.J.; Tizard, M.L.V.; Prowse, S.J.; Michalski, W.P.; Butler, K.L.; Jones, S.L. A long-term study in Angora goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Mar 10; 113(1-2): 13-24. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.09.015
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Two longitudinal experiments involving Angora goats challenged with either bovine or ovine strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) have been conducted over a period of 54 and 35 months, respectively. Blood samples for the interferon-(Sd(B (IFN-(Sd(B) test and the absorbed ELISA and faecal samples for bacteriological culture were taken pre-challenge and monthly post-challenge. Persistent shedding, IFN-(Sd(B production, seroconversion and clinical disease occurred earlier with the bovine Map gut mucosal tissue challenge inoculum than with cultured bacteria. The IFN-(Sd(B responses of the gut mucosal tissue and bacterial challenge groups were substantially and consistently higher than those of the control group. The in vivo and cultured cattle strains were much more pathogenic for goats than the sheep strains with persistent faecal shedding, seroconversion and clinical disease occurring in the majority of bovine Map challenged goats. With the ovine Map, 3 goats developed persistent antibody responses but only one of these goats developed persistent faecal shedding and clinical disease. However, there was no significant difference between the IFN-(Sd(B responses of the tissue challenged, bacterial challenged and control groups. Compared with sheep, the ELISA appeared to have higher sensitivity and the IFN-(Sd(B test lower specificity.
Descriptors: Angora goats, goat diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis strains, strain differences, disease course, fecal shedding of pathogen, immune response, interferons, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, disease transmission, blood chemistry, intestinal mucosa, pathogenicity, seroconversion, disease severity, diagnostic techniques, disease diagnosis, pathogen shedding, test sensitivity, test specificity, wool.

Stratmann,-Janin; Dohmann, Karen; Heinzmann, Julia; Gerlach, Gerald F. Peptide aMptD-mediated capture PCR for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(8): 5150-5158. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: A peptide-mediated capture PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples was developed and characterized. Capture of the organism was performed using peptide aMptD, which had been shown to bind to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MptD protein (J. Stratmann, B. Strommenger, R. Goethe, K. Dohmann, G. F. Gerlach, K. Stevenson, L. L. Li, Q. Zhang, V. Kapur, and T. J. Bull, Infect. Immun. 72:1265-1274, 2004). Consistent expression of the MptD receptor protein and binding of the aMptD ligand were demonstrated by capturing different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I and type 11 strains and subsequent PCR analysis using ISMav2-based primers. The analytical sensitivity of the method was determined to be 5 X 10(2) CFU ml(-1) for artificially contaminated milk. The specificity of aMptD binding was confirmed by culture and competitive capture assays, showing selective enrichment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (at a concentration of 5 X 10(2) CFU ml(-1)) from samples containing 100- and 1,000-fold excesses of other mycobacterial species, including M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The aMptD-mediated capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using paramagnetic beads, followed by culture, demonstrated the ability of this approach to capture viable target cells present in artificially contaminated milk. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the aMptD peptide is a high-affinity ligand with a calculated association rate constant of 9.28 X 10(3) and an association constant of 1.33 X 10(9). The potential use of the method on untreated raw milk in the field was investigated by testing 423 bulk milk samples obtained from different dairy farms in Germany, 23 of which tested positive. Taken together, the results imply that the peptide-mediated capture PCR might present a suitable test for paratuberculosis screening of dairy herds, as it has an analytical sensitivity sufficient for detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples under field conditions, relies on a defined and validated ligand-receptor interaction, and is adaptable to routine diagnostic laboratory automation.
Descriptors: contaminated milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, Germany.

Surujballi, Om P.; Stilwell, Kathryn Irene. Rapid serological test for paratuberculosis using fluorescence polarization technology. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. 2006. ISSN: 0098-1133
Abstract: The present invention provides an assay for detection of serum antibodies to M. paratuberculosis. A tracer, comprising a carbohydrate antigen isolated from M. paratuberculosis that is conjugated to a fluorophore, is added to a serum sample from an animal to form a mixture. The fluorescence polarization of the mixture is then measured. The presence of serum antibodies to M. paratuberculosis is indicated by a fluorescence polarization value of the mixture that is higher than the fluorescence polarization value of a control. The present invention further provides a tracer for use in a fluorescence polarization assay for antibodies specific for M. paratuberculosis. The tracer comprises a carbohydrate antigen isolated from M. paratuberculosis and conjugated to a fluorophore, such that the tracer is able to bind to antibodies specific for M. paratuberculosis to produce a detectable change in fluorescence polarization.
Descriptors: assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, serum test, detectable fluorescence change.

Sweeney, R.W. Whitlock, R.H.; McAdams, S.; Fyock,.T. Longitudinal study of ELISA seroreactivity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in infected cattle and culture-negative herd mates. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Jan; 18(1): 2-6. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Two thousand nine hundred fifty-two serum samples, collected once or twice annually from 545 cows of known fecal culture status were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Overall, 13.5% of the samples from 282 infected cows had positive ELISA results, but when tested multiple times, 38.3% of the cows had at least 1 serum sample with positive results. Among 263 fecal culture-negative cows, 98.1% of the serum samples had negative ELISA results, but when tested multiple times, 7.8% of the cows had at least 1 positive ELISA sample. Fecal culture was positive on a test before the first positive ELISA in 50 cows, ELISA was positive before fecal culture in 12 cows, and in 38 cows, both tests became positive at the same testing time. An additional 174 cows were positive on fecal culture and always negative on ELISA until culled. For cows that had ELISA sample:positive (S/P) ratios below the cutoff point, the change in S/P between sequential tests was evaluated to determine whether a rise in S/P could predict infection status. In this study, change in S/P was not a useful predictor of infection status in seronegative cows.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, herd health, disease surveillance, disease detection, serodiagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, longitudinal studies, seroprevalence, antibody detection, culture media, feces, screening, absorbance.

Sweeney, R.W.; Uzonna, J.; Whitlock, R.H.; Habecker, P.L.; Chilton, P.; Scott, P. Tissue predilection sites and effect of dose on Mycobacterium avium subs. paratuberculosis organism recovery in a short-term bovine experimental oral infection model. Research in Veterinary Science. 2006 June; 80(3): 253-259. ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.07.007
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a short-term experimental infection model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, using small oral doses of organisms. Specifically, the effect of dose size was evaluated, as well as specific tissue predilection sites for recovery of MAP. Oral doses as low as 1.5 x 10e CFU reliably produced infection that could be detected 3 weeks following infection. Detection of infection required culture of multiple intestinal samples (jejunum and ileum) for MAP. Histological examination did not permit detection at this early stage. Results from this study suggest intestinal mucosa, rather than tonsil, as the primary portal of entry for MAP. The experimental infection model described here is useful for studying the early effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for paratuberculosis in cattle.
Descriptors: cattle, calves, neonates, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, animal models, experimental design, inoculum, oral administration, dose response, disease detection, infection levels, disease course, tissue analysis, tissue culture, sampling intestinal mucosa, histopathology.

Sweeney, R.W.; Whitlock, R.H.; McAdams, S.C. Comparison of three DNA preparation methods for real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth in an automated broth culture system.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Nov; 18(6): 587-590. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descariptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, pathogen identification, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, cultured cells, culture media, microbial growth, egg yolk, DNA preparation methods, DNA extraction, sample preparation.

Szteyn, Joanna; Wiszniewska Laszczych, Agnieszka; Ruszczynska, Aleksandra Wystepowanie Mycobacterium paratuberculosis w mleku surowym. [Occurrence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in samples of raw milk.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 2006; 62(10): 1186-1187. ISSN: 0025-8628. Note: In Polish.
Descriptors: dairy herds, milk samples, occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, udder milk sampling, cultures, PCR with IS900 fragment, north-eastern Poland.

Tavornpanich, S.; Gardner, I.A.; Carpenter, T.E.; Johnson, W. O.; Anderson, R.J. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of targeted sampling methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 May; 67(5): 821-828. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To investigate the epidemiologic and financial impacts of targeted sampling of subpopulations of cows, compared with random sampling of all cows, for classification of dairy herd infection status for paratuberculosis. Animals-All cows from 4 infected herds with a low-to-moderate prevalence of paratuberculosis and from 1 noninfected herd in California. Procedure-The infection status of each cow was classified on the basis of results of an ELISA or combined ELISA and fecal culture results. Thirteen sampling schemes designed to randomly sample cows on the basis of lactation number, stage of lactation, and milk production were evaluated. Sampling without replacement was used to obtain a probability of herd detection of paratuberculosis for each evaluated sampling method and for simulated sample sizes between 30 and 150 cows. Marginal cost-effectiveness analysis was used to determine the cost increase relative to the increase in detection probability. Results-Sampling cows in the third or higher lactation and greater than or equal to 200 days into lactation yielded the highest detection probability in most instances, resulting in a detection probability that was 1.4 to 2.5 times that obtained by sampling 30 cows in the second or higher lactation. Costs of testing via the alternative method with a 95% detection probability were approximately $300 lower in a high-prevalence herd (31 %) and $800 lower in a low-prevalence herd (9%), compared with use of the reference method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Detection of herds with paratuberculosis could be improved, and costs of testing substantially reduced by sampling targeted groups of cows.
Descriptors: dairy cows, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, dairy herds, disease detection, cost effectiveness, sampling for pathogens, economic impact, lactation number, lactation stage, milk production, agricultural economics, California, USA.

Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Barkema, H.W. Johne's disease in Canada. Part I: Clinical symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevalence in dairy herds. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Sept; 47(9): 874-882. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), pathophysiology, disease diagnosis, disease prevalence, literature reviews, Canada.

Tobler, Nadia E.; Pfunder, Monika; Herzog, Katrin; Frey, Juerg E.; Altwegg, Martin. Rapid detection and species identification of Mycobacterium spp. using real-time PCR and DNA-Microarray. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2006; 66(1): 116-124. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium haemophilum, Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium malmoense,Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium genavense, Mycobacterium celatum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium alvei, Mycobacterium heckenshornense, Mycobacterium heidelbergense, identification method, 2 PCR probes, using 5' exonuclease real time PCR and DNA microarray, based region upstream of the 65 kDa heat shock protein.

Tomar, S.K.; Rejeesh, R. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: an emerging threat in the dairy field. Indian Dairyman. 2006; 58(10): 53-56. ISSN: 0019-4603
URL: http://www.indairyasso.org
NAL Call No.: 44.8 IN282
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease effects, dairy farms, reduced production and milk quality, pathogen detection in milk and milk products, Johne’s prevention and control.

Trcka, Ivo; Lamka, Jiri; Kopecna, Marketa; Beran, Vladimir; Parmova, Ilona; Pavlik, Ivo Mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Czech Republic. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2006; 76(Suppl. S): S27-S32. ISSN: 0372-5480
Nal Call No.: 41.8 V6416
Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) was detected in Central Europe during 1983-2001 in Croatia, Hungary and Slovakia. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was investigation of mycobacterial infections in our country during 2002-2004 in a total of 2319 samples originating from 766 wild boars of different age categories from 29 (39.2%) of 74 districts of the Czech Republic. Individually collected anonymous faecal samples from 309 animals and 1 947 samples of various tissues from 457 animals were examined. Wild boars originated from both free nature (239 animals), and game parks (527 animals). Fifty boars and sows and 388 piglets and yearlings at the age of 1 to 2 years were included among 438 (57.1%) animals with known age and sex. Small tuberculous lesions in the intestinal lymph nodes were detected in 2 (0.3%) wild boars only. Causative agents of tuberculosis or paratuberculosis were not isolated from any of the animals. Mycobacteria were isolated from 64 (8.3%) wild boars. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, the causative agent of avian tuberculosis was isolated from intestinal lymph nodes of 7 (0.9%) wild boars (tuberculous lesions were detected in two animals). Thirty four infected wild boars originated from free nature and from a game park with occurrence of avian tuberculosis in domestic fowl, respectively. Atypical mycobacteria of 8 species (M fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. scrofulaceum, M triviale, M. terrae, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. flavescens) were isolated from 57 (7.4%) animals. Atypical mycobacteria were isolated from pulmonary lymph nodes, small and large intestines, intestinal mucosa and faeces of wild boars both from free nature and game parks. Due to the high density of wild boars and their large migration radius, they can be viewed as a potential source of a number of infections including the causative agent of avian tuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: wild boar, Sus scrofa, wild and game park animals, tissue samples, fecal sampling, mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mybacterium flavescens, potential wild animals as disease resevoirs, pulmonary lymph nodes, small and large intestines, intestinal mucosa, feces sampling, fecal shedding of pathogens, Czech Republic.

Trcka, I.; Lamka, J.; Suchy, R.; Kopecna, M.; Beran, V.; Moravkova, M.; Horvathova, A.; Bartos, M.; Parmova, I.; Pavlik, I. Mycobacterial infections in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Czech Republic during the years 2002 to 2005. Veterinarni Medicina. 2006; 51(5): 320-332
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
Descriptors: 842 wild boars, varing ages, piglets, juveniles, adults, wild animals, game parks, 2704 samples, intestingal tissues, intestinal lymph nodes, fecal shedding, fecal sampling, surveyed for mycobacterial infections, various Mycobacterium species found, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium avium, IS900 RFLP, IS901+ and IS1245+, Czech Republic.

Tripathi, B.N.; Periasamy, S.; Paliwal, O.P.; Singh, N. Comparison of IS900 tissue PCR, bacterial culture, johnin and serological tests for diagnosis of naturally occurring paratuberculosis in goats. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Aug 25; 116(1-3): 129-137. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.03.017
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Comparative efficacy of an IS900 tissue PCR, bacterial culture, johnin, agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and absorbed-ELISA tests was investigated in 43 goats naturally infected with paratuberculosis. On histological examination, tissue sections from all animals showed typical granulomatous inflammatory changes. The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n = 30), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and paucibacillary (PB) (n = 13), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few AFB. The sensitivities of johnin test, tissue culture, faecal culture, tissue PCR, AGID and ELISA were 68% (17/25), 100% (30/30), 84.6% (22/26), 100% (30/30), 96.2% (25/26) and 100% (26/26) in MB goats, and 88.8 (8/9), 46.1% (8/13), 40% (4/10), 61.5% (8/13), 50% (5/10), and 70% (7/10) in PB goats, respectively. Except for the johnin test, which showed higher sensitivity in PB goats, all other tests displayed significantly higher sensitivities in MB goats. The results indicate the usefulness of tissue PCR, culture and serological tests in the diagnosis of clinically affected paratuberculous goats, especially with multibacillary pathology.
Descriptors: goats, goat diseases, bacterial pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, immunologic techniques, disease diagnosis, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, immune response, cell culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, clinical trials, histopathology, IS900 tissue polymerase chain reaction, johnin.

Turenne, C.Y.; Semret, M.; Alexander, D.C.; Behr, M.A. Evolutionary events within the Mycobacterium avium complex. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 585. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain K10, Mycobacterium avium avium heat shock protein 65-gene, Mycobacterium avium silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium strain 104, Mycobacterium intracellulare strain FCC-1804, strain ATCC 13950T, Mycobacterium avium hominusuis, genone sequence, ecolutionary event, polymorphism.

Turenne, Christine Y.; Semret, Makeda; Cousins, Debby V.; Collins, Desmond M.; Behr, Marcel A. Sequencing of hsp65 distinguishes among subsets of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006 Feb; 44(2): 433-440. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: The Mycobacterium avium complex consists of epidemiologically distinct subsets. The classification of these subsets is complicated by a number of factors, including the ambiguous results obtained with phenotypic and genetic assays and the recent appreciation that human and avian strains appear to be distinct. In previous work, sequencing based on a 441-bp portion of the hsp65 gene has proven to efficiently classify isolates within the Mycobacterium genus but provides low resolution for distinguishing among members of the M. avium complex. Therefore, in this study, we have targeted the more variable 3' region of the hsp65 gene to determine whether it can effectively discriminate M. avium complex isolates at the levels of species and subspecies. Primers designed for this target consistently generated amplicons for all organisms classified as M. avium complex. Sequences obtained indicate that M. intracellulare is genetically divergent from M. avium organisms, and distinct sequevars were obtained for M. avium subsets, including M. avium subsp. avium (bird type), M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In addition, sequence differences served to distinguish bovine from ovine strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A unique profile for M. avium subsp. silvaticum was not obtained. These results indicate that sequencing the 3' region of the hsp65 gene can simply and unambiguously distinguish species and subspecies of the M. avium complex.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium complex, distinguishing species, distinct subsets, 3` region of hsp65 gene, classification of isolates, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium (bird type), Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium silvaticum.

Villarino, M.A.; Scott, H. M.; Jordan, E.R. Johne's demonstration project in Texas.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, population studies, milk production, milk production per lactation, demonstration herd project, Texas, USA.

Van Kooten, H.C.J.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Koets, A.P. Intra-uterine transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in farmed red deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006 February; 54(1): 16-20. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors : red deer, Cervus elaphus, farms, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, transmission of bacteria, intra-uterine transmission, South Canterbury, New Zealand.

Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Tiwari, A.; Plaizier, J.C.; Whiting, T.L. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Aug; 47(8): 783-786.

ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: beef cows, dairy cows, bovine leukemia virus, enzootic bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine viral diarrhea, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, neosporosis, seroprevalence, Manitoba, Canada.

Van Pittius, Nicolaas C Gey; Sampson, Samantha L.; Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Yeun; van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M. Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2006; 6. ISSN: 1471-2148
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcevolbiol/
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, PE and PPE multigene families, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium ulcerans, gene cluster regions, duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, evolutionary history.

Vengust, G.; Zele, D. Nekatere infekcijske bolezni pri jelenjadi v oborah s poudarkom na zoonozah.[Some infectious diseases of deer in enclosures with emphasis on zoonosis.]Veterinarske Novice. 2006; 32(3/4): 57-62. ISSN: 0351-5842. Note: In Slovenian with an English summary.
Descriptors : fallow deer Dama dama, red deer Cervus elephus, farmed captive animals, intensive management situations, infectious diseases, zoonotic pathogens, anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, malignant catarrhal fever virus, meat animals paratuberculosis, public health concerns, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis, Brucella abortus, Herpesviridae, Leptospira, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Slovenia.

Wang, C.; Turnbull, B.W.; Greohn, Y.T.; Nielsen, S.S. Estimating receiver operating characteristic curves with covariates when there is no perfect reference test for diagnosis of Johne's disease. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Aug; 89(8): 3038-3046. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a significant animal health problem. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Johne's disease has been difficult due to lack of a gold standard test. In recent years, there has been interest in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve estimation without any gold standard test. Typically, either Bayesian or maximum likelihood methods are proposed. Although these methods overcome the lack of a gold standard test in ROC curve estimation, little work has been done to incorporate covariates in the analysis. In this paper, we propose a method for estimation of ROC curves based on statistical models to adjust for covariate effects when the true disease states of test animals are unknown. The covariates may be correlated with the disease process or with the diagnostic testing procedure, or both. We propose a 2-part Bayesian model: first, a logistic regression model for disease prevalence is used to fit the covariates; second, a linear model is used to fit the covariates to the distribution of test scores. We used Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to compute the posterior estimates of the sensitivities and specificities that provide the groundwork for inference concerning the diagnostic procedure's accuracy. We applied the methodology to milk ELISA scores from several dairy-cow herds for the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis. We found that both milk yield and its interaction with age had significant effects on the disease process whereas only milk yield was significant on the testing procedure.
Descriptors: statistical analysis, dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, accuracy, milk yield, animal age, Denmark.

Weber, M.F.; Roermund, H.J.W. van; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Koeijer, A.A. de; Jong, M.C.M. de; Nielen, M. Stochastic simulation of a milk quality assurance programme for paratuberculosis: within-herd infection dynamics and economics. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Exeter, UK, 29-31-March 2006. 2006: 25-38. IBSN: 0948073748. Note: Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A. M. [Editors]. Published by the Society in Roslin, UK.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk quality assurance program, stochiastic simulation model, herds certified low MAP, test negative testing herds in surveillance procedure, positive testing herds into control procedure, evaluate epidemiological and economic effect of various test schemes and preventive management, ELISA, cost effectiveness.

Weber, M.F. Risk management of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Irish Veterinary Journal. 2006; 59(10): 555-561. ISSN: 0368-0762
URL: http://www.veterinary-ireland.org
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Descriptors: cattle, dairy herd, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, sub-clinical and clinical levels, risk management, economic impacts, control measures, disease prevalence, introduction of animals from contaminated herds, production losses, reduced prices for contaminated milk, test and cull schemes, quality assurance and control programs, incentives for farmers to participate in programs.

Weber, M.F.; Roermund, H.J.W. van; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Kalis, C.H.J.; Stegeman, J.A. Cattle transfers between herds under paratuberculosis surveillance in The Netherlands are not random. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Oct 17; 76(3-4): 222-236. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.05.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, animal husbandry, animal transport, disease surveillance, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease incidence, cattle diseases, feces, disease transmission, disease control programs, risk assessment, Netherlands.

Weber, A. Paratuberculosis - zoonosis vagy sem? [Paratuberculosis - a zoonosis or not?] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 2006; 128(10): 587-589. ISSN: 0025-004X. Note: Translated from Amtstierarztliche Dienst und Lebensmittelkontrolle (2005) 12, 194-196 (De). In Hungarian.
Descriptors: humans, livestock animals, zoonotic disease, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease transmission, domestic animals, epidemiology.

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O. A.; Souza,.C.D. Mucosal immune response in cattle with subclinical Johne's disease. Veterinary Pathology. 2006 Mar; 43(2): 127-135. ISSN: 0300-9858
URL: http://vet.sagepub.com/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P28
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of wild and domestic ruminants. During a long subclinical period, the organism persists in the intestine despite systemic cellular and humoral immune responses. To explore the mucosal immune response in Johne's disease, we isolated mononuclear leukocytes from the ileum of cows naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and from cows that were not infected. We evaluated the immunophenotype of these cells and the proliferative responses after the addition of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sonicate or B-cell or T-cell mitogens. Although the percentage of T cells was increased in infected cows, these cells consisted mostly of memory (CD2[superscript +]CD62L[superscript -]) and regulatory (CD4[superscript +]CD25[superscript +]) T cells. Further evidence of immune hyporesponsiveness included a decrease in the percentage of T cells with an activated phenotype and a decrease in cells expressing major histocompatibility factor class II (MHC class II). Unlike the spleen, ileal lymphocytes from infected cows failed to proliferate in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sonicate. Additionally, ileal lymphocytes from infected cows proliferated poorly in response to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, suggesting generalized T cell and B cell hyporesponsiveness. These results indicate that a state of tolerance may exist in the intestine of cows subclinically infected with M. avium subsp.paratuberculosis organisms in subclinically infected cows. This effect may be induced, at least in part, by proliferation of regulatory T cells that nonspecifically suppress mucosal immune responsiveness.
Descriptors: cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ileum, intestinal mucosa, mucosal immunity, immune response, monocytes, T lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, major histocompatibility complex, subclinical infection, regulatory T lymphocytes.

Wells, Scott J.; Collins, Michael T.; Faaberg, Kay S.; Wees, Carrie.; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Petrini, Kristine R.; Collins, James E.; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Whitlock, Robert H. Evaluation of a rapid fecal PCR test for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(10): 1125-1130. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: dairy cattle, 1808 animals, 7 naturally infected herds, 347 from 7 herds free from Johne‘s, fecal sampling, milk sampling, blood sampling, TaqManPCR assay, 3 cell culture procedures, and the BACTEC filter concentration method, 2 serologic ELISAs and 1 milk ELISA, comparative study.

Whan, L.; Grant, I.R.; Rowe, M.T. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa. BMC Microbiology. 2006; 6(63): (13 July 2006). ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-6-63.pdf
Abstract: Background: Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results: Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698), which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25 degrees C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25 degrees C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1-1.5 log< sub>10</ sub> increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 micro g/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log< sub>10</ sub> reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log< sub>10</ sub> reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: free living protozoa, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga,Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, interactions in nature, phagocytosis, amoeba as a pathogen reservoir.

Whittington, R. Global veterinary defence: where to from here veterinary science?Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006 Aug; 84(8): 265-270. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: veterinary education, veterinary medicine, zoonoses, disease surveillance, disease control programs, public health, human resources management, higher education, university programs, case studies, fish diseases, Iridovirus, Monkeypox virus, paratuberculosis, health policy, public policy, national planning, Australia

Willemsen, P.T.J.; Westerveen, J.; Dinkla, A.; Bakker, D.; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Thole, J.E.R. Secreted antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis as prominent immune targets.Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 May 31; 114(3-4): 337-344. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.12.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: We here describe the identification and characterization of three novel secreted Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens of 9, 15 and 34 kDa (Map2609, Map2942c and Map0210c, respectively) by screening a genomic expression library with a serum of a naturally infected clinical cow. The 9, 15 and 34 kDa antigens display strong homology to previously described M. tuberculosis antigens, TB8.4, MPT53 and Erp, respectively. Furthermore, these antigens were shown to be recognized by antibodies from infected cattle, when tested with a limited number of sera from subclinical (n = 7) and clinical (n = 3) infected cattle.
Descriptors: cows, cattle diseases, ruminants, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection, disease diagnosis, new methods, antigen detection, bacterial antigens, secretion, genomics, gene expression, blood serum, antibodies, antigen antibody reactions, screening, analytical kits, antibody detection, veterinary medicine.

Williams, E.L.; Stabel, J.R. Characterization of cytokine gene expression in periparturient dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 111. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors : dairy cattle, Holstein cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, cytokine gene expression, birth and lactation impacts.

Windsor, P. Research into vaccination against ovine Johne's disease in Australia.Small Ruminant Research. 2006 Mar; 62(1-2): 139-142. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: G.C. Fthenakis and Q.A. McKellar. [Editors]. Keynote Lectures of the 6th International Sheep Veterinary Congress held June 17-21, 2005, Hersonnisos, Crete, Greece. A literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.07.044
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: A review of Australian trials with GUDAIR vaccine for control of ovine paratuberculosis in Australian sheep is presented. Vaccination delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of mortalities and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by approximately 90%. A rapid decrease in losses occurred in a very high prevalence flock following whole flock vaccination and numerous management changes. Persistent injection lesions were common in vaccinated sheep and although human exposure to the vaccine was uncommon, accidental self-injection of vaccine may produce lesions requiring surgical intervention.
Descriptors: sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sheep diseases, animal pathogenic bacteria, vaccines, vaccination, disease control, mortality, fecal sampling, fecal shedding, disease transmission, animal husbandry, disease prevalence, adverse effects, skin lesions, occupational health and safety, veterinarians, pathogen shedding, literature reviews.

Windsor, P.A.; Eppleston, J. Lesions in sheep following administration of a vaccine of a Freund's complete adjuvant nature used in the control of ovine paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(5): 237-241. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: Merino sheep flocks, ovine paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, adverse vaccination site reactions, Freund’s complete adjuvant, skin injection sites, lesions, caseous nodules, granulomatous wounds, myiasis, adjuvants, cellulitis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevention, paralysis, risk factors; Australia.

Woo(l?) S.R.; Sotos, J.; Hart, A.P.; Barletta, R.G.; Czuprynski, C.J. Bovine monocytes and a macrophage cell line differ in their ability to phagocytose and support the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006 Mar 15; 110(1-2): 109-120. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.09.010
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Bovine monocytes exhibited a greater ability to phagocytose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (i.e. greater percentage of infected cells, and more bacilli per infected cell), than did a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac). Phagocytosis of M. paratuberculosis by monocytes, but not the cell line, was significantly enhanced by the addition of autologous serum. Following ingestion, the numbers of viable M. paratuberculosis cells in monocytes increased during the first 4 days and then declined between day 4 and day 8 after infection, as determined by a radiometric method. In contrast, BoMac cells were not permissive for bacillary multiplication; the numbers of M. paratuberculosis remained largely unchanged in the cell line during the 8 day incubation period. The numbers of microscopically visible acid-fast bacilli increased with time in monocytes but not in the macrophage cell line. These observations suggest that replication and inactivation of bacilli may both occur in monocytes. The differing abilities of bovine monocytes and the macrophage cell line to ingest and restrain the intracellular growth of M. paratuberculosis provide contrasting model systems for investigating how M. paratuberculosis enters and persists within its preferred niche, the mononuclear phagocyte.
Descriptors: cattle, food animals, monocytes, macrophages, cell lines, phagocytosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, cell invasion, blood serum, microbial growth, phagocytes.

Wool, S.R.; Hart, A.P..; Kuckleburg, C.J.; Barletta, R.G.; Czuprynski, C.J. IL-1 beta mediated activation of bovine monocytes promotes phagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits intracellular survival of M-paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 91-92. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: bovine monocytes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, immune cell responses, interleukin-1, interleukin- 1 beta, interleukin 1-alpha, lysosomes, phagosomes, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase: PI3K, intracellular pathogen survival.

Wu, Chia Wei; Glasner, Jeremy; Collins, Michael; Naser,-Saleh; Talaat, Adel M. Whole-genome plasticity among Mycobacterium avium subspecies: Insights from comparative genomic hybridizations. Journal of Bacteriology. 2006; 188(2): 711-723. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL: http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in cattle and is also implicated in cases of Crohn's disease in humans. Another closely related strain, M. avium subsp. avium, is a health problem for immunocompromised patients. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of M. avium subspecies, we analyzed the genome contents of isolates collected from humans and domesticated or wildlife animals. Comparative genomic hybridizations indicated distinct lineages for each subspecies where the closest genomic relatedness existed between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates collected from human and clinical cow samples. Genomic islands (n = 24) comprising 846 kb were present in the reference M. avium subsp. avium strain but absent from 95% of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Additional analysis identified a group of 18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-associated islands comprising 240 kb that were absent from most of the M. avium subsp. avium isolates. Sequence analysis of DNA regions flanking the genomic islands identified three large inversions in addition to several small inversions that could play a role in regulation of gene expression. Analysis of genes encoded in the genomic islands reveals factors that are probably important for various mechanisms of virulence. Overall, M. avium subsp. avium isolates displayed a higher level of genomic diversity than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Among M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, those from wildlife animals displayed the highest level of genomic rearrangements that were not observed in other isolates. The presented findings will affect the future design of diagnostics and vaccines for Johne's and Crohn's diseases and provide a model for genomic analysis of closely related bacteria.
Descriptors: cattle, immunocompromised humans, zoonotic bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, virulence mechanism, genomic diversity, molecular pathogenesis, genomic island, whole genome plasticity, vaccines, diagnostics.

Yellaboina, Sailu; Ranjan, Sarita; Vindal, Vaibhav; Ranjan, Akash. Comparative analysis of iron regulated genes in mycobacteria. FEBS Letters. 2006; 580(11): 2567-2576. ISSN: 0014-5793
URL: http://www.febsletters.org/previousissues
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium smegmatis,Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, iron dependent regulator, intra cellular iron levels, conserved genes in mycobacteria, 4-hydroxy benzoyl coA hydrolase (Rv1847), protease dependent antibiotic regulatory system (Rv1846c, Rv0185c), pathogenic bacteria genome.

Yuroff, A.S.; Manning,-E.J.B.; Hoffman, R.M.; Collins, M.T. Efficient enumeration of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria: a comparison of MGIT, flow cytometry and ATP assays. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 608. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: animal pathogen,Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum, flow cytometry, ATP assay, mycobacterial growth indicator tube system, time-to-positive-signal, inoculum cell number.



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