Animal Welfare Information Center

Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants


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2007


Al Hajri, S.M.; Alluwaimi, A.M. ELISA and PCR for evaluation of subclinical paratuberculosis in the Saudi dairy herds. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Apr 15; 121(3-4): 384-385. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.025
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: dairy cows, cattle bacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease detection, disease diagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, molecular epidemiology, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, methodology, accuracy, validity, reliability, screening, disease surveillance, veterinary medicine, Saudi Arabia.

Al Hajri, S.M.; Alluwaimi, A.M. The efficiency of ELISA and PCR in detecting subclinical paratuberculosis in the Saudi dairy herds.Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007; 10(11): 1906-1909. ISSN: 1028-8880
URL: http://www.ansinet.org/pjbs
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, different age groups, disease survey, serum and fecal testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection and diagnostic tests, PCR, ELISA, rates of detection per diagnostic method, subclinical stage testing, paratuberculosis present, Saudi Arabia.

Altic, L.C.; Rowe, M.T.; Grant, I.R. UV light inactivation of Mycobactenum avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk as assessed by FASTPlaqueTB phage assay and culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007; 73(11): 3728-3733. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (2.5- to 3.3-log reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml). The FASTPlaqueTB phage assay provided more rapid enumeration of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (within 24 h) than culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (6 to 8 weeks). Despite the fact that plaque counts were consistently 1 to 2 log lower than colony counts throughout the study, UV inactivation rates for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived using the phage assay and culture results were not significantly different (P = 0.077).
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk hygiene, analytical methods, assays, food hygiene, microbial contamination, ultraviolet radiation, killing of pathogen, FASTPlaqueTB phage assay, Herrold's egg yolk medium.

Anderson, J.L.; Meece, J.K.; Koziczkowski, J.J.; Clark, D.L., Jr; Radcliff, R.P.; Nolden, C.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Ellingson, J.L.E. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in scavenging mammals in Wisconsin.Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2007; 43(2): 302-308. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.wildlifedisease.org
NAL Call no.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: non-ruminantwildlife, scavenging mammals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, wild animals as disease reservoir, disease transmission between wild and domestic animals, Wisconsin, USA.

Antognoli, M.C.; Hirst, H.L.; Garry, F.B.; Salman, M.D. Immune response to and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in young dairy calves, and the association between test results in the calves and the infection status of their dams.Zoonoses and Public Health. 2007; 54(3/4): 152-159. ISSN: 1863-1959
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jvb
Descriptors: dairy cows; dairy calves 2, 4, 6, and 8 months old; calves dams, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months; intradermal skin test; a modified IFN-gamma test; commercial ELISA; fecal shedding and age; diagnosis; diagnostic techniques; immune response; immunity; immunodiagnosis; interferon; paratuberculosis; polymerase chain reaction; Colorado, USA.

Bai, Yu; Gao, Yan; Gao, YunHang; He, ZhaoYang Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting deer serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao/ Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007; 29(12): 956-959, 960. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
URL: http://zgxq.chinajournal.net.cn
Abstract: An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in deer. This assay utilized an affinity-purified antigen from MAP as the coated antigen and was optimized using various dilutions of serum and IgG conjugate. A total of 760 serum samples were collected and examined by the assay and 61 samples turned out to be positive. It is concluded that the indirect ELISA is an efficient and sensitive method to detect antibodies against paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies, antigens, serological diagnosis, ELISA, IgG, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques.

Bannantine, J.P.; Radosevich, T.J.; Stabel, J.R.; Sreevatsan, S.; Kapur, V.; Paustian, M. L. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies and aptamers against major antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(5): 518-526. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monoclonal antibodies to proteins, BALB/c mice immunized with a whole-cell extract, 10 hybridomas, characterized, MAb 9G10 detects MAP1643 (isocitrate lyase), MAb 11G4 detects MAP3840 (a 70-kDa heat shock protein).

Bannantine, J.P.; Radosevich, T.J.; Stabel, J.R.; Berger, S.; Griffin, J.F.T.; Paustian, M.L. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a major membrane protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(3): 312-317. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors : cattle, bacterial antigens, bacterial cattle diseases, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monoclonal antibodies, surface antigens, epitopes, antigenic determinants, bacterial infections, bacterial diseases.

Beaudeau, F.; Belliard, M.; Joly, A.; Seegers, H. Reduction in milk yield associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection in dairy cows. Veterinary Research. 2007; 38(4): 625-634. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.edpsciences.org
NAL Call No.: SF602.A5
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, cow disease status, disease surveys, disease prevalence, epidemiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection with ELISA, production effects, milk yields, economic impact, profitability, disease control, vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, vaccination, France.

Bennett, R.M.; McFarlane, I.; McClement, I. Demonstration models of the cost and benefits of BVD and Johne's control on cattle farms.Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 175-177. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Demonstration models of the costs of BVD and Johnes in dairy and beef cattle and the costs and benefits of control have been developed. An example applied to BVD in dairy cattle is presented. Downloadable versions of the models, together with supporting material on how to use them are available to veterinarians from a dedicated website. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bovine diarrhea virus, computer software, cost benefit analysis, disease control, disease prevention, models, paratuberculosis.

Berger, S.; Bannantine, J.P.; Griffin, J.F.T. Autoreactive antibodies are present in sheep with Johne's disease and cross-react with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens. Microbes and Infection. 2007 July; 9(8): 963-970. ISSN: 1286-4579
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2007.03.016
NAL Call No.: QR180.M53
Abstract: Mycobacterial infection has been linked to the generation of autoantibodies, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), in clinical studies and small animal models. In an attempt to identify antibodies that react with both self and mycobacterial antigens in naturally infected ruminants, we generated a phage display library comprising single chain antibody fragments (scFv) from sheep with Johne's disease (JD). The library was screened simultaneously against ovine small intestinal tissue and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A clone (termed AutoH1) reacted strongly with host tissue and MAP, recognizing a proteinase-susceptible 32 kDa determinant in ovine gut tissues and lymphatics, and in blood granulocytes but not mononuclear cells. In granulocytes, binding was to cytoplasmic granules and cell membranes; in MAP, AutoH1 bound bacterial cell wall determinants. We further identified a synthetic peptide sequence recognized by AutoH1, using this to generate a carrier peptide fusion protein (paH1). Sera of normal and JD sheep were screened for AutoH1-like autoantibody activity; 7/11 JD animals showed autoreactivity that could be blocked by paH1, while 0/21 normal animals showed no such serological reactivity. It is possible that the severe pathology observed in ruminant JD may have an autoimmune component, possibly due to ANCA-type binding; this remains to be further investigated.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, sheep diseases, bacterial antigens, cross reaction, autoantibodies, granulocytes, autoimmunity, anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-autoantibodies, autoinflammation.

Boehm, Monika; White, Piran C.L.; Chambers, Julia; Smith, Lesley; Hutchings, M.R. Wild deer as a source of infection for livestock and humans in the UK. Veterinary Journal. 2007; 174(2): 260-276. ISSN: 1090-0233. Note: A review article.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
Abstract: Wild deer can feature in the epidemiology of a wide range of livestock and human diseases in the United Kingdom by representing a source of disease via various transmission routes. This review highlights current and possible future infections of deer in the UK which may have an impact on livestock and/or human health. Increases in deer abundance as well as range expansion are likely to exacerbate the potential for disease persistence due to the formation of multi-species deer assemblages, which may act as disease reservoirs. Climatic changes are likely to have a direct impact on the presence and abundance of various pathogens and their vectors, so that with a warming climate exotic diseases may play a role in future UK livestock and wildlife disease management. This paper highlights the need for a monitoring strategy for wildlife diseases, in particular infections in wild deer, in the UK. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: wildlife diseases, zoonotic diseases, deer as disease resevoirs, Capreolus capreolus, roe-deer, Dama dama, fallow deer, Cervus Nippon, Cervus elaphus, wild red deer, Muntiacus reevesi, Hydropotes inermis, Chinese water deer, Salmonella, Escherichia coli,Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Lymnaea trunculata, snail, Brucella abortus, Brucella ovis, Leptospira, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Borrelia burgdorferi,Fasciola hepatica, UK.

Burr, P. Does the herd have Johne's disease? Simple steps to assess status.Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 172-174. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Johne's disease is a significant problem facing the UK cattle industry. Despite this, information on prevalence at a national, local or herd level is incomplete. Knowledge of the presence or absence of disease in a particular herd is important if sensible management decisions are to be made to prevent introduction or reduce spread. While whole herd serological screening is likely to give the most information on herd status this is not always a realistic economic option. A more limited screening programme, based on targeted serological and environmental sampling, and bulk milk testing should still provide significant information on which to base a herd strategy, and is a preferable option to the current default policy of doing nothing. A plan of approaching such a programme is presented in this paper. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, whole herd screening, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, disease prevention, disease control strategy, epidemiology, UK.

Caldow, G.; Strain, S.A.J..; Chapman, Z.; Kemp, R.; Cook, A.J. A survey to estimate the herd level prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy herd of the United Kingdom. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 169-171. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: A study was carried out on randomly selected dairy cow herds in the UK to estimate the herd level prevalence of paratuberculosis. Dairy herds were selected at random and invited to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to examine possible sources of bias behind participation in the study and possible associations between the presence of disease in the herd and management factors. A blood and a faeces sample were collected from all females of three years and older in the herd along with a bulk milk tank sample and a prescribed set of faecal and slurry samples from the farm unit. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbant-assay (ELISA) was used to test for the presence of antibody to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in the blood and bulk tank milk samples. Faecal samples were cultured for Map using a liquid based culture system and bulk milk samples were examined for the presence of Map by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A subsidiary study to determine the genetic variation of isolates of Map was carried out and blood samples were stored to form a DNA archive for possible further work. This paper gives an outline of the rationale and methodology used. Reproduced with persmission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies, ELISA antibody testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, PCR, genetic variation, genotype, UK.

Caldow, G. Approaches to farm-level control of paratuberculosis in cattle.Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2007; 23: 12-15. ISSN: 0961-2548
URL: http://www.goatvetsoc.co.uk
Descriptors: cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, management, control and prevention protocols, paratuberculosis, disease distribution, disease prevalences, disease prevention, epidemiology, UK.

Castellanos, E.; Aranaz, A.; Romero, B.; de Juan, L.; Alvarez, J.; Bezos, J.; Rodrcguez, S.; Stevenson, K.; Mateos, A.; Domcnguez, L. Polymorphisms in gyrA and gyrB Genes among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Type I, II, and III Isolates.Journal of Clinical Microbiology JCM. 2007 Oct; 45(10): 3439-3442. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: The analysis of the gyrA and gyrB genes of a panel of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from types I, II, and III detected type-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. Based on these results, we developed a PCR and restriction enzyme analysis to discriminate type I and III isolates. The application of this technique would be the unique strategy to characterize these strains when there is not enough bacterial growth to perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis types I, II, III isolates, PCR and restriction enzyme analysis, discrimination between I and III isolates, characterizing strains of MPA.

Catania , S.; Stefani, E.; Pozzato, N.; Muliari, R.; Vicenzoni, G. Immunopatogenesi della paratubercolosi. [Immunopathogenesis of paratuberculosis.]Large Animal Review. 2007; 13(2): 51-57. Note: In Italian with an English summary.
URL: http://cms.sivarnet.it/gDocument.aspx?id=901
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) refers to the agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, one of the major enteric diseases that cause chronic, severe weight loss and eventual death in ruminants, livestock and wildlife. As the pathogenesis of this disease is complex and many steps of the development and appearance of the disease are still unknown, it is difficult to find out the right diagnostic procedure to investigate this pathology and likely it contributes to the maintenance of the infection in farms. In early stages of infection, immune system is not completely capable to respond to the aggression of the pathogen. In particular macrophages are not able to destroy MAP which can survive within these cells for long time. Later, after macrophagical activation, a specific and efficient immune response begins but the persistence of the bacteria in these cells causes a marked citotoxic reaction. In this period infection is asymptomatic, serological markers are absent, faecal culture is negative, whereas IFN- gamma test and intradermal reaction test are positive. Lesions are limited to the distal small intestine tract and are characterized by Granuloma formation (in order to board mycobacterias) and by a citotoxic reaction to destroy the pathogen. Unfortunately the condition of persistent infected macrophages lead to the dissemination of the infection to new districts of the enteric tract, to the regional lymph nodes and then widespread. During this period it is possible to isolate Map in faeces and detect IgG1 titers by ELISA test. Clinical disease is characterized by a humoral immune response, which is unable to board the infection, so the disease becomes progressive and worsening, this is the last phase of Johne's disease. In this stadium the elective diagnostic procedures are culture isolation, PCR, microscope faecal smear and ELISA test. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, fecal testing for Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, asymptomatic infections, granulomas, cytotoxicity, diagnostic techniques; humoral immunity, immune system, IgG, immune response, immunological-reactions; immunopathogenesis, immunopathology, interferon, macrophages, paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, small-intestine.

Cerf, O.; Griffiths, M.; Aziza, F. Assessment of the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in commercially pasteurized milk.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2007; 4(4): 433-447. ISSN 1535-3141
URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/fpd.2007.0028
NAL Call No.: QR115.F6637
Abstract: Conflicting laboratory-acquired data have been published about the heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of the deadly paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) of ruminants. Results of surveys of the presence of MAP in industrially pasteurized milk from several countries are conflicting also. This paper critically reviews the available data on the heat resistance of MAP and, based on these studies, a quantitative model describing the probability of finding MAP in pasteurized milk under the conditions prevailing in industrialized countries was derived using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation assesses the probability of detecting MAP in 50-mL samples of pasteurized milk as lower than 1%. Hypotheses are presented to explain why higher frequencies were found by some authors; these included improper pasteurization and cross-contamination in the analytical laboratory. Hypotheses implicating a high rate of inter- and intraherd prevalence of paratuberculosis or heavy contamination of raw milk by feces were rejected.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, milk products, raw milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, heat resistance of pathogen, mathematical simulation models, Monte Carlo method, paratuberculosis, literature reviews.

Chiang, S.K.; Sommer, S.; Aho, A.D.; Kiupel, M.; Colvin, C.; Tooker, B.; Coussens, P.M. Relationship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, IL-1l, and TRAF1 in primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Apr 15; 116(3-4): 131-144. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.01.005
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that resides in host macrophage cells. Presently, little is known about how MAP is able to subvert the normal bacteriocidal functions of infected macrophages. Previously, we reported that ileal tissues from MAP infected cattle contained high levels of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1l) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), relative to ileal tissues from uninfected cattle. High-level expression of these two proteins could have profound effects on macrophage function, intracellular signaling, and apoptosis. We now demonstrate that high levels of TRAF1 protein are located primarily within macrophages infiltrating areas of MAP infection. We have also utilized cultured bovine monocyte-derived macrophage cells (MDM) either infected with live MAP or stimulated with recombinant IL-1l (rIL-1l) to determine if there is a relationship between IL-1l and TRAF1 expression. These studies have identified a dose dependent increase in TRAF1 protein levels in bovine MDM in response to infection with live MAP or following treatment with rIL-1l. Sustained TRAF1 protein expression was dependent upon interaction of rIL-1l with it's receptor and rIL-1o was also able to enhance TRAF1 gene expression. Our results suggest that MAP may use the IL-1-TRAF1 system to enhance TRAF1 protein expression in infected bovine MDM. These novel results provide evidence for a new avenue of research on the effect of MAP and other intracellular pathogens on macrophage signaling and apoptosis.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle bacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infection, immune response, immune system, monocytes, macrophages, interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factors, biochemical mechanisms, macrophage activation, apoptosis, cell communication, molecular genetics, gene expression, in vitro studies, ileum, protein synthesis, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 1.

Chitra, M Ananda; Kishore,-Subodh. Lipoarabinomannan for the serological diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2007; 84(2): 123-126. ISSN: 0019-6479
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: Lipoarabinomannan is a highly immunogenic and essential cell wall component of mycobacteria. Induction of a strong and pure immunoreaction by lipoarabinomannan (LAM) makes, its an important,diagnostic reagent. Hence, an effort has been made to explore the possibility of using LAM as antigen in the serodiagnosis of bovine TB.
Descriptors: bovine diseases, Mycobacteria bovis; Mycobacteria paratuberculosis, Mycobacteria phlei, Mycobacteria smegmatis, Mycobacteria kansasii.

Cho, Donghee; Shin, Sung Jae; Talaat, Adel M.; Collins, Michael T. Cloning, expression, purification and serodiagnostic evaluation of fourteen Mycobacterium paratuberculosis proteins. Protein Expression and Purification. 2007; 53(2): 411-420. ISSN: 1046-5928
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10465928
Descriptors: bovine paratuberculosis; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis JTC303; 14 proteins from culture filtrate; immunoblot; mass spectrometry; express in Escherichia coli; antigeniticy; culture filtrate components: ModD, Antigen 85C, PepA, MAP1693c, and MAP2168c; polyclonal rabbit antibodies; bovine sera testing; ELISA using natural ModDas solid phase antigen; higher sensitivity; diagnostic potential.

Chui, L.; Chow, E.; King, R.; Manninen, K.; Sim, J. Development of an immunocapture assay using IgY for the detection of Mycobacterium avium spp. Paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 690. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection assay, immunocapture assay, IgY, chicken model, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium,Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium gordonae, real time PCR, test sensitivity.

Coelho, A.C.; Pinto, M.L.; Silva, S.; Coelho, A.M.; Rodrigues, J.; Juste, R.A. Seroprevalence of ovine paratuberculosis infection in the Northeast of Portugal.Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 298-303. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.07.009
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract : A survey to estimate the prevalence of ovine paratuberculosis in sheep flocks was conducted in the Northeast of Portugal. In total, 3900 samples of sheep older than 2 years belonging to 150 sheep flocks from 12 different territorial Livestock Farmers Organizations (OPP) were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Seventy (46.7%) flocks had one or more serologically positive animals. The individual paratuberculosis prevalence was 3.7% (144/3900), with values ranging from 0.0 to 10.3% per flock. Statistically significant differences between OPP, herd size and the presence of clinical signs was observed. According to the test sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer, the true prevalence in the Northeast of Portugal was calculated as 6.4%. In summary, a small percentage of animals and a high percentage of flocks in the Northeast of Portugal were serologically positive.
Descriptors: sheep flocks, over 2 years of age, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, infection levels, seroprevalence of antibodies, commercial ELISA test, Portugal.

Cook, K.L.; Britt, J.S. Optimization of methods for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples using quantitative, real-time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 69(1): 154-160. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Abstract: Detection of Johne's disease, an enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), has been impeded by the lack of rapid, reliable detection methods. The goal of this study was to optimize methodologies for detecting M. paratuberculosis in manure from an infected dairy cow or in contaminated soil samples using a quantitative, real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) based analysis. Three different nucleic acid extraction techniques, the efficiency of direct versus indirect sample extraction, and sample pooling were assessed. The limit of detection was investigated by adding dilutions of M. paratuberculosis to soil. Results show that the highest yield (19.4+or-2.3 micro g-1 DNA extract) and the highest copy number of the targeted M. paratuberculosis IS900 sequence (1.3+or-0.2x108 copies g-1 manure) were obtained with DNA extracted from manure using Qbiogene's FastReg. DNA Spin kit for soil. Pooling ten samples of M. paratuberculosis-contaminated soil improved the limit of detection ten fold (between 20 and 115 M. paratuberculosis cells g-1 soil). Detection was between 65% and 95% higher when samples were extracted directly using bead-beating than when using pre-treatment with cell extraction buffers. The final soil-sampling and extraction regime was applied for detection of M. paratuberculosis in pasture soil after the removal of a M. paratuberculosis culture positive dairy cow. M. paratuberculosis remained in the pasture soil for more than 200 days. Results from these studies suggest that DNA extraction method, sampling protocol and PCR conditions each critically influence the outcome and validity of the QRT-PCR analysis of M. paratuberculosis concentrations in environmental samples. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,cattle manure, soil contamination, detection and diagnostic techniques, real time PCR, nucleotide sequences.

Danelishvili, Lia; Wu, Martin; Stang, Bernadette; Harriff, Melanie; Cirillo, Stuart; Cirillo, Jeffrey; Bildfell, Robert; Arbogast, Brian; Bermudez, Luiz E. Identification of Mycobacterium avium pathogenicity island important for macrophage and amoeba infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007 June 26; 104(26): 11038-11043. ISSN: 0027-8424
URL: http://www.pnas.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 500 N21P
Abstract: The ability to infect macrophages is a common characteristic shared among many mycobacterial species. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium kansasii enter macrophages, using the complement receptors CR1, CR3, CR4, and the mannose receptor. To identify M. avium genes and host cell pathways involved in the bacterial uptake by macrophages, we screened a M. avium transposon mutant library for the inability to enter macrophages. Uptake-impaired clones were selected. Sequence of six M. avium clones identified one gene involved in glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis, one gene encoding the conserved membrane protein homologue to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP2446c gene and four others belonging to the same region of the chromosome. Analysis of the chromosome region revealed a pathogenicity island inserted between two tRNA sequences with 58% of G+C content versus 69% in the M. avium genome. The region is unique for M. avium and is not present in M. tuberculosis or M. paratuberculosis. Although the mutants did not differ from the WT bacterium regarding the binding to macrophage cell membrane, analysis of macrophage proteins after 1 h infection revealed a deficiency in the mutant to phosphorylate certain proteins on uptake. To understand M. avium interaction with two evolutionarily distinct hosts, the mutants were evaluated for Acanthamoeba castellanii invasion. The defect in the ability of the mutants to invade both cells was highly similar, suggesting that M. avium might have evolved mechanisms that are used to enter amoebas and human macrophages.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenicity, ability to infect macrophages and amoebas, mutants unable to infect macrophages, inability to phosphorylate certain proteins on uptake.

De , U.K. Diagnostic approach to paratuberculosis in animals.Veterinary World. 2007; 6(4): 119-121. ISSN: 0972-8988
Abstract: This article presents the different diagnostic tests (faecal examination, bacterial culture, milk culture, biopsy, skin tests, serum biochemistry, serological tests, complement fixation tests, agar gel immunodiffusion, fluorescent antibody technique, ELISA and lymphocyte stimulation test) for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, domestic animals, livestock, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic procedures, biopsy, blood chemistry, complement fixation tests, cultures, ELISA, fecal examination, skin tests, fluorescent antibody technique, IFAT, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence tuberculosis.

De Koning, Dirk Jan; Jaffrezic, Florence; Lund, Mogens Sando; Watson, Michael; Channing, Caroline; Hulsegge, Ina; Pool, Marco H.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hedegaard, Jakob; Hornshoj, Henrik; Jiang, Li; Sorensen, Peter; Marot, Guillemette; Delmas, Celine; Le Cao, Kim Anh; Cristobal, Magali-San; Baron, Michael D.; Malinverni, Roberto; Stella, Alessandra; Brunner, Ronald M.; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Jensen,-Kirsty ; Mouzaki, Daphne ; Waddington, David; Jimenez Marin, Angeles; Perez Alegre, Monica; Perez Reinado, Eva; Closset, Rodrigue; Detilleux,-Johanne C.; Dovc, Peter; Lavric, Miha; Nie, Haisheng; Janss, Luc. The EADGENE microarray data analysis workshop (open access publication).Genetics Selection Evolution (Les-Ulis). 2007; 39(6): 621-631. ISSN: 0999-193X
Abstract: Microarray analyses have become an important tool in animal genomics. While their use is becoming widespread, there is still a lot of ongoing research regarding the analysis of microarray data. In the context of a European Network of Excellence, 31 researchers representing 14 research groups from 10 countries performed and discussed the statistical analyses of real and simulated 2-colour microarray data that were distributed among participants. The real data consisted of 48 microarrays from a disease challenge experiment in dairy cattle, while the simulated data consisted of 10 microarrays from a direct comparison of two treatments (dye-balanced). While there was broader agreement with regards to methods of microarray normalisation and significance testing, there were major differences with regards to quality control. The quality control approaches varied from none, through using statistical weights, to omitting a large number of spots or omitting entire slides. Surprisingly, these very different approaches gave quite similar results when applied to the simulated data, although not all participating groups analysed both real and simulated data. The workshop was very successful in facilitating interaction between scientists with a diverse background but a common interest in microarray analyses.
Descriptors: EADGENE-microarray-data-analysis, mathematical-and-computer-techniques, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, genomics.

Deb, R.; Perme, H. Advance immune-molecular approaches for diagnosis of paratuberculosis.Veterinary World. 2007; 5(11): 358-360. ISSN: 0972-8988
Abstract: The methods used for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in animals are reviewed: direct method; culture of the organism; radioisotopic culture; PCR; molecular tools; serological approaches; cell mediated immunity-based. The transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from animal to man is discussed. Moreover, the molecular characteristics of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis are presented.
Descriptors: beef, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cell culture, cell mediated immunity, serological diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, cellular immunity, immunodiagnosis, milk, milk products, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, radionuclides, water, zoonotic transmission.

Deb Rajib; Perme Honjon; Goswami, P.P. Map: a potential zoonotic agent. North East Veterinarian. 2007; 7(1): 25-26. ISSN: 0973-2004
Descriptors: livestock, humans, wild animals, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), disease characteristics, bacterial characteristics, pathogenesis, pathogenesis, disease transmission, zoonotic potential of MAP, food safety aspects, treatment, prevention, therapeutics.

Dhand, N.K.; Eppleston, J.; Whittington, R.J.; Toribio, J.A.L.M.L. Risk factors for ovine Johne's disease in infected sheep flocks in Australia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Nov 15; 82(1-2): 51-71. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.007
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: 92 Merino sheep flocks; 3-5 y/o animals; ovine Johne’s disease; Mycobacterium avium subspparatuberculosis; pooled fecal testing; disease status; prevalence levels; multivariable analyses; risk factors; data from questionnaire and face-to face farmer interviews; risks included: poor condition of the dams, high stocking rate during lambing, longer growth retardation in lifetime, lower rated if vaccination for 2 years, culling low body weight sheep, selling subflocks with high losses, sharing roads between farms, frequency of application of super phosphate fertiliers, age of sheep; epidemiology; cross sectional study; Australia.

Dieguez Francisco J.; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Sanjuan, Maria L.; Vilar, Maria-J.; Lopez, Manuel; Yus, Eduardo. Prevalence of serum antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in Galicia (northwest Spain).Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Dec 14; 82(3-4): 321-326. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.08.006
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Prior to establishing a control and prevention program for Johne's disease in cattle in Galicia (northwest Spain), a survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of the disease. For this survey, 61,069 animals of at least 1-year of age from 2735 randomly selected herds were bled and samples analyzed with a commercial ELISA. The estimated true individual-level prevalences – assuming the manufacturer's reported test sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 98.9% – were 3.02% in dairy cattle, 1.03% in beef cattle and 2.83% in animals from farms with both dairy and beef cattle. True herd prevalences (with herds declared positive if one or more animals tested positive) were 10.69% for dairy herds, 0% for beef herds and 2.71% for mixed herds. When herds were declared positive if at least two animals tested positive, true herd prevalences were 14.75% for dairy herds, 1.47% for beef herds and 12.01% for mixed herds. Assuming a higher specificity of 99.4%, true individual-level prevalences increased to 4.03% in dairy herds, 2.07% in beef herds and 3.84% in mixed herds. Herd prevalences were 27.77%/18.79%, 2.78%/2.40% and 5.70%/12.24% (using the one/two-animal cut-offs) in dairy, beef and mixed herds, respectively. In conclusion, these results seem to indicate that a small percentage of cows and a rather high percentage of dairy herds in this region are MAP-seropositive.
Descriptors: cattle, serum testing, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Spain.

Donaghy, J.A.; Linton, M.; Patterson, M.F.; Rowe, M.T. Effect of high pressure and pasteurization on Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2007 Aug; 45(2): 154-159. ISSN: 0266-8254
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02163.x
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Abstract: To determine the effect of high pressures alone and in conjunction with pasteurization on the viability of two strains of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Map in a milk matrix was subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa with and without pasteurization (72pC for 15 s) and plated onto Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and Middlebrook 7H10 (7H10) agar, both containing antibiotic supplements. Medium 7H10 was found to give a significantly (P < 0p"001) better recovery than HEYM. A significantly greater (P < 0p"001) reduction in viable numbers was observed using 500 MPa (mean log reduction of 6p"52) compared with 400 MPa (mean log reduction of 2p"56) and between 400 MPa and control (no applied pressure) for 10 min treatments. A treatment time of 10 min resulted in significantly (P < 0p"001) fewer survivors than 5 min. Low numbers of survivors were still detected when pressure treatment at 400 and 600 MPa was combined with subsequent pasteurization. The use of high-pressure was effective in reducing viable numbers of Map but even when combined with pasteurization there were still survivors, albeit when high inoculum levels of Map were used. To the authors' knowledge the work reported here represents the first study of the efficacy of high-pressure treatments alone and in combination with pasteurization to kill Map. The results indicate that further research is warranted before more commercial-scale studies are commissioned.
Descriptors: milk, high pressure pasteurization treatment, efficacy alone or in combination, differences in kill levels of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, research study.

Donovan, Douglas C.; Reber, Adrian J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Aceves-Avila, Maria; Galland, Kimberly L.; Holbert, Katheryn A.; Ely, Lane O; Hurley, David J. Effect of maternal cells transferred with colostrum on cellular responses to pathogen antigens in neonatal calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 68(7): 778-782. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: Holstein calves, dairy cattle, neonatal immune responses, colostrum study, whole colostrum, frozen colostrum and cell-free colostrum, leukocytes, proliferative responses, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterial purified protein derivatives, cell mediated immune transfer can be enhanced by maternal vaccination.

Duthie S.; Burr, P.; Mills, H.; Orpin, P.; Snodgrass, D. Analysis of Map antibody in milk samples.Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(1): 1-2. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: The ability of an ELISA assay to give consistent results in the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) antibodies in bovine serum and milk samples and whether bulk milk sampling could be used to monitor Johne's disease status in dairy herds were evaluated. Serum and milk samples obtained from 155 dairy cows showed 95% agreement between the results from these samples. Bulk milk samples from 8 herds with a known history of Johne's disease, 1 herd which was negative for the last 8 years and 17 herds with an unknown status in the UK were tested. These herds were divided into an accredited disease free herd and 16 presumed negative herds (Group A) and 8 known infected herds and 1 herd with a positive result from targeted sampling (Group B). There was a significant difference between bulk milk titres in both groups. Targeted sampling and bulk milk testing can be useful in screening herds for Johne's disease using a bulk milk titre of >10 as a cutoff for positive herds, although these techniques may miss herds with a lower prevalence of the disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairycattle, dairy herds, serum and milk samples, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis antibodies, monitoring disease status, bulk milk of multiple herds, diagnostic techniques, ELISA assay, UK.

Eamens, G. Testing for bovine Johne's disease.Primefacts. 2007; (461): 3 pp
URL: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/resources/factsheets
Abstract: This paper focuses on the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease [paratuberculosis] in cattle. The available diagnostic tests, their advantages and disadvantages, the situations where they can be applied, and how they can be made more sensitive are described. The reasons for the difficulty in detecting infected animals, the reliability of the tests, and the role of these tests in reducing the risk of getting the disease are discussed.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle herds, diagnosis of Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease risk reduction stragegies.

Eamens, G.J.; Whittington, R.J.; Turner, M.J.; Austin, S.L.; Fell, S.A.; Marsh, I.B. Evaluation of radiometric faecal culture and direct PCR on pooled faeces for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Nov 15; 125(1-2): 22-35. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.04.043
NAL Call No. : SF601.V44
Abstract : Dilution rates for pooled faecal culture (PFC) and direct IS900 polymerase chain reaction (D-PCR) tests were evaluated on faecal samples from infected cows mixed with uninfected faeces in dilutions from 1 in 5 to 1 in 50. PFC was performed by radiometric culture, with confirmation by IS900 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR/REA) on growth, and by mycobactin dependency testing on solid medium. Using 37 culture positive faecal samples from 12 subclinical cows, 83.8% and 94.6% of samples were confirmed positive in the PFC assay at dilutions of 1 in 50 and 1 in 30, respectively. Lower dilutions (1 in 5 to 1 in 20) provided only marginally better sensitivity, and confirmation of PFC growth by PCR/REA was significantly more sensitive than mycobactin dependency. D-PCR had significantly lower sensitivity than PFC confirmed by PCR/REA, with pools of 1 in 50, 30, 10 and 5 yielding positive results in 64.9%, 70.3%, 78.4% and 83.8% of samples, respectively. Cattle considered to be shedding 1.5 x 10(6) viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map)/g faeces (on the basis of estimated losses in processing and growth rates in radiometric broth) were positive at dilutions up to 1 in 50 in the PFC and D-PCR. Those shedding 5 x 10(5) viable Map/g were positive in the PFC at dilutions up to 1 in 40, but required a 1 in 10 dilution or less for D-PCR. The results suggest that for cattle shedding relatively high concentrations of Map in faeces (>2 x 10(5) viable Map/g), maximal dilutions of 1 in 30 for PFC and 1 in 10 for D-PCR would be applicable.
Descriptors: cattle, fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pooled fecal sampling, and direct IS900 polymerase chain reaction (D-PCR) tests, radiometric culture, dilutions recommended.

Eamens, G.J.; Turner, M.J.; Whittington, R.J. Sampling and repeatability of radiometric faecal culture in bovine Johne's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Jan 31; 119(2-4): 184-193. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.024
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The repeatability of detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) within and between samplings from 16 paratuberculous dairy cows (13 subclinical; 3 clinical) was investigated by radiometric culture of quadrants of faecal dung pats collected on four to seven occasions over a 10-16-day period. Results were compared to serological status and to pathological and bacteriological findings in multiple tissues obtained at slaughter from 15 of the animals 2-6 weeks after the faecal samplings. From faecal samples taken on 77 occasions over the 2-week period, 296/308 (96%) quadrants were culture positive, with samples from all cattle showing evidence of faecal shedding of Map. Histological lesions typical of paratuberculosis were present in 14 of the 15 cows examined at slaughter, varying in severity from mild (two animals) to moderate (4) and advanced (8), and all predilection tissue sites yielded Map. The negative faecal samples were derived from a single animal that was culture positive in two quadrants on each of the first two (of four) sampling occasions (i.e. culture positive in only 4 of 16 collected quadrants). This animal was found to be histologically negative at slaughter, and culture positive from three of five predilection tissue sites. Faecal samples from cows with subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis, with lesion severity ranging from mild to severe at multiple predilection sites, produced faeces with relatively consistent concentrations of Map within samples. There was significant variation in concentrations of Map between samples in individual animals over a period of 2 weeks, but this did not affect the dichotomous positive-negative culture status for 15 of the 16 cattle. A faecal sample collected non-randomly per rectum thus provides a representative specimen for detection of Map by radiometric culture on a single sampling occasion.
Descriptors: diary cows, fecal culturing, detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture compared to post slaughter tissue sampling, severity of disease, 2-6 week fecal sampling period.

Eamens, G.J.; Walker, D.M.; Porter, N.S.; Fell, S.A. Pooled faecal culture for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 June; 85(6): 243-251. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: goats, goat microbial diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal pathogen shedding, pooled fecal testing, disease diagnosis, disease transmission, bacterial strains, strain differences, Australia.

Eppleston, J.; Windsor, P.A. Lesions attributed to vaccination of sheep with Gudair for the control of ovine paratuberculosis: post farm economic impacts at slaughter. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Apr; 85(4): 129-133. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No. : 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases,skin lesions, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, vaccination, vaccines, slaughter, economic impact, adverse effects, prevalence, carcass evaluation, Gudair vaccine, carcass discounting surveys, New South Wales, Australia.

Estevez-Denaives, I.; Hernandez-Castro, R.; Trujillo-Garcia, A.M.; Chavez-Gris, G. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in goat and sheep flocks in Mexico. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Oct; 72(2-3): 209-213. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.017
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The slow growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has hindered its investigation. No data concerning the presence of paratuberculosis in Mexico are currently available. The aim of this study was to identify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep and goat flocks from several states in Mexico. Twenty-two animals, all manifesting clinical signs of paratuberculosis were obtained from six different Mexican states. Of these, 14 sheep and 8 goats were serologically diagnosed and multibacillary type lesions were identified. On the basis of mycobacteria concentration technique used for ileal mucosa, Map identification was confirmed by means of PCR and bacterial culture. In addition, samples were classified according to the abundance of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) identified in the intestinal mucosa and by the final concentrate of mycobacteria and the amount of DNA obtained. All correlations concerning the abundance of AFB in tissue, AFB recovered in the final concentrate and the amount of DNA obtained was recorded. These findings will allow to predict the amount of DNA which can be obtained by referring to the abundance of acid-fast organisms found in the tissue and, therefore, define the potential of using this method for the purpose of Map characterization. The results of this study indicate that paratuberculosis is widespread among goats and sheep in Mexico.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, multibacillary-type lesions found, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis with PCR and bacterial cultures, ileal mucosa, disease levels, 6 state survey, Mexico.

Fosgate, G.T.; Scott, H.M.; Jordan, E.R. Development of a method for Bayesian nonparametric ROC analysis with application to an ELISA for Johne's disease in dairy cattle.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Sept 14; 81(1-3): 178-193. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.04.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7

Descriptors: dairy cattle, bacterial disease, Johne’s disease, disease modeling program, Bayesian analysis, disease levels.

Gao, Anli; Mutharia, Lucy; Raymond, Melinda; Odumeru, Joseph. Improved template DNA preparation procedure for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in milk by PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 69(2): 417-420. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors: milk, dairy product, template preparation, raw milk, spiked with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, IS900 PCR, pathogen partitioned into cream in unheated milk, pellet fraction in heat treated milk.

Gay, C.G.; Zuerner, R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Lillehoj, H.S.; Zhu, J.J.; Green, R.; Pastoret, P.P. Genomics and vaccine development. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2007; 26(1): 49-67. ISSN: 0253-1933
NAL call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: high throughput technologies, genome analysis, transcriptome, proteome, pathogen biology, host immune systems, host-pathogen interaction, possible discovery of vaccines for animals, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella avium, Bordetella parapertussis, Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Geisbauer, E.; Khol, J.L.; Wassertheurer, M.; Damoser, J.; Osterreicher, E.; Dunser, M.; Fernandez, S.R.; Baumgartner, W. Longterm investigation in an Austrian dairy herd with low prevalence of paratuberculosis detection of antibodies in blood and milk.The Veterinary Quarterly. 2007 Dec; 29(4): 138-148. ISSN: 0165-2176
NAL Call No.: SF601.V46
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), which is widely distributed throughout the world, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Diagnosis of subclinically infected cattle is challenging and is especially problematic in herds with low prevalence of MAP. The aim of this long-term study was the comparison of different diagnostic tests for MAP and specific antibodies in a herd with low prevalence of MAP. Three different commercially available serum-ELISA (SvanovirTM-ELISA, Svanova, Uppsala, Sweden; IDEXX-ELISA, IDEXX Laboratories, Maine, USA; Pourquier-ELISA, Institut Pourquier, Montpellier, France) and two milk ELISA (SvanovirTM-ELISA Svanova, Uppsala, Sweden; Pourquier-ELISA, Institut Pourquier, Montpellier, France) were compared. Apart from these indirect diagnostic tests, two methods for the detection of the etiologic agent (bacteriologic culture and real-time PCR of faecal samples) were performed. In January 2005 the first and in April 2005 the second herd investigation of all animals older than 2 years (n=335) were carried out. Blood, milk and faecal samples were taken. From November 2005 until April 2006 follow up investigations were performed. For this purpose, blood-, milk- and faecal samples were monthly taken from 63 selected animals. The highest number of blood- and milk samples with a detectable antibody-level was found by the SvanovirTM-ELISA. There was a significant correlation between serum- and milk-SvanovirTM-ELISA results, whereas the agreement between ELISA and faecal culture/PCR was low. Significant correlations between SvanovirTM-serum-ELISA results and milk somatic cell counts could be registered. Moreover, there was significant agreement between IDEXX-serum-ELISA results with the age and number of lactations of the cows, as well as the mother's MAP-status.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herd, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, levels in blood and milk, Johne’s disease, low herd prevalences, Austria.

Geue, L.; Kohler, H.; Klawonn, W.; Drager, K.; Hess, R.G.; Conraths, F.J. Untersuchungen zur Eignung von ELISAs zum Nachweis von Antikorpern gegen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Tankmilchproben aus Rheinland-Pfalz. [Investigations on suitability of ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples from Rhineland-Palatinate.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2007; 120(1/2): 67-78. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Abstract: Paratuberculosis or Johne's Disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a notifiable disease in Germany which produces enormous economical losses in dairy farms. At present, there is no confirmed data about the actual number of infected livestock herds in Germany. A countrywide monitoring program to evaluate the prevalence in dairy herds would only be economically feasible on the basis of bulk milk testing. In this study, we evaluated two ELISA test kits (SVANOVIR Ptb-ELISA, IDEXX-M.pt. Milk test kit) for the detection of antibodies against MAP in bulk milk. First, the paratuberculosis-status of the herd derived from the history of the farm was used as a gold standard. Paratuberculosis-negative farms were tested negative with each test, but paratuberculosis-positive or paratuberculosis-serologically-positive farms were detected only in one case (Svanovir) or three cases (IDEXX), respectively. Even if inconclusive results are counted as positive, 82.9% (Svanovir) or 80% (IDEXX) of the paratuberculosis-positive or serologically paratuberculosis positive farms were not detected. Nevertheless, a re-validation of both ELISAs by means of ROC and TG-ROC analyses was attempted by searching for ideal cut-offs, optimized for bulk milk. If a high specificity was selected, no acceptable sensitivity could be reached. The best results were obtained using a sensitivity of 32.3% at a specificity of 100% (Svanovir). With a small change of the cut-off value, the sensitivity increased to still 57%, but this reduced the specificity to 67%. Similar results were obtained with the IDEXX-ELISA. We then evaluated the Svanovir-ELISA for the detection of bulk milk samples on the basis of the current paratuberculosis prevalence within 69 dairy herds from Rhineland-Palatinate using individual milk samples. When the bulk milk samples were tested in two different laboratories using the same ELISA, considerable differences in the results became evident. Nearly all samples were tested with a higher relative test result in one laboratory, which often led to differences in the classification of the prevalence levels. The estimated within-herd seroprevalences ranged between 0% and 37%. There was little agreement between the historical paratuberculosis herd status and the within-herd prevalence in milk serum, as reflected in a kappa-index of 0.146. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the bulk milk ELISA by ROC and TG-ROC analysis, 116 bulk milk samples were used that had been obtained from the 69 dairy herds participating in the study. The optimal ratio of sensitivity (81%) and specificity (77%) relative to a "gold standard" was obtained when the cut-off was set at the 10% level. These values for sensitivity and specificity were better than those obtained in an evaluation of the same ELISA in which the historical paratuberculosis herd-status was used as a "gold standard". The results of this study question the suitability of the available ELISAs for bulk milk testing. Taking into account that the Svanovir-ELISA for individual milk samples has a sensitivity of 60% relative to the blood serum variant of the test, and that the latter has also a limited sensitivity due to the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis, the available test systems examined in this study do not seem to be suitable for herd diagnosis by using bulk milk samples. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy farms, economic losses, bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monitoring program, paratuberculosis prevalence data, bulk milk testing, two ELISA test kits, SVANOVIR Ptb-ELISA and IDEXX-M.pt. milk test kit, comparison study, sensitivity levels of tests, Germany.

Gollnick , N.S. ; Mitchell, R.M.; Baumgart, M.; Janagama, H.K.; Sreevatsan, S.; Schukken, Y.H. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages is not affected by host infection status but depends on the infecting bacterial genotype. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Dec 15; 120(3-4): 93-105. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.07.017
NAL Call No .: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: In this study we investigated the ability of different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) strains to survive in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of cows naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis and control cows. We tested the hypotheses that infection status of cows affects macrophage killing ability and that survival of M. paratuberculosis in macrophages is dependent on the strain. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from Johne's disease-positive (n = 3) and age and stage of lactation matched Johne's disease-negative (n = 3) multiparious cows. Following differentiation, MDMs were challenged in vitro with four M. paratuberculosis strains of different host specificity (cattle and sheep). Two hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after infection, ingestion, and intracellular survival of M. paratuberculosis strains were determined by fluorescence microscopy. There was no effect of the origin of MDMs (Johne's disease-positive or control animals) on phagocytosis, survival of bacteria, or macrophage survival. In contrast, important strain differences were observed. These findings suggest that some M. paratuberculosis strains interfere more successfully than others with the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular pathogens which may make it important to include strain typing when designing control programs.
Descriptors: infected cattle, different ages and stages of lactation, monocyte-derived macrophages, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, killing ability of macrophages, survival of pathogen, pathogen strain effect, strain typing.

Gonda, M.G.; Chang, Y.M.; Shook, G.E.; Collins,.M.T.; Kirkpatrick, B.W. Effect of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on production, reproduction, and health traits in US Holsteins.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 July 16; 80(2-3): 103-119. ISSN: 0167-5877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: Holstein dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk composition, lactation, milk yield, pregnancy rate, health status, disease diagnosis, somatic cell count, feces sampling, in vitro culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, statistical analysis, USA.

Gonda, M.G.; Kirkpatrick, B.W.; Shook, G.E.; Collins, M.T. Identification of a QTL on BTA20 affecting susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Animal Genetics. 2007 Aug; 38(4): 389-396. ISSN: 0268-9146
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01627.x
NAL Call No.: QP98.A1A5
Abtract: The objective of this study was to identify QTL affecting susceptibility to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Twelve paternal half-sib families were selected for the study based on large numbers of daughters in production and limited relationships among sires. Serum and faecal samples from 4350 daughters of these 12 sires were obtained for disease testing. Case definition for an infected cow was an ELISA sample-to-positive ratio >=0.25, a positive faecal culture or both. Three families were selected for genotyping based on a high apparent prevalence (6.8-10.4% infected cows), high faecal culture prevalence (46.2-52.9% positive faecal cultures) and large numbers of daughters tested for disease (264-585). DNA pooling was used to genotype cows, with an average of 159 microsatellites within each sire family. Infected cows (the positive pool) were matched with two of their non-infected herdmates in the same lactation (the negative pool) to control for herd and age effects. Eight chromosomal regions putatively linked with susceptibility to M. paratuberculosis infection were identified using a Z-test (P < 0.01). Significant results were more rigorously tested by individually genotyping cows with three to five informative microsatellites within 15 cM of the significant markers identified with the DNA pools. Probability of infection based on both diagnostic tests was estimated for each individual and used as the dependent variable for interval mapping. Based on this analysis, evidence for the presence of a QTL segregating within families on BTA20 was found (chromosome-wide P-value = 0.0319).
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, quantitative trait loci.

Green, L.E. Improving farm animal health - understanding infectious endemic disease. In: D. J. Mellor and J/.R. Newton [Editors]. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Dipoli, Helsinki/Espoo, Finland, 28-30 March 2007. Published by the Society. 2007: 13-25. ISBN: 9780948073793.
Descriptors: cattle, pigs, hogs, sheep, animal health, various important common diseases, infectious diseases, bovine mastitis, foot rot, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, bovine tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, arterivirus, control programs, disease control, disease prevention and control, heterogeneity, immunity, pathogenesis, persistence, virulence.

Gumber, S.; Taylor, D.L.; Whittington, R.J. Protein extraction from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: comparison of methods for analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native PAGE and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 68(1): 115-127. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, proteome, methods comparison study, SDS-PAGE, native PAGE, SELDI-TOF-MS, efficacy of various lysis buffers, chaotropic agents (Urea CHAPS and potassium thiocyanate), non-ionic detergent (Tween20 and Triton X-100) extracts.

Gumber, S.; Whittington R.J. Comparison of BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 systems for the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis S strain and observations on the effect of inclusion of ampicillin in culture media to reduce contamination.Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Jan 17; 119(1): 42-52. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.009
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: To compare the utility and diagnostic accuracy of BACTEC and MGIT culture systems, a total of 41 pooled faecal samples, each containing faeces from one sheep infected with the S strain of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and four uninfected sheep was cultured. The MGIT culture system did not support the growth of the S strain of M. paratuberculosis from faeces within the time frame of the experiments, although a laboratory adapted S strain grew slowly in MGIT provided that sufficient bacteria were inoculated. In contrast, C strain grew rapidly in MGIT. The sensitivity of culture was calculated relative to the infection status of the animals, none of which had clinical signs of ovine Johne's disease. The overall sensitivity of pooled faecal culture in the BACTEC culture system was 21.9% (95% confidence limits, 10.5-37.6), a figure dependant on the proportion of multibacillary cases. The sensitivities of the BACTEC culture system for pools containing animals with multibacillary and paucibacillary lesions were 100.0% (95% confidence limits, 47.2-100.0) and 17.8% (95% confidence limits 6.06-36.8), respectively. The contamination rate of BACTEC cultures was 9.7% compared to 14.3% for MGIT. The effect of 100 og/ml [?] ampicillin on the S strain of the M. paratuberculosis was examined and in both BACTEC and MGIT media it delayed growth by about 1 week. The composition of MGIT medium, particularly presence of vancomycin hydrochloride, slowed the growth of the S strain. The low content of egg yolk was considered to be another possible factor. The radiometric BACTEC culture system remains the best alternative for the culture of S strain and is recommended in circumstances where the genotype (s) of the strains present in a region/farm is either unknown or S strain.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s, paratuberculosis, disease detection, pathogen identification, diagnostic techniques, laboratory techniques, analytical kits, cell culture, feces, culture media, radiometry, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, microbial growth, strain differences, slow growing strains, fast growing strains, accuracy, rapid methods, decontamination, ampicillin.

Hayton, A.J. Johne's disease.Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(1): 79-87. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating condition caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). It is characterised by diarrhoea, loss of condition and ultimately death. Economic losses result from premature culling and decreased productivity, which is a feature of the subclinical disease. In 2001 it was estimated that as many as 20% of UK dairy herds could be endemically infected with Map. Data from other countries, from where animals have been imported into the UK, would suggest a herd prevalence of up to 70% indicating that the likely herd prevalence within the UK might be higher than 20%. Since 2000 there has been a significant increase in the number of Johne's disease diagnoses made in Britain (VIDA), a trend indicating that the disease is becoming more prevalent. Similarities in the pathology of Johne's disease and the human enteric condition Crohn's disease, have long been recognised. A link between these conditions has been suggested following the isolation of Map from some Crohn's sufferers. Such a link has yet to be either proved or disproved but following the demonstration of Map in pasteurized milk at retail outlets the Food Standards Agency has urged a precautionary approach, advising all parts of the agricultural industry to work to prevent Map from entering the food chain. There are sound financial reasons why heavily infected herds should work towards the control of Johne's disease and why remaining free of infection should be an important objective for those herds yet to experience the disease. Control of Johne's disease, however, on a herd level presents considerable practical difficulties arising from the complex pathogenesis of the disease and the difficulty in identifying infected animals in the preclinical phase. This paper outlines current knowledge about Johne's disease and discusses measures that can be taken to control the disease.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, asymptomatic infections, pathogenesis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, clinical aspects, disease prevention and control programs, economic losses, zoonoses, UK.

Hines , M.E. II; Stabel, J.R.; Sweeney, R.W.; Griffin, F.; Talaat, A.M;. Bakker, D.; Benedictus, G.; Davis, W.C.; de Lisle, G.W.; Gardner, I.A. Experimental challenge models for Johne's disease: A review and proposed international guidelines. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 June 21; 122(3-4): 197-222. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.03.009
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: An international committee of Johne's disease (JD) researchers was convened to develop guidelines for JD challenge studies in multiple animal species. The intent was to develop and propose international standard guidelines for models based on animal species that would gain acceptance worldwide. Parameters essential for the development of long-term and short-term infection models were outlined and harmonized to provide a best fit JD challenge model for cattle, goats, sheep, cervids, and mice. These models will be useful to study host-pathogen interactions, host immunity at the local and systemic level, and for evaluating vaccine candidates and therapeutics. The consensus guidelines herein list by animal species strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis used, challenge dose, dose frequency, age of challenge, route of challenge, preparation of inoculum, experimental animal selection, quality control, minimal experimental endpoints and other parameters.
Descriptors: animal diseases, wildlife diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, vaccination, vaccines, drug evaluation, experimental design, challenge studies guidelines, animal models, international policy and programs, literature reviews, livestock, Cervidae, mice strains, dosage, inoculation methods, animal age, quality control.

Hines, M.E II; Stiver, S.; Giri, D.; Whittington, L.; Watson, C.; Johnson, J.; Musgrove, J.; Pence, M.; Hurley, D.; Baldwin,.C. Efficacy of spheroplastic and cell-wall competent vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally-challenged baby goats. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Mar 10; 120(3-4): 261-283. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.10.030
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne's disease (JD). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of four MAP vaccine combinations, including cell-wall competent (CWC) alum adjuvant, CWC-QS21 adjuvant, cell-wall deficient (CWD) alum adjuvant and CWD-QS21 adjuvant vaccines. Eighty baby goats were vaccinated at 1 and 4 weeks of age with one of these vaccines or a sham control vaccine consisting of alum adjuvant. Kids were challenged orally with approximately 6.0 x 10# organisms in four divided doses of 1.5 x 10# organisms using a goat isolate of MAP. Vaccinated challenged and challenged control groups had 10 and 6 kids per group, respectively. Half of the kids within each group were necropsied at either 6 or 9 months post-challenge. Gross and microscopic lesions and relative number of acid-fast bacilli were evaluated and scored at necropsy. Results indicated all challenged kids had some lesions compatible with JD suggesting none of the vaccines prevented infection. Three vaccines (CWC-alum, CWC-QS21 and CWD-QS21) reduced lesion scores by 46-51% at 9 months. CWD-alum vaccine resulted in a more severe (+33.5%) lesion score than sham-vaccinated challenged control. Lesion scores were greater at 9 months than at 6 months post-challenge in the sham-vaccinated challenged group and CWD-alum vaccinated group, while lesion scores were generally stable with remaining vaccines. Mean fecal CFU/g were significantly different across time from challenge to 9-month necropsy (p = 0.043) and the CWC-QS21 vaccine group had a marked reduction in fecal CFU/g at all time points post-challenge. A reduction in MAP CFU/g was also detected in necropsy tissues from kids given the CWC-alum, CWC-QS21 and CWD-QS21 vaccines, and increased CFU/g were detected in tissues from kids given the CWD-alum vaccine. Immunological tests evaluated included, humoral response evaluation by AGID, ELISA and Western blot, and cell mediated response by comparative PPD skin testing (M. avium, Old Johnin, M. bovis and Lot 2 Johnin PPD's), and production of MAP induced d-interferon. Vaccination also resulted in false-positive PPD skin test reactions for M. avium PPD, Old Johnin PPD and d-interferon tests. When a 2-mm cutoff above normal skin thickness was used to define positive skin test reactions, false-positive reactions for M. bovis were detected in only 2 of 32 kids given a vaccine with QS21 adjuvant.
Descriptors: cell walls, vaccines, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, goat kids, animal models, paratuberculosis, goat diseases, drug evaluation, vaccine adjuvants, vaccination, disease signs and symptoms (animals and humans), seroprevalence, disease control, spheroplast, pathogen shedding.

Hinger, M.; Brandt, H.; Horner, S.; Erhardt, G. Short communication: Association analysis of microsatellites and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antibody response in German Holsteins.Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Apr; 90(4): 1957-1961. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis in ruminants is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis, resulting in persistent diarrhea and progressive wasting of cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The disease occurs worldwide with high frequency, leading to growing economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of microsatellites (BMC9006, BB704, BB705, BB717, BB719, BMS1617, BB702, and BOBT24) located near or within candidate genes involved in response mechanisms to paratuberculosis. Pedigree information existed for 4,686 German Holstein cows that had routinely been screened for MAP status using commercially available serum antibody ELISA test. The immunoglobulin G cutoff level was used to classify all animals as positive or negative for paratuberculosis. A total of 594 (12.7%) cows tested positive for paratuberculosis. The control group comprised 585 animals testing negative for MAP. Microsatellite BMC9006 had only 3 alleles (2 of which occurred at very low frequencies in the present data set) and was therefore not informative; the remaining microsatellites showed 3 to 12 alleles. Fisher's exact and spo[t?] tests revealed no significant differences in microsatellite allele frequencies between the 2 groups of German Holstein cows testing positive or negative for paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: German Holstein dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microsatellite repeats, animal genetics, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, immune response, immunoglobulin G, disease detection, alleles, gene frequency,molecular sequence data, Germany.

Hughes, V.; Smith, S.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Sales, J.; Stevenson, K. Proteomic comparison of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis grown in vitro and isolated from clinical cases of ovine paratuberculosis. Microbiology Reading. 2007; 153(1): 196-205. ISSN: 1350-0872.
URL: http://mic.sgmjournals.org
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) poses a significant economic problem to beef, dairy and sheep industries worldwide, and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. In this study, 2D PAGE was used as a tool to investigate the virulent state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, incorporating the technique of beating the organism with zirconium/silica beads to provide a comprehensive representation of its proteome. A direct comparison of the proteomes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis scraped from the terminal ileum of ovine paratuberculosis cases, and the identical strain grown in vitro, is presented. These analyses identified a set of 10 proteins whose expression is upregulated during natural infection: 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (RocA), a putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE14), 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (2-mcd), arginosuccinate synthase (ArgG), universal stress protein (usp), 30S ribosomal protein S2 (RpsB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PpiA), luciferase-like monooxygenase (lmo), thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (SseA) and ATP-dependent Clp protease (ClpB). Most of the proteins identified do not have obviously related functions; however, ArgG and RocA function in the same pathway, and may have a concerted action for energy production in vivo. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, paratuberculosis, 2D PAGE testing the virulent state of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial sampling of the terminal infected sheep ileum, beating pathogen cells with zirconium/silica beads, representation of proteome, upregulation of 10 proteins in infection, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (RocA), a putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE14), 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (2-mcd), arginosuccinate synthase (ArgG), universal stress protein (usp), 30S ribosomal protein S2 (RpsB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PpiA), luciferase-like monooxygenase (lmo), thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (SseA), ATP-dependent Clp protease (ClpB).

Ikonomopoulos, J.; Balaskas, C.; Kantzoura, B.; Fragiadaki, E.; Pavlik, I.; Bartos, M.; Lukas, J.C.; Gazouli, M. Comparative evaluation of positive tests to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinically healthy sheep and goats in South-West Greece using molecular techniques, serology, and culture. Veterinary Journal. 2007 Sept; 174(2): 337-343. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.09.004
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the cause of paratuberculosis, which affects mainly ruminants although there is a growing concern about its possible implication in Crohn's disease in humans especially in connection with environmental spread and risks to the food chain. Retail cheese may represent a significant source of human exposure to MAP and the aim of this study was to assess MAP status in clinically healthy sheep and goats in Greece, comparing techniques routinely used in the positive diagnosis of the disease. From a total of 30 flocks, 632 sheep and goats had faecal, serum, and whole-blood samples examined by culture, complement fixation test (CFT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted at IS900, IS1245, and IS6110. PCR produced positive results in 21% of the animals tested, with 5.6%, 3.9%, and 11.5% being identified as MAP, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. CFT produced positive and suspicious results in 4.4% and 14.4% of the cases. Faecal cultures were negative in all but a single case that was identified as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-type BC1. Agreement between results obtained by PCR and CFT was poor with isolated cases although an assessment of the MAP positive tests produced similar results for both methods. The findings indicate the need for additional measures of control, although the costs may be substantial if public health protection justifies elimination of MAP from livestock.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal, serum and whole blood sampling, complement fixation test (CFT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted at IS900, IS1245, and IS6110, recommend control measures, public health risk of contaminated livestock-based food products, cheese, Greece.

Janagama, H.K.; Bannantine, J.; Rodriguez, M.; Smith, I.; Sreevatsan, S. Identification and characterization of iron dependent regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 697. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, pathogen biochemistry, iron dependent regulator, transcription factor, gene regulation, DNAse foot printing assay.

Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Olsen, Ingrid; Jensen, Merete Rusas.; Dahle, Ulf R.; Holstad, Gudmund; Djonne, Berit. New probes used for ISI2450 and ISI311 restriction fragment length polymorphism of Mycobacterium avium subsp avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis isolates of human and animal origin in Norway. BMC Microbiology. 2007; 7(14). ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-7-14.pdf
Abstract: Background: Mycobacterium avium is an environmental mycobacterium that can be divided into the subspecies avium, hominissuis,paratuberculosis and silvaticum. Some M. avium subspecies are opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. They are ubiquitous in nature and can be isolated from natural sources of water, soil, plants and bedding material. Isolates of M. avium originating from humans (n=37), pigs (n=51) and wild birds (n=10) in Norway, were examined by IS1245 and IS1311 RFLP using new and specific probes and for the presence of IS901 and ISMpa1 by PCR. Analysis and generation of a dendrogram were performed with the software BioNumerics. Results: IS1311 RFLP provided clear results that were easy to interpret, while IS1245 RFLP generated more complex patterns with a higher discriminatory power. The combination of the 2 methods gave additional discrimination between isolates. All avian isolates except one were M. avium subsp. avium, with 2 copies of IS1311 and one copy of IS1245; while the isolates of human and porcine origin belonged to M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The isolates from human patients were distributed randomly among the clusters of porcine isolates. There were few identical isolates. However, one isolate from a human patient was identical to a porcine isolate. Regional differences were detected among the porcine isolates, while there was no clustering of human isolates according to type of clinical symptoms or geographical location of the patient's home addresses. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that a wide range of M. avium subsp. hominissuis are present in pigs and humans in Norway, and that some of these isolates are very similar. It remains to be determined whether humans are infected from pigs or if they are infected from common environmental sources. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: humans, pigs, wild birds,Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum, human and animals pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, environmental bacteria, IS1245 and IS1311 RFLP using new and specific probes for IS901 and ISMpa1 by PCR, dendrograms generated using BioNumerics, IS1311 RFLP most results, IS1245 RFLP generated more complex patterns and higher discriminatory power, zoonotic diseases, Norway.

Judge, Johanna; Davidson, Ross S.; Marion, Glenn; White, Piran Cl; Hutchings, Michael.R. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in rabbits: the interplay between horizontal and vertical transmission. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2007 Apr; 44(2): 302-311. ISSN: 0021-8901
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01282.x
NAL Call No.: 410 J828
Abstract: 1. Paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis; Map) is a widespread and difficult disease to control in livestock populations and also has possible links to Crohn's disease in humans. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been identified recently as the key wildlife species in terms of paratuberculosis transmission to the wider host community. Here, we test the hypothesis that Map can persist in rabbit populations for extended periods of time in the absence of any external source of infection. 2. A spatially explicit stochastic simulation model of a generic host-disease interaction was developed to quantify the interplay between vertical and horizontal routes of transmission needed for the persistence of Map in rabbit populations and to test the hypothesis. The model was parameterized based on empirical studies on rabbit population dynamics and on rabbit-to-rabbit routes of Map transmission. 3. Predictions from the model suggest that any disease with susceptible-infected (SI) dynamics without disease-induced mortality can persist within a rabbit population in the absence of vertical transmission, providing the horizontal transmission coefficient, (Sb(B, is greater than approximately 0.012. The inclusion of any vertical transmission reduces the value of (Sb(B that is necessary for infection to persist. 4. Paratuberculosis persists in rabbit populations at all values of the horizontal and vertical transmission parameters in the range estimated from the field data and in many cases at all values within 95% confidence intervals around this range. The persistence of Map infection in rabbit populations in the absence of external sources of infection suggests that they may act as a reservoir of infection for sympatric livestock. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our findings, in combination with the ubiquitous distribution of rabbits in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, suggests that if Map becomes established in rabbit populations they are likely to provide widespread and persistent environmental distributions of infection and thus disease risk to livestock and potentially humans. Where local rabbit populations are infected they should be included in any future paratuberculosis control strategies. Because eradication of rabbits is often not a realistic option, control strategies should include reducing interspecific transmission risk from rabbits to livestock via the faecal-oral route.
Descriptors:Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbits, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, disease transmission, epidemiology, simulation models, United Kingdom.

Kawaji, S.; Taylor, D.L.; Mori, Y.; Whittington, R.J. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ovine faeces by direct quantitative PCR has similar or greater sensitivity compared to radiometric culture. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Nov 15; 125(1-2): 36-48. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The aims of this study were to develop a new real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay based on IS900 for detection and quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) DNA in faeces, and to use this to detect infected sheep. Both the C and S strains of MAP were detected by the QPCR assay, and no cross reactions were detected with 51 other species of mycobacteria including 10 which contained IS900-like sequences. One copy of IS900 fragment cloned into plasmid pCR2.1 and 1 fg of MAP genomic DNA were consistently detected, while in spiked faecal samples the detection limit was 10 viable MAP per gram of ovine faeces. A total of 506 individual ovine faecal samples and 27 pooled ovine faecal samples with known culture results were tested. The QPCR assay detected 68 of 69 BACTEC culture positive individual faeces and there was a strong relation between time to detection in culture and DNA quantity measured by QPCR (r = -0.70). In pooled faecal samples, QPCR also agreed with culture ( = 0.59). MAP DNA was detected from some culture negative faecal samples from sheep exposed to MAP, suggesting that the QPCR has very high analytical sensitivity for MAP in faecal samples and detects non-viable MAP in ovine faeces. None of the faecal samples from 176 sheep that were not exposed to MAP were positive in QPCR. This is the first report of a direct fecal QPCR assay that has similar sensitivity to a gold standard radiometric culture assay.
Descriptors: sheep, 506 fecal samples, quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay based on IS900, detection and quantification for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, test sensitivity.

Khol, J.L.; Damoser J.; Dconser, M.; Baumgartner, W. Paratuberculosis, a notifiable disease in Austria--Current status, compulsory measures and first experiences. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Dec 14; 82(3-4): 302-307. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.06.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is one of the most important diseases in ruminants today. Its contribution is worldwide and the disease is causing severe financial losses among cattle producers in some countries [Hasanova, L., Pavlik, I., 2006. Economic impact of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds: a review. Vet. Med.Czech. 51, 193-211]. Paratuberculosis is untreatable; diagnosis limited to the early stages of the infection and control of the disease is difficult. The prevalence of serologically positive Austrian cattle farms rose significantly to 19.0% during the past years [Baumgartner, W., Damoser, J., Khol, J.L., 2005. Comparison of two studies concerning the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Austrian cattle in the years 1995-1997 and 2002/2003 (Article in German with extended English summary). Vet. Med. Austria/Wien. Tierarztl. Mschr. 92, 274-277]. Based on these findings clinical paratuberculosis in ruminants was declared a notifiable disease in Austria in April 2006. A survey of the current situation in Austria, the most important parts of the new compulsory measures and their practical implementation and impacts are presented in this short communication. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, laws and regulations for pathogen reporting, current status, experiences with this new program, Austria.

Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Cho, S.; Lee, H. Comparative evaluation of target genes used for mycobacterial species identification. Clinical Chemistry. 2007; 53(6, Suppl. S): A65. ISSN: 0009-9147. Note: 59th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, San Diego, CA, USA; July 15-19, 2007.
URL: http://www.clinchem.org/
NAL Call No.: 396.8 C61
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium gastri, genes, 16S ribosomal DNA, rpoB, hsp65, PCR sequence analysis.

Kobayashi, S.; Tsutsui, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Nishiguchi, A. Epidemiologic indicators associated with within-farm spread of Johne's disease in dairy farms in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2007; 69(12): 1255-1258. ISSN: 0916-7250, E-ISSN: 1347-7439
URL: http://www.soc.nii.ac.jp/jsvs
NAL Call No.: SF604.J342
Abstract: Epidemiologic indicators associated with within-farm infection of Johne's disease in dairy farms in Japan were determined through a nationwide investigation of infected farms. We assumed that subsequent detection of the disease within one year after the first detection could represent the occurrence of within-farm spread occurring before the first detection. Of 594 infected farms, 158 farms (27%) had at least one additional detection. Logistic regression analysis using epidemiologic information obtained from infected farms at the time of the first detection revealed three epidemiologic indicators associated with subsequent detection. Farms at which the first cases included cattle with clinical signs were 3.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.2, 6.8) times more likely to have additional detections than those with cattle without clinical signs. Similarly, farms where two or more cattle were detected at the time of first detection and where cattle were held in a loose housing system were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.5) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6) times more likely to have additional detections than those where only one animal was detected and a tied-up housing system was used, respectively. These epidemiologic indicators are likely important determinants in the selection of farms requiring more intensive on-farm control measures. Republished with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy farms, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis disease prevalence, epidemiology, Japan.

Kobayashi, S.; Tsutsui, T. Recent epidemiological features and control system of bovine Johne's disease in Japan. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association. 2007; 60(12): 853-857. Print ISSN: 0916-7250, E-ISSN: 0916-7250. Note: In Japanese.
URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jvms/-char/en/
NAL Call No.: SF604.J342
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, disease prevalence, epidemiology, disease control programs; disease-surveys, paratuberculosis, Japan.

Kruze, J.; Salgado, M.; Collins, M.T. Paratuberculosis en rebanos caprinos chilenos.[Paratuberculosis in Chilean dairy goat herds.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2007; 39(2): 147-152. ISSN 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0301-732X2007000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso
Abstract: Paratuberculosis in goats is widely distributed throughout the world. Recently the disease has been officially reported in Chile. The purpose of this study was to determine the infection status of some dairy goat herds under two types of management systems (intensive and extensive) in different regions of Chile. Faecal samples were collected from 383 female goats >2 years old belonging to 8 dairy goat herds located in the Metropolitan Region (2), 9th Region (5) and 10th Region (1). Differences in routine management were not considered when selecting the herds. Faecal samples were collected via rectum, decontaminated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC) and antibiotics, cultured on Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium with mycobactin J and incubated at 37 degrees C for up to nine months. The suspected colonies were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, IS900) technology using specific primers for this pathogen (P90+ and P91+). Thirty-five out of the 383 sampled goats were faecal culture positive (9.1%), and all of them belonging to only four herds. These infected herds were generally larger, intensively managed and they systematically violated most management recommendations for paratuberculosis control, including the routine introduction of animals of unknown paratuberculosis tests status from herds of unknown Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection status. The remaining four uninfected herds were extensively managed, did not import goats from other herds and were located in geographical areas where no mixed grazing with other susceptible ruminant species took place, this being a possible risk factor for paratuberculosis. This study reports the presence of caprine paratuberculosis in Chile, in particular in those dairy goat herds that have introduced high producing milk breeds of animals to improve the genetic capacity of milk production. Therefore, any attempt to evaluate the risk of introducing the infection in a paratuberculosis-free area as the result of purchasing animals is worthwhile. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, dairy goat herds, milk production, farm management, internsive management, extensive management, comparison study, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal testing, PCR, disease surveillance, epidemiology, regional differences, infection rates, risk factors, polymerase chain reaction, risk factors, Chile.

Kudahl , AB ; cstergaard, S; Scirensen, J.T.; Nielsen, S.S. A stochastic model simulating paratuberculosis in a dairy herd.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Feb 16; 78(2): 97-117. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.05.015
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (PTB) causes severe economic losses to farmers and the infection has very complex effects (many indirect) on the production of a dairy herd. These indirect effects have not or only briefly been described by earlier PTB-simulation models, and therefore they were included in a new model called PTB-Simherd. Our aim was to develop the basis for a decision-support tool which can predict herd-specific production-related effects from introduction of different control strategies against PTB. The PTB-Simherd is a dynamic, stochastic, and mechanistic Monte-Carlo model simulating a dairy herd including young stock. Paratuberculosis and relevant control strategies against this infection were built into an existing herd simulation model. The model simulates epidemiological and production related consequences of PTB and control strategies against it in the herd. It also reflects indirect effects of PTB and control strategies through effects on replacements and herd demographics. Every animal in the herd is specified with biological parameters (including PTB state and test results) and it is updated in weekly time-steps. Management is specified at herd level with 353 parameters of which 78 are related to PTB. To demonstrate the basic characteristics of the model, scenarios with varying infection risks (sensitivity analyses) plus scenarios with seven different control strategies in two herds with good and poor reproduction were simulated for 10 years. Breaking of infection routes turned out to be the only strategy predicted to reduce the true prevalence of PTB in a herd. Supplementing this strategy with test-&-cull strategies had limited effect on prevalence and using test-&-cull alone just delayed the increase in prevalence. The effects of different PTB-control strategies on the production (especially sale/purchase of heifers, feed consumption and prevalences of other diseases) were predicted to be affected by other conditions like heat-detection success, replacement% and herd demographics - which were again affected by PTB infection of the herd. These links and indirect effects of control strategies thus seem important to include when modeling and predicting effects of PTB control in dairy herds. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dairy herds, herd health, cattle production, disease transmission, animal reproduction, cow/calf operations, dairy farm management,cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, disease control, disease models, simulation models, stochastic processes, Monte Carlo method, prediction, estimation, risk assessment, decision support systems, PTB Simherd.

Kudahl, A.B.; Scirensen, J.T; Nielsen, S.S.; cstergaard, S. Simulated economic effects of improving the sensitivity of a diagnostic test in paratuberculosis control.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Feb 16; 78(2): 118-129. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.10.004
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Low sensitivity (Se) of diagnostic tools is often mentioned as a major problem in the control of paratuberculosis (PTB) and much effort is put into the improvement of these tests. The hypothetical perspectives of improving the Se of a milk-antibody ELISA (hereafter: milk-ELISA) used in test-&-cull strategies against PTB in dairy cattle were investigated by simulations. The current Se varies between 10 and 80%, increasing with increasing lactation stage, parity and infection stage. We simulated the effects on a dairy herd's production of improving this Se to 80% (independent of these factors) and assumed no concomitant decrease in specificity. By using a PTB model called PTB-Simherd, 12 scenarios were simulated to study three test-&-cull strategies in each of four herds with 200 dairy cows. To show the maximal effect of using test-&-cull with such an improved test we simulated three strategies: (1) no testing, (2) testing with milk-ELISA test with the current Se and culling of positive cows immediately and (3) testing with milk-ELISA test with a Se improved to 80% and culling positive cows immediately. The four herds were defined by a moderate (25%) or high (80%) initial true within-herd prevalence (including young stock), and a poor or good heat-detection success of 40 or 60%. We assumed that these factors influenced the effects of improving the Se of the milk-ELISA. Management both concerning calf management and in general was specified to represent a typical Danish herd. Using an improved milk-ELISA was predicted to reduce the prevalence of PTB more effectively than the current ELISA, and over 10 years bring the production of a herd with moderate initial prevalence up to a production level comparable to a non-infected herd (unlike if the current ELISA had been used). In a herd with high initial prevalence (80%) milk production was increased more by using the improved milk-ELISA, but after 10 years the replacement rate was still very high causing problems with having enough recruitment animals - especially in high-prevalence herds with poor reproductive performance. Economically important measurements in all four herds benefited from the improvement of the test over a 10-year period. However, in the first 3-5 years the improved test would be more expensive to use than the current test, due to increased replacement (reduced net annual revenue per cow Euro 15 on average) but after that, net annual revenue increased continuously; after 10 years it was Euro 70-90 higher, than if the current milk-ELISA was used. Also, the milk-ELISA test with its current Se seemed to be profitable already after 2 years in high-prevalence herds using a test-&-cull strategy based on the milk-ELISA alone. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, disease control, disease models, mathematical models, decision support systems, economic costs, cattle production, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, accuracy, disease prevalence, antibody detection, animal reproduction, lactation stage, animal performance, culling infected animals, serodiagnosis, economic impact, dairy farm management, PTB Simherd, Denmark.

Kumar, O.R.V.; Swain, N.; Rajendiran, A.S.; Rajapandi, S.; Parthasarathy, S. Paratuberculosis in Bharat Merino and Avikalin sheep in an organized sheep farm of Kodai hills. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 2007; 13(1): 98-99.
Abstract: The prevalence of paratuberculosis in 15 Bharat Merino and 15 Avikalin sheep in the Kodai hills of Tamil Nadu, India, was determined by analysis of faecal samples by staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [date not given]. It was shown that 4 Bharat Merino and 8 Avikalin sheep were positive for staining and PCR. In conclusion, two or more diagnostic tests are required to identify an animal positive for paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep breeds, Bharat Merino breed, Avikalin breed, fecal sampling, staining and PCR testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, Tamil-Nadu, India.

Kumar, P.; Singh, S.V.; Bhatiya, A.K.; Sevilla, I.; Singh, A.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Juste, R.A.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S. Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis (JCP) in India: Incidence and characterization by six diagnostic tests. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Nov; 73(1-3): 45-53. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.023
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Johne's considered a disease of adult goats was studied in young kids using six tests (direct microscopy, fecal culture, tissue culture, ELISA, histo-pathology, and PCR) to establish incidence of Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis. Cumulatively, 62.0% kids were positive from organized herds in direct microscopy (38.0%) and fecal culture (56.0%). Incidence by tissues culture was 60.0% (43.6% intestine and 40.0% MLN). In tissues culture, 27.2 and 67.3% kids were positive from organized and farmer's herds (slaughterhouse, Agra), respectively. In direct microscopy, 20.0 and 23.3% kids were positive from intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Age-wise, 6.6, 86.3 and 40.6% kids were positive in tissues culture, from 15 days to <2, 2-4 and 4-6 months age groups, respectively. Cultures were obtained both from weak and apparently healthy kids. Colonies usually appeared around 75 and 60-90 days post-inoculation in fecal and tissues cultures, respectively. Pauci-bacillary condition was more frequent both in fecal and tissues culture. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 61.5, 24.1 and 50.0% from highly, moderately and slightly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Two antigens (native protoplasmic antigen from indigenous Map genotype 'Bison type' of goat origin and commercial purified antigen from Map 'Bovine' were used in ELISA. Sero-incidence in kids was 47.9 and 1.4% with native and commercial antigens, respectively. Native antigen detected 35.4 and 58.6% and commercial, nil and 3.5% sero-positive kids from farmer's and organized herds, respectively. In kids, incidence of Map was 47.9, 60.0 and 56.0% by ELISA, tissues and fecal culture, respectively. Large numbers of mononuclear cells along with few epitheloid cells were present in cortical and medullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes. Villi of ileum showed mild degeneration in lining epithelial cells, which turned into goblet cells appearing as globular structure, filled with unstained homogenous mass. Peyer's patches located in the mucosal area were hyper-cellular with occasional presence of epitheloid cells. Clumps of Map bacilli were seen in epitheloid cells of lamina propria of intestine. Of the 17 DNA samples from decontaminated pellets and Map colonies, 64.7% were amplified in IS 900 PCR. The 229 bp band of amplified DNA was characteristic for Map. Samples detected in PCR were also positive in culture and histo-pathologically. Map strains isolated from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis were genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. It is the first report on incidence and characterization (genotyping) of Map from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis in India.
Descriptors: young goat kids, fecal culture, ELISA, histopathology, tissue sampling, in vitro culture, mononuclear blood cells, villi of ileum, infected epithiloid cells of lamina propria, incidence levels of Juvenile Capri Paratuberculosis.

Kurade, N.P.; Rajukumar, K.; Tripathi, B.N. Distribution of histologically detectable iron complexes in small intestine and mesenteric lymph node lesions of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2007; 31(1): 36-39. Print ISSN: 0250-4758, E-ISSN: 0873-970X
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&volume=31&issue=1&article=008
Abstract: Iron is essential for the intracellular survival and multiplication of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in macrophages. The presence of histologically detectable iron complexes in the small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes of experimentally infected sheep (n=22) and naturally infected goats (n=21) was correlated with the type of lesions and mycobacterial load. Sheep and goats with grade 3 or 4 lesions and abundant acid-fast bacilli had more siderotic macrophages compared to those with grade 1 or 2 lesions and lower mycobacterial load. Iron was not observed in most of the uninfected intestinal and lymph node sections. The existence of a close relationship between the presence of iron complexes in MAP-infected tissues and severity of lesions as well as mycobacterial load indicated the importance of iron levels in the tissue microenvironment for MAP multiplication. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, sheep, bacterial count, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, lesions, experimental infections, histopathology, iron, small intesting, mesentery, lymph nodes, macrophages, mesentery, paratuberculosis.

Lei, L.; Hostetter, J.M. Limited phenotypic and functional maturation of bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Dec 15; 120(3-4): 177-186. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.06.031
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: After encountering antigen, dendritic cells (DC) must differentiate into a fully mature phenotype to induce a protective, lasting T cell immunity. Paratuberculosis is a disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) and is characterized by a transient cell mediated immune response, that when dissipates correlates to the onset of clinical disease. In order to study the mechanism of early cellular immunity associated with M. paratuberculosis infection, we tested the hypothesis that M. paratuberculosis infected bovine DC have impaired activation and maturation thus are defective in the initiation of a sustainable and protective Th1 immune response locally. Our results demonstrate that M. paratuberculosis infected DC showed decreased endocytosis of ovalbumin, indicating some functional maturation. Co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 mRNA expression from M. paratuberculosis infected DC was increased over untreated immature DC. M. paratuberculosis infection induced chemokine receptor CCR7 increase in DC, yet CCR5 remained high. MHC II surface expression remained low on M. paratuberculosis infected DC. M. paratuberculosis infection inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 production and promoted IL-10 secretion by bovine DC. Together, our findings showed evidence of phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. However, we did not see the expected antigen presentation via MHC II and cytokine responses as a fully mature DC. This may suggest semi-mature DC phenotype induced by M. paratuberculosis infection.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, post infection effects invitro, maturation, decreased endocytosis of ovalbumin.

Leroy, B.; Roupie, V.; Noel-Georis, I.; Rosseels, V.; Walravens, K.; Govaerts, M.; Huygen, K.; Wattiez, R. Antigen discovery: a postgenomic approach to paratuberculosis diagnosis.Proteomics. 2007; 7(7): 1164-1176. ISSN: 1615-9853
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114188158/ABSTRACT
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic enteritis caused in domestic and wild ruminant species by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that is responsible for major economic losses to the agricultural industry. To date, no satisfactory therapeutic, vaccine, or diagnostic tools are available, globally impairing all control programmes. In this study, we have undertaken a large-scale postgenomic analysis of MAP proteins, to identify specific antigens that could potentially improve the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Two complementary approaches were implemented, the first one consisting in the systematic proteomic identification of proteins present in MAP culture filtrates (CFs), followed by the selection of MAP-specific proteins by BLAST query on available mycobacterial genomes. The resulting database represents the first established secretome of MAP and a useful source of potentially specific antigens. The second approach consisted in the immunoproteomic analysis of both MAP extracts and CFs, using sera from MAP-infected and uninfected cattle. Combining results obtained with both approaches resulted in the identification of 25 candidate diagnostic antigens. Five of these were tested in an ELISA assay for their diagnostic potential, on a limited panel of field sera, and the combination of three of them competed in performance with available commercial assays, reaching a test sensitivity of 94.74% and specificity of 97.92%.
Descriptors: cattle, ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, postgenomic analysis, antigens, assays, diagnosis issues, ELISA, disease levels, secretome database.

Li, Lingling; Munir, Shirin; Bannantine, John P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek. Rapid expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis recombinant proteins for antigen discovery. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(1): 102-105. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: diseased cattle, sera testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection method, MAP1272c protein selectively reacts.

Li, L.; Bannantine, J.P.; Zhang, Q.; Amonsin, A.; May, B.J.; Alt, D.; Banerji, N.; Kanjilal, S.; Kapur, V. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005 Aug 30; 102(35): 12344-12349. ISSN: 0027-8424
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/2718
NAL Call No.: 500 N21P
Abstract: We describe here the complete genome sequence of a common clone of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain K-10, the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. The K-10 genome is a single circular chromosome of 4,829,781 base pairs and encodes 4,350 predicted ORFs, 45 tRNAs, and one rRNA operon. In silico analysis identified >3,000 genes with homologs to the human pathogen, M. tuberculosis (Mtb), and 161 unique genomic regions that encode 39 previously unknown Map genes. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates with Mtb homologs suggest overall strong selection for a vast majority of these shared mycobacterial genes, with only 68 ORFs with a synonymous to nonsynonymous substitution ratio of >2. Comparative sequence analysis reveals several noteworthy features of the K-10 genome including: a relative paucity of the PE/PPE family of sequences that are implicated as virulence factors and known to be immunostimulatory during Mtb infection; truncation in the EntE domain of a salicyl-AMP ligase (MbtA), the first gene in the mycobactin biosynthesis gene cluster, providing a possible explanation for mycobactin dependence of Map; and Map-specific sequences that are likely to serve as potential targets for sensitive and specific molecular and immunologic diagnostic tests. Taken together, the availability of the complete genome sequence offers a foundation for the study of the genetic basis for virulence and physiology in Map and enables the development of new generations of diagnostic tests for bovine Johne's disease.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, genome, nucleotide sequences, genes, open reading frames, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, operon, molecular sequence data.

Lilenbaum, W.; Marassi, C.D.; Oelemann, W.M.R. Paratuberculosis: An update. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 38(4): 580-590. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, need for checking disease status, need for epidemiological research, national program, economic assessment, Brazil.

Lilenbaum, Walter; Ferreira, Rachel; Marassi, Carla Dray; Ristow, Paula; Roland Oelemann, Walter Martins; Fonseca, Leila de Souza. Interference of tuberculosis on the performance of ELISAS used in the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 38(3): 472-477. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: cows, infected and non-infected animals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effects of duel infections on tests, skin test, interferon test, two commercial ELISA for PTB, interference TB on testing for paratuberculosis.

Losinger, W.C. Economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA. Journal of Dairy Research. 2006 Feb; 73(1): 33-43. ISSN: 0022-0299
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract: An examination of the economic effects of epidemiologic risk factors for Johne's disease identified regional and herd size differences as having the greatest impact. Having dairy cows that were not born on the operation was the most important factor over which individual producers had the most immediate control. Economic consequences associated with using multiple-cow-maternity housing and multiple-preweaned-calf housing were not statistically significant. Economic welfare analysis was applied, and the GUM Workbench was used to analyse uncertainties in the estimates of the economic impacts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp lparatuberculosis, cattle diseases, milk yield economic analysis, risk factors, epidemiology, geographical variation, risk assessment, United States.

Lundrigan, M.D.; Zhang, S. Kinases in pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 685-686. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Streptococcus-pneumoniae , Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, lysosomes, phagosomes, serine/threonine protein kinase, immune response, signal transduction.

Lynch, D.; Jordan, K.N.; Kelly, P.M.; Freyne, T.; Murphy, P.M. Heat sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk under pilot plant pasteurization conditions. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2007; 60(2): 98-104. ISSN: 1364-727X
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/idt
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, raw milk, spiked with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pasteurization studies, pilot study, levels of bacterial survival, bacterial inactivation, high temperature short time conditons, 72.5 degrees C for 27 s.

Mackintosh, C.G.; Labes, R.E.; Clark, R.G.; Lisle, G.W. de; Griffin, J.F.T. Experimental infections in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) with a bovine and an ovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2007; 55(1): 23-29. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: red deer, Cervus elaphus, experimental infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, virulence comparison of ovine and bovine strains, paratuberculosis clinical aspects, antibodies, body weight, histopathology, immune response, immunoglobulins, gamma globulins, immune globulins, immunity reactions, immunological reactions.

Malamo, M.; Okazaki, K.; Sakoda, Y.; Kida, H. Carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis shares homologous B-cell epitopes with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare.Veterinary Record. 2007 Dec 22-29; 161(25): 853-857. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were produced in mice. Two of the mAbs cross-reacted with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in both an ELISA and immunoblot. The recombinant protein also reacted with polyclonal sera produced in rabbits against all three mycobacteria, indicating the presence of cross-reactive epitopes in the protein. To determine the reactivity of cattle sera against epitopes recognised by the mAbs, competition assays between bovine sera and the mAbs were carried out. Two mAbs were significantly inhibited by sera from cattle that were naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis. The results indicate that epitopes on the carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein common to M. paratuberculosis, M. avium and M. intracellulare readily induce antibody production in naturally infected cattle. These epitopes reduce the diagnostic specificity of the carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein, which was originally thought to contain only M. paratuberculosis-specific epitopes. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, epitopes, serodiagnosis.

Manning, E.J.; Cushing, H.F.; Hietala, S.; Wolf, C.B. Impact of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection on serologic surveillance for Johne's disease in goats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 Mar; 19(2): 187-190. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: goats, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, serodiagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, false positive results, cross reaction, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, immunodiffusion tests, hemolysins, antibodies, immune response, vaccination, feces, Midwestern States, USA.

Marassi, Carla Dray; Gonzaga, Janete da Silva; Ristow, Paula; Ferreira, Rachel; Fonseca, Leila Souza; Oelemann, Walter; Lilenbaum, Walter. Comparison of an in-house and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 38(1): 6-8. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, in-house PPA-ELISA, commercial ELISA, comparison study, 108 serum samples, in-house assay higher sensitivity, valuable diagnostic tool.

Marsh, I.B.; Whittington, R.J. Genomic diversity in Mycobacterium avium: Single nucleotide polymorphisms between the S and C strains of M. avium subsp paratuberculosis and with M. a. avium. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2007; 21(1): 66-75. ISSN: 0890-8508
Descriptors: sheep isolates; cattle isolates;Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; Mycobacterium avium subsp avium; large genomic polymorphisms; comparison study of isolates; single nucleotide polymorphisms; 26 loci across 25 genes; 11 SNPs in eight genes: hsp65, sodA, dnaA, dnaN, recF, gyrB, inhA, and pks8.

Martin, P.A.J. Current value of historical and ongoing surveillance for disease freedom: surveillance for bovine Johne's disease in Western Australia. In: D. J. Mellor and J/.R. Newton [Editors]. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Dipoli, Helsinki/Espoo, Finland, 28-30 March 2007. 2007; 38-48. ISBN: 9780948073793.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, herd control programs, mathematical models, Australia.

McGarvey, J.A.; Lathrop, J.R.; Boonjakuakull, J.; Stanker, L.; Bannantine, J.P.; Paustian, M.L.; Posey, J.E. Construction of a Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis luxR homolog (MAP0482) deletion mutant and identification of the MAP0482 regulon. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 684. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, MAC-T cell line, bovine mammary epithelial cells, Johne’s disease.

Mellor, D.J.; Peeler, E.J. Selected papers from the annual meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Devon, UK, 29-31 March 2006. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007; 79(1): v + 1-69. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: This special issue contains five selected papers from the 2006 annual meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. The papers deal with mathematical and statistical tools used for epidemiological investigations of animal diseases. The topics are: space-time interaction as an indicator of local spread during the 2001 FMD outbreak in the UK; remote sensing based identification of environmental risk factors associated with West Nile disease in horses in Camargue, France; assessing the effect of interventions on the risk of cattle and sheep carrying Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the abattoir using a stochastic model; Salmonella Dublin infection in young dairy calves: transmission parameters estimated from field data and an SIR-model, and Bayesian analysis to validate a commercial ELISA to detect paratuberculosis in dairy herds of southern Chile. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cattle, calves, dairy herds, sheep, horses,animal diseases, foot and mouth disease, FMD, disease transmission, West Nile fever, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Salmonella Dublin, Escherichia coli, epidemiology, risk analysis, statistical analysis, mathmetical/stochastic models, risk factors, disease monitoring at slaughter houses, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, UK, Chile, France.

Menagi, S.U. Tehnici de depistare folosite in programul de supravegere, prevenire si combatere a paratuberculozei la rumegatoare in Romania in perioada 2005-2007. [Techniques of disease detection used in the program of surveillance, prevention and control of paratuberculosis in ruminants in Romania during 2005 and 2007.] Lucrari Stiintifice Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti Seria C, Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 52: 368-373. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Abstract: In 2005, a serological survey on the prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep from six districts in Bucharest and Ilfov district, Romania, was performed using complement fixation test. All samples yielded negative results. In 2006, due to the low sensitivity of complement fixation test, ELISA, with higher specificity and sensitivity, was utilized. Results showed a clearer epidemiological situation for paratuberculosis in the studied area. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, serological survey, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, complement fixation tests, ELISA, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, Romania.

Menagi, S.U. Supravegherea epidemiologica a paratuberculozei la bovine si ovine pe raza judetului Ilfov si a municipiului Bucuresti prin teste de depistare in perioada 2005-2007.[Epidemiological surveillance of paratuberculosis in the case of cattle and sheep in the area of the Ilfov district and the Bucharest city through detection tests during the period between 2005 and 2007.] Lucrari Stiintifice Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti Seria C, Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 52: 374-381. Note: In Romanian with and English summary.
Abstract: For the past three years, epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep was carried out in the districts of Bucharest and Ilfov in Romania. In 2005, complement fixation was utilized. In 2006 and 2007, complement fixation was replaced with ELISA, which is easier to perform and has higher specificity. Blood samples were collected for 12 months from cattle and sheep. CFT yielded negative results for all samples, while ELISA yielded two false positive results in the samples obtained from Nuci cattle and sheep from Ilfov district. With the use of CF and ELISA, the epidemiological situation of paratuberculosis in the studied area was determined.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, Romania.

Mercier, P.; Baudry, C.; Martin, J.; Bertin, C.; Laroucau, K.; Beaudeau, F.; Seegers, H.; Malher, X. Utilisation des techniques bayesiennes pour estimer les caracteristiques de deux tests de diagnostic de la paratuberculose caprine. [Use of Bayesian techniques for estimating the characteristics of two diagnostic tests for goat paratuberculosis. ] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2007; (51): 57-64. Note: In French with an English summary.
Abstract: Two latent class models [maximum likelihood (ML) methods and Bayesian inference (BI)] were used to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and the specificity (Sp) of a serum ELISA test and faecal culture in the detection of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in French dairy goats. Samples of blood and faeces were collected from 532 goats in 15 herds. Estimates according to ML and BI methods were compared. The BI (WinBUGS) model with informative priors was found to be the more accurate of the 2 tests. The Se and Sp of the ELISA were estimated as 34 and 99%, respectively. For faecal culture, the Se and Sp were 53 and 100%, respectively. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, herd testing, Johne’s diaease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal testing, fecal cultures, serum ELISA test, sensitivity and specificity of tests, Bayesian-theory maximum likelihood, France.

Momotani, E.; Aodonqeril; Momotani, Y. Molecular strategies for studying hosts of Johne's disease mycobacterium.Journal of Veterinary Medicine , Japan. 2007; 60(10): 807-813. In Japanese.
URL: http://www.buneido-syuppan.com
Descriptors: molecular biology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, host animals, Johne’s disease.

More, S.J. Shaping our future: animal health in a global trading environment.Irish Veterinary Journal. 2007; 60(9): 540-545. ISSN: 0368-0762
URL: http://www.veterinary-ireland.org
Abstract: This paper addresses the current challenges faced by the livestock production sector in Ireland. Focus is given on the increasing global competition for quality agricultural products. The 2 broad categories of animal disease/health and the measures Ireland has taken to achieve international best practice in key areas of animal health are discussed. The implications for international trade of best practice in animal health are presented. The relevance of certain approaches of other countries currently leading international efforts in animal health to Irish agriculture and farmers are outlined: focus on continuous improvement; proactive planning; industry-government partnerships; industry funding; industry structures; national/regional coordination; coordination of technical efforts; excellence in technical support; planned, focused and coordinated research; and information for improved decision making. Reproduced by permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: livestock production, poultry, chickens, domesticated birds, animal diseases, animal health, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Brucella, brucellosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, prions, BSE, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, biosecurity brucellosis, control programs disease control, disease prevention, international trade, animal-based products, market competition, paratuberculosis, prices, quality, tuberculosis, world markets, Eire, Irish Republic.

Morris , C.A. A review of genetic resistance to disease in Bos taurus cattle.Veterinary Journal. 2007 Nov; 174(3): 481-491. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.09.006
Abstract: Cattle show considerable variability in their responses to a wide range of disease challenges, and much of the variability is genetic. This review highlights genetic variation in disease susceptibility in Bos taurus cattle, with variation found at the breed level and also within breeds. Disease challenges come from bacteria and viruses, parasites and feed-borne toxins. For an animal to survive, it needs its own mechanisms for resisting these challenges, or for being resilient to them, or it must be protected artificially from them. Disease challenges have been classified as 'diseases from without', but there is also another class of genetic diseases resulting from inborn errors of metabolism, which might be called 'diseases from within'. Degrees of inheritance (heritabilities) are reviewed for a range of economically important traits including resistance to mastitis, ketosis, lameness, nematode parasites, external parasites, eye disease, respiratory disorders, tuberculosis, brucellosis, Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, metabolic disorders caused by toxins found on the feed, and threshold levels of minerals and metabolites. Many, but not all, of the above require an immune response as part of the fight against an external challenge, and measurements have been made of general immune response as a way of describing or predicting how an animal will respond. There are now some examples of industry or breed societies applying selection for resistance to one or more diseases as part of a complete breeding objective in dairy cattle, beef cattle or dual purpose livestock. In most cases, industry and breed societies are in the early stages of applying effective selection pressure for resistance to specific cattle diseases, with the notable exceptions of Scandinavian cattle schemes, which lead the world in this respect. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Bos Taurus , cattle, dairy cattle, beef cattle, genetic variability, disease susceptibility, breed level differences, disease challenges, economically important traits, heritabilities, disease resistance to many conditions and diseases, selection disease resistance, many diseases mentioned including Johne’s

Moser, I.; Hotzel, H.; Kroschewski, K.; Schettler, E.; Frolich, K.; Prodinger, W.M.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P. Mycobacterial infections in wild cervids and zoo animals in Germany: a survey and a special case of epizootic. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin. 2007; (7): 178-179.
URL: http://www.izw-berlin.de
Abstract: A report on the epidemiology, immunological diagnosis, transmission, prevention and control of Mycobacterial infections in wild cervids and zoo animals in Germany is discussed. The animals which were evaluated comprise of 1100 wild and captive cevids (roe deer, red deer, and fallow deer) from different regions and the study covered a period of three years from 2002 to 2005. Of the examined animals 83% were infected with Mycobacterium avium while other species include M. tuberculosis and M. pinnipedii. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: wild animals, zoo animals, European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, red deer, Cervus elaphus; fallow deer, Cervus dama, mycobacterial infections survey, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, serological diagnosis, disease prevention, Germany.

Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro-Junior, J.W.; Gomes, M.J.P.; Peixoto, R.M.; Maia, F.C.L.; Brito, M.F.; Chies, J.A.B.; Snel, G.G.M.; Bercht, B.S.; Juffo, G.D. Paratuberculose em um rebanho bovino leiteiro no Estado de Pernambuco, PE. [Paratuberculosis in milking cows in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.]Arquivos do Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo. 2007; 74(2): 73-79. Note: In Portuguese with an English summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, serological and histopathological aspects of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in dairy cows from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from a dairy herd kept in the Zona da Mata region of the state of Pernambuco. Postmortem and histopathological examinations of the lesions were carried out on one animal. Faecal samples and mucosal scrapings from the terminal ileum were collected and tests were carried out for the isolation of the bacteria. 170 blood serum samples were also collected and tested by indirect ELISA for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) antibodies. Clinical examination showed profuse, dark, aqueous and chronic diarrhoea which did not improve during antibiotic treatment. Four (50%) of the eight faecal samples and one mucosal scraping from one animal were Johne's disease positive. The results of the indirect ELISA test indicated 55 (32.3%) positive results. There was also an increase in inflammatory granuloma comprised mainly of macrophages and many giant cells of Langhans. It is concluded that bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) occurs both clinically and subclinically in one herd in the state of Pernambuco, and thus, it is essential to take suitable sanitary precautions to prevent the spread of this disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease transmission, clinical aspects, granulomas, lesions, histopathology, postmortem examinations, ELISA tests, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Munjal, S.K.; Tripathi, B.N.; Paliwal, O.P.; Boehmer, J.; Homuth, M. Application of different methods for the diagnosis of experimental paratuberculosis in goats. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2007; 54(3/4): 140-146. ISSN: 1863-1959
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jvb
Descriptors: goats, 23 goat kids, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, oral inoculation, progressive experimental infection, subclinical disease levels, johnin PPD detection, diagnostic methods, fecal smears, bacterial cultures, PCR, indirect ELISA, agar gel immunodifussion.

Mutharia, L.; Banasure, K. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis kdpABC, senX3/regX3 and phoPR two-component system operon promoters are activated by potassium starvation, phosphate limitation and hyperosmotic conditions. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007;107: 684. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note. 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, beta gal gene, histidine-protein kinase, response regulator protein.

Narayan, Azeet; Sachdeva, Preeti; Sharma, Kirti; Saini, Adesh K.; Tyagi, Anil K.; Singh, Yogendra. Serine threonine protein kinases of mycobacterial genus: phylogeny to function. Physiological Genomics. 2007; 29(1): 66-75. ISSN: 1094-8341.
URL: http://physiolgenomics.physiology.org/
Descriptors: Mycobacterium genera, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, host-pathogen relations, 6 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs), comparative genome analysis, cyclophilin regulation, pknB, pknG, pknJ, genome divergence.

Navarre , C.B. Common diseases of goats.Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 264-268
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: goats, various diseases, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Haemonchus contortus, Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycoplasma, Secernentea, Strongylida, lymphadenopathy, brain diseases, liver diseases, intestinal diseases and obstruction, toxemia, various conditions, urolithiasis, toxemia, uremia, anorexia treatments, biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques; drug-therapy, EDTA, glucocorticoids, histopathology, mycoplasmosis, phagocytosis, quarantine; rumen fluid, surgery, abdominocentesis, azotemia, chemotherapy, clinical picture, edetic acid, encephalomyelitis.

Nedrow, A.J.; Gavalchin, J.; Smith, M.C.; Stehman, S.M.; Maul, J.K.; McDonough, S.P.; Thonney, M.L. Antibody and skin-test responses of sheep vaccinated against Johne's Disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Mar 15; 116(1-2): 109-112. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.12.007
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Current vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, Johne's Disease) may cause animals to react positively when tested for Mycobacterium bovis (Bovis). Therefore, the effects of vaccination on MAP serum Ab and skin-test responses to MAP and Bovis PPD were compared in 25 ewes vaccinated against MAP with 24 control ewes in an infected flock 3 years post-vaccination. MAP-specific Ab levels were higher (P < 0.001) in vaccinated ewes than in control ewes. All increases in skinfold-thickness from 0 to 48 h were greater (P < 0.0001) than zero while increases in skinfold-thickness from 48 to 72 h were greater (P < 0.05) than zero for Johnin but not for Bovis PPD. The Vaccine x PPD x Time interaction for skinfold-thickness was significant (P < 0.001) with greater increases to Johnin than to Bovis, but with much greater increases in vaccinated ewes. These data suggest that administration of vaccines against MAP developed from whole organisms increase the likelihood that animals will be classified as responders to a Bovis screening test and negative by the follow-up comparative cervical tuberculin test, but they also show that vaccination initiates both humoral and cell-mediated MAP-specific responses.
Descriptors: ewes, sheep diseases, mycobacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease detection, disease diagnosis, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, serodiagnosis, skin tests, antibody formation, validity, screening, skinfold thickness, measurement, immune response, cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity.

Nielsen, S.S. Danish control programme for bovine paratuberculosis.Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 161-168. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is widespread in Denmark and as a result, a voluntary control programme was established in 2006, aiming at providing tools for farmers to control infections, and to ultimately reduce the prevalence. Approximately 1140 (23%) of dairy farmers were enrolled in the programme by June 2007. Participating herds test all lactating cows four times/year by using a milk antibody ELISA. The test-results are primarily used for risk-based management of infectious animals. This risk-based approach is aimed to reduce the workload of herd managers, thereby making implementation of changes more feasible than if all cows had to be managed with increased awareness. The test results are also used for communication to farmers, as a central part of the programme. Communication between farmers and advisors also takes place via risk assessments, which helps the farmers identify risk areas of transmission. Farmers are informed that the control programme is expected to last 6 to 8 years. Therefore, there is a continued need from farmers, their advisors and the central administration to identify tools and methods to ensure ongoing enthusiasm. A surveillance component may be added to the programme at a later stage, but currently no officially recognised recommendations are available related to trade of live animals. The surveillance component may be a next step to keep farmers in the programme and encourage more farmers to join. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, antibodies antibody detection; antibody tests, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control programs, disease prevention, disease transmission, ELISA, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, risk assessment, Denmark.

Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. Assessment of management-related risk factors for paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds using Bayesian mixture models.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Oct 16; 81(4): 306-317. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.001
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, herds, herd management, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease risk in management systems, Bayesian computer model, Denmark.

Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N.; Jorgensen, E.; Bibby, B.M. Bayesian mixture models for within-herd prevalence estimates of bovine paratuberculosis based on a continuous ELISA response. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007; 81(4): 290-305. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.014
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Diagnostic inference by use of assays such as ELISA is usually done by dichotomizing the optical density (OD)-values based on a predetermined cut-off. For paratuberculosis, a slowly developing infection in cattle and other ruminants, it is known that laboratory factors as well as animal specific covariates influence the OD-value, but while laboratory factors are adjusted for, the animal specific covariates are seldom utilized when establishing cut-offs. Furthermore, when dichotomizing an OD-value, information is lost. Considering the poor diagnostic performance of ELISAs for diagnosis of paratuberculosis, a framework for utilizing the continuous OD-values as well as known coavariates could be useful in addition to the traditional approaches, e.g. for estimating within-herd prevalences. The objective of this study was to develop a Bayesian mixture model with two components describing the continuous OD response of infected and non-infected cows, while adjusting for known covariates. Based on this model, four different within-herd prevalence indicators were considered: the mean prevalence in the herd; the age adjusted prevalence of the herd for better between-herd comparisons; the rank of the age adjusted prevalence to better compare across time; and a threshold-based prevalence to describe differences between herds. For comparison, the within-herd prevalence and associated rank using a traditional dichotomization approach based on a single cut-off for an OD corrected for laboratory variation was estimated in a Bayesian model with priors for sensitivity and specificity. The models were applied to the OD-values of a milk ELISA using samples from all lactating cows in 100 Danish dairy herds in three sampling rounds 13 months apart. The results of the comparison showed that including covariates in the mixture model reduced the uncertainty of the prevalence estimates compared to the cut-off based estimates. This allowed a more informative ranking of the herds where low ranking and high ranking herds were easier to identify. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: cattle herds, cattle and other ruminant infections, continuous OD value, Bayesian mixture model, infected and non-infected cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 4 different within herd prevalence indicators, milk ELISA.

Norby, B.; Fosgate, G.T.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T.; Roussel, A.J. Environmental mycobacteria in soil and water on beef ranches: Association between presence of cultivable mycobacteria and soil and water physicochemical characteristics. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Sept 20; 124(1-2): 153-159. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Exposure to environmental mycobacteria has been reported to be a factor contributing to false-positive results on bovine serological tests detecting antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb). This study was conducted to investigate the association between recovery of mycobacteria from the environment of cattle and both (i) historically high or low seroprevalence to Mptb, and (ii) soil and water physicochemical characteristics. Eighty-two samples (soil and water) from nine beef cattle ranches in South-central and South Texas were assessed for the presence of mycobacteria. Twelve mycobacterial species were cultured from soil and water from four herds; no Mptb were detected in environmental samples. A positive culture of environmental mycobacteria from soil was significantly associated with lower pH and calcium as well as higher iron, zinc and manganese contents. Beef cattle are likely to be exposed to environmental mycobacteria that may contribute to false-positive results on ELISAs for Mptb infection. Exposure rates to these mycobacteria likely vary across small geographical areas and may be related to soil and/or water physicochemistry.
Descriptors: beef cattle ranches, environmental exposures to mycobacteria in soil and water, 12 species recovered, false positives in testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, South Texas.

Orpin, P. Johne's disease: practical approaches to control spread in dairy and beef herds. Part 1: Understanding the disease and diagnostic approaches.UK Vet: Livestock. 2007; 12(3): 21-26.
URL: http://www.ukvet.co.uk & http://www.ukvet.co.uk/issue.asp?vid=12&iid=3&journal=Livestock
Descriptors: beef cattle, beef cattle herds, dairy cattle, dairy cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease prevalence, disease transmission, control measures, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, clinical aspects, disease transmission, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, risk analysis.

Orpin, P. Clinical forum - Johne's disease. Part 2: Practical approaches to control in cattle herds. UK Vet: Livestock. 2007; 12(4): 22-30
URL: http://www.ukvet.co.uk & http://www.ukvet.co.uk/issue.asp?vid=12&iid=4&journal=Livestock
Abstract: Proactive approaches to Johne's disease control are becoming increasingly possible with the increased interest within the industry. Refining surveillance programmes to involve targeted sampling of high risk groups, surveillance using milk screens (individual samples), improved timing of tests prior to calving will all improve the impact of control measures. The practitioner is best placed to help the farmer client to manage the Johne's risk and concentrating resources on the herds of low risk and prevalence is most likely to deliver results. Thus, the emphasis of this paper is to give guidance on how practitioners can manage Johne's disease within their own client base utilizing recent developments in Johne's control. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy cattle herds, dairy hygiene, screening, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, mycobacterial diseases, mycobacterial infections, disease control, milk, tests timing, pre-calving, culling of infected animals, disease control strategies, veterinary practice, control programs, surveillance programs, high risk groups.

Orru, G.; Meloni, M.; Spissu, F.; Isola, D.; Palmieri, G.; Melis, E.; Besharati, E.; Liciardi, M. Rilevamento di Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in campioni clinici di ovino mediante PCR real time. [Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in ovine clinical samples by real time PCR.] Large Animal Review. 2007; 13(1): 13-17. Note: In Italian with an English summary.
URL: http://cms.sivarnet.it/gDocument.aspx?id=901
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS) 1612 insertion sequence in ovine clinical samples collected from two different sheep farms with signs of enteritis along with samples negative for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were analysed using IS900 PCR but IS1612. Collected stool and gut tracts were examined by real time PCR and capillary sequencing methods. The real time PCR detected in reconstructed samples about 100 CFU/g and showed a high linear dynamic range of quantification (102-106IS1612 copies DNA/reaction) with a good correlation rate (R2=0.98). It is suggested that real time PCR assay represents a rapid and accurate molecular method to detect/quantify Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in biological samples. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum,Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, PCR, polymerase chain reaction accuracy, viral diseases.

Ortegon, H. Johne's disease in Alberta.Advances in Dairy Technology: Proceedings of the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar. 2007; 19(19): 171-184. ISSN: 1184-0684. Note: Seminar held March 6-9, 2007, Red Deer, Alberta.
NAL Call No.: SF223.W478
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease survey, prevalence, Alberta, Canada.

Osterstock, J.B.; Fosgate, G.T.; Norby, B.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T.; Roussel, A.J. Contribution of environmental mycobacteria to false-positive serum ELISA results for paratuberculosis.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Mar 15; 230(6): 896-901. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: beef cattle, calves, seroprevalence, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, accuracy, cattle diseases, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, feces, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium terrae, diagnostic techniques, false positives, pathogen shedding.

Palmarini,-Massimo. A veterinary twist on pathogen biology. PLoS Pathogens. 2007; 3(2): 131-134. Print ISSN: 1553-7366. E-ISSN: 1553-7374 (
URL: http://www.plospathogens.org
Descriptors: animal pathogens, viruses, bacteria, zoonotic diseases, tyrosine kinase, animals diseases, cancers, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is mentioned.

Palmer, M.V.; Stabel, J.R.; Waters, W.R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Miller, J.M. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2007 Oct; 43(4): 597-608. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/4/597
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some nondomestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such as diarrhea, weight loss, and hypoproteinemia. Fecal shedding of Map is characteristic of both the subclinical and clinical phases, and it is important in disease transmission. Lesions of paratuberculosis are characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Animal models of paratuberculosis that simulate all aspects of the disease are rare. Oral inoculation of 9-day-old white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on 3 June 2002 with 1.87x1010 colony-forming units of Map strain K10 resulted in clinical disease (soft to diarrheic feces) as early as 146 days after inoculation; lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were observed in animals at the termination of the study. Intermittent fecal shedding of Map was seen between 28 and 595 days (4 March 2004) after inoculation. These findings suggest that experimental oral inoculation of white-tailed deer fawns may mimic all aspects of subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: deer, fawns, Odocoileus virginianus, paratuberculosis, wildlife diseases, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; animal disease models, simulation models, lesions (animal), disease signs and symptoms (animals and humans), females, immune response, inoculum density, oral administration, diarrhea, weight loss, feces testing, fecal shedding.

Parkin, Max; Shepherd, Joanna; Hall, Roger; Hill, Jeremy. Meeting the needs of markets and customers - ensuring the regulatory building blocks are in place. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology. 2007; 62(2, Sp. Iss. SI): 116-121. ISSN: 0004-9433
NAL Call No.: 44.8 AU74
Descriptors: safety of dairy products, regulations, cross border trade, regulatory harmonization, trans-Tasman regulatory environment, standards set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), European Union (EU), examples of importance, Enterobacter sakazakii,Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, international standard development, national standard development, customer-specific standards.

Parrish , N.M. ; Ko, C.G.; Dick, J.D. Growth and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 693. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cultured in aerobic and anerobic conditions, pharmacokinetics, various antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, azithromycin, metronidazole, rifampin, rifaximin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, efficacy of drugs.

Passucci, J.A.; Traversa, M.J.; Hagen, J. de; Jorge, M.C.; Schettino, D.M.; Sanz, H.E. Analisis economico del saneamiento de paratuberculosis en un rodeo de cria bovina. [Economic analysis of paratuberculosis animal health management in a bovine breeding herd.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2007; 27(Suppl.1): 337-338. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, animal health, costs, animal losses, economic-analysis, economics, paratuberculosis.

Petriceanu, G.; Radulescu, R.A.; Ragalie, A.; Gutu, E.; Ionescu, M. Testul imunoenzimatic utilizat in supravegherea serologica a paratuberculozei bovinelor si ovinelor. [The absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used in serosurveillance of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep.] Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 17(2): 467-475. ISSN: 1220-3173. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to analyse the accuracy of ELISA-abs in the diagnosis of paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in Immunology Department of IDAH and different veterinary laboratories. The observed specificity and sensitivity for cattle and sheep were 98 and 91.6%, and 83 and 86%, respectively. Out of the 295 serum samples from cattle, it was confirmed by IDAH that 145, 14 and 136 samples were positive, false positive and negative, respectively. On the other hand, 116, 17 and 21 samples out of the 154 serum samples from sheep were positive, false positive and negative, respectively. 39 veterinary laboratories were included in the proficiency testing and showed that 31, 6 and 2 laboratories obtained satisfactory, questionable and unsatisfactory results, respectively. It is suggested that majority of the laboratories are able to perform the method properly in diagnosing paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, Romania.

Pradeep, Kumar; Singh, S.V.; Bhatiya, A.K.; Sevilla, I.; Singh, A.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Juste, R.A.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Vihan, V.S. Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis (JCP) in India: incidence and characterization by six diagnostic tests. Small Ruminant Research. 2007; 73(1/3): 45-53. ISSN: 0921-4488.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Johne's considered a disease of adult goats was studied in young kids using six tests (direct microscopy, fecal culture, tissue culture, ELISA, histo-pathology, and PCR) to establish incidence of Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis. Cumulatively, 62.0% kids were positive from organized herds in direct microscopy (38.0%) and fecal culture (56.0%). Incidence by tissues culture was 60.0% (43.6% intestine and 40.0% MLN). In tissues culture, 27.2 and 67.3% kids were positive from organized and farmer's herds (slaughterhouse, Agra), respectively. In direct microscopy, 20.0 and 23.3% kids were positive from intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Age-wise, 6.6, 86.3 and 40.6% kids were positive in tissues culture, from 15 days to <2, 2-4 and 4-6 months age groups, respectively. Cultures were obtained both from weak and apparently healthy kids. Colonies usually appeared around 75 and 60-90 days post-inoculation in fecal and tissues cultures, respectively. Pauci-bacillary condition was more frequent both in fecal and tissues culture. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 61.5, 24.1 and 50.0% from highly, moderately and slightly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Two antigens native protoplasmic antigen from indigenous Map genotype 'Bison type' of goat origin and commercial purified antigen from Map 'Bovine' were used in ELISA. Sero-incidence in kids was 47.9 and 1.4% with native and commercial antigens, respectively. Native antigen detected 35.4 and 58.6% and commercial, nil and 3.5% sero-positive kids from farmer's and organized herds, respectively. In kids, incidence of Map was 47.9, 60.0 and 56.0% by ELISA, tissues and fecal culture, respectively. Large numbers of mononuclear cells along with few epitheloid cells were present in cortical and medullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes. Villi of ileum showed mild degeneration in lining epithelial cells, which turned into goblet cells appearing as globular structure, filled with unstained homogenous mass. Peyer's patches located in the mucosal area were hyper-cellular with occasional presence of epitheloid cells. Clumps of Map bacilli were seen in epitheloid cells of lamina propria of intestine. Of the 17 DNA samples from decontaminated pellets and Map colonies, 64.7% were amplified in IS 900 PCR. The 229 bp band of amplified DNA was characteristic for Map. Samples detected in PCR were also positive in culture and histo-pathologically. Map strains isolated from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis were genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. It is the first report on incidence and characterization (genotyping) of Map from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis in India. Reproduced by permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goat kids, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ELISA, PCR, epidemiology, feces testing, serodiagnosis, histopathology; immunodiagnosis, lymph nodes; microscopy, tissue culture, India.

Probst, C.; Speck, S.; Hofer, H. Epidemiology of selected infectious diseases in zoo-ungulates: single species versus mixed species exhibits. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin. 2007; (7): 10-12
URL: http://www.izw-berlin.de
Abstract: A total of 926 ungulates of the three families of Bovids, Cervids, and Camelids from one Czech and ten German zoos were tested for antibodies against selected infectious agents that can be transmitted interspecifically. The relationship between taxonomy and exhibit type (single species/mixed species exhibit) and seroprevalence was examined. The highest seroprevalence (21.2%) was found against malignant catarrhal fever (MCFV). Especially Bovids (24.5%) and animals of petting zoos (60.6%) were seropositive. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: zoo ungulates, bovines, cervids, dromedary camels, antibodies check for infectious agents, ELISA testing, epidemiology, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine herpesviruses, caprine herpesvirus 1, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, catarrhal-fever, gangrenous coryza, malignant catarrh, mucosal disease virus, Czech and German zoos.

Rademaker, Jan L.W.; Vissers, Marc M.M.; te Giffel, Meike.C. Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces.Applied and Environmental Microbiology AEM. 2007 July 1; 73(13): 4185-4190. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10po to 3.5 x 10e cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90pC at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72pC and a holding time of 6 s, 70pC for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an Ea of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72pC and a Z value of 7.7pC. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at >=72pC result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: raw milk processing, high temperature, inactivation of pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis efficiency of short holding time (HTST) pasteurization, inactivation kinetic modeling, various parameters, bacterial levels, temperatures and time combinations.

Radosevich, T.J.; Reinhardt, T.A.; Lippolis, J.D.; Bannantine, J.P.; Stabel, J.R. Proteome and differential expression analysis of membrane and cytosolic proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains K-10 and 187. Journal of Bacteriology. 2007; 189(3): 1109-1117. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL : http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Little is known of protein expression in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and how this contributes to pathogenesis. In the present study, proteins from both membranes and cytosol were prepared from two strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, i.e., laboratory-adapted strain K-10 and a recent isolate, strain 187, obtained from a cow exhibiting clinical signs of Johne's disease. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cytosol and membrane proteins from K-10 and 187 showed marked differences in protein expression. Relative levels of protein expression from both M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were measured by using amine-reactive isobaric tagging reagents (iTRAQ) and tandem mass spectroscopy. Protein identification and relative expression data were obtained for 874 membrane and cytosolic proteins from the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteome. These data showed a number of significant differences in protein expression between strain K-10 and clinical isolate 187. Examples of proteins expressed at higher levels in clinical isolate 187 compared to strain K-10 are AtpC, RpoA, and several proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. In contrast, proteins such as AhpC and several proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism were expressed at higher levels in strain K-10 compared to strain 187. These data may provide insights into the proteins whose expression is important in natural infection but are modified once M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is adapted to laboratory cultivation. Results from these studies will provide tools for developing a better understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the host and offer potential as diagnostic reagents and vaccine candidates.
Descriptors: cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, cytosol, nitrogen metabolism, proteins, proteomes, surface membrane proteins.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Fetrow, J.; Oakes, J.M. The associations between culling due to clinical Johne's disease or the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding and the diagnosis of clinical or subclinical diseases in two dairy herds in Minnesota, USA. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 July 16; 80(2-3): 166-178. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.02.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle diseases, disease detection, livestock production, culling of diseased animals, epidemiological studies, dairy herds, lactation stage, disease diagnosis, pathogen identification, feces, pathogen shedding, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease signs and symptoms in animals and humans, pneumonia, diagnostic techniques, biomarkers, blood chemistry, body condition, Minnesota, USA.

Raizman, E.A.; Fetrow, J.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Oakes, M.J.; Vazquez, G. The association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding or clinical Johne's disease and lactation performance on two Minnesota, USA dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Mar 17; 78(3-4): 179-195. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.10.006
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Lactation performance of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) was previously studied using only serum ELISA as a diagnostic method. This study evaluated on two dairy farms in Minnesota, USA the lactation performance (measures of health, production, reproduction, and survival) of cows shedding Map in faeces before calving and of cows culled with clinical signs consistent with Johne's disease (JD) during the subsequent lactation. Faecal samples were collected from 1052 cows within 21 day before calving and tested for Map with bacterial culture. Producers' observed signs of clinical disease (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, mastitis, pneumonia, and JD) and production and reproduction data were recorded for each cow. The association between faecal shedding or clinical JD and lactation performance was evaluated. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association with any clinical and subclinical diseases as the outcome. General linear model was used to evaluate the association with milk production, and survival analysis techniques were used to evaluate the association with days in the study before culling and days from calving to conception. In 84 cows (8% of 1052 cows) faecal samples were positive for Map (46% light, 26% moderate, and 28% heavy shedders). In multivariable analysis, light, moderate, and heavy faecal shedding cows produced on average 537, 1403, and 1534 kg, respectively, less milk per lactation and 1.4, 5.2, and 7.5 kg, respectively, less milk per day than faecal negative cows. Faecal culture positive cows were less likely to be bred and conceive. In the multivariable analysis the 56 cows culled with presumed JD produced approximately 1500 kg/lactation or 5 kg/day less than all other cows. The negative economic impact implied by decreased lactation performance in cows shedding Map or with clinical JD may motivate producers to implement programs to control Map infection and subsequent JD.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease detection, signs and symptoms (animals-and-humans), in vitro culture, feces, fecal contamination, lactation, calving, culling if sick cows, decision,making, dairy herd management, disease control, mathematical models, logit analysis, multivariate analysis, Minnesota, USA.

Rajeev, S.; Berghaus, R.D.; Johnson, J.; Pence, M.; Byrum, B.; Farrell, T.; Baldwin, C. Brain heart infusion broth may not be a required component for the decontamination process for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from fecal sample using ESP broth cultures. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 Nov; 19(6): 702-704. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Based on the authors' laboratory experience indicating that increased bacterial contamination in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cultures may be because of the addition of brain heart infusion broth (BHI) during the decontamination process, this study was designed to examine whether BHI is a required component for the isolation of MAP from ESPReg. broth cultures. Twenty-six National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) proficiency test samples supplied for the year 2005 were used for the comparison. Two paired sets of samples were processed in the experiment. In one set, the hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (HPC) and antibiotic brew were prepared in half strength BHI and for the other set, HPC and antibiotic brew were prepared in sterile distilled water. Culture of the 26 samples using the BHI/HPC decontamination method identified 13 (50%) positives, whereas culture using the water/HPC decontamination method identified 14 (54%) positives. The proportions of samples with a positive result did not differ significantly between the 2 decontamination methods. Although in most cases it took longer to identify a positive result by the BHI method, the difference between methods with respect to the number of days to a positive culture result was not statistically significant. Retrospective data collected from the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Ohio also suggest that inclusion of BHI in the decontamination protocol may not have any effect on MAP recovery or contamination rate. Elimination of BHI from broth cultures may increase the sensitivity of MAP isolation, and reduce the cost of testing. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, broth culture, bacterial contamination from broth components, fecal sampling, ESP broth, test sensitivity, test costs.

Rajkhowa, S.; Sarma, D.K.; Hazarika, G.C.; Rajkhowa, C. A preliminary study on Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in Mithun. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2007; 84(9): 988-989. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: The study was conducted on two mithun farms of the National Research Centre on Mithun in Nagaland, India (date not given). 104 mithuns (39 males and 65 females) of Arunachal, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland strains were included in the study. The animals were kept under semi-intensive system of management and examined for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection using Johnin single intradermal injection, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) and rectal punch smear examination. Results revealed that out of 104 animals tested, the number of animals positive for M. paratuberculosis infection by Johnin test, indirect ELISA and rectal pinch smear examination were 16 (15%), 31 (30%) and 12 (12%), respectively. All animals that were positive for M. paratuberculosis infection in Johnin test and rectal pinch smear examination were also positive in indirect ELISA. Significant difference was observed in the prevalence of M. paratuberculosis infection among different strains of mithun with the highest prevalence in Arunachal strain. The study revealed that indirect ELISA can detect the maximum number of positive cases of M. paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, Bos fontalis, mithun, various strains, females and males, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johnin test, ELISA, rectal punch smear, Nagaland, India.

Ribeiro-Guimaraes, Michelle-Lopes; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal. Comparative genomics of mycobacterial proteases. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2007; 43(5-6): 173-178. ISSN: 0882-4010.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08824010
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Abstract: Although proteases are recognized as important virulent factors in pathogenic microorganisms, little information is available so far regarding the potential role of these enzymes in diseases caused by mycobacteria. Here we use bioinformatic tools to compare the protease-coding genes present in the genome of Mycobacterium leprae,Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. This analysis allowed a review of the nomenclature of the protease family present in mycobacteria. A, special attention was devoted to the 'decaying genome' of M. leprae where a relatively high level of conservation of protease-coding genes was observed when compared to other genes families. A total of 39 genes out of the 49 found in M. bovis were identified in M. leprae. Of relevance, a core of well-conserved 38 protease genes shared by the four species was defined. This set of proteases is probably essential for survival in the host and disease outcome and may constitute novel targets for drug development leading to a more effective control of mycobacterial diseases. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis, comparative genomics, enzymes, proteases, nomenclature of protease of Mycobacteria, decaying genome of M. leprae, potential targets for drugs.

Ristow, P.; Marassi, C.D.; Rodrigues, A.B.F.; Oelemann, W.M.; Rocha, F.; Santos, A.S.O.; Carvalho, E.C.O.; Carvalho, C.B.; Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, L.S. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis in a dairy herd native to Brazil. Veterinary Journal. 2007 Sept; 174(2): 432-434. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.07.022
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (PTB) in Brazil has previously only been reported in imported animals and is officially considered as an exotic disease. A dairy herd, which had no imported animals, presented clinically suspect animals and was investigated for paratuberculosis using faecal culture, histopathology, indirect ELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion test. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) was confirmed by culture of faeces from five cows with clinical symptoms of PTB and in 7/24 randomly selected asymptomatic cows from the same herd. Two cows with clinical symptoms were necropsied and their tissues were positive for Map by culture and histopathology. Twelve asymptomatic, randomly selected cows were positive on ELISA. The results confirmed the presence of PTB in this dairy herd and for the first time demonstrated the disease in a herd of native-bred cattle in Brazil.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herd, fecal culture, histopathology, indirect ELISA, immunodiffusion, clinical signs,asymptomatic animals,first demonstrationof native bred herd with paratuberculosis, Brazil.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Stabel, J.R.; Morrical, D.G. Skin test and gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results in sheep exposed to dead Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis organisms. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 88-90. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) diagnostic tests, such as the gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IFN- gamma ELISA) and the Johnin skin test, have the potential to detect animals infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) early in the course of the disease. While these CMI tests tend to be relatively specific in noninfected flocks, in MAP-infected flocks, these tests often identify animals that cannot be confirmed infected by any other reference test, including necropsy and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if antigen exposure by inhalation or oral ingestion of killed MAP organisms would cause a detectable CMI response in sheep. Forty-eight lambs 4 months of age were randomly divided into a control group, an orally exposed group (dosed with 1x1010 autoclaved MAP organisms 3 times), and an inhalation-exposed group (dosed once with 1x105 dead organisms). Lambs were skin tested and/or bled pre-exposure and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 months postexposure. No significant difference was seen with either the oral- or inhalation-exposed groups of lambs versus controls with either the IFN- gamma ELISA or the skin test at any time pre- or postexposure. These results suggest that infection/invasion of MAP organisms must occur in order to have a positive skin test or IFN- gamma ELISA beyond the false-positive rate. Simple exposure is not enough to elicit a detectable CMI response. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, skin tests, intradermal tests, cell mediated immunity (CMI), cellular immunity, diagnosis, gamma interferon ELISA, diagnostic techniques, course of disease.

Roermund, H.J.W. van; Bakker, D.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Jong, M.C.M. de. Horizontal transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in an experimental setting: Calves can transmit the infection to other calves. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 June 21; 122(3-4): 270-279. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.016
NAL Call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract : In September 2001, two subsequent transmission experiments both lasting 3 months were carried out to study cow-calf transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) (Period 1), followed by calf-calf transmission of the infection (Period 2). Every 2 weeks, serum, heparinised blood and faecal samples were collected from all animals. After these experiments, the 20 calves were housed individually for more than 3 years to be able to detect the infection status and excretion pattern of each animal. In autumn 2004, the animals were inseminated, to observe a possible increase in faecal excretion of Map shortly before expected calving. One month before the expected calving date in 2005, animals were slaughtered and several tissues per cow and unborn calf were sampled for culture. The results indicate that horizontal cow-calf transmission is readily achieved (Period 1). At the highest infection pressure (six shedding cows of which three high shedders in Period 1) all five calves excreted Map in their faeces during Period 1 (shortly after infection), and four of these calves during Period 2 (when the shedding cows were absent). After that, excretion became less frequently. Horizontal calf-calf transmission did take place (Period 2), as the four donor-calves infected two receiver-calves. Transmission rates during the 3 months periods were quantified as a reproduction ratio R. The R [95% CI] of cow-calf and calf-calf transmission were estimated as 2.7 [1.1, 6.6] and 0.9 [0.1, 3.2] new infections per infectious animal during 3 months.
Descriptors: calves, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, disease transmission, excretion, feces, fecal contamination, virus transmission, epidemiological studies, longitudinal studies, infection microbial detection, blood serum, correlation, statistical analysis, probability analysis, estimation.

Roussel, A.J.; Fosgate G.T.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T. Association of fecal shedding of mycobacteria with high ELISA-determined seroprevalence for paratuberculosis in beef herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Mar 15; 230(6): 890-895. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: beef cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, feces, fecal sampling, disease transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, seroprevalence, antibodies, pathogen shedding, test sensitivity, test specificity, Texas, USA.

Salgado, M.; Kruze, J.; Collins, M.T. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis by fecal culture and ELISA on milk and serum samples in two types of Chilean dairy goat herds. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 99-102. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Faecal culture has been the primary method used to diagnose paratuberculosis in goats. It is laborious, slow, and expensive. Validation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on milk samples could make paratuberculosis testing more widely available for goat farmers. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of serum and milk ELISAs for paratuberculosis, relative to faecal culture, in Chilean dairy goats. Eight dairy goat herds were selected. Faeces, blood, and milk samples were collected from all female goats >2 years old. Faecal samples were cultured using Herrold egg yolk medium with mycobactin J and antibiotics. Serum and milk samples were tested using a commercial ELISA kit for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody detection. A total of 383 goats were tested by ELISA and faecal culture. The sensitivity of ELISA on serum and milk relative to faecal culture was 74.3% (95% CI: 59.8-88.8) and 60% (95% CI: 43.8-76.2), respectively. The corresponding values for ELISA specificity based on the percentage of non-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected goats testing ELISA-negative were 98.6% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 99.3% (95% CI: 97.9-100) on serum and milk, respectively. Proportions of positive results for serum and faecal samples were significantly different, whereas the proportions of positive results for milk and faecal samples were not significantly different. The milk ELISA had a moderate level of agreement with faecal culture results (Kappa=0.57). The paratuberculosis ELISA on goat milk samples may be a cost-effective, accurate alternative to faecal culture.
Descriptors: goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, accuracy, blood serum, fecal testing, goat milk testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques; ELISA test kit, Chile.

Samarineanu, M.; Miciora, R. Paratuberculoza - o gestiune dificula. [Paratuberculosis - a difficult management.] Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 17(4): 27-36. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Abstract: This article discusses the epidemiological management (pathogenesis, incubation period, immune response, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis and prophylaxis), risk management (limitations of direct (clinical, bacteriology and bacterioscopy) and immunological diagnostic techniques, and other risk factors), management of work forces and action means (institutions and persons involved permanently or temporarily in the control of the disease) and financial management (economic loss and costs) involved in paratuberculosis infection. The zoonotic character of the disease is also presented in the article. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: domestic animals, Johne’s disease, zoonotic disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, incubation period, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, epidemiology, disease control, disease prevalence, economics, costs, risk assessment, biohazard for workers, immune response; lesions prepatent period.

Schaik, G. van; Mcdnica, P.F.; Armcn, M.N.; Juan, K.V. Diagnostic validity and costs of pooled fecal samples and individual blood or fecal samples to determine the cow- and herd-status for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Nov 15; 82(1-2): 159-165. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.018
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, 12 dairy herds, diagnostic testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal culture, pooling feces of 10 individual cattle seems optimum, reduced costs, sensitivity better with lower level pathogen shedders, Chile.

Schaik, G. van; Haro, F.; Mella, A.; Kruze, J. Bayesian analysis to validate a commercial ELISA to detect paratuberculosis in dairy herds of southern Chile.Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Apr 16; 79(1): 59-69. ISSN: 0167-5877. Note: In the special issue "2006 SVEPM - All's Well at the Broad Church" / edited by D.J. Mellor and E.J. Peeler. Includes references.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.11.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection, analytical kits ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, validity, disease surveillance, screening, dairy herds, small scale farming, feces, bacterial colonization, estimation, disease diagnosis, disease course, pathogenicity, Bayesian theory, mathematical models, disease prevalence, Chile.

Scheld, W.M.; Hooper, D.C.; Hughes, J.M. [Editors]. Emerging infections 7. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. 2007: 381 pp. ISBN: 1555813771; 9781555813772. Note: 18 chapters.
Abstract: This volume is the seventh in a series of books based on the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy symposia on emerging infections. Consisting of 18 chapters, this book provides the latest update on the emerging infections facing us today and the approaches needed to control and prevent them. Some of these are newly recognized diseases, whereas others are previously known pathogens presenting new challenges. Some are described as domestic threats, while others affect populations elsewhere. Among the emerging pathogens described in this book are avian influenza A (H5N1) virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, West Nile virus, Chandipura virus, retroviruses, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other members of Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Zygomycetes, food- and waterborne protozoa, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Leishmania spp., and Variola virus. This volume is a valuable resource for a wide range of people working in microbiology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, public health, and clinical medicine. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: humans, livestock, wild animals, birds, many diseases, zoonotic diseases,emerging infectious diseases, Acinetobacter, Chandipura virus, Coronavirus, Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Influenza A virus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Leishmania, Metapneumovirus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Orthopoxvirus, water-borne Protozoa, Retroviridae, Staphylococcus aureus, Variola virus, West Nile virus, Zygomycotina, drug resistance, drug treatments, domestic disease threats, etc.

Scanu, Antonio M.; Bull, Tim J.; Cannas, Sara; Sanderson, Jeremy D.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Dettori, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Stefania; Hermon-Taylor, John. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in cases of irritable bowel syndrome and comparison with Crohn's Disease and Johne's Disease: common neural and immune pathogenicities. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-JCM. 2007 Dec; 45(12): 3883-3890. Print ISSN: 0095-1137. E-ISSN: 1098-660X.
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a systemic infection and chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many species, including primates. Infection is widespread in livestock, and human populations are exposed. Johne's disease is associated with immune dysregulation, with involvement of the enteric nervous system overlapping with features of irritable bowel syndrome in humans. The present study was designed to look for an association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and irritable bowel syndrome. Mucosal biopsy specimens from the ileum and the ascending and descending colon were obtained from patients with irritable bowel syndrome attending the University of Sassari, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. Crohn's disease and healthy control groups were also included. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected by IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing. Data on the potential risk factors for human exposure to these pathogens and on isolates from Sardinian dairy sheep were also obtained. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in 15 of 20 (75%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome, 3 of 20 (15%) healthy controls, and 20 of 23 (87%) people with Crohn's disease (P = 0.0003 for irritable bowel syndrome patients versus healthy controls and P = 0.0000 for Crohn's disease patients versus healthy controls). One subject in each group had a conserved single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 247 of IS900 that was also found in isolates from seven of eight dairy sheep. There was a significant association (P = 0.0018) between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and the consumption of hand-made cheese. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a candidate pathogen in the causation of a proportion of cases of irritable bowel syndrome as well as in Crohn's disease.
Descriptors: dairy sheep, humans,Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, association with pathogen infection and irritable bowel syndrome, risk of consuming, hand-made cheeses, Italy.

Scibelli, A.; Roperto, S.; Manna, L.; Pavone, L. M.; Tafuri, S.; Morte, R della; Staiano, N. Engagement of integrins as a cellular route of invasion by bacterial pathogens. Veterinary Journal. 2007; 173(3): 482-491. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
Descriptors: various pathogens, pathogenic bacteria, pathogenesis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Bartonella, Bordetella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Neisseria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Yersinia, carrier proteins, cell adhesion, integrins role, bacterial diseases, cellular invasion pathways, binding proteins, cyto-adherence, ligands, receptors, literature reviews.

Scott, H.M.; Sorensen, O.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Chow, E.Y.W.; Manninen, K. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Apr; 48(4): 397-406. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL : http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: adult beef cattle, cow/calf herds, ecological risk factors, animal disease pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Alberta, Canada.

Scott, H.M.; Fosgate, G.T.; Libal, M.C.; Sneed, L.W.; Erol, E.; Angulo, A.B.; Jordan, E.R. Field testing of an enhanced direct-fecal polymerase chain reaction procedure, bacterial culture of feces, and a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in adult dairy cattle.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 Mar; 68(3): 236-245. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: dairy cattle, adult animals, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, feces, fecal sampling, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, serodiagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, test sensitivity, test specificity, disease detection, blood serum, disease incidence.

Scott, H.M.; Fosgate, G.T.; Libal, M.C.; Sneed, L.W.; Erol, E.; Angulo, A.B.; Jordan, E.R. Field testing of an enhanced direct-fecal polymerase chain reaction procedure, bacterial culture of feces, and a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in adult dairy cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 68(3): 236-245. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, 669 adults, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease testing, fecal BCF and enhanced PCR, gel-based PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, bacterial culture, serum testing, immunodiagnosis, accuracy of assays.

Sechi, Leonardo A.; Felis, Giovanna E.; Ahmed,-Niyaz; Paccagnini, Daniela; Usai, Donatella; Ortu, Silvia; MoliCotti, Paola; Zanetti, Stefania. Genome and transcriptome scale portrait of sigma factors in Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Infection Genetics and Evolution. 2007; 7(4): 424-432. ISSN: 1567-1348
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15671348
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, global gene regulation, sigma factors of other mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium,Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae,Mycobacterium smegmatis, gene expression during different growth conditions and in vitro infection of intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells figuring out survival pathogen strategies, pathogen methods of infection, amino acid sequences, gene expression, molecular biology, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, protein sequences phylogenetics.
 

Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M.; Geijo, Marivi; Juste, Ramon A. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile homogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats. BMC Microbiology. 2007; 7: Article No.: 18. ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-7-18.pdf
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains has led to classify paratuberculosis isolates into 2 main types, cattle type strains found affecting all host species and sheep type strains reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis, a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years was characterized. 520 isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar) and origins were cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction endonuclease analysis. 269 isolates were further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-cattle type strains. IS1311-sheep type encompassed 96 and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all 3 Portuguese sheep. 37 distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43%) and another 3 profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis clustered all profiles found in cattle, wild hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. It was concluded that cattle in Spain were infected with cattle type strains, whereas sheep and goats were mainly infected with sheep type strains. Although 7H9 broth-based culture media seemed to broadly cover the growth requirements of most Map strains, the use of various solid media was recommended to reduce any recovery biases. High genetic homogeneity of isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats had been detected.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, cattle, bison, deer, wild boar, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, pathogen strain typing from different species, epidemiology, strain characterization, 520 isolates, cultured/typed by IS1311 restriction endonuclease analysis, 269 further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases, 32 novel profiles, genetic homogeneity for cattle groups and sheep groups noted.

Sharma, S.; Alka; Mahajan, V.; Kaur, K.; Verma, S.; Meenakshi; Kumar, H. Screening of dairy farms for brucellosis and paratuberculosis.Indian Veterinary Journal. 2007; 84(3): 315-316. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: dairy farms, 2988 cattle and buffalo, disease survey, brucellosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Rose Bengal place test, standard tube agglutination test, disease prevalence, Johne’s prevalence was 1.72%, Punjab, India.

Shin, Sung Jae; Han, Jun Hee; Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Collins, Michael T. Rapid and reliable method for quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by use of the BACTEC MGIT 960 System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology--JCM. 2007 June; 45(6): 1941-1948. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46 .J6
Abstract: A simple method for the enumeration of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells was developed and evaluated using the MGIT 960 culture system. For each of 12 M. paratuberculosis strains isolated from either cattle or humans, single-cell suspensions of M. paratuberculosis cells were adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm of 1.00 (10".e to 10i.po cells/ml), and serial dilutions were prepared. Standard curves were established by relating the MGIT time-to-detection data to the log CFU for these suspensions using standard plate counting and BACTEC 460 results as reference methods. Universal and strain-specific standard quantification curves were generated. A one-phase exponential decay equation best fit the universal standard curve and strain-specific curves (Rpo of 0.96 and >0.99, respectively). Two subgroups within the universal curves were distinguished: one for laboratory-adapted strains and the other for recently isolated low-passage bovine strains. The predictive errors for log estimations using the universal standard curve, each subgroup's standard curve, and strain-specific curves were pl0.87, pl0.45, and pl0.31 log units, respectively. CFU estimations by all three standard curves were highly reproducible, regardless of the M. paratuberculosis strain or inoculum volume. In comparison with the previously described BACTEC 460 M. paratuberculosis counting method, quantification with MGIT 960 was less expensive, more rapid, more accurate, and more sensitive (<10 CFU). This MGIT counting method has broad applications for studies requiring the quantification of viable M. paratuberculosis cells, such as drug susceptibility testing or environmental survival studies.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, quantification, counting viable pathogen cells, methodology, MGIT 960 culture system, BACTEC 460 method, human and animal strains, methology comparison study, rapidity of test, accuracy compared to standard plate counting, sensitivity of test method.

Sibley, J.A.; Woodbury, M.R.; Appleyard, G.D.; Elkin, B. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in bison (Bison bison) from northern Canada.Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2007 Oct; 43(4): 775-779. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map)-specific region, locus 251, was used as a screening tool for the detection of Map DNA in fecal samples from northern Canadian bison herds. Strain typing, using PCR-Restriction endonucleas assay (REA), was limited to two samples but revealed that the samples corresponded to a cattle-related strain and a sheep-related strain. Sequencing of part of the IS1311 region from the two samples revealed a unique three base-pair region found within the northern Canadian bison isolates.
Descriptors: bison, wild populations, conservation programs, wildlife diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, fecal sampling, pathogen identification, PCR, DNA, molecular epidemiology, Alberta, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Simutis, F.J.; Jones, D.E.; Hostetter, J.M. Failure of antigen-stimulated dt T cells and CD4+ T cells from sensitized cattle to upregulate nitric oxide and mycobactericidal activity of autologous Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Mar 15; 116(1-2): 1-12. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.12.005
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The function of dt T cells during ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is presently unknown. An ex vivo system was used to test the hypothesis that dt T cells are capable of activating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-(M. paratuberculosis)-infected macrophages. Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were infected in vitro with live M. paratuberculosis, and autologous LN-derived dt T cells or CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with infected macrophages for 48 h, at which time bacterial survival as well as production of nitrites and IFN-d was evaluated. Incubation of M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages with autologous dt T cells did not result in reduced intracellular bacterial viability compared to infected macrophage cultures without added T cells. IFN-d production by-infected cultures containing added dt T cells was not enhanced compared to that of infected macrophages alone. Although infection of macrophage cultures caused increased production of nitrites at both post-infection day (PID) 0 and PID 60, the addition of dt T cells did not further increase nitrite production. In contrast, addition of PPD-stimulated CD4+ T cells obtained at PID 60 to M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages resulted in significantly increased IFN-d production compared to cultures without added T cells or cultures containing unstimulated CD4+ T cells or unstimulated or antigen-stimulated dt T cells. However, the increased production of IFN-d by co-cultures containing PPD-stimulated CD4+ T cells did not result in increased bacterial killing or increased production of nitrites compared to cultures without added T cells. In additional in vitro experiments, M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages, but not uninfected macrophages, were unable to increase nitrite production when stimulated with recombinant IFN-d. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) dt T cells do not produce significant IFN-d and do not significantly increase NO production from M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages in vitro, (2) the production of significant IFN-d by antigen-stimulated CD4+ T cells from infected calves is insufficient to enhance mycobacterial killing or nitrite production by infected macrophages, and (3) macrophages may have an impaired NO response following intracellular M. paratuberculosis infection, even in the presence of significant concentrations of IFN-d.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle bacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, immune response, immune system, CD4-positive T lymphocytes, interferons, nitric oxide, biochemical-pathways, in vitro culture, bacteriophages, lymphocyte antigens, resistance mechanisms, macrophage activation, pathogen survival.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, R.; Sandhu, K.S.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Evaluation of highly sensitive indigenous milk ELISA kit with fecal culture, milk culture and fecal-PCR for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in India. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2007; 30(3): 175-186. ISSN: 0147-9571. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01479571
Abstract: Country lacks indigenous diagnostic kits against Johne's disease in animals. Indigenous ELISA and IS 900 PCR kits, originally developed for goats and sheep, have been adapted for screening of lactating cows. Multiple diagnostic tests were used to screen 26 lactating dairy cows against Johne's disease. Milk ELISA was evaluated with faecal culture, milk culture and faecal PCR. Of the 26 samples from lactating cows, 84.6, 96.1, 88.4 and 23.0% were positive in faecal culture, milk culture, m-ELISA and m-PCR, respectively. Comparatively milk sediment and milk fat culture detected 84.6 and 76.9% cows positive, respectively. Comparatively faecal culture and milk culture detected 84.6 and 96.1% cows positive, respectively. M-ELISA detected 11.5, 0.0, 11.5, 61.0 and 15.3%, cows as negative, suspected, low positive, positive and strong positive, respectively. There was good correlation between milk and faecal culture with m-ELISA. Three negative cows in m-ELISA were also detected in milk and faecal culture. Of the 26 decontaminated faecal samples, 23.0% cows were positive using specific IS 900 f-PCR. Comparative evaluation of m-ELISA with faecal and milk culture showed agreement in 80.7 and 84.6% cows, respectively. Sensitivity of m-ELISA with respect to faecal and culture was 90.9 and 95.6%, respectively. Comparative evaluation of four tests (milk culture, faecal culture, m-ELISA and f-PCR) showed that only 15.3% cows were detected in all the four tests. In three tests (faecal and milk culture and m-ELISA), 57.6% cows were detected positive. None of the cow was exclusively detected in f-PCR. Of the four diagnostic tests used milk culture was most sensitive (96.15%), followed by faecal culture (86.6%), m-ELISA (76.9%) and IS 900 PCR (23.0%) for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD). Milk ELISA detected only one cow extra, which was negative in milk culture. In view of the simplicity, rapidity and efficacy present milk ELISA kit employing soluble protoplasmic antigen from native Map 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin can be reliable for screening of bovine population against Johne's disease in India. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk composition, milk quality, analytical methods, antigens, antigenicity, assays accuracy, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, PCR, immunodiagnosis, Punjab, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Shukla, N.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Seroprevalence of Johne's disease in prospective young bulls of Hariana breed by indigenous ELISA kit, using protoplasmic antigen from 'Bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis of goat origin. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(8): 659-662. ISSN: 0367-8318
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is in the list B of OIE and requires certification of breeding animals. At present, India lacks diagnostic kits and reagents against JD. The ELISA kit initially developed for screening of goats and sheep was applied to cattle. Prospective young bulls of best native milch breeds of cows (Hariana) belonging to farmers' herds were screened against JD by indigenous ELISA kit using protoplasmic antigen from novel the Bison type genotype of Map of goat origin. Young males to be used as breeding bulls and aged between 2.5 and 3.5 years were earmarked for purchase from Rohtak district of Haryana. Of the 23 bulls, none was strongly positive, 20 were positive (86.9%) and 3 were slightly positive (13.0%). However, none were suspected and negative. The seroprevalence was 86.9% in young bulls of Hariana breed. In another study, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from all the 5 categories of S/P ratio in goats. Therefore, the real prevalence of JD in Hariana bulls might still be higher. The high seroprevalence of JD in the native tract of best Indian milch breed of cows was due to the poor attention and low priority given to JD surveillance and control in the country..
Descriptors: cattle, bulls, Hariana breed, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease levels, disease surveys, indigenous ELISA for sheep and goats used, antigens, immunodiagnosis, paratuberculosis, serological surveys; seroprevalence, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Singh, N.P. Evaluation of an indigenous ELISA for diagnosis of Johne's disease and its comparison with commercial kits.Indian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 47(3): 251-258. Print ISSN: 02555-0857. E-ISSN: 1988-3646
URL: http://www.ijmm.org/
Abstract: The country lacks sensitive and indigenous diagnostic kits for the screening of goats and sheep against Johne's disease. Therefore, an indigenous ELISA kit was developed using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison Type' strain of goat origin (Kit 1). In the present study, kit 1 and two commercial kits (kits 2 and 3) were evaluated with respect to faecal culture, which is considered as the gold standard. A total of 71 animals (55 goats and 16 sheep) were screened. Kit 1, which utilized an indigenous antigen (protoplasmic antigen), was sensitive at very low concentration (0.1 micro gm/well) compared to the purified commercial protoplasmic antigen (4 micro gm/well) used in kit 2, for the Type 1 reactors (strong positive as positive). Screening of 71 animals by faecal culture detected positive results (clinical shedders of bacilli) in 38.0% of the animals (goats, 40.0% and sheep, 31.2%). Of the farm animals from the Central Institute for Research on Goats, the herds of goat were endemic, while the sheep flock was comparatively resistant to Johne's disease. 29.5 and 61.9, 15.4 and 57.7 and 4.2 and 14.0% of the animals (goats and sheep) were categorized as sero-reactors type 1 and 2 based on ELISA kits 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In the type 1 sero-reactors, sensitivity and specificity of kits 1, 2 and 3 were 53.7 and 86.0, 17.8 and 86.0 and 3.5 and 94.7%, respectively. Indigenous ELISA test (Kit 1) was significantly superior for the screening of goat herds and sheep flocks against JD compared to commercial ELISA kits (Kit 2 and 3). In comparison to kits 2 and 3, kit 1 had the highest sensitivity, comparable specificity and substantial to nearly perfect proportional agreement (Kappa Scores) with respect to faecal culture. Type I sero-reactors showed better correlation with faecal culture in comparison to Type II sero-reactors. Therefore, this technique can be used for the estimation of Johne's disease seroprevalence. The newly developed indigenous ELISA kit was simple, inexpensive, sensitive and reliable for screening of goat and sheep population against Johne's disease. The study reports high prevalence of Johne's disease in farm goat herds and sheep flocks. The results of Type 1 reaction in kit 1 were optimally correlated with culture and were good for estimating the seroprevalence. To control Johne's disease in endemic herds, initial removal of strongly positive animals (Type 1 reactors) will eliminate heavy shedders. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goat herds, sheep flocks, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, disease surviellance, disease testing, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, immunological testing techniques, ELISA-Bison Typel, indigenious ELISA, comparison with commercial ELISA kits, diagnostic tools, culling of heavy shedders recommended, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, P.K.; Singh, A.V.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Comparative efficacy of an indigenous 'inactivated vaccine' using highly pathogenic field strain of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' with a commercial vaccine for the control of Capri-paratuberculosis in India. Vaccine. 2007; 25(41): 7102-7110. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) is endemic in goatherds located at Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, since 1979 and lately it has been reported from farmer's herds in equal frequencies. Despite using test and slaughter method for the control of JD for more than 25 years in these herds, incidence of JD has not been reduced. Efficacy of 'indigenous vaccine' containing native 'Bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was compared with commercial vaccine using challenge studies with homologous strain of MAP. Goat kids (85) were randomly divided in to three groups. Kids were vaccinated with 1 ml of vaccine subcutaneously and Sham-immunized with 1 ml of sterile PBS. All kids except 3 in each group were challenged twice at 75- and 275-day post- vaccination (DPV). Four goats each from three groups were sacrificed at 200-day post-challenge to evaluate carcass and histopathologically for vaccine and challenge response in kids of different groups. Samples (blood, serum and fecal) were screened for LTT, ELISA and shedding of bacilli and data on live animal traits, mortality and experimental sacrifice were compared. Average body weights gained by goats in three groups at different stages of trials (0 1-75 76-2757 276-425 DPV) showed marked improvements in performance of vaccinated groups over 'Sham-immunized' group. Effect of vaccines against challenge became visible in terms of body weights gained at 276-425 DPV ('Bison' group gained significantly higher body weights than 'Sham-immunized'). Mortality was significantly less in two vaccinated as compared to 'Sham-immunized'. Vaccinated groups also had significant stimulation and sero-conversion for cell mediated and Immoral immune response, respectively as compared to 'Sham-immunized'. Results of post-challenged fecal culture showed significant reduction in shedding of MAP in both vaccinated groups than in 'Sham-immunized'. There was significant improvement in external and internal body traits and histological lesions in case of vaccinated than 'Sham-immunized' group. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: goats, fecal culture, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Bison-type strain, used for indigenious vaccine, post vaccination challenge, reduced pathogen shedding, infection, immune response, chemical coordination and homeostasis, pharmacognosy, pharmacology, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, P.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Kumar, S.; Vohra, J. Sero-prevalence of paratuberculosis in young kids using 'Bison type', Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen in plate ELISA.Small Ruminant Research. 2007 July; 70(2-3): 89-92. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.11.019
NAL Call No .: SF380.I52
Abstract : Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antigens (native--S 5, 'Bison type' and commercial antigens 'Bovine'), were compared for screening of kids against paratuberculosis infection. Using MAP (S 5) antigen ('Bison type') in plate ELISA, 47 serum samples driven from farmer's herds of Jakhrana, Sirohi, and Marwari breeds in their home tract in Rajasthan state were screened. Of the 47 kids randomly sampled, 8.5% were found sero-positive by plate ELISA test. Breed-wise sero-prevalence was 10.5%, 7.6%, and nil in the Jakhrana, Sirohi, and Marwari male kids, respectively. Whereas, none of the serum sample was found positive using commercial MAP 'Bovine' antigen. Sero-prevalence of paratuberculosis has been found to be low in young kids (2 months old) belonging to the farmer's herds of Jakhrana and Marwari in their home tracts.
Descriptors: goat kids, goat diseases, Jakhrana and Marwari breeds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, pathotypes, goat breeds, disease detection, disease diagnosis, serodiagnosis, screening, immunologic techniques, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, bacterial antigens, serotypes, plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, P.K..; Singh, A.V.; Sohal, J.S.; Subodh, Swati; Narayanasamy, K. Non-chemical method of DNA recovery and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using IS900PCR. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007; 45(9): 812-816. ISSN: 0019-5189
URL: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijeb/ijeb0.asp
NAL call no.: 442.8 IN2
Descriptors: cattle, humans, raw milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, methods, DNA from stunted colonies.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, R.; Misra, S.; Shukla, N.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Sharma, S.; Kumar, H.; Patil, P.K.; Sandhu, K.S. Real time estimates of seroprevalence of Johne's disease in farmer's and farm goat herds in North India, using indigenous ELISA kit and faecal culture. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(11): 1074-1079. ISSN: 0367-8318
Abstract: Real time seroprevalence of Johne's disease was estimated in farmer's (UP and Punjab) and farm goat herds (UP) using indigenous ELISA kit and culture (2000-2006). In 72 randomly selected villages (UP) there were 4.81 livestock per farmer's family. Per cent preference for buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep was 54.7, 22.1, 21.5, and 1.5, respectively. Of 976 animals sampled, 153 serum were from goats. Of the 876 animals from farmer's herds reported to Department of Epidemiology ( Veterinary College, Ludhiana) in the year 2004, 177 samples were from goats. All the 330 serum samples from farmer's goat herds (UP and Punjab) were screened by indigenous ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of JD in farmer's goat herds in North India was 21.5%. Seroprevalence of JD in farmer's goat herds of UP was 32.6% (30.9% in South and 50.0% in West Uttar Pradesh). In South Uttar Pradesh, seroprevalence of JD was higher in young goats (47.6%) compared to adults (27.9%). In Ludhiana ( Punjab), the seroprevalence was 15.2% in goats. An outbreak of Johne's disease was investigated in a commercial goat farm located in Mathura district in 2006. Of 35 goats sampled, 77.1% (80.0% kids and 75.0% adult) were positive in culture. Of 77.1% positives, 65.7 and 11.4% cultures were pauci and multi-bacillary, respectively. In ELISA kit, 40.0% (14/35) animals were sero-positives. Of the 14 goats positive in ELISA, only 71.4% were detected in culture. Of the 7 low positives, 7 suspected and 7 sero-negative goats, 6, 5 and 6 (80.9%) were positive in culture, respectively. Faecal culture was highly sensitive as compared to ELISA kit in detecting Johne's disease from clinical cases. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA kit with respect to faecal culture (Gold Standard), was 37.0 and 50.0%, respectively. Outbreak of weakness and diarrhoea on a commercial goat farm (20.2.06) was confirmed as caused due to Johne's disease by faecal culture and ELISA kit. High prevalence of JD in farmer's and farm goat herds is alarming and a major cause of low per goat productivity. In absence of diagnostic kits and reagents, the ELISA kit using protoplasmic antigen from native MAP' Bison type' genotype was rapid and fairly efficient 'screening test'. This is the first report of real time survey of Johne's disease in farmer's and farm goat herds in 2 important agro-states of North India. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, goat herds, diagnosis, diagnostic-techniques, diarrhea, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ELISA, epidemiology, feces, outbreaks, seroprevalence, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, fecal testing, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, R.; Sandhu, K.S.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S. Comparison of multiple diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis in lactating cows.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(11): 1115-1117. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, lactating dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, multiple diagnostic tests for Johne’s disease, milk ELISA kit, IS900 PCR for fecal culture, milk culture, test comparative study, test effectiveness, test specificity.

Singh, U.M.; Tripathi, B.N.; Paliwal, O.P. Status of caprine paratuberculosis at organised and unorganised farms of Nepal. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(9): 852-854. ISSN: 0367-8318
URL: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijeb/ijeb0.asp
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Descriptors: goats, organized and unorganized farming systems, disease levels, comparison study, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Nepal.

Singh, U.P.; Singh, S.; Singh, R.; Karls, R.K.; Quinn, F.D.; Potter, M.E.; Lillard, J.W. Jr. Influence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on colitis development and specific immune responses during disease. Infection and Immunity. 2007; 75(8): 3722-3728. ISSN: 0019-2119.
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: The granulomatous and intramural inflammation observed in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and veterinary Johne's disease suggests that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a causative agent. However, an incomplete understanding of the immunological steps responsible for the pathologies of IBD makes this conclusion uncertain. Sera from interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice with spontaneous colitis displayed significantly higher M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immunoglobulin G2a antibody responses than did sera from similar mice without disease. Pathogen-free IL-10-/- mice received control vehicle or the vehicle containing heat-killed or live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mucosal CD4+ T cells from the mice that developed colitis proliferated and secreted higher levels of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha after ex vivo stimulation with a V beta 11+ T-cell receptor-restricted peptide from the MPT59 antigen (Ag85B) than those secreted from cells from mice before the onset of colitis. The data from this study provide important information regarding the mechanisms of colitis in IL-10-/- mice, which are driven in part by Ag85B-specific T cells. The data suggest a plausible mechanism of Ag-specific T-cell responses in colitis driven by potent Ags conserved in Mycobacterium species.
Descriptors: mice, animal models, colitis, immune response, inflammation, interleukin-10; laboratory animals, T lymphocytes, T cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, Johne's disease.

Sivakumar, P.; Nem-Singh; Tripathit, B.N.; Praveena, P.E.; Saravanan, D. Seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in Indian buffaloes.Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2007; 31(1): 62-63. Print ISSN: 0050-4758. E-ISSN: 0873-970X
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&volume=31&issue=1&article=017
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in Indian buffaloes. 365 sera samples were tested by absorbed-ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion test developed in the laboratory for the detection of antibodies specific to paratuberculosis. Absorbed-ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion test showed that 14.5 and 3.2% of the sera were positive for paratuberculosis, respectively. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: buffaloes, seroprevalence of Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies testing, absorbed ELISA, disease surveys; paratuberculosis, India.

Skoric, M.; Shitaye, E. J.; Halouzka, R.; Fictum, P.; Trcka, I.; Heroldova, M.; Tkadlec, E.; Pavlik, I. Tuberculous and tuberculoid lesions in free living small terrestrial mammals and the risk of infection to humans and animals: a review. Veterinarni Medicina. 2007; 52(4): 144-161. ISSN: 0375-8427
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: small terrestrial mammals, rodents, infectious agents, tuberculosis and tuberculoid lesions, pathogenesis, Mycobacterium, Brucella, brucellosis, Francisella tularensis, tularaemia, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella, salmonellosis, literature reviews.

Skovgaard,-Niels. New trends in emerging pathogens. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2007; 120(3): 217-224. ISSN: 0168-1605
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681605
NAL Call No.: QR115.I57
Abstract: The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The 'demerging' of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as minimally processed foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer.
Descriptors: food borne pathogens, food safety, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD, etc., better understanding of pathogens needed, emerging pathogens, reactions of pathogens to stressors and sublethal treatments, contagious resistance, minimally processed foods, quorum sensing in intestinal colonization, contamination of food processing equipment, opportunistic pathogens, probiotics, etc.

Smeed, J.A.; Watkins, C.A.; Rhind, S.M;. Hopkins, J. Differential cytokine gene expression profiles in the three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis. BMC Veterinary Research. 2007; 3(18): (14 August 2007). ISSN: 1746-6148
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1746-6148-3-18.pdf
Abstract: Background - Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual death. Three forms of Johne's disease have been described in sheep - paucibacillary, multibacillary and asymptomatic. The paucibacillary form is characterized by an inflammatory, Th1-type immune response. The multibacillary form of the disease, which disseminates the infection, is characterized by macrophage infiltration mediated by a Th2-type immune response, and asymptomatic animals have no clinical symptoms or pathology but are infected with MAP. What determines these three forms of the disease is unknown. To further understand these differences, we used realtime RT-PCR to compare the expression of thirteen cytokine and cytokine-related genes in ileal tissue from sheep with the three forms of the disease. Results - Three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis were defined on the basis of histopathology, cytochemistry (Zeihl-Neelsen) and IS900 PCR. Paucibacillary lesions have largely T cell and eosinophil infiltration and are ZN negative; multibacillary lesions have macrophage infiltration and large numbers of acid-fast bacteria. The pauci- and multibacillary forms are linked to the differential expression of IFN gamma and IL-10 respectively. In addition the increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and TNF alpha ), IL-8, IL-18 and TRAF-1 in both diseased forms is indicative of persistent inflammatory lesions. No changes were seen in IL-1 alpha in any sheep ileum tissues. Asymptomatic animals are IS900+ with normal histology but have significantly decreased levels of IL-18 and increased levels TNF alpha. Conclusions - We have quantified the expression levels of thirteen cytokine and cytokine related genes in three forms of ovine paratuberculosis using real-time PCR analyses and confirm that sheep pauci- and multibacillary disease are linked to type 1 and type 2 T cell responses respectively. The expression patterns of other cytokines shows that both disease forms have an inflammatory aetiology but that the central role for IL-1 alpha in bovine paratuberculosis is not seen in the sheep infection. Asymptomatic animals are infected and show no pathology but can be distinguished, in terms of cytokine expression pattern, from uninfected controls.
Descriptors: sheep, cytokines, gene expression, genes, histopathology, immunogenetics, interferon, interleukin 10, interleukins, macrophages, paratuberculosis, T lymphocytes, interleukin 8, Johne's disease, T cells.

Sohal, J.S.; Singh, S.V.; Subhodh, Swati; Singh, A.V.; Singh, P.K.; Sheoran, Neelam; Sandhu, Komal; Narayansamy, K.; Maitra, A. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis diagnosis and strain typing - Present status and future developments. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007; 45(10): 843-852. ISSN: 0019-5189
URL: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijeb/ijeb0.asp
NAL call no.: 442.8 IN2
Descriptors : ruminant pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, strain typing tools, advantages of methods compared, literature review.

Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A.; Sreevatsan, S.; Weiss, D.J. Cell membrane receptors on bovine mononuclear phagocytes involved in phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 Sept; 68(9): 975-980. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To determine cell membrane receptors involved in phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms. Sample Population - Monocytes were obtained from healthy adult Holstein dairy cows that were test negative for MAP infection on the basis of bacteriologic culture of feces and serologic test results. Procedures - Monocytes or bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) cells were incubated with MAP organisms for 30, 60, or 120 minutes with or without inhibitors of integrins, CD14, or mannose receptors. Phagocytosis was evaluated by light microscopy or by flow cytometry. CD11a/CD18, CD11b, and CD14 expression on monocytes and BoMac cells was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Results - Monocytes and BoMac cells rapidly phagocytized MAP organisms. However, compared with BoMac cells, monocytes had a greater total capacity to phagocytize MAP organisms. Addition of neutralizing anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b) substantially inhibited phagocytosis by monocytes during the first 60 minutes of incubation with MAP organisms, but were less effective at 120 minutes of incubation. Anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies were less effective in inhibiting phagocytosis by BoMac cells. Addition of inhibitors of CD14 or mannose receptors also inhibited phagocytosis of MAP by monocytes. Addition of a combination of integrin and mannose inhibitors had an additive effect in reducing phagocytosis, but addition of integrin and CD14 inhibitors did not have an additive effect. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Multiple receptors are involved in phagocytosis of MAP organisms. Although CD11/CD18 receptors appear to be the major receptors used by MAP at early time points, mannose receptors and CD14 also contribute substantially to phagocytosis.
Descriptors: cattle blood cells, mononuclear phygocytes, membrace receptors, phagocytosis of bacterial cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A.; Weiss, D.J. Role of the MAPK(ERK) pathway in regulation of cytokine expression by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis-exposed bovine monocytes. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 June; 68(6): 625-630. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: dairy cows, monocytes, in vitro studies, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, cytokines, protein synthesis, biochemical pathways, mitogen activated protein kinase, signal transduction, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, messenger RNA, gene expression, antimicrobial properties.

Stabel, J.R.; Kimura, K.; Robbe-Austerman, S. Augmentation of secreted and intracellular gamma interferon following johnin purified protein derivative sensitization of cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 43-51. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Measurement of secreted interferon (IFN)- gamma has proven to be a valuable tool for the detection of animals infected with mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Previous reports have suggested that tuberculin skin testing can influence the performance of the IFN- gamma assay. In the present study, healthy noninfected cows, and cows subclinically and clinically infected with M. paratuberculosis were administered an intradermal injection of johnin purified protein derivative (JPPD) and effects on secreted and intracellular IFN- gamma were observed. Intradermal injection resulted in significant increases in secreted IFN- gamma for subclinically infected cows after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with concanavalin A or M. paratuberculosis antigen preparations (whole-cell sonicate and JPPD) on days 7 and 10 postinjection. Intracellular IFN- gamma was increased after intradermal injection in total PBMC for all treatment groups and was higher within CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations for infected cows compared to healthy controls throughout the study. When T-cell populations were further defined by CD45RO expression, intracellular IFN- gamma was higher within CD8+/CD45RO+ lymphocytes compared to CD4+/CD45RO+ cells for subclinically and clinically infected cows but similar within these subpopulations for healthy controls. These results indicate that intradermal sensitization of cows in the subclinical stage of infection will upregulate expression of IFN- gamma , enhancing the sensitivity of this assay. In addition, CD8+ lymphocytes appear to play an important role as a mediator of M. paratuberculosis infection in naturally exposed cattle. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cows, natural infection, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, secreted IFN-gamma, detection for paratuberculosis, effects of tuberculin skin testing on IFN testing, johnin purified protein derivative (JPPD, intradermal injection, infected and non-infected animals, comparison study, CD8+ cells, serological diagnosis, T4 lymphocytes.

Stanley, Emma C.; Mole, Richard J.; Smith, Rebecca J.; Glenn, Sarah M.; Barer, Michael R; McGowan, Michael; Rees, Catherine E.D. Development of a new, combined rapid method using phage and PCR for detection and identification of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacteria within 48 Hours. Applied and Environmental Microbiology--AEM. 2007 Mar 15; 73(6): 1851-1857. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: The FASTPlaqueTB assay is an established diagnostic aid for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human sputum samples. Using the FASTPlaqueTB assay reagents, viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected as phage plaques in just 24 h. The bacteriophage used does not infect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis alone, so to add specificity to this assay, a PCR-based identification method was introduced to amplify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sequences from the DNA of the mycobacterial cell detected by the phage. To give further diagnostic information, a multiplex PCR method was developed to allow simultaneous amplification of either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. tuberculosis complex-specific sequences from plaque samples. Combining the plaque PCR technique with the phage-based detection assay allowed the rapid and specific detection of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk samples in just 48 h.
Descriptors: FASTPlaqueTB assay, diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, plaque PCR technique, phage-based detection assay, rapid detection, viable pathogen cells in milk.

Stephan, R. Diagnostische Systeme zum Nachweis von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.[Diagnostic systems for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.] Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. 2007; 2(2): 222-227. ISSN: 1661-5751. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.bvl.bund.de
NAL Call No.: TX531.J68
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the aetiological agent for bovine paratuberculosis also known as Johne's disease. The infection of domestic food animals with MAP organisms is associated with significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide through subclinical effects and subsequent death of the affected animals. The suggestions by some investigators of a possible link between human Crohn's disease and MAP has led to increased awareness of these micro-organisms as far as public health is concerned. However, due to the complex nature of human Crohn's disease as well as conflicting experimental evidence, a definitive link between MAP and Crohn's disease can neither be confirmed nor discarded at present. The classical detection method is based on isolation of MAP organisms from samples by culture techniques. However, this approach is labour intensive and time consuming. Moreover, this approach may underestimate or fail to detect MAP organisms as a result of the chemical decontamination step involved in order to prevent culture overgrowth by competing microflora. This step may also be deleterious to the MAP organisms in the sample. Immunology based detection methods are faster than culture, but are hampered by low sensitivity and cross reactivity problems. PCR provide a rapid alternative for qualitative and sensitive detection of MAP. Hence, to date a number of conventional PCR assays designed for MAP detection have been described. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, humans, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, etiology, analytical methods, disease detection methods, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, PCR, immunodiagnosis, methodology.

Stephan, R.; Schumacher, S.; Tasara, T.; Grant, I.R. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Swiss raw milk cheeses collected at the retail level.Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Aug; 90(8): 3590-3595. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract : A total of 143 raw milk cheese samples (soft cheese, n = 9; semihard cheese, n = 133; hard cheese, n = 1), collected at the retail level throughout Switzerland, were tested for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by immunomagnetic capture plus culture on 7H10-PANTA medium and in supplemented BAC-TEC 12B medium, as well as by an F57-based real-time PCR system. Furthermore, pH and water activity values were determined for each sample. Although no viable MAP cells could be cultured, 4.2% of the raw milk cheese samples tested positive with the F57-based real-time PCR system, providing evidence for the presence of MAP in the raw material. As long as the link between MAP and Crohn's disease in humans remains unclear, measures designed to minimize public exposure should also include a focus on milk products.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, hard cheeses, semisoft cheeses, soft cheeses, cheese milk, raw milk, grocery stores, immunomagnetic separation, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, bacterial contamination, food contamination, food safety, food quality, food microbiology, Switzerland.

Stewart, D.J.; Vaughan, J.A.; Stiles, P.L.; Noske, P.J.; Tizard, M.L.V.; Prowse, S.J.; Michalski, W.P.; Butler, K.L.; Jones, S.L. A long-term bacteriological and immunological study in Holstein-Friesian cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and necropsy culture results for Holstein-Friesian cattle, Merino sheep and Angora goats. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 May 16; 122(1-2): 83-96. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.12.030
NAL Call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The aims were to longitudinally evaluate the interferon-d (IFN-d) test in comparison to faecal culture and the absorbed ELISA in a cattle infection model for Johne's disease and to determine the adult infection status, by necropsy and tissue culture, of sheep, goats and cattle infected as young animals. Clinical disease, faecal culture results and immunological responses for Merino sheep [Stewart, D.J., Vaughan, J.A., Stiles, P.L., Noske, P.J., Tizard, M.L.V., Prowse, S.J., Michalski, W.P., Butler, K.L., Jones, S.L., 2004. A long-term study in Merino sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies. Vet. Microbiol. 104, 165-178] and Angora goats [Stewart, D.J., Vaughan, J.A., Stiles, P.L., Noske, P.J., Tizard, M.L.V., Prowse, S.J., Michalski, W.P., Butler, K.L., Jones, S.L., 2006. A long-term study in Angora goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies. Vet. Microbiol. 113, 13-24], in the same experiments as the Holstein-Friesian cattle, have been described. Two longitudinal experiments involving Holstein-Friesian cattle challenged with either bovine or ovine strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) have been conducted over a period of 54 and 35 months, respectively. Blood samples for the IFN-d test and the absorbed ELISA and faecal samples for bacteriological culture were taken pre-challenge and monthly post-challenge. Cell-mediated (CMI) responses were substantially higher for the bovine Map strain during the 42-month period following dosing but then declined in the remaining 12 months. However, for the ovine Map challenge and control groups, CMI responses were not significantly different from each other. None of the cattle developed clinical disease and only one of the cattle in the bovine Map gut mucosal tissue challenged group was a persistent faecal shedder and also an ELISA antibody responder which developed after shedding commenced. Culture of tissues, following necropsy at the completion of the experiments, showed no evidence of infection in any of the challenged cattle and sheep for either the bovine or ovine Map strain in contrast to positive cultures for challenged goats in the same experiments. The tissues from the control cattle, sheep and goats were culture negative. The cattle were less susceptible to the bovine and ovine Map strains than goats and sheep with the goats being the least naturally resistant.
Descriptors: Merino sheep, Holstein cattle, Angora goats, paratuberculosis, bovine and ovine Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenicity, disease resistance, cell mediated immunity, species differences, epidemiological studies, longitudinal studies, in vivo studies, in vitro studies, diagnostic techniques, immunologic techniques, interferons, gamma interferon.

Stratmann, Janin; Dohmann, Karen; Heinzmann, Julia; Gerlach, Gerald F. Peptide aMptD-mediated capture PCR for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology AEM. 2006 Aug; 72(8): 5150-5158. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: A peptide-mediated capture PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples was developed and characterized. Capture of the organism was performed using peptide aMptD, which had been shown to bind to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MptD protein (J. Stratmann, B. Strommenger, R. Goethe, K. Dohmann, G. F. Gerlach, K. Stevenson, L. L. Li, Q. Zhang, V. Kapur, and T. J. Bull, Infect. Immun. 72:1265-1274, 2004). Consistent expression of the MptD receptor protein and binding of the aMptD ligand were demonstrated by capturing different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I and type II strains and subsequent PCR analysis using ISMav2-based primers. The analytical sensitivity of the method was determined to be 5 x 10 superscript 2(B CFU ml superscript -1(B for artificially contaminated milk. The specificity of aMptD binding was confirmed by culture and competitive capture assays, showing selective enrichment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (at a concentration of 5 x 10 superscript 2(B CFU ml superscript -1(B) from samples containing 100- and 1,000-fold excesses of other mycobacterial species, including M. avium subsp. avium and M.avium subsp. hominissuis. The aMptD-mediated capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using paramagnetic beads, followed by culture, demonstrated the ability of this approach to capture viable target cells present in artificially contaminated milk. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the aMptD peptide is a high-affinity ligand with a calculated association rate constant of 9.28 x 10 superscript 3(B and an association constant of 1.33 x 10 superscript 9(B. The potential use of the method on untreated raw milk in the field was investigated by testing 423 bulk milk samples obtained from different dairy farms in Germany, 23 of which tested positive. Taken together, the results imply that the peptide-mediated capture PCR might present a suitable test for paratuberculosis screening of dairy herds, as it has an analytical sensitivity sufficient for detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples under field conditions, relies on a defined and validated ligand-receptor interaction, and is adaptable to routine diagnostic laboratory automation.
Descriptors: bulk milk, bacterial contamination, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; polymerase chain reaction, PCR, microbial detection, peptides, control methods, disease control, disease surveillance, dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, dairy herds, peptide mediated capture polymerase chain reaction, peptide aMptD.

Su,Chun Lung; Gardner, I.A.; Johnson, W.O. Bayesian estimation of cluster-level test accuracy based on different sampling schemes.Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 2007; 12(2): 250-271. ISSN: 1085-7117
URL: http://miranda.asa.catchword.org/vl=7700313/cl=13/nw=1/rpsv/cw/asa/10857117/v12n2/s7/p250
NAL Call No.: S566.55.J68
Abstract: We develop Bayesian models to estimate cluster-level test characteristics, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, and predictive values, based on four different sampling schemes: a single test case and three sequential test cases. The corresponding cluster-level characteristics are calculated and compared for different sample sizes, sampling schemes, individual-level sensitivities, specificities, and cut-off values. We compared posterior estimates of individual-level and cluster-level characteristics for these four sampling schemes with simulated data. Two illustrations, one for Johne's disease in cattle and another for Salmonella in pig herds, are used to demonstrate application of the methods..
Descriptors: cattle, hogs, ruminants, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, salmonellosis, accuracy of disease estimates, Bayesian theory, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis.

Swan, H.; Godden, S.; Bey, R.; Wells, S.; Fetrow, J.; Chester-Jones, H. Passive transfer of immunoglobulin G and preweaning health in Holstein calves fed a commercial colostrum replacer. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Aug; 90(8): 3857-3866. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to describe passive transfer of IgG and preweaning health in newborn calves fed a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum replacement (CR) product or maternal colostrum (MC). Twelve commercial Holstein dairy farms enrolled singleton newborn heifer calves to be fed fresh MC (n = 239 calves) or one dose of CR containing 125 g of Ig (n = 218 calves) as the first colostrum feeding. For 7 of these farms that routinely provided a second feeding of 1.9 L of MC to their calves 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding, calves assigned to the CR treatment group were offered a second feeding consisting of 1.9 L of commercial milk replacer supplemented with one dose of a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum supplement, containing 45 g of Ig per dose, 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding. A blood sample was collected from all calves between 1 to 8 d of age for serum IgG and total protein (TP) determination, and records of all treatment and mortality events were collected until weaning. Serum IgG and TP concentrations were significantly higher in calves fed MC (IgG = 14.8 pl 7.0 mg/mL; TP = 5.5 pl 0.7 g/dL) compared with calves fed CR (IgG = 5.8 pl 3.2 mg/mL; TP = 4.6 pl 0.5 g/dL). The proportion of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <10.0 mg/mL) was 28.0 and 93.1% in the MC and CR treatment groups, respectively. Though a trend was present, the proportion of calves treated for illness was not statistically different for calves fed MC (51.9%) vs. CR (59.6%). Total number of days treated per calf (MC = 1.7; CR = 2.0), treatment costs per calf (MC = $10.84; CR = $11.88), and proportion of calves dying (MC = 10.0%; CR = 12.4%) was not different between the 2 colostrum treatment groups. The mean serum total protein concentration predictive of successful passive transfer (serum IgG = 10 mg/mL) was 5.0 g/dL in calves fed MC or CR. Long-term follow-up of these calves (to maturity) is ongoing to describe the effects of feeding CR on longevity, productivity, risk for Johne's disease, and economics.
Descriptors: Holstein calves, risk of Johne’s disease, neonates, passive immunity, immunoglobulin G; weaning, animal health, calf feeding, colostrum, colostrum replacement, ruminant nutrition, experimental diets.

Szteyn, J; Wiszniewska aszczych, A; Ruszczynska, A.l. PCR w wykrywaniu Mycobacterium paratuberculosis w mleku surowym.[PCR method for detecting Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk samples.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 2007; 63(9): 1106-1107. ISSN: 0025-8628. Note: In Polish with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 M463
Abstract: The aim of the study was to detect Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in raw milk samples. DNA from 103 udder milk samples was isolated using the eQIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). IS-900 - a part of genome characteristic for MAP - was detected in 21 samples.
Descriptors: lactating cows, milk comtamination, raw milk sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, PCR diagnostic techniques; food-safety, Poland.

Taghipour-Bazargani, T.; Charkhkar, S.; Sadeghi, F.; Khalaj, M.; Rashtibaf, M.; Bagheri, M.; Bazargani, M. Protective effect of Johne's disease attenuated vaccine in an intensive non-tuberculosis free dairy. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 8(2): 161-165. ISSN: 1728-1997. Note: In English with a Persian summary.
URL: http://www.shirazu.ac.ir/en/index.php?page_id=60
Descriptors: dairy cattle herd, calves, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, attenuated live vaccines, vaccine development, adverse effects, immune response, immunity, immunization, live vaccines, vaccination, vaccine development, culling of sick animals, inflammation at site of inoculation.

Tavasoly, A.; Moosavi, Z.; Taghipour-Bazargani, T.; Bazargani, M. Accidental self-inoculation in a veterinarian with attenuated vaccine of bovine Johne's disease. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 8(4): 374-376, Pe389-390. Note: In English with a Persian summary.
Abstract: Herein, we described the first case of self-inoculation in a veterinarian with bovine Johne's disease (BJD) attenuated vaccine in Iran that required medical attention. A needle-stick injury to the right thumb of a young veterinarian during vaccination of cattle with BJD vaccine resulted in an inflammation that not only failed to resolve but also progressed to a lesion 2.5 cm in diameter. The usual conservative treatment of this wound was not effective. Surgical intervention for debridement of the inflammatory tissue was not performed. For diagnosis of lesion, needle biopsy was prepared from the inflamed tissue mass. Histopathologic examination revealed a tuberculoid granulomatous inflammation without any caseous necrosis. The wound healed by taking rifampin. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : veterinarians, risk of exposure to biohazards in the workplace, case study, needle stick accident, live vaccine for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, case-reports, clinical aspects, lesion formation, inflammation, histopathology, iatrogenic diseases, occupational hazards, treatment with rifampicin, Iran.

Taylor , A.J. Live cattle exports - our time is now!Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(1): 67-71. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: After a ban lasting 17 years, the export of live cattle from the UK has once again been permitted since 3 May 2006. However, eight months later, we still only have access to the other 26 EU Member States and one Third Country, namely Switzerland. Whilst the UK has been concentrating its efforts on controlling BSE, other countries have made great strides towards eliminating some of the production disease such as IBR, BVD and Johne's Disease. Unless the UK cattle industry now turns its attention to eradicating those diseases from the UK cattle herd, breeders may find that the newly opened door is shut in their faces once again. Transport rules have been substantially changed since we last exported live cattle and exporters must learn to cope with all the new welfare friendly regulations. Reproduced by permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: beef cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE, bovine diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Johne’s disease, mucosal disease, disease control, export controls, import controls, animal quarantine, regulations, European Union; Switzerland, UK.

Taylor , D.L.; Thomson, P.C.; De Silva, K.; Whittington, R.J. Validation of endogenous reference genes for expression profiling of RAW264.7 cells infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by quantitative PCR. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Jan 15; 115(1-2): 43-55. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.10.007
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Reference genes are frequently used to normalize between different biological samples the levels of mRNA measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression level of many commonly used reference genes has been shown to vary between tissues or cells, or following exposure to various treatments including infection with microbes. The selection of an appropriate reference gene for an individual experiment is therefore a crucial step in the process of accurately determining changes in gene expression. For this purpose, we analyzed the expression of nine commonly used reference genes in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, for their potential use in the analysis of differential gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) following experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Only one of nine putative reference genes tested, casc3a, was found to be suitable, and combinations of two or more reference genes were disadvantageous. Based on data from the study, we recommend an approach for selection of reference genes, conducting assays with technical replicates in duplicate rather than triplicate, determining decision-limit quality control criteria for technical replicates and assessing the significance of gene expression fold differences using (SEE(BCt based on knowledge of the variation in the reference gene.
Descriptors: mice, cell lines, validity, immunology, gene expression, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, messenger RNA, quantitative analysis, genes, RAW264.7 cells.

Thibault, Virginie C.; Grayon, Maggy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Hubbans, Christine; Overduin, Pieter; Stevenson, Karen; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Supply, Philip; Biet, Franck. New variable-vumber tandem-repeat markers for typing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains: Comparison with IS900 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-JCM. 2007 Aug; 45(8): 2404-2410. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46 .J6
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, affects a wide range of domestic ruminants and has been suggested to be involved in Crohn's disease in humans. Most available methods for identifying and differentiating strains of this difficult species are technically demanding and have limited discriminatory power. Here, we report the identification of novel PCR-based typing markers consisting of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements called mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs). Eight markers were applied to 183 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from bovine, caprine, ovine, cervine, leporine, and human origins from 10 different countries and to 82 human isolates of the closely related species M. avium from France. Among the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 21 patterns were found by MIRU-VNTR typing, with a discriminatory index of 0.751. The predominant R01 IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism type, comprising 131 isolates, was divided into 15 MIRU-VNTR types. Among the 82 M. avium isolates, the eight MIRU-VNTR loci distinguished 30 types, none of which was shared by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, resulting in a discriminatory index of 0.889. Our results suggest that MIRU-VNTR typing is a fast typing method that, in combination with other methods, might prove to be optimal for PCR-based molecular epidemiological studies of M. avium/M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogens. In addition, presumably identical M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis 316F vaccine strains originating from the Weybridge laboratory and from different commercial batches from Mcbrial actually differed by one or both typing methods. These results indicate a substantial degree of genetic drift among different vaccine preparations, which has important implications for prophylactic approaches.
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR-based typing markers, variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs), markers applied to 183 strains, isolates from cattle, sheep, deer, rabbits, hares, humans, procedure for typing strains, vaccine strains tested show genetic drift.

Thompson, B.R.; Clark, R.G.; Mackintosh, C.G. Intra-uterine transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in subclinically affected red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2007; 55(6): 308-313. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL : http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Abstract: AIM: To determine the rate of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. ptb) from hind to fetus in utero, and the risk of transmission from dam to fawn via infected colostrum and milk in subclinically affected red deer hinds. METHODS: Hinds were sourced from farms in Otago or Southland and selected for the study if they were positive to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Paralisa) and exhibited no clinical signs of Johne's disease. The hinds (n=35) were sent to a deer slaughter premises (DSP; n=31) or were killed on-farm (n=4). All post-mortem samples were collected from the fetus first and then from the dam, taking care to avoid cross contamination between samples. Fresh samples (n=185) were collected for culture, and tissue samples (n=72) were collected from 24 hinds and their fetuses for histopathological examination. RESULTS: A total of 24/35 hinds selected were suitable for inclusion in the study. Eighteen of these pregnant hinds were culture-positive for M. ptb, and 14 of these had culture-positive fetuses, representing a transmission rate of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.58-0.98) from dam to fetus. Of the 16 mammary glands sampled, 11 (69%) were culture-positive for M. ptb while 12/15 (80%) mammary lymph nodes sampled were also culture-positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a high rate of transmission of M. ptb from dam to fetus in red deer, and a potential risk of transmission to fawns suckling from mothers that are subclinically affected with Johne's disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: red deer , hinds, fetuses, Cervus elaphus, disease transmission via infected colostrum, ELISA, histopathology, IgG, milk, paratuberculosis, New Zealand.

Thompson, J.A.; Scott, H.M. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue-Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Dec; 48(12): 1281-1285. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL : http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Bayesian kriging, seroprevalence of pathogens, Alberta, Canada.

Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Dohoo, I.R.; Keefe, G.P.; Haddad, J.P.; Tremblay, R.; Scott, H.M.; Whiting, T. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Feb; 90(2): 659-669. ISSN: 0022-0302 .
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer >=1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research will contribute to understanding the economic impacts of these pathogens and justify their control.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, effects of various diseases on fats, milk, protein, serum antibody testing by many diagnostic tests, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), Neospora caninum, economic impacts of disease, Canada.

Toribio, J.A.; Sergeant, E.S.G. A comparison of methods to estimate the prevalence of ovine Johne's infection from pooled faecal samples.Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Aug; 85(8): 317-324. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72k
Descriptors: sheep, flock health, ovine Johne’s disease, pooled fecal sampling, disease prevalence levels, diagnostic testing for paratuberculosis, Australia.

Traversa, M.J.; Alcobedo, J.; Schettino, D.M.; Sanz, H.E.; Rodriguez, E.M.; Olmos, M.R.; Jorge, M.C. Perdidas economicas de un rodeo con para tuberculosis en el oeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Argentina. [Economic losses due to paratuberculosis in a herd from the west of Buenos Aires province, Argentina.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2005; 25(Supl. 1): SA5. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, economic losses, paratuberculosis, Argentina.

Tschuor, A. Chronische Abmagerung von Ziegen und Schafen: Paratuberkulose? [Chronic wasting in goats and sheep: paratuberculosis?]Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2007; (10): 6-9, ISSN: 0429-2766. Note: In German and French.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Descriptors: goats, sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial pathogen describes, transmission between animals, clinical signs of disease, treatment, control, wasting condition, diarrhea.

Turenne, Christine Y.; Wallace, Richard Jr; Behr, Marcel A. Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2007; 20(2): 205-229,CP1. ISSN: 0893-8512
URL: http://cmr.asm.org/
Descriptors: human and animal pathogens, pathogen’s genetic variation, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain K-10, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium avium silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium hominissuis, Mycobacterium lapraemurium, Mycobacterium avium strain 104, functional understand of epidemiology pathogen subsets, relationships between members of this species, propensity to cause disease.

van den Driessche, P.; Wang, Lin; Zou, Xingfu. Modeling diseases with latency and relapse. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering. 2007; 4(2): 205-219. ISSN: 1547-1063
Descriptors: mathematical modes, exposed period and relapse, tuberculosis, human and animal pathogens, cattle, wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, probability of remaining in exposed class, etc., computational biology, endemic equilibrium, basic reproduction number, threshold property, probability function, step function.

Vansnick E.; Rijk, P. de; Vercammen, F.; Rigouts, L.; Portaels, F.; Geysen, D. A DNA sequence capture extraction method for detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in feces and tissue samples.Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 May 16; 122(1-2): 166-171. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.011
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Culturing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) remains difficult and is time consuming. An alternative for the rapid detection of Map in samples is PCR. We have developed a sensitive DNA-extraction method based on sequence capture for the rapid detection of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis by PCR in fecal and tissue samples. The method detected 10po Map/g feces using spiked samples, and reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 33,7% compared to 22% for culture. Analysis of tissue samples gave 65 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive (42.2%) and 49 culture-positive samples (31.8%). Therefore, the detection limit of the DNA-extraction is the same as previously reported for culture, the PCR assay could detect more positive samples than the culture method.
Descriptors: red deer, Cervus elaphus, cattle, cattle diseases, ruminant diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, pathogen identification, disease detection, rapid methods, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, DNA, extraction, sequence analysis, microbial detection, feces, nucleotide sequences, tissue analysis, accuracy, validity, sequence capture, molecular sequence data.

Verna, A.E.; Garcia-Pariente, C.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, O.; Garcia-Marin, J.F.; Romano, M. I.; Paolicchi, F.; Perez, V. Variation in the immuno-pathological responses of lambs after experimental infection with different strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Zoonoses Public Health. 2007; 54(6-7): 243-252. ISSN: 1863-1959
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jvb?cookieSet=1
Descriptors : 1 month old lambs, experimental infections, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, different immuno-pathological responses, two bovine strains of Argentina, 1 Spanish strain, ovine strain, intestinal mucosa inoculum, lesion size and body location.

Villarino, M.A.; Jordan, E.R. Evaluation of disease-control measurements for Johne's disease in a Texas dairy. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 690. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy farm, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effectiveness of disease control measures, Texas.

Voelkel, I.; Urstadt, S.; Karapetyan, A.; Thebille, S.; Niederhausen, M.; Schmelz, F.; Czerny, C.P. Development of semi-nested and quantitative real time pool PCR methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in seropositive and seronegative dairy cows. International Journal of Medical Microbiology-IJMM. 2007; 297(Suppl. 43): 14. ISSN: 1438-4221. Note: 59th Annual Meeting of the Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Gottingen, Germany; September 30 -October 04, 2007.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14384221
NAL Call No.: QR1.Z443
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR method, detection test method, serum testing.

Wang Chong; Turnbull, B.W.; Grohn, Y.T.; Nielsen, S.S. Nonparametric estimation of ROC curves based on Bayesian models when the true disease state is unknown. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 2007; 12(1): 128-146. ISSN: 1085-7117
URL: http://miranda.asa.catchword.org/vl=7700313/cl=13/nw=1/rpsv/cw/asa/10857117/v12n1/s8/p128
NAL Call No.: S566.55.J68
Abstract: We develop a Bayesian methodology for nonparametric estimation of ROC curves used for evaluation of the accuracy of a diagnostic procedure. We consider the situation where there is no perfect reference test, that is, no "gold standard." The method is based on a multinomial model for the joint distribution of test-positive and test-negative observations. We use a Bayesian approach which assures the natural monotonicity property of the resulting ROC curve estimate. MCMC methods are used to compute the posterior estimates of the sensitivities and specificities that provide the basis for inference concerning the accuracy of the diagnostic procedure. Because there is no gold standard, identifiability requires that the data come from at least two populations with different prevalences. No assumption is needed concerning the shape of the distributions of test values of the diseased and nondiseased in these populations. We discuss an application to an analysis of ELISA scores in the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) for several herds of dairy cows and compare the results to those obtained from some previously proposed methods.
Descriptors: dairy cows, cattle, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Bayesian theory, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, paratuberculosis, testing, accuracy, detection, Monte Carlo method, statistical models, probability analysis, algorithms, estimation, Markov chain, specificity, sensitivity.

Wang, Hongyu; Aodon-geril; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Yuriko; Wang, Xiaofei; Mori, Yasuyuki; Momotani, Eiichi. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin expression in peripheral blood cells from experimentally infected cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Microbes and Infection. 2007; 9(9): 1061-1069. ISSN: 1286-4579
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12864579
NAL Call No.: QR180.M53
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, urocortin (UCN) neuropeptide, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), immune responses, expression in peripheral blood cells, uninfected and infected cattle, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods.

Warns, M.T.; Pfeltz, R.F. BACTEC (TM) MGIT (TM) 960 para TB system performance for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) recovery. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 738-739. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, BACTEC-MGIT-960-Para-TB automated liquid culture system, detection method for pathogen.

Weering, H. van; Schaik, G. van; Meulen A.van der; Waal, M.; Franken, P.; Maanen, K.van. Diagnostic performance of the Pourquier ELISA for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in individual milk and bulk milk samples of dairy herds. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Nov 15; 125(1-2): 49-58. ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.010
NAL Call No: SF601.V44
Abstract : The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic performance of the Pourquier ELISA for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in individual milk samples and in bulk milk samples. For individual milk samples the specificity of the Pourquier ELISA was estimated by testing a panel of individual milk samples from certified Map-free herds. The relative sensitivity of the assay in individual milk samples and agreement of the results with those of serum samples was estimated by testing panels of paired serum-milk samples from seropositive cattle, whole-herd investigations, and moderate or heavy shedders. The specificity of the ELISA for individual milk samples was still 99.8% at a cut-off of 20% sample to positive (S/P) value, clearly lower than the cut-off defined by the manufacturer (30% S/P). The relative sensitivity for individual milk samples as compared with positive serum samples was 87% for a cut-off of 20% S/P, and 80% for a cut-off of 30% S/P. The sensitivity of this ELISA for detection of high shedders was >90% both for individual milk and serum samples, also agreement was very good ( = 0.91 for all paired samples). The specificity of the Pourquier ELISA in bulk milk samples was investigated by testing bulk milk samples from certified Map-free herds. Feasibility of bulk milk testing was investigated by titrating ELISA positive individual milk samples in negative milk. In addition, 383 bulk milk samples from herds with a known within-herd seroprevalence were tested. The specificity of the ELISA for bulk milk samples was 100% at a cut-off of 12.5% S/P. At the cut-off recommended by the manufacturer (30% S/P) performance of the bulk milk ELISA related to herd status (>=2 seropositive cows) was rather poor, corresponding with a sensitivity of 24% and a specificity of 99% relative to serology. However, at the revised cut-off for bulk milk of 12.5% S/P and a within-herd seroprevalence of >=3%, sensitivity and specificity relative to serology were 85% and 96%, respectively. Given the current herd-level seroprevalence in The Netherlands, these test characteristics corresponded with positive and negative predictive values for bulk milk of 67% and 94%, respectively. In conclusion, the diagnostic performance of the Pourquier ELISA for individual milk samples creates opportunities for a cheaper and more feasible testing scheme, while the diagnostic performance for bulk milk samples warrants further consideration.
Descriptors: testing bovine milk samples, individual and bulk milk sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Pourquier ELISA test kit, diagnostic performance, The Netherlands.

Woo, Seng Ryong; Barletta, Raul G.; Czuprynski, Charles J. Extracellular ATP is cytotoxic to mononuclear phagocytes but does not induce killing of intracellular Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(9): 1078-1083. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effect on viability of ATP, infected bovines, short-term effect of ATP on viability of M.A.P infected bovine mononuclear phagocytes and infecting bacilli.

Woo, Seng Ryong; Heintz, Joseph A; Albrecht, Ralph; Barletta, Raul G.; Czuprynski, Charles J. Life and death in bovine monocytes: The fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Microbial Pathogenesis. 2007; 43(2-3): 106-113. ISSN: 0882-4010
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08824010
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Descriptors: bovine monocytes, infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, 8 day incubation, staining of bacilli, Ca 2+/ CaM and P13 kinase inhibitors, survival of intracellular pathogen.

Wu, C. w.; Shin, S.; Talaat, A.M. Identification of novel virulence factors of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by transcriptome analysis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007;107: 685. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, virulence factors, gene expression profiling, transcriptome analysis, novel virulence factors.

Wu, Chia Wei; Livesey, Michael; Schmoller, Shelly K.; Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Steinberg, Howard; Davis, William C.; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Talaat, Adel M. Invasion and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during early stages of Johne's disease in calves.Infection and Immunity--IAI. 2007 May; 75(5): 2110-2119. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in cattle and is a serious problem for the dairy industry worldwide. Development of models to mimic aspects of Johne's disease remains an elusive goal because of the chronic nature of the disease. In this report, we describe a surgical approach employed to characterize the very early stages of infection of calves with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. To our surprise, strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were able to traverse the intestinal tissues within 1 h of infection in order to colonize distant organs, such as the liver and lymph nodes. Both the ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes were persistently infected for months following intestinal deposition of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis despite a lack of fecal shedding of mycobacteria. During the first 9 months of infection, humoral immune responses were not detected. Nonetheless, using flow cytometric analysis, we detected a significant change in the cells participating in the inflammatory responses of infected calves compared to cells in a control animal. Additionally, the levels of cytokines detected in both the ileum and the lymph nodes indicated that there were TH1-type-associated cellular responses but not TH2-type-associated humoral responses. Finally, surgical inoculation of a wild-type strain and a mutant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain (with an inactivated gcpE gene) demonstrated the ability of the model which we developed to differentiate between the wild-type strain and a mutant strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis deficient in tissue colonization and invasion. Overall, novel insights into the early stages of Johne's disease were obtained, and a practical model of mycobacterial invasiveness was developed. A similar approach can be used for other enteric bacteria.
Descriptors: calves, early stages of infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, spread of bacterial cells, ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, immune response, inflammatory responses, model for bacterial invasiveness.

Wu, Chia Wei; Schmoller, Shelly K.; Shin, Sung Jae; Talaat, Adel M. Defining the stressome of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in vitro and in naturally infected cows. Journal of Bacteriology. 2007; 189(21): 7877-7886. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL: http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes an enteric infection in cattle, with a great impact on the dairy industry in the United States and worldwide. Characterizing the gene expression profile of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to different stress conditions, or shed in cow feces, could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In this report, the stress response of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a genome-wide level (stressome) was defined for the first time using DNA microarrays. Expression data analysis revealed unique gene groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that were regulated under in vitro stressors while additional groups were regulated in the cow samples. Interestingly, acidic pH induced the regulation of a large number of genes (n = 597), suggesting the high sensitivity of M. avium subsp.paratuberculosis to acidic environments. Generally, responses to heat shock, acidity, and oxidative stress were similar in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting common pathways for mycobacterial defense against stressors. Several sigma factors (e.g., sigH and sigE) were differentially coregulated with a large number of genes depending on the type of each stressor. Subsequently, we analyzed the virulence of six M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutants with inactivation of differentially regulated genes using a marine model of paratuberculosis. Both bacterial and histopathological examinations indicated the attenuation of all gene mutants, especially those selected based on their expression in the cow samples (e.g., lipN). Overall, the employed approach profiled mycobacterial genetic networks triggered by variable stressors and identified a novel set of putative virulence genes. A similar approach could be applied to analyze other intracellular pathogens.
Descriptors: Holstein cows, natural infection, invitro stressors, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterial defense against stressors, stress response, pH range, BALB C mouse, intracellular pathogens.

Zhu, X.; Coussens, P.; Janagama, H.; Sreevatsan, S. Gene expression profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in primary monocyte derived macrophages. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 736-737. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: complimentary DNA library, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, BLAST analysis, gene expression oxidative-stress response, NCBI database, K-10 genome.


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