NOTE: Johne's Disease may be viewed as one complete publication file below, or as individual chapter files at johnes.htm

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Johne's Disease--Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A Debilitating Enteric Disease of Ruminants

June 2002 (Revised Novermber 2008)

 


Compiled by:

Jean Larson
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Published by:

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
Beltsville, MD 20705
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Contents

Introduction       Notes about this Document        Bibliography



Introduction

There are many loses in the livestock industry as a result of the bacterial disease called Johne's disease. "The disease occurs across the US and many foreign countries and is one of the most economically important disease of cattle." 3.   The effects of this contagious disease lead to reduced milk, fetal loss and early death. This disease is caused by a bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This family of bacteria causes a variety of disease scourges such as tuberculosis, leporsy, cervical lymphadenitis, Aswimming pool granuloma, chronic pulmonary diseases and Johne's disease. Johne's disease is known to affect cattle, sheep, llamas, camels, goats, farmed deer, bison, and other domestic and wild ruminants. It may be the cause of some wasting diseases in horses and swine. Also, chickens can be successfully infected with it. The disease can also be transmitted to laboratory animals in a laboratory setting.   It may also be an agent of the Crohn=s disease in humans. There is conflicting information about the zoonotic risks of the disease, but interaction with diseased animals should be done with caution. Johne's is found world-wide.

The disease. Although the infection is usually acquired early in life, the clinical signs can take 2-6 years to develop. Clinical signs in cattle include severe wasting due to prolonged diarrhea, dehydration, and emaciation with lethal consequences. (In other susceptible animals the clinical signs are somewhat different.) In cattle the intestinal wall becomes thickened and has transverse folds called rugae. The surface looks corrugated. Lymph nodes are also affected and at times there are lesions in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys. Infections in the uterus and placenta can lead to congenital infection and abortion. Most cattle are infected when young through contaminated feed, colostrum, milk, contaminated bedding and water. The organism is often shed in large number in the feces and for long periods of time. It can live for long periods in fecal material and depending on the environmental and soil conditions, has been known to survive up to 1 year.

Diagnosis. Diagnosis of the disease in live individual animals is difficult for a number of reasons. To date, "there is no single, good test for paratuberculosis and a combination of tests is often used." 1. It seems that it is easier to diagnosis the presence in a herd as apposed to individual animals. Most of the time, the definitive diagnosis is done after an animal has died. Note that in the bibliography, there is research going on to attempt to develop better diagnostic methods for this difficult disease.

Control measures. There is no satisfactory treatment for the disease. The trend toward intensive has made control more difficult. Disease control is via implementing a variety of production practices. Some of the production practices include culling of affected animals, and removal of calves from dams immediately following birth. The calves are then fed pasturized colostrum that is free of fecal contamination and raising them in a facility that is separate from adult cows. Fecal culturing of all cows in a herd can catch those affected early on. Manure removal and facility cleaning can help control the disease. Since a basic soil discourages bacterial survival in soil, liming of pastures is helpful.

Vaccines used in calfhood can be effective in reducing the incidence, but they do not totally eliminate disease. A more effective vaccine is also being researched at this time, but vaccination does not eliminate the need for good production practices.

Resources used above:

1. Aiello, Susan E. and Asa Mays (eds.) The Merck Veterinary Manual, 8th edition. Whitehouse Station, N. J. The Merck & Co, Inc. 1998, p.537-539.

2. Jones, Thomas Carlyle and Ronald Duncan Hunt. Veterinary Pathology, 5th edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger. 1983. p 648-664.

3. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1984 Yearbook of Agriculture. Animal Health. Washington, D.C.. The Department. 1984 p. 158-160.

Additional information: Genome Sequencing Completed for Major Dairy Cattle Microbe Manual of Standards Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Part 2, Section 2.2, Chapter 2.2.6. Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease)

Notes about this Document

This document was compiled from various databases. The information is organized alphabetically by author and by publication year. Where there were abstracts in the database, they have been included in this document. The National Agricultural Library call numbers are included.

If the reader is interested in obtaining copies of the articles, you may request them on inter-library loan through your local library. Complete document delivery information is available at http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials.
If you have comments or would like to submit additional information for inclusion in this document, please contact the compiler at http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php.



Bibliography

2008 / 2007 / 2006 / 2005 / 2004 / 2003 / 2002 / 2001 / 2000 / 1999 / 1998 / 1997 / 1996 /
USDA and USDA Sponsored Research

2008



Akhter, Yusuf; Yellaboina, Sailu; Farhana, Aisha; Ranjan, Akash; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E. Genome scale portrait of cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) regulons in mycobacteria points to their role in pathogenesis. Gene ( Amsterdam). 2008; 407(1-2): 148-158. ISSN: 0378-1119
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781119
NAL Call No: QH442.A1G4
Abstracts : cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP)/Fumarate Nitrate Reductase Regulator (FNR) family proteins are ubiquitous regulators of cell stress in eubacteria. These proteins are commonly associated with maintenance of intracellular oxygen levels, redox-state, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, and extreme temperature conditions by regulating expression of target genes that contain regulatory cognate DNA elements. We describe the use of informatics enabled comparative genomics to identify novel genes under the control of CRP regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). An inventory of CRP regulated genes and their operon context in important mycobacterial species such as M. leprae,M avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis and several common genes within this genus including the important cellular functions, mainly, cell-wall biogenesis, cAMP signaling and metabolism associated with such regulons were identified. Our results provide a possible theoretical framework for better understanding of the stress response in mycobacteria. The conservation of the CRP regulated genes in pathogenic mycobacteria, as opposed to non-pathogenic ones, highlights the importance of CRP-regulated genes in pathogenesis. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium smegmatis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, CRP regulator genes, pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria compared, cell biogenesis, cAMP-receptor-protein; fumarate-nitrate-regulator-family protein.

Alonso-Hearn, M.; Patel, Dilip; Danelishvili, Lia; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Bermudez, Luiz E. The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP3464 gene encodes an oxidoreductase involved in invasion of bovine epithelial cells through the activation of host cell Cdc42. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2008 Jan; 76(1): 170-178. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org
NAL Call No: QR1.I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle takes place through the intestinal mucosa. To identify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes associated with the invasion of bovine epithelial cells in vitro, we screened a library of transposon mutants. Several mutants of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were identified which invaded Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells less efficiently than wild-type (wt) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The Ox mutant had the transposon located in the MAP3464 gene, a putative oxidoreductase gene whose expression is upregulated upon bacterial contact with MDBK cells. Complete restoration of invasion comparable to that for the wt bacterium was achieved by introducing a copy of the complete oxidoreductase operon into the Ox mutant. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis indicated that wt M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis activates Cdc42 and RhoA pathways of internalization 15 and 60 min after infection of the host cell, respectively. The Ox mutant, however, failed to activate the Cdc42 pathway. To determine whether an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis protein delivered to the host cell mediates the entry of the wt bacterium by activation of the Cdc42 pathway, affinity precipitation of active Cdc42 from MDBK-infected cells followed by mass spectrometry was carried out. We identified a 17-amino-acid bacterial peptide associated with the Cdc42 of cells infected with wt M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis but not with the Ox mutant. The sequence of the peptide matches MAP3985c, a hypothetical protein, possibly functioning as a putative Cdc42 effector. These findings reveal a novel signaling pathway activated during M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis entry that links the product of MAP3464 gene to activation of Cdc42 in the host cell. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, infection, epithelial cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogen mutants, transposons, biochemistry of infection by pathogen, signaling pathway, MAP3464 gene, activation of host cell Cdc42.

Alonso-Hearn, M.; Eckstein, T.M.; Bermudez, L.E. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis cell wall-associated lipids change depending on the environmental conditions. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 685. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effects of environmental conditions, cell wall lipids, bacterial biochemistry.

Alvarez, Julio; de Juan, Lucia; Bezos, Javier; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose Luis; Gordejo, F.J.. Reviriego; Briones, Victor; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas; Aranaz, Alicia. Interference of paratuberculosis with the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a goat flock with a natural mixed infection. Veterinary Microbiology. 2008; 128(1-2): 72-80. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Detection of infected animals is a key step in eradication programs of tuberculosis. Paratuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to compromise the specificity of the diagnostic tests. However, its effect on their sensitivity has not been clarified. In the present study, skin tests and the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay were evaluated in a goat flock (n = 177) with a mixed tuberculosis-paratuberculosis infection in order to assess the possible effect of paratuberculosis on their sensitivity. Culture of mycobacteria was performed as the gold standard to determine the true infection status. All techniques showed lower sensitivities than previously described; the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test and the IFN-gamma assay detected 71% (62.4-78.6 95% C.I.) of the infected animals; the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test detected only 42.7% (34.1-51.7, 95% C.I.) of infected animals. The highest level of sensitivity was obtained when SIT test and IFN-gamma assay were combined in parallel (90.8%, 84.5-95.2, 95% C.I.). Sensitivities of the tests were also assessed by comparing animals suffering tuberculosis and animals with a mixed infection; tests were found to be more effective in the former group. Paratuberculosis seems to have a major effect in the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests under study, and therefore must be taken into account; in particular, the use of the SICCT test should be questioned when both tuberculosis and paratuberculosis are present.
Descriptors: goats, goat flocks, mycobacterial infections, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, mixed tuberculosis and paratuberculosis infections, specificity of TB testing compromised by dual infection, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test, IFN-gamma assay, intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test.

Anderson, K.; Norby, B.; Prince, S.; Ball, G.; Tolleson, D. Detection of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle via near infrared reflectance spectroscopy of feces. Journal of Animal Science. 2007; 85(Suppl. 2): 42. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: Annual Meeting of the Southern Section of the American Society of Animal Science, Mobile, AL, USA; February 03 -07, 2007
URL: http://jas.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Holstein cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, feces, paratuberculosis, bacterial disease, diagnosis, near IR reflectance spectroscopy.

Antognoli, Maria C.; Garry, Franklyn B.; Hirst, Heather L.; Lombard, Jason E.; Dennis, Michelle M.; Gould, Daniel H.; Salman, Mo D. Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis disseminated infection in dairy cattle and its association with antemortem test results. Veterinary Microbiology. 2008; 127(3-4): 300-308. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) disseminated infection in dairy cattle affects animal health and productivity and is also a potential public health concern. The study objectives were to characterize MAP disseminated infection in dairy cattle and to determine the role of antemortem tests in detecting cattle with disseminated infection. Forty culled dairy cows representing a variety of serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and body conditions were selected for the study. The physical condition of the cows was assessed via clinical examination prior to euthanasia and blood and feces were collected and tested by serum ELISA and fecal culture, respectively. Fifteen tissues were aseptically collected from each cow during necropsy and cultured for isolation of MAP. Disseminated infection was diagnosed when MAP was isolated in tissues other than the intestines or their associated lymph nodes (LNs) and was distinguished from infection found only in the gastrointestinal tissues and from absence of infection. Of the 40 cows in the study, 21 had MAP disseminated infection. Results showed that 57% (12/21) of cows with disseminated infection had average to heavy body condition and no diarrhea. Cows with disseminated infection had no to minimal gross pathologic evidence of infection in 37% (8/21) of cases. Only 76% (16/21) of cows with disseminated infection had positive historical ELISA results and only 62% (13/21) had a positive ELISA at slaughter. Thus, antemortem evidence of MAP infection was lacking in a high proportion of cows where MAP disseminated infection was confirmed. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, 40 culled infected animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogen disseminated in cattle, antemortem detection tests, ELISA testing, physical condition, blood and feces sampling, culturing of samples, level of infections, epidemiology.

Bannantine, J.P.; Rosu, V.; Zanetti, S.; Rocca, S.; Ahmed, N.; Sechi, L.A. Antigenic profiles of recombinant proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep with Johne's disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2008; 122(1/2): 116-125. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652427
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract : Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne's disease. In the present study, antibody responses of infected and healthy sheep were evaluated using 18 purified recombinant proteins in an ELISA-based format for the serodiagnosis of ovine paratuberculosis. These selected recombinant proteins represent heat shock proteins, hypothetical proteins and cell surface proteins of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Whereas, Map0862 (a gene uniquely present in M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis) and Map3786 encoded protein solicited the strongest antibody response in infected sheep. The protein encoded by Map2116c showed the weakest antibody response among the animals tested. Although none of the recombinant proteins detected all 11 infected sheep singly, antibodies to Map0862 were detected in 9 of 11 (81%) infected sheep. Furthermore, ovine responses to these selected antigens were assessed temporally over the course of 1 year during which we found a spiking effect rather than an incremental increase of antibody reactivity. This study evaluated multiple M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins in an ELISA-based format for sheep. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, Johne’s disease, antibodies, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antigens, immunodiagnosis, ELISA, heatshock proteins, humoral immune response, recombinant protein, immunogens, serological diagnosis.

Bannantine, John P.; Waters, W. Ray; Stabel, Judith R.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek; Paustian, Michael L. Development and use of a partial Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis protein array. Proteomics. 2008 Feb; 8(3): 463-474. ISSN: 1615-9853
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200700644
Abstract: As an initial step toward systematically characterizing all antigenic proteins produced by a significant veterinary pathogen, 43 recombinant Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) expression clones were constructed, cataloged, and stored. NC filters were spotted with purified proteins from each clone along with a whole cell lysate of M. paratuberculosis. Spots on the resulting dot array consisted of hypothetical proteins (13), metabolic proteins (3), cell envelope proteins (7), known antigens (4), and unique proteins with no similarity in public sequence databases (16). Dot blot arrays were used to profile antibody responses in a rabbit and mouse exposed to M. paratuberculosis as well as in cattle showing clinical signs of Johne's disease. The M. paratuberculosis heat shock protein DnaK, encoded by ORF MAP3840 and a membrane protein (MAP2121c), were identified as the most strongly immunoreactive in both the mouse and rabbit hosts, respectively. MAP3155c, which encodes a hypothetical protein, was most strongly immunoreactive in sera from Johne's disease cattle. This study has enabled direct comparisons of antibody reactivity for an entire panel of over 40 proteins and has laid the foundation for future high throughput production and arraying of M. paratuberculosis surface proteins for immune profiling experiments in cattle.
Descriptors: rabbits, mice, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, characterization of antigenic proteins, recombinant clones, dot array, comparison study, antibody reactivity, 40 different proteins, immune profiling.

Bannantine, John P.; Paustian, Michael L.; Waters, W. Ray; Stabel, Judith R.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek. Profiling bovine antibody responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection by using protein arrays. Infection and Imunity-IAI. 2008 Feb; 76(2): 739-749. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: With the genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis determined, technologies are now being developed for construction of protein arrays to detect the presence of antibodies against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in host serum. The power of this approach is that it enables a direct comparison of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins to each other in relation to their immunostimulatory capabilities. In this study, 93 recombinant proteins, produced in Escherichia coli, were arrayed and spotted onto nitrocellulose. These proteins include unknown hypothetical proteins and cell surface proteins as well as proteins encoded by large sequence polymorphisms present uniquely in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Also included were previously reported or known M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens to serve as a frame of reference. Sera from healthy control cattle (n = 3) and cattle infected with either M. avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium bovis were exposed to the array to identify nonspecific or cross-reactive epitopes. These data demonstrated a degree of cross-reactivity with the M. avium subsp. avium proteins that was higher than the degree of cross-reactivity with the more distantly related M. bovis proteins. Finally, sera from naturally infected cattle (n = 3) as well as cattle experimentally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 3) were used to probe the array to identify antigens in the context of Johne's disease. Three membrane proteins were the most strongly detected in all serum samples, and they included an invasion protein, an ABC peptide transport permease, and a putative GTPase protein. This powerful combination of genomic information, molecular tools, and immunological assays has enabled the identification of previously unknown antigens of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, protein arrays, antibody detection, immunostimulatory capability of proteins, 93 recombinant proteins, sera testing of cattle, infected and non-infected animals, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium avium, Johne’s disease antigens, recombinant proteins arrays, cross-reactive epitopes, mycobacterial species comparison, antigen identification.

Bannantine, John P.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Stabel, Judith R.; Paustian, Michael L. Early antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antigens in subclinical cattle. Proteome Science. 2008; 6: Article No.: 5. ISSN: 1477-5956 (print); 1477-5956 (electronic)
URL: http://www.proteomesci.com/
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, intra-tonsillar experimental infection, partial protein array representing 92 M. paratuberculosis coding sequences, temporal analysis of pathogen antigens, sera testing, identifying antigens in early stages of infection, humoral response during year 1, putative surface antigen encoded by MAP1087, MAP1204, 2 antigens detected by 70 days post infection.

Baptista, F.M.; Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. Association between the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and somatic cell count. Journal of Dairy Science. 2008 Jan; 91(1): 109-118. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Somatic cell counts (SCC) in bulk tank milk delivered for human consumption are one of the indicators of milk quality and are used for milk pricing. Consequently, milk from cows with high SCC is frequently used by farmers for feeding of calves to lower the SCC in bulk tank milk. Young calves are more susceptible to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and may acquire the infection early in life through ingestion of MAP-contaminated milk. The occurrence of MAP antibodies can be an indicator of MAP shedding. Because MAP can be shed in milk from infected cows, and antibodies to MAP can be an indicator of the infectious status, an association between antibodies to MAP and high SCC can result in high-SCC milk being at risk of containing MAP. Feeding milk containing high SCC to susceptible calves may result in MAP infections. Somatic cell counts and MAP antibodies in milk were measured repeatedly in 7,251 cows from 26 Danish dairy herds to investigate the association between the occurrence of MAP antibodies and high SCC. The results of robust regression showed a log-linear relationship between the age at first positive ELISA and the age at first high SCC sample (Rpo = 0.51). Of the 1,733 cows positive for MAP antibodies and with high SCC, high SCC was detected prior to MAP antibodies in 46% of the cows. Still, in 40% of the cows, MAP antibodies were detected before a high SCC. Therefore, the findings do not point to a causal relationship between high SCC and antibodies to MAP, but suggest a strong association and highlight a potentially increased risk of MAP transmission when milk with high SCC is fed to calves.
Descriptors: bovine milk quality, antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, somatic cell counts, risk of disease transmission, infection risks to calves.

Benedictus, A.; Mitchell, R.M.; Linde-Widmann, A.; Sweeney, R.; Fyock, T.; Schukken, Y.H.; Whitlock, R.H. Transmission parameters of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in a dairy herd going through a control program. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2008; 83(3-4): 215-227. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: A Johne's disease control program, including stringent management practices and a test-and-cull program (whole-herd fecal-samples taken twice a year), was implemented on a medium-sized Pennsylvania dairy farm that was suffering losses from clinical Johne's disease. The data that emerged from the control program, combined with birthdates, culling dates, lactation information and pedigrees, yielded an extensive longitudinal dataset. The dataset was processed through SAS 9.1 for statistical analysis; herd-level disease dynamics and dam-to-daughter transmission parameters were calculated. After the implementation of the program in 1984, prevalence dropped dramatically from 60% to less than 20% in 1989. After an apparent prevalence peak (25%) in 1991 due to improved test sensitivity, prevalence maintained a plateau of 10% from 1996 to 2000. After the implementation of the program, 9.5% of the offspring from test-negative dams and 26.8% of the offspring from known-infected dams became infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) (chi(2) = 14.7; p = 0.0001). Calves born shortly following the calving of an infected dam and calves growing up with a future high shedder were more likely to be infected compared to calves without this risk profile. It was concluded that, after the implementation of the control program, the most important causes of infections of susceptible calves were their own dams or infected animals which had calved recently. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: dairy farm, dairy cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control program, transmission parameters, susceptible calves, dams, infected animals that have calved, Pennsylvania, USA.

Biet, Franck; Bay, Sylvie; Thibault, Virginie C.; Euphrasie, Daniel; Grayon, Maggy; Ganneau, Christelle; Lanotte, Philippe; Daffe,-Mamadou; Gokhale, Rajesh; Etienne, Gilles; Reyrat, Jean Marc Lipopentapeptide induces a strong host humoral response and distinguishes Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis from M. avium subsp avium. Vaccine. 2008; 26(2): 257-268. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, GPL’s, lipopentapeptide (L5P) , cattle disease, Johne’s, synthesis of the peptidyl moiety, seems to be the target of strong specific humoral response to MAP, distinguish between Mycobacterium species, useful to reclassify related strains, basis for diagnostic test.

Brady, C.; O'Grady, D.; O'Meara, F.; Egan, J.; Bassett, H. Relationships between clinical signs, pathological changes and tissue distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in 21 cows from herds affected by Johne's disease. Veterinary Record. 2008; 162(5): 147-152. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Twenty-one cows from eight herds affected by Johne's disease were assigned to four groups: seven were not thriving and had persistent diarrhoea, six were not thriving and had intermittent diarrhoea, four were not thriving but did not have diarrhoea, and four were clinically normal. Postmortem, macroscopic lesions consistent with Johne's disease were identified in 17 of the cows and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was isolated from all of them. However, except for the fact that diarrhoea was correlated with the presence of lesions in the large intestine there was little correlation between the presence or absence of clinical signs and the lesions associated with Johne's disease. The tissue distribution of MAP was also poorly correlated with either the clinical signs or the lesions. The organism was widely distributed in 17 of the 21 cows, including three of the clinically normal animals, and was present in the mammary tissues of seven cows including two of the clinically normal animals. Three distinct histopathological patterns were observed in the affected intestines: infiltration of the lamina propria with giant cells, tuberculoid lesions, and lepromatous lesions; the lepromatous lesions were associated with extensive pathological changes.Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, persistant diarrhea, poor conditioned animals, postmortem tissue sampling, lesions, animal pathology, clinical aspects, histopathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis paratuberculosis, Irish Republic.

Cernicchiaro, N.; Wells, S.J.; Janagama, H.; Sreevatsan, S. Influence of Type of Culture Medium on Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Subtypes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-JCM. 2008 Jan; 46(1): 145-149. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of culture and/or enrichment methods on the selection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subtypes. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from bovine fecal samples processed using a centrifugation protocol were investigated in both liquid (MGIT ParaTb tubes) and solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium) culture media. For this evaluation, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis subtyping was based on the sequence variation in two of the most discriminatory short sequence repeat loci, i.e., mononucleotide G and trinucleotide GGT, in isolates from liquid and solid cultures. This study identified the existence of one major predominating fingerprint (>13G-5GGT) in bovine fecal samples, regardless of the type of medium used for isolation. Matched-pair analysis of subtypes showed that 69% of samples presented unique subtypes in the two culture media used, while 31% shared the same G-GGT allele. Furthermore, the liquid culture method appeared to select for a more genotypically diverse subtype population than the solid culture method. The variety of subtypes observed between liquid and solid cultures obtained from the same fecal samples suggests that the culture method could provide a "microbiological" bias and lead to a discrepancy in the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. In conclusion, this study identified that these two types of culture media determined differential growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains and that this should be considered in evaluating detection capabilities of diagnostic tests or interpreting data from molecular epidemiological studies performed using conventional solid fecal culture or automated liquid medium culture methods.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sub typing, effects of culture, effect of enrichment, fecal testing, liquid MGIT ParaTb tubes culture medium, solid Herrold's egg yolk culture medium, potential for detection in diagnostic tests.

Chaffer, M.; Rivas, A.L.; Elad, D.; Koren, O.; Garazi, S.; Chowell, G.; Schwager, S.J. Receiver operating characteristic-based assessment of a serological test used to detect Johne's disease in Israeli dairy herds. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research-=-Revue Canadienne de RechercheVeterinaire. 2008 Jan; 72(1): 18-26. ISSN: 0830-9000. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=133
NAL Call No.: SF601.C24
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection methods for Johne’s disease, Israel.

Chen, Li Hsuen; Kathaperumal, Kumanan; Huang, Ching Juo; McDonough, Sean P.; Stehman,-Susan; Akey,-Bruce; Huntley, John; Bannantine, John P.; Chang, Chao Fu; Chang, Yung Fu. Immune responses in mice to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis following vaccination with a novel 74F recombinant polyprotein. Vaccine. 2008; 26(9): 1253-1262. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Here, we report the cloning and expression of a 74 kDa recombinant polyprotein (Map74F) and its protective efficacy against MAP infection in mice. Map74F was generated by the sequential linkage of the ORFs of the ~17.6-kDa C-terminal fragment of Map3527 to the full-length ORF of Map1519, followed at the C-terminus with ~14.6-kDa N-terminal portion of Map3527. Mice immunized with Map74F had a significant IgG1 response but not IgG2a. In immunized animals, the IgG1/IgG2a ratio increased until 4 weeks after MAP challenge. The ratio decreased from 8 weeks indicating a shift to a Th1 response. Antigen specific IFN- gamma response, CD3+ and CD4+ T cells increased significantly in immunized mice. Following challenge, MAP burden was significantly lower in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of immunized animals compared to control animals indicating protection against MAP infection. This was further evident by the improved liver and spleen pathology of the immunized animals, which had fewer granulomas and lower numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Results of this study indicated that immunization of mice with Map74F protected mice against MAP infection. Reproduced with permission from the CAB Abstracts:
Descriptors: Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cloning and expression of a 74 kDa recombinant polyprotein (Map74F), protective efficacy against infection in mice, IgG1/IgG2 respose ratio up to 4 weeks, 8 weeks shift to Th1 response, IFN gamma response, CD3+ and CD4+ T-cells, organ sampling, fewer granulomas, reduced acid fast bacilli, protection indicated.

Donaghy, J.A.; Rowe, M.T.; Rademaker, .JL.W.; Hammer, P.; Herman, L.; Jonghe, V. de; Blanchard, B.; Duhem, K.; Vindel, E. An inter-laboratory ring trial for the detection and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from raw milk artificially contaminated with naturally infected faeces. Food Microbiology. 2008 Feb; 25(1): 128-135. ISSN: 0740-0020
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2007.06.007
NAL Call No.: QR115.F66
Abstract: There is a need for standardised, robust, reproducible molecular and culture methods to achieve clarification of the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the causative microbial agent of Johne's disease, in (faecally) contaminated milk and other food products such as meat. This study assessed the performance of a commercially available Map DNA extraction kit for milk (Adiapure) and accompanying PCR detection kit (Adiavet) alongside 'in-house' molecular and culture methods in an inter-laboratory ring trial using raw milk spiked with Map-infected faeces. The combined Adiapure-Adiavet Map DNA extraction and detection kit consistently detected 30 copies of IS900 (equivalent to approximately 2 cells) ml-1 raw milk, when used in four different laboratories. Improvements in sensitivity and ease of use for 'in-house' Map detection were observed when the Adiapure extraction kit was combined with 'in-house' detection assays. Detection by real-time PCR methods, using the commercial extraction and detection systems, resulted in an overall detection rate of 100%, 90%, 85% and 25% for respective Map concentrations of 300, 30, 3 and 0.3 copies of IS900 ml-1 raw milk. Map, at 300 copies of IS900 (equivalent to approximately 20 Map cells) ml-1 raw milk, was recovered from all samples cultured in mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) medium, from 10 of 12 samples on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and not recovered from any samples using BACTEC medium.
Descriptors: dairy based food products, detection and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk spiked with infected feces, PCR.

Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Cacciatore, G.; Klarenbeek,.S.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Koets, A.P. Influence of 17o-oestradiol, nortestosterone and dexamethasone on the adaptive immune response in veal calves. Research in Veterinary Science. 2008 Apr; 84(2): 199-205. ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.04.017
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Abstract: In veal calf production androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids are used to stimulate growth. However, sex hormones and glucocorticoids also influence the function of the immune system. From studies in humans and mice, androgens are known as immunosuppressive, while estrogens stimulate the production of antibodies and glucocorticoids also enhance the T-helper 2 response. To investigate whether the adaptive immune system is influenced by hormone administration, calves were treated with a hormone cocktail containing androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids and vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis. The activity of the adaptive immune system was measured by using an antigen specific elispot assay (ES), lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and an enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the hormone treatment did not lead to significant differences in the function of the adaptive immune system between the hormone treated and the not hormone treated group while growth was stimulated in the hormone treated group.
Descriptors: veal calves, vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, effects of growth stimulators, androgens, estrogens, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, effects on immune functions, adaptive immune system testing, growth stimulants.

Favila-Humara, L.C.; Hemandez-Castro, R.; Chavez-Gris, G. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis in raw tank milk from herds with high seroprevalence of Johne's disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 689. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American-Society-for-Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, raw tank milk, milk sampling detection methods, seroprevalence in animals.

Florou, M.; Leontides, L.; Kostoulas, P.; Billinis, C.; Sofia, M.; Kyriazakis, I.; Lykotrafitis, F. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from non-ruminant wildlife living in the sheds and on the pastures of Greek sheep and goats. Epidemiology and Infection. 2008; 136(5): 644-652. ISSN: 0950-2688, E-ISSN: 1469-4409
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=HYG
NAL Call No.: RA651.A1E74
Abstract: This study aimed to: (1) investigate whether non-ruminant wildlife interfacing with dairy sheep and goats of four Greek flocks endemically infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) harboured MAP and (2) genetically compare the strains isolated from the wildlife to those isolated from the small ruminants of these flocks. We cultured and screened, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pooled-tissue samples from 327 wild animals of 11 species for the MAP-specific IS900 insertion sequence. We also cultured faecal samples from 100 sheep or goats from each of the four flocks. MAP was detected in samples from 11 sheep, 12 goats, two mice, two rats, a hare and a fox. Only one rat had histopathological findings. Genetic typing categorized 21 isolates as cattle-type strains and two, from a house mouse and a goat respectively, as sheep-type strains; this is the first report of a rodent harbouring a sheep-type strain. The MAP types that were most frequently isolated amongst the sheep and goats of each flock were also the ones isolated from sympatric rodents; those isolated from the fox and hare also belonged to the predominant ruminant strains. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, mice, hares, rats, foxes, wildlife as disease reservoirs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal testing, disease prevalence, epidemiology, disease transmission, cross species contamination, pathogen strain comparisons, Greece.

Kumar, S.; Singh, S.V.; Sevilla, I.; Singh, A.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Juste, R.A.; Sharma, G.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S. Lacto-prevalence, genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and evaluation of three diagnostic tests in milk of naturally infected goatherds. Small Ruminant Research. 2008 Jan; 74(1-3): 37-44. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2007.03.005
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Three diagnostic tests (milk culture, Milk-ELISA and Milk-PCR) were evaluated for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in naturally infected (endemic) lactating goats. Indigenous antigen from Map 'Bison type' of goat origin was used in Milk-ELISA (m-ELISA). Sensitivity and specificity of m-ELISA was 56.7 and 50.0% in comparison to the milk culture. M-ELISA was used as 'herd screening test' and 70.1% milk samples were positive in organized herds (Central Institute for Research on Goats) and 58.2% in farmer's herds (villagers around CIRG). Prevalence of JD was high in few important breeds of goats of UP and Rajasthan. Lacto-prevalence of Map in organized herds was 69.8% by milk culture (43.3 and 45.2% in fat and sediment, respectively) and 57.4% cultures were pauci-bacillary. Maximum colonies appeared from 60 to 105 days post-inoculation. In Milk-PCR (m-PCR), 37.7% milk samples were positive (fat, 9.4%; sediment, 28.3%). Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, isolated from milk were characterized and genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 900 PCR and IS 1311 PCR-REA. Of the three tests, milk culture was most sensitive. Culture and PCR together detected, 79.2% goats' positive. Screening of both fat and sediment in culture and m-PCR improved the detection of Map. M-ELISA was quick and economical 'herd screening test'. This is the first report of genotyping of Map ('Bison type'), from the milk samples of Indian goats. Lacto-prevalence of Map was high in organized and farmer's goatherds. Milk was good clinical material for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in lactating goatherds.
Descriptors: goats, goat herds, lactating females, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk testing, detection methods, milk culture, milk ELISA, milk PCR, India.

Kurade, N.P.; Tripathi, B.N. Lymphoproliferative response and its relationship with histological lesions in experimental ovine paratuberculosis and its diagnostic implications. Veterinary Research Communications. 2008 Jan; 32(1): 107-119. ISSN: 0165-7380
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-007-9008-8
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Abstract: Lymphoproliferative response (LPR) was studied in 19 lambs orally infected (Group I) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) with in vitro lymphocyte stimulation test using MTT dye reduction assay. The non-specific LPR against Con A and specific LPR against sonicated antigen and johnin PPD (purified protein derivatives) were estimated on preinfection (0 day) and various days postinfection period (15 to 330 dpi) in the animals, which were classified according to histological and bacteriological evidence of paratuberculosis infection. Of the two antigens used, johnin PPD was found to be superior in terms of consistency and uniformity of response over an observation period of about a year. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher LPR were observed in the infected sheep during postinfection period, as compared with preinfection values and values from uninfected control sheep. It was evident from the present study that the LPR in histologically infected animals fluctuated during the long course of infection and had a definite relationship with the gut pathology and the mycobacterial load. The LPR were stronger but variable in sheep with grades 1, 2 and 3 lesions (paucibacillary) and increased progressively from 30 dpi onwards. The sheep with the advanced lesions (grade 4, multibacillary) showed progressive decline in LPR till 120 dpi after initial stronger response at 30 dpi. Most of the animals were detected by LPR before initiation of faecal shedding of MAP. The results suggested that repeated testing was required while screening an infected flock for detecting most of the positive animals.
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, experimental infection, lymph cell proliferation, changes during infection course, gut pathology, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosishit histopathology of lesions, pathogenesis, animal pathology fecal shedding, need for repeated testing of flock.

Mitchell, R.M.; Whitlock, R.H.; Stehman, S.M.; Benedictus, A.; Chapagain, P.P.; Grohn, Y.T.; Schukken, Y.H. Simulation modeling to evaluate the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) on commercial dairy farms in the United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2008; 83(3-4): 360-380. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: We developed a series of deterministic mathematical models of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) transmission on commercial US dairies. Our models build upon and modify models and assumptions in previous work to better reflect the pathobiology of the disease. Parameter values were obtained from literature for animal turnover in US dairy herds and rates of transition between disease states. The models developed were used to test three hypotheses. (1) Infectious transmission following intervention is relatively insensitive to the presence of high-shedding animals. (2) Vertical and pseudovertical transmission increases prevalence of disease but is insufficient to explain persistence following intervention. (3) Transiently shedding young animals might aid persistence. Our simulations indicated that multiple levels of contagiousness among infected adult animals in combination with vertical transmission and MAP shedding in infected young animals explained the maintenance of low-prevalence infections in herds. High relative contagiousness of high-shedding adult animals resulted in these animals serving as the predominant contributor to transmission. This caused elimination of infection in herds using the test-and-cull intervention tested in these simulations. Addition of vertical transmission caused persistence of infection in a moderately complicated model. In the most complex model that allowed age-based contacts, calf-to-calf transmission was required for persistence. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: dairy operations, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, deterministic mathematical models, disease transmission parameters, pathobiology of the disease, USA.

Mobius, P.; Luyven, G.; Hotzel, H.; Kohler, H. High genetic diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains from German cattle herds shown by combination of IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2008; 46(3): 972-981. E-ISSN: 1098-660X, Print ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease and is endemic to the national cattle herds of many countries. Because of the very low level of genetic heterogeneity of this organism, it is difficult to select a workable procedure for strain differentiation at a resolution sufficient to investigate epidemiological links between herds or different ruminant species and the suggested zoonotic potential of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis for Crohn's disease. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) based on the insertion element IS900 (IS900 RFLP) with four restriction enzymes and 10 markers of specific mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) was applied to 71 bovine M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates originating from 14 herds from different regions in Germany. Among these isolates, all of which belonged to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II group, 17 genotypes were detected by IS900 RFLP and consisted of a combination of seven BstEII, eight PstI, nine PvuII, and four BamHI restriction patterns. Novel RFLP types were found. The diversity of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates inside the herds was different depending on the frequency of animal purchase. The results of typing by IS900 RFLP and MIRU-VNTR analyses were not associated. Fifteen MIRU-VNTR patterns were identified with a discriminatory index of 0.905. The most common BstEII-based IS900 RFLP type, type C1 (72%), was subdivided into 14 types by MIRU-VNTR analysis. A combination of fingerprinting and PCR-based techniques resulted in 24 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes and achieved a discriminatory index of 0.997. By using only BstEII and PstI digestion together with typing by MIRU-VNTR analysis, a discriminatory index of 0.993 was achieved. This is high enough to support epidemiological studies on a national as well as a global scale. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, ruminant herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis fingerprinting and PCR-based testing, genetic analysis, genetic diversity, Germany.

Mobius, P.; Hotzel, H.; Rassbach, A.; Kohler, H. Comparison of 13 single-round and nested PCR assays targeting IS900, ISMav2, f57 and locus 255 for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. 2008 Jan 25; 126(4): 324-333. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: For molecular biological detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), PCR methods with primers targeting different regions specific for MAP are used worldwide. However, some uncertainties exist concerning the specificity of certain target regions and the sensitivity. To identify the methods which are best suited for diagnostics, 8 single-round and 5 nested PCR systems including 12 different primer pairs based on IS900 (9x), ISMav2 (1x), f57 (1x), and locus 255 (1x) sequences were compared regarding their analytical sensitivity and specificity under similar PCR conditions. Reference strains and field isolates of 17 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 16 different non-mycobacterial bovine pathogens and commensals were included in this study. Single-round PCR resulted in a detection limit of 100 fg to 1 pg, and nested PCR in 10 fg or below. Depending on the specific primer sequences targeting IS900, false positive results occurred with one of the five single-round and two of the four nested PCR systems. This also applied to the single-round PCR based on ISMav2 and the nested PCR based on f57. A high number of non-specific products were primarily detected for the single-round PCR assay based on ISMav2, but also for a single-round PCR targeting the IS900 and the locus 255. In conclusion, stringent selection of IS900-specific primers ensures that IS900 remains a favourite target sequence for amplification of MAP specific loci. The studied PCR systems based on f57, and locus 255 can also be recommended. Revision of ISMav2 primers is necessary. Single-round PCR systems are very reliable. Nested PCR assays were occasionally disturbed by contaminations, thus bearing a risk for routine diagnostics.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection methods, comparison study, nested PCR systems, IS900, f57, locus 255.

Moloney, B.J.; Whittington, R.J. Cross species transmission of ovine Johne's disease from sheep to cattle: an estimate of prevalence in exposed susceptible cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2008; 86(4): 117-123. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117983185/home?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
NAL Call No.:41.8 AU72
Abstract : Objective: To determine the prevalence of infection of cattle with the sheep strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at least two years after exposure at <6 months old. Design: Prospective survey: One thousand seven hundred and seventy-four cattle from 12 properties (Farms A to L) were sampled by ELISA and faecal culture to detect evidence of infection with M. a. paratuberculosis. All properties had a known history of Johne's disease (JD) in sheep, and sampled cattle were likely to be susceptible to JD at the time they were first exposed, being at an age of 6 months or less. In addition, opportunistic investigations were undertaken of ELISA reactor cattle discovered during testing for the Australian Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for Cattle (Farms M and N). Results: All animals in the survey gave negative results on serology while one animal from a herd of 349 gave a positive faecal culture result. Follow-up faecal culture, post-mortem and histopathology on the latter animal were negative, suggesting that it was a passive faecal shedder or carrier. Two occurrences of OJD transmission to cattle were detected during the opportunistic investigations. Conclusion: These observations confirm existing beliefs about the risk of transmission of OJD to cattle, that the risk of transmission is low. However transmission occurs sporadically. An estimated upper limit of prevalence of S strain M. a. paratuberculosis infection in susceptible exposed cattle in the OJD high prevalence area of New South Wales is 0.8%, assuming a common prevalence within herds. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, ovine Johne’s disease strain, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cross species transmission, prevalence in exposed susceptible, ELISA reactor cattle, serology, fecal culture result, fecal culture, postmortem histopathology, risk of transmission to cattle is low.

Mundo, Silvia L.; Fontanals, Adriana M.; Garcia, Mariana; Durrieu, Maria; Alvarez, Elida; Gentilini, Elida R.; Hajos, Silvia E. Bovine IgG1 antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis protein p34-cx improve association of bacteria and macrophages. Veterinary Research (Les-Ulis). 2008; 39(1): Article No.: 06. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.vetres.org/
NAL Call No: SF602.A5
Descriptors: cattle; calves; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; protein p34 specific and immunodominant for bovine B cells; antibody influence on Map pathogenesis; polyclonal antibodies from 3 protocols: 3 calves vaccinated with protein p34-cx, 6 calves vaccinated with heat-killed Map, 8 naturally infected; transformed bovine peritoneal macrophage's cell line (Bov-Mac); both anti-Map and IgG1 anti-p34-cx antibodies support Map-macrophage interactions.

Osterstock, Jason B.; Fosgate, Geoffrey T. Derr, James N.; Cohen, Noah D.; Roussel, Allen-J. Assessing familial aggregation of paratuberculosis in beef cattle of unknown pedigree. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2008; 84(1-2): 121-134. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.06.010
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess genetic similarity of beef cattle using microsatellite markers and to use this information to describe familial aggregation of paratuberculosis test results in Texas beef cattle. Paratuberculosis testing was performed on 2622 adult beef cattle using two commercially available serum ELISAs and radiometric fecal culture. Pedigree records were collected for registered purebred herds and herds with sufficiently detailed production records to identify parent-offspring pairs. Cases were defined as cattle with at least one positive paratuberculosis test result. Three controls were matched by herd of residence for each case. All parent-offspring pairs, cases, and controls were genotyped for 12 microsatellites. Bayesian analysis of allele frequency data was used to describe population substructure and assign individual cattle into groups of genetically similar cattle. The proportion of known parent-offspring pairs assigned to the same cluster was used to assess the validity of the approach to identify familial structure. Conditional logistic regression was used to describe the association between cluster assignment and paratuberculosis test-status matched by herd. Nine clusters of genetically similar individuals were identified and were supported by the proportion of parent-offspring pairs assigned to the same clusters. Increased odds of having at least one positive paratuberculosis test result were identified for two clusters compared to the cluster with the lowest proportion of positive paratuberculosis test results after conditioning on herd. The results of this study demonstrate that population substructure can be used to describe familial aggregation of paratuberculosis test results in beef cattle of unknown pedigree. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: beef cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microsatellite markers, serum testing, ELISA, laboratory techniques, immunologic techniques, logistic regression analysis, Bayesian analysis, paratuberculosis, genetic similarity, Texas, USA.

Park, K.T.; Dahl, J.L.; Bannantine, J.P.; Barletta, R.G; Ahn,-J-S; Allen, A.J; Hamilton, M.J.; Davis, W.C. Demonstration of allelic exchange in the slow-growing bacterium Mycobactenum avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and generation of mutants with deletions at the pknG, relA, and lsr2 loci. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2008; 74(6): 1687-1695. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative pathogen of Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory wasting disease in ruminants. This disease has been difficult to control because of the lack of an effective vaccine. To address this need, we adapted a specialized transduction system originally developed for M. tuberculosis and modified it to improve the efficiency of allelic exchange in order to generate site-directed mutations in preselected M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes. With our novel optimized method, the allelic exchange frequency was 78 to 100% and the transduction frequency was 1.1x10-7 to 2.9x10-7. Three genes were selected for mutagenesis: pknG and relA, which are genes that are known to be important virulence factors in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, and lsr2, a gene regulating lipid biosynthesis and antibiotic resistance. Mutants were successfully generated with a virulent strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10) and with a recombinant K10 strain expressing the green fluorescent protein gene, gfp. The improved efficiency of disruption of selected genes in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis should accelerate development of additional mutants for vaccine testing and functional studies. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Johne’s disease pathogen,paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, genes, alleles, deletions, mutagenesis, mutants, mutations, transduction, vaccination, live vaccine development, attenuated vaccines.

Pinedo, P.J.; Rae, D.O.; Williams, J.E.; Donovan, G.A.; Melendez, P.; Buergelt, C.D. Association among results of serum ELISA, faecal culture and nested PCR on milk, blood and faeces for the detection of paratuberculosis in dairy cows. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A. 2008; 55(2): 125-133
URL : http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120090276/HTMLSTART
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic, infectious disease of ruminants that entails a serious concern for the cattle industry. One of the main issues relates to the efficiency of diagnosis of subclinically infected animals. The objective of this field study was to analyse the association among results of a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), faecal culture and nested PCR tests on milk, blood and faeces for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in dairy cows. Faeces, blood and milk samples were collected from 328 lactating dairy cows in four known infected herds. Results were analysed to determine associations and levels of agreement between pairs of tests. A total of 61 animals (18.6%) tested positive when all the tests were interpreted in parallel. The agreement between results in different pairs of tests was poor, slight and fair in two, five and three of the 10 possible combinations respectively. Faecal culture and faecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted in the highest kappa coefficient (0.39; fair agreement), with the lowest agreement being for ELISA and blood PCR (-0.036; poor agreement). Fisher's exact test resulted in statistically significant associations (P<=0.05) between the following test pairs: ELISA:faecal culture; ELISA:faecal PCR; milk PCR:faecal PCR, blood PCR:faecal PCR and faecal culture:faecal PCR. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed the highest complementary sensitivity values for all the possible two-test combinations, followed by faecal PCR. The combined use of ELISA and faecal PCR has the potential to increase the overall sensitivity for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis infection. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, blood serum, detection, diagnostic techniques, serological diagnosis, ELISA, feces sampling, immunodiagnosis, milk, paratuberculosis.

Shahmoradi, Amir H.; Arefpajohi, Reza; Tadayon, Keyvan; Mosavari, Nader. Paratuberculosis in Holstein-Friesian cattle farms in Central Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2008 Apr; 40(3): 169-173. ISSN: 0049-4747
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-007-9085-2
NAL Call No.: SF601.T6
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is an important disease of ruminants with a worldwide distribution. In developing countries where funding constraints challenge establishment of control schemes, large losses are incurred on cattle farmers due to paratuberculosis. In this study, faecal specimens from Holstein-Friesian cows with progressed and moderate clinical paratuberculosis (N = 223) from 13 dairy farms in Isfahan, Central Iran, were subjected to bacterial culture. Culture growth diagnostic for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in cattle from nine of the 13 farms and in 71 of the cattle studied. These results illustrate the emergence of PTb in this region, and they imply that PTb should be given a higher priority for veterinary measures.
Descriptors: Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal culture, diagnostic procedure.

Sharma, G.; Singh, S.V.; Sevilla, I.; Singh, A.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Juste, R.A.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S. Evaluation of indigenous milk ELISA with m-culture and m-PCR for the diagnosis of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in lactating Indian dairy cattle. Research in Veterinary Science. 2008 Feb; 84(1): 30-37. ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.03.014
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Present study is the first attempt to evaluate an indigenous milk ELISA with milk culture, standardize milk PCR, estimate lacto-prevalence of Map and genotype Map DNA from milk samples in few Indian dairy herds. In all 115 cows were sampled from 669 lactating cows in six dairy herds from three districts of North India. Fifty milk samples (four herds) were screened by three tests (milk culture, m-ELISA and m-PCR). Lacto-prevalence of Map in four dairy herds was 84.0% (50.0% in fat and 62.0% in sediment). Screening of both fat and sediment increased the sensitivity of culture. Colonies appeared between 45 and 120 DPI. In indigenous m-ELISA, protoplasmic antigen derived from native Map 'Bison type' strain of goat origin was used. Screening of 115 lactating cows by m-ELISA ('herd screening test') detected 32.1% positive lactating cows (lacto-prevalence). Sensitivity of ELISA was 28.5% and 42.8% in single point cutoff and S/P ratio, respectively. Lacto-prevalence of JD was high in dairy herds (66.6-100.0% by culture and 20.0-50.0% by m-ELISA). DDD farm, Mathura had very high (95.8%) and moderate prevalence of Map and lacto-antibodies, respectively. All cows were clinically suffering from JD. Specific IS 900 PCR was standardized in decontaminated fat and sediment of milk samples. DNA isolated from decontaminated pellets was amplified and characteristic 229 bp band was confirmatory for Map. Of the 50 milk samples, 6.0% were positive in m-PCR. The test needs further standardization. Map DNA were genotyped as Map 'Bison type' by IS 1311 PCR-REA. Of the three tests, milk culture was most sensitive followed by m-ELISA and m-PCR. Map DNA isolated from milk samples of dairy cattle were first time genotyped as Map, 'Bison type' in India. High prevalence of Map in milk of dairy herds, posed major health hazard for calves and human beings.
Descriptors: dairy herds, lactating cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, indigenous milk ELISA, milk culture, diagnosis of Johne’s disease, India.

Szteyn, J.; Wismiewska-Laszczych, A.; Rusmynska, A. Effectiveness of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolation from raw milk by means of direct isolation of DNA and classic culture. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2008; 11(1): 25-28. ISSN: 1505-1773
Descriptors: cattle, samples of udder milk, Mycobacterium avium subspl paratuberculosis, isolation from milk samples, 2 commercial kits compared, a QIAamp DNA Mini Kit by Qiagen, culture with HEYM culture medium, insertion sequence, IS900.

Tavornpanich, S.; Mucloz-Zanzi, C.A.; Wells, S.J.; Raizman, E.A.; Carpenter, T.E.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A. Simulation model for evaluation of testing strategies for detection of paratuberculosis in Midwestern US dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2008 Jan 1; 83(1): 65-82. ISSN: 0167-5877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: We developed a stochastic simulation model to compare the herd sensitivity (HSe) of five testing strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in Midwestern US dairies. Testing strategies were ELISA serologic testing by two commercial assays (EA and EB), ELISA testing with follow-up of positive samples with individual fecal culture (EAIFC and EBIFC), individual fecal culture (IFC), pooled fecal culture (PFC), and culture of fecal slurry samples from the environment (ENV). We assumed that these dairies had no prior paratuberculosis-related testing and culling. We used cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis to compare the cost to HSe of testing strategies for different within-herd prevalences. HSe was strongly associated with within-herd prevalence, number of Map organisms shed in feces by infected cows, and number of samples tested. Among evaluated testing methods with 100% herd specificity (HSp), ENV was the most cost-effective method for herds with a low (5%), moderate (16%) or high (35%) Map prevalence. The PFC, IFC, EAIFC and EBIFC were increasingly more costly detection methods. Culture of six environmental samples per herd yielded >=99% HSe in herds with >=16% within-herd prevalence, but was not sufficient to achieve 95% HSe in low-prevalence herds (5%). Testing all cows using EAIFC or EBIFC, as is commonly done in paratuberculosis-screening programs, was less likely to achieve a HSe of 95% in low than in high prevalence herds. ELISA alone was a sensitive and low-cost testing method; however, without confirmatory fecal culture, testing 30 cows in non-infected herds yielded HSp of 21% and 91% for EA and EB, respectively.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, cattle, 5 testing strategies, detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, comparison study, cost effectiveness, herd prevalence, US.

Warth, Arne. Is alpha-dystroglycan the missing link in the mechanism of enterocyte uptake and translocation of Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosis?Medical Hypotheses. 2008; 70(2): 369-374. ISSN: 0306-9877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03069877
Descriptors: humans, animals, possible zoonotic pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, dystrophin-glycoprotein compex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dystrophin expression levels control by pathogen, allows entry and transloation of pathogen in intestinal cells.

Weber, M.F.; Nielen, M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Roermund, H.J.W. van. Milk quality assurance for paratuberculosis: simulation of within-herd infection dynamics and economics. Veterinary Research. 2008; 39(2): 1-20. Print ISSN: 0928-4249. E-ISSN: 1297-9716
URL: http://www.vetres.org/
NAL Call No.: SF602.A5
Descriptors: dairy cattle, bulk milk, milk quality, assurance program for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, simulated with stochastic simulation model (JohneSSim), stochastic models, epidemiology and economic effects, preventative management measures, various test schemes, simulated population, Dutch dairy herds for 20 year period, program shows, ELISA surveillance and control procedures, effective for low-map bulk milk, program feasible and cost effective, Netherlands.

Weiss, D.J.; Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A.; Sanders, M.; Rutherford, M. Bovine monocyte TLR2 receptors differentially regulate the intracellular fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2008; 83(1): 48-55. ISSN: 0741-5400.
URL: http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/83/1/48
Abstract: Pathogenic mycobacterial organisms have the capacity to inhibit macrophage activation and phagosome maturation. Although the mechanism is complex, several studies have incriminated signaling through TLR2 receptors with subsequent activation of the MAPK pathway p38 (MAPKp38) and overproduction of IL-10 in the survival of pathogenic mycobacterial organisms. In the present study, we compared the response of bovine monocytes with infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of paratuberculosis in ruminants, with the closely related organism M. avium subspecies avium (Maa), which usually does not cause disease in ruminants. Both MAP and Maa induced phosphorylation of MAPKp38 by bovine monocytes; however, addition of a blocking anti-TLR2 antibody partially prevented MAPKp38 phosphorylation of MAP-infected monocytes but not Maa-infected monocytes. Addition of anti-TLR2 antibody enhanced phagosome acidification and phagosome-lysosome fusion in MAP-containing phagosomes and enabled monocytes to kill MAP organisms. These changes were not observed in Maa-infected monocytes. The effect on phagosome maturation appears to occur independently from the previously described inhibitory effects of IL-10 on phagosome acidification and organism killing, as IL-10 production was not affected by addition of anti-TLR2 antibody to monocyte cultures. Therefore, signaling through the TLR2 receptor appears to play a role in phagosome trafficking and antimicrobial responses in MAP-infected bovine mononuclear phagocytes. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts:
Descriptors: cattle, antibodies, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacteriumavium subsp avium, biochemical receptors, immune response, immunological reactions, in vitro, interleukin 10, monocytes, pathogenesis, phagocytes, phagocytosis, signal-transduction, Toll-like-receptor-2.

Winden, S. van; Pfeiffer, D. Sampling programmes to establish and monitor the infectious disease status of cattle herds. In Practice. 2008; 30(1): 30-35. ISSN: 0263-841X.
URL: http://www.bvapublications.com
NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
Abstract: Infectious diseases can play an important role in the economic viability of a beef or dairy enterprise. In particular, disease introduced into a naive herd can have detrimental effects on production and mortality. As well as the costs associated with dealing with an outbreak, an infectious agent circulating in a herd can contribute to fertility problems, abortions, decreased milk production and loss of bodyweight. Sampling programmes can help to establish the presence of a disease and its prevalence in a herd. Armed with knowledge of the disease status of a herd, veterinary surgeons and farmers can jointly formulate an action plan to manage the disease(s) in question. This article discusses how to sample for and monitor a number of non-statutory diseases that are of particular economic importance to the cattle industry - namely, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea, leptospirosis and Johne's disease.
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, cattle diseases, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, infectious diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, leptospirosis, sampling, bovine-herpesvirus 1; bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2; Leptospira, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, communicable diseases, disease surveillance, sampling-techniques.

Woo, S.R.; Czuprynski, C.J. Tactics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis for intracellular survival in mononuclear phagocytes. Journal of Veterinary Science. 2008; 9(1): 1-8. ISSN: 1229-845X
URL: http://www.vetsci.org
NAL Call No.: SF604.J68
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ruminant Johne’s disease, pathogenesis, survival and replication in mononuclear phagocytes, pathogen host interactions, pathogen defense mechanisms, mycobacterial species comparison, host reponses, literature review.

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2007



Al Hajri, S.M.; Alluwaimi, A.M. ELISA and PCR for evaluation of subclinical paratuberculosis in the Saudi dairy herds. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Apr 15; 121(3-4): 384-385. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.025
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: dairy cows, cattle bacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease detection, disease diagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, molecular epidemiology, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, methodology, accuracy, validity, reliability, screening, disease surveillance, veterinary medicine, Saudi Arabia.

Al Hajri, S.M.; Alluwaimi, A.M. The efficiency of ELISA and PCR in detecting subclinical paratuberculosis in the Saudi dairy herds. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007; 10(11): 1906-1909. ISSN: 1028-8880
URL: http://www.ansinet.org/pjbs
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, different age groups, disease survey, serum and fecal testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection and diagnostic tests, PCR, ELISA, rates of detection per diagnostic method, subclinical stage testing, paratuberculosis present, Saudi Arabia.

Altic, L.C.; Rowe, M.T.; Grant, I.R. UV light inactivation of Mycobactenum avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk as assessed by FASTPlaqueTB phage assay and culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007; 73(11): 3728-3733. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (2.5- to 3.3-log reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml). The FASTPlaqueTB phage assay provided more rapid enumeration of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (within 24 h) than culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (6 to 8 weeks). Despite the fact that plaque counts were consistently 1 to 2 log lower than colony counts throughout the study, UV inactivation rates for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived using the phage assay and culture results were not significantly different (P = 0.077).
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk hygiene, analytical methods, assays, food hygiene, microbial contamination, ultraviolet radiation, killing of pathogen, FASTPlaqueTB phage assay, Herrold's egg yolk medium.

Anderson, J.L.; Meece, J.K.; Koziczkowski, J.J.; Clark, D.L., Jr; Radcliff, R.P.; Nolden, C.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Ellingson, J.L.E. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in scavenging mammals in Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2007; 43(2): 302-308. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.wildlifedisease.org
NAL Call no.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: non-ruminantwildlife, scavenging mammals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, wild animals as disease reservoir, disease transmission between wild and domestic animals, Wisconsin, USA.

Antognoli, M.C.; Hirst, H.L.; Garry, F.B.; Salman, M.D. Immune response to and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in young dairy calves, and the association between test results in the calves and the infection status of their dams. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2007; 54(3/4): 152-159. ISSN: 1863-1959
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jvb
Descriptors: dairy cows; dairy calves 2, 4, 6, and 8 months old; calves dams, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months; intradermal skin test; a modified IFN-gamma test; commercial ELISA; fecal shedding and age; diagnosis; diagnostic techniques; immune response; immunity; immunodiagnosis; interferon; paratuberculosis; polymerase chain reaction; Colorado, USA.

Bai, Yu; Gao, Yan; Gao, YunHang; He, ZhaoYang Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting deer serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao/ Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007; 29(12): 956-959, 960. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
URL: http://zgxq.chinajournal.net.cn
Abstract: An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in deer. This assay utilized an affinity-purified antigen from MAP as the coated antigen and was optimized using various dilutions of serum and IgG conjugate. A total of 760 serum samples were collected and examined by the assay and 61 samples turned out to be positive. It is concluded that the indirect ELISA is an efficient and sensitive method to detect antibodies against paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies, antigens, serological diagnosis, ELISA, IgG, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques.

Bannantine, J.P.; Radosevich, T.J.; Stabel, J.R.; Sreevatsan, S.; Kapur, V.; Paustian, M. L. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies and aptamers against major antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(5): 518-526. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monoclonal antibodies to proteins, BALB/c mice immunized with a whole-cell extract, 10 hybridomas, characterized, MAb 9G10 detects MAP1643 (isocitrate lyase), MAb 11G4 detects MAP3840 (a 70-kDa heat shock protein).

Bannantine, J.P.; Radosevich, T.J.; Stabel, J.R.; Berger, S.; Griffin, J.F.T.; Paustian, M.L. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a major membrane protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(3): 312-317. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors : cattle, bacterial antigens, bacterial cattle diseases, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monoclonal antibodies, surface antigens, epitopes, antigenic determinants, bacterial infections, bacterial diseases.

Beaudeau, F.; Belliard, M.; Joly, A.; Seegers, H. Reduction in milk yield associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection in dairy cows. Veterinary Research. 2007; 38(4): 625-634. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.edpsciences.org
NAL Call No.: SF602.A5
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, cow disease status, disease surveys, disease prevalence, epidemiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection with ELISA, production effects, milk yields, economic impact, profitability, disease control, vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, vaccination, France.

Bennett, R.M.; McFarlane, I.; McClement, I. Demonstration models of the cost and benefits of BVD and Johne's control on cattle farms. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 175-177. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Demonstration models of the costs of BVD and Johnes in dairy and beef cattle and the costs and benefits of control have been developed. An example applied to BVD in dairy cattle is presented. Downloadable versions of the models, together with supporting material on how to use them are available to veterinarians from a dedicated website. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bovine diarrhea virus, computer software, cost benefit analysis, disease control, disease prevention, models, paratuberculosis.

Berger, S.; Bannantine, J.P.; Griffin, J.F.T. Autoreactive antibodies are present in sheep with Johne's disease and cross-react with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens. Microbes and Infection. 2007 July; 9(8): 963-970. ISSN: 1286-4579
URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2007.03.016
NAL Call No.: QR180.M53
Abstract: Mycobacterial infection has been linked to the generation of autoantibodies, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), in clinical studies and small animal models. In an attempt to identify antibodies that react with both self and mycobacterial antigens in naturally infected ruminants, we generated a phage display library comprising single chain antibody fragments (scFv) from sheep with Johne's disease (JD). The library was screened simultaneously against ovine small intestinal tissue and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A clone (termed AutoH1) reacted strongly with host tissue and MAP, recognizing a proteinase-susceptible 32 kDa determinant in ovine gut tissues and lymphatics, and in blood granulocytes but not mononuclear cells. In granulocytes, binding was to cytoplasmic granules and cell membranes; in MAP, AutoH1 bound bacterial cell wall determinants. We further identified a synthetic peptide sequence recognized by AutoH1, using this to generate a carrier peptide fusion protein (paH1). Sera of normal and JD sheep were screened for AutoH1-like autoantibody activity; 7/11 JD animals showed autoreactivity that could be blocked by paH1, while 0/21 normal animals showed no such serological reactivity. It is possible that the severe pathology observed in ruminant JD may have an autoimmune component, possibly due to ANCA-type binding; this remains to be further investigated.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, sheep diseases, bacterial antigens, cross reaction, autoantibodies, granulocytes, autoimmunity, anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-autoantibodies, autoinflammation.

Boehm, Monika; White, Piran C.L.; Chambers, Julia; Smith, Lesley; Hutchings, M.R. Wild deer as a source of infection for livestock and humans in the UK. Veterinary Journal. 2007; 174(2): 260-276. ISSN: 1090-0233. Note: A review article.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
Abstract: Wild deer can feature in the epidemiology of a wide range of livestock and human diseases in the United Kingdom by representing a source of disease via various transmission routes. This review highlights current and possible future infections of deer in the UK which may have an impact on livestock and/or human health. Increases in deer abundance as well as range expansion are likely to exacerbate the potential for disease persistence due to the formation of multi-species deer assemblages, which may act as disease reservoirs. Climatic changes are likely to have a direct impact on the presence and abundance of various pathogens and their vectors, so that with a warming climate exotic diseases may play a role in future UK livestock and wildlife disease management. This paper highlights the need for a monitoring strategy for wildlife diseases, in particular infections in wild deer, in the UK. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: wildlife diseases, zoonotic diseases, deer as disease resevoirs, Capreolus capreolus, roe-deer, Dama dama, fallow deer, Cervus Nippon, Cervus elaphus, wild red deer, Muntiacus reevesi, Hydropotes inermis, Chinese water deer, Salmonella, Escherichia coli,Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Lymnaea trunculata, snail, Brucella abortus, Brucella ovis, Leptospira, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Borrelia burgdorferi,Fasciola hepatica, UK.

Burr, P. Does the herd have Johne's disease? Simple steps to assess status. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 172-174. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Johne's disease is a significant problem facing the UK cattle industry. Despite this, information on prevalence at a national, local or herd level is incomplete. Knowledge of the presence or absence of disease in a particular herd is important if sensible management decisions are to be made to prevent introduction or reduce spread. While whole herd serological screening is likely to give the most information on herd status this is not always a realistic economic option. A more limited screening programme, based on targeted serological and environmental sampling, and bulk milk testing should still provide significant information on which to base a herd strategy, and is a preferable option to the current default policy of doing nothing. A plan of approaching such a programme is presented in this paper. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, whole herd screening, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, disease prevention, disease control strategy, epidemiology, UK.

Caldow, G.; Strain, S.A.J..; Chapman, Z.; Kemp, R.; Cook, A.J. A survey to estimate the herd level prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy herd of the United Kingdom. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 169-171. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: A study was carried out on randomly selected dairy cow herds in the UK to estimate the herd level prevalence of paratuberculosis. Dairy herds were selected at random and invited to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to examine possible sources of bias behind participation in the study and possible associations between the presence of disease in the herd and management factors. A blood and a faeces sample were collected from all females of three years and older in the herd along with a bulk milk tank sample and a prescribed set of faecal and slurry samples from the farm unit. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbant-assay (ELISA) was used to test for the presence of antibody to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in the blood and bulk tank milk samples. Faecal samples were cultured for Map using a liquid based culture system and bulk milk samples were examined for the presence of Map by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A subsidiary study to determine the genetic variation of isolates of Map was carried out and blood samples were stored to form a DNA archive for possible further work. This paper gives an outline of the rationale and methodology used. Reproduced with persmission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies, ELISA antibody testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, PCR, genetic variation, genotype, UK.

Caldow, G. Approaches to farm-level control of paratuberculosis in cattle. Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2007; 23: 12-15. ISSN: 0961-2548
URL: http://www.goatvetsoc.co.uk
Descriptors: cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, management, control and prevention protocols, paratuberculosis, disease distribution, disease prevalences, disease prevention, epidemiology, UK.

Castellanos, E.; Aranaz, A.; Romero, B.; de Juan, L.; Alvarez, J.; Bezos, J.; Rodrcguez, S.; Stevenson, K.; Mateos, A.; Domcnguez, L. Polymorphisms in gyrA and gyrB Genes among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Type I, II, and III Isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology JCM. 2007 Oct; 45(10): 3439-3442. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: The analysis of the gyrA and gyrB genes of a panel of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from types I, II, and III detected type-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. Based on these results, we developed a PCR and restriction enzyme analysis to discriminate type I and III isolates. The application of this technique would be the unique strategy to characterize these strains when there is not enough bacterial growth to perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis types I, II, III isolates, PCR and restriction enzyme analysis, discrimination between I and III isolates, characterizing strains of MPA.

Catania , S.; Stefani, E.; Pozzato, N.; Muliari, R.; Vicenzoni, G. Immunopatogenesi della paratubercolosi. [Immunopathogenesis of paratuberculosis.]Large Animal Review. 2007; 13(2): 51-57. Note: In Italian with an English summary.
URL: http://cms.sivarnet.it/gDocument.aspx?id=901
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) refers to the agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, one of the major enteric diseases that cause chronic, severe weight loss and eventual death in ruminants, livestock and wildlife. As the pathogenesis of this disease is complex and many steps of the development and appearance of the disease are still unknown, it is difficult to find out the right diagnostic procedure to investigate this pathology and likely it contributes to the maintenance of the infection in farms. In early stages of infection, immune system is not completely capable to respond to the aggression of the pathogen. In particular macrophages are not able to destroy MAP which can survive within these cells for long time. Later, after macrophagical activation, a specific and efficient immune response begins but the persistence of the bacteria in these cells causes a marked citotoxic reaction. In this period infection is asymptomatic, serological markers are absent, faecal culture is negative, whereas IFN- gamma test and intradermal reaction test are positive. Lesions are limited to the distal small intestine tract and are characterized by Granuloma formation (in order to board mycobacterias) and by a citotoxic reaction to destroy the pathogen. Unfortunately the condition of persistent infected macrophages lead to the dissemination of the infection to new districts of the enteric tract, to the regional lymph nodes and then widespread. During this period it is possible to isolate Map in faeces and detect IgG1 titers by ELISA test. Clinical disease is characterized by a humoral immune response, which is unable to board the infection, so the disease becomes progressive and worsening, this is the last phase of Johne's disease. In this stadium the elective diagnostic procedures are culture isolation, PCR, microscope faecal smear and ELISA test. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, fecal testing for Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, asymptomatic infections, granulomas, cytotoxicity, diagnostic techniques; humoral immunity, immune system, IgG, immune response, immunological-reactions; immunopathogenesis, immunopathology, interferon, macrophages, paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, small-intestine.

Cerf, O.; Griffiths, M.; Aziza, F. Assessment of the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in commercially pasteurized milk. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2007; 4(4): 433-447. ISSN 1535-3141
URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/fpd.2007.0028
NAL Call No.: QR115.F6637
Abstract: Conflicting laboratory-acquired data have been published about the heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of the deadly paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) of ruminants. Results of surveys of the presence of MAP in industrially pasteurized milk from several countries are conflicting also. This paper critically reviews the available data on the heat resistance of MAP and, based on these studies, a quantitative model describing the probability of finding MAP in pasteurized milk under the conditions prevailing in industrialized countries was derived using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation assesses the probability of detecting MAP in 50-mL samples of pasteurized milk as lower than 1%. Hypotheses are presented to explain why higher frequencies were found by some authors; these included improper pasteurization and cross-contamination in the analytical laboratory. Hypotheses implicating a high rate of inter- and intraherd prevalence of paratuberculosis or heavy contamination of raw milk by feces were rejected.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, milk products, raw milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, heat resistance of pathogen, mathematical simulation models, Monte Carlo method, paratuberculosis, literature reviews.

Chiang, S.K.; Sommer, S.; Aho, A.D.; Kiupel, M.; Colvin, C.; Tooker, B.; Coussens, P.M. Relationship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, IL-1l, and TRAF1 in primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Apr 15; 116(3-4): 131-144. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.01.005
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that resides in host macrophage cells. Presently, little is known about how MAP is able to subvert the normal bacteriocidal functions of infected macrophages. Previously, we reported that ileal tissues from MAP infected cattle contained high levels of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1l) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), relative to ileal tissues from uninfected cattle. High-level expression of these two proteins could have profound effects on macrophage function, intracellular signaling, and apoptosis. We now demonstrate that high levels of TRAF1 protein are located primarily within macrophages infiltrating areas of MAP infection. We have also utilized cultured bovine monocyte-derived macrophage cells (MDM) either infected with live MAP or stimulated with recombinant IL-1l (rIL-1l) to determine if there is a relationship between IL-1l and TRAF1 expression. These studies have identified a dose dependent increase in TRAF1 protein levels in bovine MDM in response to infection with live MAP or following treatment with rIL-1l. Sustained TRAF1 protein expression was dependent upon interaction of rIL-1l with it's receptor and rIL-1o was also able to enhance TRAF1 gene expression. Our results suggest that MAP may use the IL-1-TRAF1 system to enhance TRAF1 protein expression in infected bovine MDM. These novel results provide evidence for a new avenue of research on the effect of MAP and other intracellular pathogens on macrophage signaling and apoptosis.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle bacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infection, immune response, immune system, monocytes, macrophages, interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factors, biochemical mechanisms, macrophage activation, apoptosis, cell communication, molecular genetics, gene expression, in vitro studies, ileum, protein synthesis, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 1.

Chitra, M Ananda; Kishore,-Subodh. Lipoarabinomannan for the serological diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2007; 84(2): 123-126. ISSN: 0019-6479
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: Lipoarabinomannan is a highly immunogenic and essential cell wall component of mycobacteria. Induction of a strong and pure immunoreaction by lipoarabinomannan (LAM) makes, its an important,diagnostic reagent. Hence, an effort has been made to explore the possibility of using LAM as antigen in the serodiagnosis of bovine TB.
Descriptors: bovine diseases, Mycobacteria bovis; Mycobacteria paratuberculosis, Mycobacteria phlei, Mycobacteria smegmatis, Mycobacteria kansasii.

Cho, Donghee; Shin, Sung Jae; Talaat, Adel M.; Collins, Michael T. Cloning, expression, purification and serodiagnostic evaluation of fourteen Mycobacterium paratuberculosis proteins. Protein Expression and Purification. 2007; 53(2): 411-420. ISSN: 1046-5928
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10465928
Descriptors: bovine paratuberculosis; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis JTC303; 14 proteins from culture filtrate; immunoblot; mass spectrometry; express in Escherichia coli; antigeniticy; culture filtrate components: ModD, Antigen 85C, PepA, MAP1693c, and MAP2168c; polyclonal rabbit antibodies; bovine sera testing; ELISA using natural ModDas solid phase antigen; higher sensitivity; diagnostic potential.

Chui, L.; Chow, E.; King, R.; Manninen, K.; Sim, J. Development of an immunocapture assay using IgY for the detection of Mycobacterium avium spp. Paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 690. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection assay, immunocapture assay, IgY, chicken model, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium,Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium gordonae, real time PCR, test sensitivity.

Coelho, A.C.; Pinto, M.L.; Silva, S.; Coelho, A.M.; Rodrigues, J.; Juste, R.A. Seroprevalence of ovine paratuberculosis infection in the Northeast of Portugal. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 298-303. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.07.009
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract : A survey to estimate the prevalence of ovine paratuberculosis in sheep flocks was conducted in the Northeast of Portugal. In total, 3900 samples of sheep older than 2 years belonging to 150 sheep flocks from 12 different territorial Livestock Farmers Organizations (OPP) were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Seventy (46.7%) flocks had one or more serologically positive animals. The individual paratuberculosis prevalence was 3.7% (144/3900), with values ranging from 0.0 to 10.3% per flock. Statistically significant differences between OPP, herd size and the presence of clinical signs was observed. According to the test sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer, the true prevalence in the Northeast of Portugal was calculated as 6.4%. In summary, a small percentage of animals and a high percentage of flocks in the Northeast of Portugal were serologically positive.
Descriptors: sheep flocks, over 2 years of age, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, infection levels, seroprevalence of antibodies, commercial ELISA test, Portugal.

Cook, K.L.; Britt, J.S. Optimization of methods for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples using quantitative, real-time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 69(1): 154-160. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Abstract: Detection of Johne's disease, an enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), has been impeded by the lack of rapid, reliable detection methods. The goal of this study was to optimize methodologies for detecting M. paratuberculosis in manure from an infected dairy cow or in contaminated soil samples using a quantitative, real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) based analysis. Three different nucleic acid extraction techniques, the efficiency of direct versus indirect sample extraction, and sample pooling were assessed. The limit of detection was investigated by adding dilutions of M. paratuberculosis to soil. Results show that the highest yield (19.4+or-2.3 micro g-1 DNA extract) and the highest copy number of the targeted M. paratuberculosis IS900 sequence (1.3+or-0.2x108 copies g-1 manure) were obtained with DNA extracted from manure using Qbiogene's FastReg. DNA Spin kit for soil. Pooling ten samples of M. paratuberculosis-contaminated soil improved the limit of detection ten fold (between 20 and 115 M. paratuberculosis cells g-1 soil). Detection was between 65% and 95% higher when samples were extracted directly using bead-beating than when using pre-treatment with cell extraction buffers. The final soil-sampling and extraction regime was applied for detection of M. paratuberculosis in pasture soil after the removal of a M. paratuberculosis culture positive dairy cow. M. paratuberculosis remained in the pasture soil for more than 200 days. Results from these studies suggest that DNA extraction method, sampling protocol and PCR conditions each critically influence the outcome and validity of the QRT-PCR analysis of M. paratuberculosis concentrations in environmental samples. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,cattle manure, soil contamination, detection and diagnostic techniques, real time PCR, nucleotide sequences.

Danelishvili, Lia; Wu, Martin; Stang, Bernadette; Harriff, Melanie; Cirillo, Stuart; Cirillo, Jeffrey; Bildfell, Robert; Arbogast, Brian; Bermudez, Luiz E. Identification of Mycobacterium avium pathogenicity island important for macrophage and amoeba infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007 June 26; 104(26): 11038-11043. ISSN: 0027-8424
URL: http://www.pnas.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 500 N21P
Abstract: The ability to infect macrophages is a common characteristic shared among many mycobacterial species. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium kansasii enter macrophages, using the complement receptors CR1, CR3, CR4, and the mannose receptor. To identify M. avium genes and host cell pathways involved in the bacterial uptake by macrophages, we screened a M. avium transposon mutant library for the inability to enter macrophages. Uptake-impaired clones were selected. Sequence of six M. avium clones identified one gene involved in glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis, one gene encoding the conserved membrane protein homologue to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP2446c gene and four others belonging to the same region of the chromosome. Analysis of the chromosome region revealed a pathogenicity island inserted between two tRNA sequences with 58% of G+C content versus 69% in the M. avium genome. The region is unique for M. avium and is not present in M. tuberculosis or M. paratuberculosis. Although the mutants did not differ from the WT bacterium regarding the binding to macrophage cell membrane, analysis of macrophage proteins after 1 h infection revealed a deficiency in the mutant to phosphorylate certain proteins on uptake. To understand M. avium interaction with two evolutionarily distinct hosts, the mutants were evaluated for Acanthamoeba castellanii invasion. The defect in the ability of the mutants to invade both cells was highly similar, suggesting that M. avium might have evolved mechanisms that are used to enter amoebas and human macrophages.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenicity, ability to infect macrophages and amoebas, mutants unable to infect macrophages, inability to phosphorylate certain proteins on uptake.

De , U.K. Diagnostic approach to paratuberculosis in animals. Veterinary World. 2007; 6(4): 119-121. ISSN: 0972-8988
Abstract: This article presents the different diagnostic tests (faecal examination, bacterial culture, milk culture, biopsy, skin tests, serum biochemistry, serological tests, complement fixation tests, agar gel immunodiffusion, fluorescent antibody technique, ELISA and lymphocyte stimulation test) for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, domestic animals, livestock, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic procedures, biopsy, blood chemistry, complement fixation tests, cultures, ELISA, fecal examination, skin tests, fluorescent antibody technique, IFAT, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence tuberculosis.

De Koning, Dirk Jan; Jaffrezic, Florence; Lund, Mogens Sando; Watson, Michael; Channing, Caroline; Hulsegge, Ina; Pool, Marco H.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hedegaard, Jakob; Hornshoj, Henrik; Jiang, Li; Sorensen, Peter; Marot, Guillemette; Delmas, Celine; Le Cao, Kim Anh; Cristobal, Magali-San; Baron, Michael D.; Malinverni, Roberto; Stella, Alessandra; Brunner, Ronald M.; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Jensen,-Kirsty ; Mouzaki, Daphne ; Waddington, David; Jimenez Marin, Angeles; Perez Alegre, Monica; Perez Reinado, Eva; Closset, Rodrigue; Detilleux,-Johanne C.; Dovc, Peter; Lavric, Miha; Nie, Haisheng; Janss, Luc. The EADGENE microarray data analysis workshop (open access publication). Genetics Selection Evolution (Les-Ulis). 2007; 39(6): 621-631. ISSN: 0999-193X
Abstract: Microarray analyses have become an important tool in animal genomics. While their use is becoming widespread, there is still a lot of ongoing research regarding the analysis of microarray data. In the context of a European Network of Excellence, 31 researchers representing 14 research groups from 10 countries performed and discussed the statistical analyses of real and simulated 2-colour microarray data that were distributed among participants. The real data consisted of 48 microarrays from a disease challenge experiment in dairy cattle, while the simulated data consisted of 10 microarrays from a direct comparison of two treatments (dye-balanced). While there was broader agreement with regards to methods of microarray normalisation and significance testing, there were major differences with regards to quality control. The quality control approaches varied from none, through using statistical weights, to omitting a large number of spots or omitting entire slides. Surprisingly, these very different approaches gave quite similar results when applied to the simulated data, although not all participating groups analysed both real and simulated data. The workshop was very successful in facilitating interaction between scientists with a diverse background but a common interest in microarray analyses.
Descriptors: EADGENE-microarray-data-analysis, mathematical-and-computer-techniques, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, genomics.

Deb, R.; Perme, H. Advance immune-molecular approaches for diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Veterinary World. 2007; 5(11): 358-360. ISSN: 0972-8988
Abstract: The methods used for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in animals are reviewed: direct method; culture of the organism; radioisotopic culture; PCR; molecular tools; serological approaches; cell mediated immunity-based. The transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from animal to man is discussed. Moreover, the molecular characteristics of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis are presented.
Descriptors: beef, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cell culture, cell mediated immunity, serological diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, cellular immunity, immunodiagnosis, milk, milk products, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, radionuclides, water, zoonotic transmission.

Deb Rajib; Perme Honjon; Goswami, P.P. Map: a potential zoonotic agent. North East Veterinarian. 2007; 7(1): 25-26. ISSN: 0973-2004
Descriptors: livestock, humans, wild animals, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), disease characteristics, bacterial characteristics, pathogenesis, pathogenesis, disease transmission, zoonotic potential of MAP, food safety aspects, treatment, prevention, therapeutics.

Dhand, N.K.; Eppleston, J.; Whittington, R.J.; Toribio, J.A.L.M.L. Risk factors for ovine Johne's disease in infected sheep flocks in Australia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Nov 15; 82(1-2): 51-71. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.007
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: 92 Merino sheep flocks; 3-5 y/o animals; ovine Johne’s disease; Mycobacterium avium subspparatuberculosis; pooled fecal testing; disease status; prevalence levels; multivariable analyses; risk factors; data from questionnaire and face-to face farmer interviews; risks included: poor condition of the dams, high stocking rate during lambing, longer growth retardation in lifetime, lower rated if vaccination for 2 years, culling low body weight sheep, selling subflocks with high losses, sharing roads between farms, frequency of application of super phosphate fertiliers, age of sheep; epidemiology; cross sectional study; Australia.

Dieguez Francisco J.; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Sanjuan, Maria L.; Vilar, Maria-J.; Lopez, Manuel; Yus, Eduardo. Prevalence of serum antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in Galicia (northwest Spain). Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Dec 14; 82(3-4): 321-326. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.08.006
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Prior to establishing a control and prevention program for Johne's disease in cattle in Galicia (northwest Spain), a survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of the disease. For this survey, 61,069 animals of at least 1-year of age from 2735 randomly selected herds were bled and samples analyzed with a commercial ELISA. The estimated true individual-level prevalences – assuming the manufacturer's reported test sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 98.9% – were 3.02% in dairy cattle, 1.03% in beef cattle and 2.83% in animals from farms with both dairy and beef cattle. True herd prevalences (with herds declared positive if one or more animals tested positive) were 10.69% for dairy herds, 0% for beef herds and 2.71% for mixed herds. When herds were declared positive if at least two animals tested positive, true herd prevalences were 14.75% for dairy herds, 1.47% for beef herds and 12.01% for mixed herds. Assuming a higher specificity of 99.4%, true individual-level prevalences increased to 4.03% in dairy herds, 2.07% in beef herds and 3.84% in mixed herds. Herd prevalences were 27.77%/18.79%, 2.78%/2.40% and 5.70%/12.24% (using the one/two-animal cut-offs) in dairy, beef and mixed herds, respectively. In conclusion, these results seem to indicate that a small percentage of cows and a rather high percentage of dairy herds in this region are MAP-seropositive.
Descriptors: cattle, serum testing, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Spain.

Donaghy, J.A.; Linton, M.; Patterson, M.F.; Rowe, M.T. Effect of high pressure and pasteurization on Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2007 Aug; 45(2): 154-159. ISSN: 0266-8254
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02163.x
NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
Abstract: To determine the effect of high pressures alone and in conjunction with pasteurization on the viability of two strains of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Map in a milk matrix was subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa with and without pasteurization (72pC for 15 s) and plated onto Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and Middlebrook 7H10 (7H10) agar, both containing antibiotic supplements. Medium 7H10 was found to give a significantly (P < 0p"001) better recovery than HEYM. A significantly greater (P < 0p"001) reduction in viable numbers was observed using 500 MPa (mean log reduction of 6p"52) compared with 400 MPa (mean log reduction of 2p"56) and between 400 MPa and control (no applied pressure) for 10 min treatments. A treatment time of 10 min resulted in significantly (P < 0p"001) fewer survivors than 5 min. Low numbers of survivors were still detected when pressure treatment at 400 and 600 MPa was combined with subsequent pasteurization. The use of high-pressure was effective in reducing viable numbers of Map but even when combined with pasteurization there were still survivors, albeit when high inoculum levels of Map were used. To the authors' knowledge the work reported here represents the first study of the efficacy of high-pressure treatments alone and in combination with pasteurization to kill Map. The results indicate that further research is warranted before more commercial-scale studies are commissioned.
Descriptors: milk, high pressure pasteurization treatment, efficacy alone or in combination, differences in kill levels of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, research study.

Donovan, Douglas C.; Reber, Adrian J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Aceves-Avila, Maria; Galland, Kimberly L.; Holbert, Katheryn A.; Ely, Lane O; Hurley, David J. Effect of maternal cells transferred with colostrum on cellular responses to pathogen antigens in neonatal calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 68(7): 778-782. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: Holstein calves, dairy cattle, neonatal immune responses, colostrum study, whole colostrum, frozen colostrum and cell-free colostrum, leukocytes, proliferative responses, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterial purified protein derivatives, cell mediated immune transfer can be enhanced by maternal vaccination.

Duthie S.; Burr, P.; Mills, H.; Orpin, P.; Snodgrass, D. Analysis of Map antibody in milk samples. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(1): 1-2. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: The ability of an ELISA assay to give consistent results in the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) antibodies in bovine serum and milk samples and whether bulk milk sampling could be used to monitor Johne's disease status in dairy herds were evaluated. Serum and milk samples obtained from 155 dairy cows showed 95% agreement between the results from these samples. Bulk milk samples from 8 herds with a known history of Johne's disease, 1 herd which was negative for the last 8 years and 17 herds with an unknown status in the UK were tested. These herds were divided into an accredited disease free herd and 16 presumed negative herds (Group A) and 8 known infected herds and 1 herd with a positive result from targeted sampling (Group B). There was a significant difference between bulk milk titres in both groups. Targeted sampling and bulk milk testing can be useful in screening herds for Johne's disease using a bulk milk titre of >10 as a cutoff for positive herds, although these techniques may miss herds with a lower prevalence of the disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairycattle, dairy herds, serum and milk samples, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis antibodies, monitoring disease status, bulk milk of multiple herds, diagnostic techniques, ELISA assay, UK.

Eamens, G. Testing for bovine Johne's disease. Primefacts. 2007; (461): 3 pp
URL: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/resources/factsheets
Abstract: This paper focuses on the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease [paratuberculosis] in cattle. The available diagnostic tests, their advantages and disadvantages, the situations where they can be applied, and how they can be made more sensitive are described. The reasons for the difficulty in detecting infected animals, the reliability of the tests, and the role of these tests in reducing the risk of getting the disease are discussed.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle herds, diagnosis of Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease risk reduction stragegies.

Eamens, G.J.; Whittington, R.J.; Turner, M.J.; Austin, S.L.; Fell, S.A.; Marsh, I.B. Evaluation of radiometric faecal culture and direct PCR on pooled faeces for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Nov 15; 125(1-2): 22-35. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.04.043
NAL Call No. : SF601.V44
Abstract : Dilution rates for pooled faecal culture (PFC) and direct IS900 polymerase chain reaction (D-PCR) tests were evaluated on faecal samples from infected cows mixed with uninfected faeces in dilutions from 1 in 5 to 1 in 50. PFC was performed by radiometric culture, with confirmation by IS900 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR/REA) on growth, and by mycobactin dependency testing on solid medium. Using 37 culture positive faecal samples from 12 subclinical cows, 83.8% and 94.6% of samples were confirmed positive in the PFC assay at dilutions of 1 in 50 and 1 in 30, respectively. Lower dilutions (1 in 5 to 1 in 20) provided only marginally better sensitivity, and confirmation of PFC growth by PCR/REA was significantly more sensitive than mycobactin dependency. D-PCR had significantly lower sensitivity than PFC confirmed by PCR/REA, with pools of 1 in 50, 30, 10 and 5 yielding positive results in 64.9%, 70.3%, 78.4% and 83.8% of samples, respectively. Cattle considered to be shedding 1.5 x 10(6) viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map)/g faeces (on the basis of estimated losses in processing and growth rates in radiometric broth) were positive at dilutions up to 1 in 50 in the PFC and D-PCR. Those shedding 5 x 10(5) viable Map/g were positive in the PFC at dilutions up to 1 in 40, but required a 1 in 10 dilution or less for D-PCR. The results suggest that for cattle shedding relatively high concentrations of Map in faeces (>2 x 10(5) viable Map/g), maximal dilutions of 1 in 30 for PFC and 1 in 10 for D-PCR would be applicable.
Descriptors: cattle, fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pooled fecal sampling, and direct IS900 polymerase chain reaction (D-PCR) tests, radiometric culture, dilutions recommended.

Eamens, G.J.; Turner, M.J.; Whittington, R.J. Sampling and repeatability of radiometric faecal culture in bovine Johne's disease. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Jan 31; 119(2-4): 184-193. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.024
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The repeatability of detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) within and between samplings from 16 paratuberculous dairy cows (13 subclinical; 3 clinical) was investigated by radiometric culture of quadrants of faecal dung pats collected on four to seven occasions over a 10-16-day period. Results were compared to serological status and to pathological and bacteriological findings in multiple tissues obtained at slaughter from 15 of the animals 2-6 weeks after the faecal samplings. From faecal samples taken on 77 occasions over the 2-week period, 296/308 (96%) quadrants were culture positive, with samples from all cattle showing evidence of faecal shedding of Map. Histological lesions typical of paratuberculosis were present in 14 of the 15 cows examined at slaughter, varying in severity from mild (two animals) to moderate (4) and advanced (8), and all predilection tissue sites yielded Map. The negative faecal samples were derived from a single animal that was culture positive in two quadrants on each of the first two (of four) sampling occasions (i.e. culture positive in only 4 of 16 collected quadrants). This animal was found to be histologically negative at slaughter, and culture positive from three of five predilection tissue sites. Faecal samples from cows with subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis, with lesion severity ranging from mild to severe at multiple predilection sites, produced faeces with relatively consistent concentrations of Map within samples. There was significant variation in concentrations of Map between samples in individual animals over a period of 2 weeks, but this did not affect the dichotomous positive-negative culture status for 15 of the 16 cattle. A faecal sample collected non-randomly per rectum thus provides a representative specimen for detection of Map by radiometric culture on a single sampling occasion.
Descriptors: diary cows, fecal culturing, detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture compared to post slaughter tissue sampling, severity of disease, 2-6 week fecal sampling period.

Eamens, G.J.; Walker, D.M.; Porter, N.S.; Fell, S.A. Pooled faecal culture for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 June; 85(6): 243-251. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: goats, goat microbial diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal pathogen shedding, pooled fecal testing, disease diagnosis, disease transmission, bacterial strains, strain differences, Australia.

Eppleston, J.; Windsor, P.A. Lesions attributed to vaccination of sheep with Gudair for the control of ovine paratuberculosis: post farm economic impacts at slaughter. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Apr; 85(4): 129-133. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No. : 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases,skin lesions, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, vaccination, vaccines, slaughter, economic impact, adverse effects, prevalence, carcass evaluation, Gudair vaccine, carcass discounting surveys, New South Wales, Australia.

Estevez-Denaives, I.; Hernandez-Castro, R.; Trujillo-Garcia, A.M.; Chavez-Gris, G. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in goat and sheep flocks in Mexico. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Oct; 72(2-3): 209-213. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.017
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The slow growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has hindered its investigation. No data concerning the presence of paratuberculosis in Mexico are currently available. The aim of this study was to identify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep and goat flocks from several states in Mexico. Twenty-two animals, all manifesting clinical signs of paratuberculosis were obtained from six different Mexican states. Of these, 14 sheep and 8 goats were serologically diagnosed and multibacillary type lesions were identified. On the basis of mycobacteria concentration technique used for ileal mucosa, Map identification was confirmed by means of PCR and bacterial culture. In addition, samples were classified according to the abundance of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) identified in the intestinal mucosa and by the final concentrate of mycobacteria and the amount of DNA obtained. All correlations concerning the abundance of AFB in tissue, AFB recovered in the final concentrate and the amount of DNA obtained was recorded. These findings will allow to predict the amount of DNA which can be obtained by referring to the abundance of acid-fast organisms found in the tissue and, therefore, define the potential of using this method for the purpose of Map characterization. The results of this study indicate that paratuberculosis is widespread among goats and sheep in Mexico.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, multibacillary-type lesions found, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis with PCR and bacterial cultures, ileal mucosa, disease levels, 6 state survey, Mexico.

Fosgate, G.T.; Scott, H.M.; Jordan, E.R. Development of a method for Bayesian nonparametric ROC analysis with application to an ELISA for Johne's disease in dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Sept 14; 81(1-3): 178-193. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.04.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7

Descriptors: dairy cattle, bacterial disease, Johne’s disease, disease modeling program, Bayesian analysis, disease levels.

Gao, Anli; Mutharia, Lucy; Raymond, Melinda; Odumeru, Joseph. Improved template DNA preparation procedure for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in milk by PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 69(2): 417-420. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors: milk, dairy product, template preparation, raw milk, spiked with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, IS900 PCR, pathogen partitioned into cream in unheated milk, pellet fraction in heat treated milk.

Gay, C.G.; Zuerner, R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Lillehoj, H.S.; Zhu, J.J.; Green, R.; Pastoret, P.P. Genomics and vaccine development. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2007; 26(1): 49-67. ISSN: 0253-1933
NAL call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: high throughput technologies, genome analysis, transcriptome, proteome, pathogen biology, host immune systems, host-pathogen interaction, possible discovery of vaccines for animals, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella avium, Bordetella parapertussis, Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Geisbauer, E.; Khol, J.L.; Wassertheurer, M.; Damoser, J.; Osterreicher, E.; Dunser, M.; Fernandez, S.R.; Baumgartner, W. Longterm investigation in an Austrian dairy herd with low prevalence of paratuberculosis detection of antibodies in blood and milk. The Veterinary Quarterly. 2007 Dec; 29(4): 138-148. ISSN: 0165-2176
NAL Call No.: SF601.V46
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), which is widely distributed throughout the world, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Diagnosis of subclinically infected cattle is challenging and is especially problematic in herds with low prevalence of MAP. The aim of this long-term study was the comparison of different diagnostic tests for MAP and specific antibodies in a herd with low prevalence of MAP. Three different commercially available serum-ELISA (SvanovirTM-ELISA, Svanova, Uppsala, Sweden; IDEXX-ELISA, IDEXX Laboratories, Maine, USA; Pourquier-ELISA, Institut Pourquier, Montpellier, France) and two milk ELISA (SvanovirTM-ELISA Svanova, Uppsala, Sweden; Pourquier-ELISA, Institut Pourquier, Montpellier, France) were compared. Apart from these indirect diagnostic tests, two methods for the detection of the etiologic agent (bacteriologic culture and real-time PCR of faecal samples) were performed. In January 2005 the first and in April 2005 the second herd investigation of all animals older than 2 years (n=335) were carried out. Blood, milk and faecal samples were taken. From November 2005 until April 2006 follow up investigations were performed. For this purpose, blood-, milk- and faecal samples were monthly taken from 63 selected animals. The highest number of blood- and milk samples with a detectable antibody-level was found by the SvanovirTM-ELISA. There was a significant correlation between serum- and milk-SvanovirTM-ELISA results, whereas the agreement between ELISA and faecal culture/PCR was low. Significant correlations between SvanovirTM-serum-ELISA results and milk somatic cell counts could be registered. Moreover, there was significant agreement between IDEXX-serum-ELISA results with the age and number of lactations of the cows, as well as the mother's MAP-status.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herd, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, levels in blood and milk, Johne’s disease, low herd prevalences, Austria.

Geue, L.; Kohler, H.; Klawonn, W.; Drager, K.; Hess, R.G.; Conraths, F.J. Untersuchungen zur Eignung von ELISAs zum Nachweis von Antikorpern gegen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Tankmilchproben aus Rheinland-Pfalz. [Investigations on suitability of ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples from Rhineland-Palatinate.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2007; 120(1/2): 67-78. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Abstract: Paratuberculosis or Johne's Disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a notifiable disease in Germany which produces enormous economical losses in dairy farms. At present, there is no confirmed data about the actual number of infected livestock herds in Germany. A countrywide monitoring program to evaluate the prevalence in dairy herds would only be economically feasible on the basis of bulk milk testing. In this study, we evaluated two ELISA test kits (SVANOVIR Ptb-ELISA, IDEXX-M.pt. Milk test kit) for the detection of antibodies against MAP in bulk milk. First, the paratuberculosis-status of the herd derived from the history of the farm was used as a gold standard. Paratuberculosis-negative farms were tested negative with each test, but paratuberculosis-positive or paratuberculosis-serologically-positive farms were detected only in one case (Svanovir) or three cases (IDEXX), respectively. Even if inconclusive results are counted as positive, 82.9% (Svanovir) or 80% (IDEXX) of the paratuberculosis-positive or serologically paratuberculosis positive farms were not detected. Nevertheless, a re-validation of both ELISAs by means of ROC and TG-ROC analyses was attempted by searching for ideal cut-offs, optimized for bulk milk. If a high specificity was selected, no acceptable sensitivity could be reached. The best results were obtained using a sensitivity of 32.3% at a specificity of 100% (Svanovir). With a small change of the cut-off value, the sensitivity increased to still 57%, but this reduced the specificity to 67%. Similar results were obtained with the IDEXX-ELISA. We then evaluated the Svanovir-ELISA for the detection of bulk milk samples on the basis of the current paratuberculosis prevalence within 69 dairy herds from Rhineland-Palatinate using individual milk samples. When the bulk milk samples were tested in two different laboratories using the same ELISA, considerable differences in the results became evident. Nearly all samples were tested with a higher relative test result in one laboratory, which often led to differences in the classification of the prevalence levels. The estimated within-herd seroprevalences ranged between 0% and 37%. There was little agreement between the historical paratuberculosis herd status and the within-herd prevalence in milk serum, as reflected in a kappa-index of 0.146. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the bulk milk ELISA by ROC and TG-ROC analysis, 116 bulk milk samples were used that had been obtained from the 69 dairy herds participating in the study. The optimal ratio of sensitivity (81%) and specificity (77%) relative to a "gold standard" was obtained when the cut-off was set at the 10% level. These values for sensitivity and specificity were better than those obtained in an evaluation of the same ELISA in which the historical paratuberculosis herd-status was used as a "gold standard". The results of this study question the suitability of the available ELISAs for bulk milk testing. Taking into account that the Svanovir-ELISA for individual milk samples has a sensitivity of 60% relative to the blood serum variant of the test, and that the latter has also a limited sensitivity due to the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis, the available test systems examined in this study do not seem to be suitable for herd diagnosis by using bulk milk samples. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy farms, economic losses, bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monitoring program, paratuberculosis prevalence data, bulk milk testing, two ELISA test kits, SVANOVIR Ptb-ELISA and IDEXX-M.pt. milk test kit, comparison study, sensitivity levels of tests, Germany.

Gollnick , N.S. ; Mitchell, R.M.; Baumgart, M.; Janagama, H.K.; Sreevatsan, S.; Schukken, Y.H. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages is not affected by host infection status but depends on the infecting bacterial genotype. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Dec 15; 120(3-4): 93-105. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.07.017
NAL Call No .: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: In this study we investigated the ability of different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) strains to survive in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of cows naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis and control cows. We tested the hypotheses that infection status of cows affects macrophage killing ability and that survival of M. paratuberculosis in macrophages is dependent on the strain. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from Johne's disease-positive (n = 3) and age and stage of lactation matched Johne's disease-negative (n = 3) multiparious cows. Following differentiation, MDMs were challenged in vitro with four M. paratuberculosis strains of different host specificity (cattle and sheep). Two hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after infection, ingestion, and intracellular survival of M. paratuberculosis strains were determined by fluorescence microscopy. There was no effect of the origin of MDMs (Johne's disease-positive or control animals) on phagocytosis, survival of bacteria, or macrophage survival. In contrast, important strain differences were observed. These findings suggest that some M. paratuberculosis strains interfere more successfully than others with the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular pathogens which may make it important to include strain typing when designing control programs.
Descriptors: infected cattle, different ages and stages of lactation, monocyte-derived macrophages, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, killing ability of macrophages, survival of pathogen, pathogen strain effect, strain typing.

Gonda, M.G.; Chang, Y.M.; Shook, G.E.; Collins,.M.T.; Kirkpatrick, B.W. Effect of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on production, reproduction, and health traits in US Holsteins. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 July 16; 80(2-3): 103-119. ISSN: 0167-5877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: Holstein dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk composition, lactation, milk yield, pregnancy rate, health status, disease diagnosis, somatic cell count, feces sampling, in vitro culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, statistical analysis, USA.

Gonda, M.G.; Kirkpatrick, B.W.; Shook, G.E.; Collins, M.T. Identification of a QTL on BTA20 affecting susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Animal Genetics. 2007 Aug; 38(4): 389-396. ISSN: 0268-9146
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01627.x
NAL Call No.: QP98.A1A5
Abtract: The objective of this study was to identify QTL affecting susceptibility to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Twelve paternal half-sib families were selected for the study based on large numbers of daughters in production and limited relationships among sires. Serum and faecal samples from 4350 daughters of these 12 sires were obtained for disease testing. Case definition for an infected cow was an ELISA sample-to-positive ratio >=0.25, a positive faecal culture or both. Three families were selected for genotyping based on a high apparent prevalence (6.8-10.4% infected cows), high faecal culture prevalence (46.2-52.9% positive faecal cultures) and large numbers of daughters tested for disease (264-585). DNA pooling was used to genotype cows, with an average of 159 microsatellites within each sire family. Infected cows (the positive pool) were matched with two of their non-infected herdmates in the same lactation (the negative pool) to control for herd and age effects. Eight chromosomal regions putatively linked with susceptibility to M. paratuberculosis infection were identified using a Z-test (P < 0.01). Significant results were more rigorously tested by individually genotyping cows with three to five informative microsatellites within 15 cM of the significant markers identified with the DNA pools. Probability of infection based on both diagnostic tests was estimated for each individual and used as the dependent variable for interval mapping. Based on this analysis, evidence for the presence of a QTL segregating within families on BTA20 was found (chromosome-wide P-value = 0.0319).
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, quantitative trait loci.

Green, L.E. Improving farm animal health - understanding infectious endemic disease. In: D. J. Mellor and J/.R. Newton [Editors]. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Dipoli, Helsinki/Espoo, Finland, 28-30 March 2007. Published by the Society. 2007: 13-25. ISBN: 9780948073793.
Descriptors: cattle, pigs, hogs, sheep, animal health, various important common diseases, infectious diseases, bovine mastitis, foot rot, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, bovine tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, arterivirus, control programs, disease control, disease prevention and control, heterogeneity, immunity, pathogenesis, persistence, virulence.

Gumber, S.; Taylor, D.L.; Whittington, R.J. Protein extraction from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: comparison of methods for analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native PAGE and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 68(1): 115-127. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, proteome, methods comparison study, SDS-PAGE, native PAGE, SELDI-TOF-MS, efficacy of various lysis buffers, chaotropic agents (Urea CHAPS and potassium thiocyanate), non-ionic detergent (Tween20 and Triton X-100) extracts.

Gumber, S.; Whittington R.J. Comparison of BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 systems for the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis S strain and observations on the effect of inclusion of ampicillin in culture media to reduce contamination. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Jan 17; 119(1): 42-52. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.009
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: To compare the utility and diagnostic accuracy of BACTEC and MGIT culture systems, a total of 41 pooled faecal samples, each containing faeces from one sheep infected with the S strain of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and four uninfected sheep was cultured. The MGIT culture system did not support the growth of the S strain of M. paratuberculosis from faeces within the time frame of the experiments, although a laboratory adapted S strain grew slowly in MGIT provided that sufficient bacteria were inoculated. In contrast, C strain grew rapidly in MGIT. The sensitivity of culture was calculated relative to the infection status of the animals, none of which had clinical signs of ovine Johne's disease. The overall sensitivity of pooled faecal culture in the BACTEC culture system was 21.9% (95% confidence limits, 10.5-37.6), a figure dependant on the proportion of multibacillary cases. The sensitivities of the BACTEC culture system for pools containing animals with multibacillary and paucibacillary lesions were 100.0% (95% confidence limits, 47.2-100.0) and 17.8% (95% confidence limits 6.06-36.8), respectively. The contamination rate of BACTEC cultures was 9.7% compared to 14.3% for MGIT. The effect of 100 og/ml [?] ampicillin on the S strain of the M. paratuberculosis was examined and in both BACTEC and MGIT media it delayed growth by about 1 week. The composition of MGIT medium, particularly presence of vancomycin hydrochloride, slowed the growth of the S strain. The low content of egg yolk was considered to be another possible factor. The radiometric BACTEC culture system remains the best alternative for the culture of S strain and is recommended in circumstances where the genotype (s) of the strains present in a region/farm is either unknown or S strain.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s, paratuberculosis, disease detection, pathogen identification, diagnostic techniques, laboratory techniques, analytical kits, cell culture, feces, culture media, radiometry, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, microbial growth, strain differences, slow growing strains, fast growing strains, accuracy, rapid methods, decontamination, ampicillin.

Hayton, A.J. Johne's disease. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(1): 79-87. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating condition caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). It is characterised by diarrhoea, loss of condition and ultimately death. Economic losses result from premature culling and decreased productivity, which is a feature of the subclinical disease. In 2001 it was estimated that as many as 20% of UK dairy herds could be endemically infected with Map. Data from other countries, from where animals have been imported into the UK, would suggest a herd prevalence of up to 70% indicating that the likely herd prevalence within the UK might be higher than 20%. Since 2000 there has been a significant increase in the number of Johne's disease diagnoses made in Britain (VIDA), a trend indicating that the disease is becoming more prevalent. Similarities in the pathology of Johne's disease and the human enteric condition Crohn's disease, have long been recognised. A link between these conditions has been suggested following the isolation of Map from some Crohn's sufferers. Such a link has yet to be either proved or disproved but following the demonstration of Map in pasteurized milk at retail outlets the Food Standards Agency has urged a precautionary approach, advising all parts of the agricultural industry to work to prevent Map from entering the food chain. There are sound financial reasons why heavily infected herds should work towards the control of Johne's disease and why remaining free of infection should be an important objective for those herds yet to experience the disease. Control of Johne's disease, however, on a herd level presents considerable practical difficulties arising from the complex pathogenesis of the disease and the difficulty in identifying infected animals in the preclinical phase. This paper outlines current knowledge about Johne's disease and discusses measures that can be taken to control the disease.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, asymptomatic infections, pathogenesis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, clinical aspects, disease prevention and control programs, economic losses, zoonoses, UK.

Hines , M.E. II; Stabel, J.R.; Sweeney, R.W.; Griffin, F.; Talaat, A.M;. Bakker, D.; Benedictus, G.; Davis, W.C.; de Lisle, G.W.; Gardner, I.A. Experimental challenge models for Johne's disease: A review and proposed international guidelines. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 June 21; 122(3-4): 197-222. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.03.009
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: An international committee of Johne's disease (JD) researchers was convened to develop guidelines for JD challenge studies in multiple animal species. The intent was to develop and propose international standard guidelines for models based on animal species that would gain acceptance worldwide. Parameters essential for the development of long-term and short-term infection models were outlined and harmonized to provide a best fit JD challenge model for cattle, goats, sheep, cervids, and mice. These models will be useful to study host-pathogen interactions, host immunity at the local and systemic level, and for evaluating vaccine candidates and therapeutics. The consensus guidelines herein list by animal species strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis used, challenge dose, dose frequency, age of challenge, route of challenge, preparation of inoculum, experimental animal selection, quality control, minimal experimental endpoints and other parameters.
Descriptors: animal diseases, wildlife diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, vaccination, vaccines, drug evaluation, experimental design, challenge studies guidelines, animal models, international policy and programs, literature reviews, livestock, Cervidae, mice strains, dosage, inoculation methods, animal age, quality control.

Hines, M.E II; Stiver, S.; Giri, D.; Whittington, L.; Watson, C.; Johnson, J.; Musgrove, J.; Pence, M.; Hurley, D.; Baldwin,.C. Efficacy of spheroplastic and cell-wall competent vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally-challenged baby goats. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Mar 10; 120(3-4): 261-283. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.10.030
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne's disease (JD). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of four MAP vaccine combinations, including cell-wall competent (CWC) alum adjuvant, CWC-QS21 adjuvant, cell-wall deficient (CWD) alum adjuvant and CWD-QS21 adjuvant vaccines. Eighty baby goats were vaccinated at 1 and 4 weeks of age with one of these vaccines or a sham control vaccine consisting of alum adjuvant. Kids were challenged orally with approximately 6.0 x 10# organisms in four divided doses of 1.5 x 10# organisms using a goat isolate of MAP. Vaccinated challenged and challenged control groups had 10 and 6 kids per group, respectively. Half of the kids within each group were necropsied at either 6 or 9 months post-challenge. Gross and microscopic lesions and relative number of acid-fast bacilli were evaluated and scored at necropsy. Results indicated all challenged kids had some lesions compatible with JD suggesting none of the vaccines prevented infection. Three vaccines (CWC-alum, CWC-QS21 and CWD-QS21) reduced lesion scores by 46-51% at 9 months. CWD-alum vaccine resulted in a more severe (+33.5%) lesion score than sham-vaccinated challenged control. Lesion scores were greater at 9 months than at 6 months post-challenge in the sham-vaccinated challenged group and CWD-alum vaccinated group, while lesion scores were generally stable with remaining vaccines. Mean fecal CFU/g were significantly different across time from challenge to 9-month necropsy (p = 0.043) and the CWC-QS21 vaccine group had a marked reduction in fecal CFU/g at all time points post-challenge. A reduction in MAP CFU/g was also detected in necropsy tissues from kids given the CWC-alum, CWC-QS21 and CWD-QS21 vaccines, and increased CFU/g were detected in tissues from kids given the CWD-alum vaccine. Immunological tests evaluated included, humoral response evaluation by AGID, ELISA and Western blot, and cell mediated response by comparative PPD skin testing (M. avium, Old Johnin, M. bovis and Lot 2 Johnin PPD's), and production of MAP induced d-interferon. Vaccination also resulted in false-positive PPD skin test reactions for M. avium PPD, Old Johnin PPD and d-interferon tests. When a 2-mm cutoff above normal skin thickness was used to define positive skin test reactions, false-positive reactions for M. bovis were detected in only 2 of 32 kids given a vaccine with QS21 adjuvant.
Descriptors: cell walls, vaccines, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, goat kids, animal models, paratuberculosis, goat diseases, drug evaluation, vaccine adjuvants, vaccination, disease signs and symptoms (animals and humans), seroprevalence, disease control, spheroplast, pathogen shedding.

Hinger, M.; Brandt, H.; Horner, S.; Erhardt, G. Short communication: Association analysis of microsatellites and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antibody response in German Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Apr; 90(4): 1957-1961. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis in ruminants is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis, resulting in persistent diarrhea and progressive wasting of cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The disease occurs worldwide with high frequency, leading to growing economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of microsatellites (BMC9006, BB704, BB705, BB717, BB719, BMS1617, BB702, and BOBT24) located near or within candidate genes involved in response mechanisms to paratuberculosis. Pedigree information existed for 4,686 German Holstein cows that had routinely been screened for MAP status using commercially available serum antibody ELISA test. The immunoglobulin G cutoff level was used to classify all animals as positive or negative for paratuberculosis. A total of 594 (12.7%) cows tested positive for paratuberculosis. The control group comprised 585 animals testing negative for MAP. Microsatellite BMC9006 had only 3 alleles (2 of which occurred at very low frequencies in the present data set) and was therefore not informative; the remaining microsatellites showed 3 to 12 alleles. Fisher's exact and spo[t?] tests revealed no significant differences in microsatellite allele frequencies between the 2 groups of German Holstein cows testing positive or negative for paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: German Holstein dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microsatellite repeats, animal genetics, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, immune response, immunoglobulin G, disease detection, alleles, gene frequency,molecular sequence data, Germany.

Hughes, V.; Smith, S.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Sales, J.; Stevenson, K. Proteomic comparison of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis grown in vitro and isolated from clinical cases of ovine paratuberculosis. Microbiology Reading. 2007; 153(1): 196-205. ISSN: 1350-0872.
URL: http://mic.sgmjournals.org
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) poses a significant economic problem to beef, dairy and sheep industries worldwide, and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. In this study, 2D PAGE was used as a tool to investigate the virulent state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, incorporating the technique of beating the organism with zirconium/silica beads to provide a comprehensive representation of its proteome. A direct comparison of the proteomes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis scraped from the terminal ileum of ovine paratuberculosis cases, and the identical strain grown in vitro, is presented. These analyses identified a set of 10 proteins whose expression is upregulated during natural infection: 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (RocA), a putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE14), 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (2-mcd), arginosuccinate synthase (ArgG), universal stress protein (usp), 30S ribosomal protein S2 (RpsB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PpiA), luciferase-like monooxygenase (lmo), thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (SseA) and ATP-dependent Clp protease (ClpB). Most of the proteins identified do not have obviously related functions; however, ArgG and RocA function in the same pathway, and may have a concerted action for energy production in vivo. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, paratuberculosis, 2D PAGE testing the virulent state of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial sampling of the terminal infected sheep ileum, beating pathogen cells with zirconium/silica beads, representation of proteome, upregulation of 10 proteins in infection, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (RocA), a putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE14), 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (2-mcd), arginosuccinate synthase (ArgG), universal stress protein (usp), 30S ribosomal protein S2 (RpsB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PpiA), luciferase-like monooxygenase (lmo), thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (SseA), ATP-dependent Clp protease (ClpB).

Ikonomopoulos, J.; Balaskas, C.; Kantzoura, B.; Fragiadaki, E.; Pavlik, I.; Bartos, M.; Lukas, J.C.; Gazouli, M. Comparative evaluation of positive tests to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinically healthy sheep and goats in South-West Greece using molecular techniques, serology, and culture. Veterinary Journal. 2007 Sept; 174(2): 337-343. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.09.004
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the cause of paratuberculosis, which affects mainly ruminants although there is a growing concern about its possible implication in Crohn's disease in humans especially in connection with environmental spread and risks to the food chain. Retail cheese may represent a significant source of human exposure to MAP and the aim of this study was to assess MAP status in clinically healthy sheep and goats in Greece, comparing techniques routinely used in the positive diagnosis of the disease. From a total of 30 flocks, 632 sheep and goats had faecal, serum, and whole-blood samples examined by culture, complement fixation test (CFT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted at IS900, IS1245, and IS6110. PCR produced positive results in 21% of the animals tested, with 5.6%, 3.9%, and 11.5% being identified as MAP, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. CFT produced positive and suspicious results in 4.4% and 14.4% of the cases. Faecal cultures were negative in all but a single case that was identified as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-type BC1. Agreement between results obtained by PCR and CFT was poor with isolated cases although an assessment of the MAP positive tests produced similar results for both methods. The findings indicate the need for additional measures of control, although the costs may be substantial if public health protection justifies elimination of MAP from livestock.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal, serum and whole blood sampling, complement fixation test (CFT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted at IS900, IS1245, and IS6110, recommend control measures, public health risk of contaminated livestock-based food products, cheese, Greece.

Janagama, H.K.; Bannantine, J.; Rodriguez, M.; Smith, I.; Sreevatsan, S. Identification and characterization of iron dependent regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 697. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, pathogen biochemistry, iron dependent regulator, transcription factor, gene regulation, DNAse foot printing assay.

Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Olsen, Ingrid; Jensen, Merete Rusas.; Dahle, Ulf R.; Holstad, Gudmund; Djonne, Berit. New probes used for ISI2450 and ISI311 restriction fragment length polymorphism of Mycobacterium avium subsp avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis isolates of human and animal origin in Norway. BMC Microbiology. 2007; 7(14). ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-7-14.pdf
Abstract: Background: Mycobacterium avium is an environmental mycobacterium that can be divided into the subspecies avium, hominissuis,paratuberculosis and silvaticum. Some M. avium subspecies are opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. They are ubiquitous in nature and can be isolated from natural sources of water, soil, plants and bedding material. Isolates of M. avium originating from humans (n=37), pigs (n=51) and wild birds (n=10) in Norway, were examined by IS1245 and IS1311 RFLP using new and specific probes and for the presence of IS901 and ISMpa1 by PCR. Analysis and generation of a dendrogram were performed with the software BioNumerics. Results: IS1311 RFLP provided clear results that were easy to interpret, while IS1245 RFLP generated more complex patterns with a higher discriminatory power. The combination of the 2 methods gave additional discrimination between isolates. All avian isolates except one were M. avium subsp. avium, with 2 copies of IS1311 and one copy of IS1245; while the isolates of human and porcine origin belonged to M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The isolates from human patients were distributed randomly among the clusters of porcine isolates. There were few identical isolates. However, one isolate from a human patient was identical to a porcine isolate. Regional differences were detected among the porcine isolates, while there was no clustering of human isolates according to type of clinical symptoms or geographical location of the patient's home addresses. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that a wide range of M. avium subsp. hominissuis are present in pigs and humans in Norway, and that some of these isolates are very similar. It remains to be determined whether humans are infected from pigs or if they are infected from common environmental sources. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: humans, pigs, wild birds,Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum, human and animals pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, environmental bacteria, IS1245 and IS1311 RFLP using new and specific probes for IS901 and ISMpa1 by PCR, dendrograms generated using BioNumerics, IS1311 RFLP most results, IS1245 RFLP generated more complex patterns and higher discriminatory power, zoonotic diseases, Norway.

Judge, Johanna; Davidson, Ross S.; Marion, Glenn; White, Piran Cl; Hutchings, Michael.R. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in rabbits: the interplay between horizontal and vertical transmission. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2007 Apr; 44(2): 302-311. ISSN: 0021-8901
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01282.x
NAL Call No.: 410 J828
Abstract: 1. Paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis; Map) is a widespread and difficult disease to control in livestock populations and also has possible links to Crohn's disease in humans. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been identified recently as the key wildlife species in terms of paratuberculosis transmission to the wider host community. Here, we test the hypothesis that Map can persist in rabbit populations for extended periods of time in the absence of any external source of infection. 2. A spatially explicit stochastic simulation model of a generic host-disease interaction was developed to quantify the interplay between vertical and horizontal routes of transmission needed for the persistence of Map in rabbit populations and to test the hypothesis. The model was parameterized based on empirical studies on rabbit population dynamics and on rabbit-to-rabbit routes of Map transmission. 3. Predictions from the model suggest that any disease with susceptible-infected (SI) dynamics without disease-induced mortality can persist within a rabbit population in the absence of vertical transmission, providing the horizontal transmission coefficient, (Sb(B, is greater than approximately 0.012. The inclusion of any vertical transmission reduces the value of (Sb(B that is necessary for infection to persist. 4. Paratuberculosis persists in rabbit populations at all values of the horizontal and vertical transmission parameters in the range estimated from the field data and in many cases at all values within 95% confidence intervals around this range. The persistence of Map infection in rabbit populations in the absence of external sources of infection suggests that they may act as a reservoir of infection for sympatric livestock. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our findings, in combination with the ubiquitous distribution of rabbits in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, suggests that if Map becomes established in rabbit populations they are likely to provide widespread and persistent environmental distributions of infection and thus disease risk to livestock and potentially humans. Where local rabbit populations are infected they should be included in any future paratuberculosis control strategies. Because eradication of rabbits is often not a realistic option, control strategies should include reducing interspecific transmission risk from rabbits to livestock via the faecal-oral route.
Descriptors:Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbits, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, disease transmission, epidemiology, simulation models, United Kingdom.

Kawaji, S.; Taylor, D.L.; Mori, Y.; Whittington, R.J. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ovine faeces by direct quantitative PCR has similar or greater sensitivity compared to radiometric culture. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Nov 15; 125(1-2): 36-48. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The aims of this study were to develop a new real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay based on IS900 for detection and quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) DNA in faeces, and to use this to detect infected sheep. Both the C and S strains of MAP were detected by the QPCR assay, and no cross reactions were detected with 51 other species of mycobacteria including 10 which contained IS900-like sequences. One copy of IS900 fragment cloned into plasmid pCR2.1 and 1 fg of MAP genomic DNA were consistently detected, while in spiked faecal samples the detection limit was 10 viable MAP per gram of ovine faeces. A total of 506 individual ovine faecal samples and 27 pooled ovine faecal samples with known culture results were tested. The QPCR assay detected 68 of 69 BACTEC culture positive individual faeces and there was a strong relation between time to detection in culture and DNA quantity measured by QPCR (r = -0.70). In pooled faecal samples, QPCR also agreed with culture ( = 0.59). MAP DNA was detected from some culture negative faecal samples from sheep exposed to MAP, suggesting that the QPCR has very high analytical sensitivity for MAP in faecal samples and detects non-viable MAP in ovine faeces. None of the faecal samples from 176 sheep that were not exposed to MAP were positive in QPCR. This is the first report of a direct fecal QPCR assay that has similar sensitivity to a gold standard radiometric culture assay.
Descriptors: sheep, 506 fecal samples, quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay based on IS900, detection and quantification for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, test sensitivity.

Khol, J.L.; Damoser J.; Dconser, M.; Baumgartner, W. Paratuberculosis, a notifiable disease in Austria--Current status, compulsory measures and first experiences. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Dec 14; 82(3-4): 302-307. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.06.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is one of the most important diseases in ruminants today. Its contribution is worldwide and the disease is causing severe financial losses among cattle producers in some countries [Hasanova, L., Pavlik, I., 2006. Economic impact of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds: a review. Vet. Med.Czech. 51, 193-211]. Paratuberculosis is untreatable; diagnosis limited to the early stages of the infection and control of the disease is difficult. The prevalence of serologically positive Austrian cattle farms rose significantly to 19.0% during the past years [Baumgartner, W., Damoser, J., Khol, J.L., 2005. Comparison of two studies concerning the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Austrian cattle in the years 1995-1997 and 2002/2003 (Article in German with extended English summary). Vet. Med. Austria/Wien. Tierarztl. Mschr. 92, 274-277]. Based on these findings clinical paratuberculosis in ruminants was declared a notifiable disease in Austria in April 2006. A survey of the current situation in Austria, the most important parts of the new compulsory measures and their practical implementation and impacts are presented in this short communication. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, laws and regulations for pathogen reporting, current status, experiences with this new program, Austria.

Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Cho, S.; Lee, H. Comparative evaluation of target genes used for mycobacterial species identification. Clinical Chemistry. 2007; 53(6, Suppl. S): A65. ISSN: 0009-9147. Note: 59th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, San Diego, CA, USA; July 15-19, 2007.
URL: http://www.clinchem.org/
NAL Call No.: 396.8 C61
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium gastri, genes, 16S ribosomal DNA, rpoB, hsp65, PCR sequence analysis.

Kobayashi, S.; Tsutsui, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Nishiguchi, A. Epidemiologic indicators associated with within-farm spread of Johne's disease in dairy farms in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2007; 69(12): 1255-1258. ISSN: 0916-7250, E-ISSN: 1347-7439
URL: http://www.soc.nii.ac.jp/jsvs
NAL Call No.: SF604.J342
Abstract: Epidemiologic indicators associated with within-farm infection of Johne's disease in dairy farms in Japan were determined through a nationwide investigation of infected farms. We assumed that subsequent detection of the disease within one year after the first detection could represent the occurrence of within-farm spread occurring before the first detection. Of 594 infected farms, 158 farms (27%) had at least one additional detection. Logistic regression analysis using epidemiologic information obtained from infected farms at the time of the first detection revealed three epidemiologic indicators associated with subsequent detection. Farms at which the first cases included cattle with clinical signs were 3.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.2, 6.8) times more likely to have additional detections than those with cattle without clinical signs. Similarly, farms where two or more cattle were detected at the time of first detection and where cattle were held in a loose housing system were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.5) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6) times more likely to have additional detections than those where only one animal was detected and a tied-up housing system was used, respectively. These epidemiologic indicators are likely important determinants in the selection of farms requiring more intensive on-farm control measures. Republished with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy farms, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis disease prevalence, epidemiology, Japan.

Kobayashi, S.; Tsutsui, T. Recent epidemiological features and control system of bovine Johne's disease in Japan. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association. 2007; 60(12): 853-857. Print ISSN: 0916-7250, E-ISSN: 0916-7250. Note: In Japanese.
URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jvms/-char/en/
NAL Call No.: SF604.J342
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, disease prevalence, epidemiology, disease control programs; disease-surveys, paratuberculosis, Japan.

Kruze, J.; Salgado, M.; Collins, M.T. Paratuberculosis en rebanos caprinos chilenos.[Paratuberculosis in Chilean dairy goat herds.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2007; 39(2): 147-152. ISSN 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0301-732X2007000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso
Abstract: Paratuberculosis in goats is widely distributed throughout the world. Recently the disease has been officially reported in Chile. The purpose of this study was to determine the infection status of some dairy goat herds under two types of management systems (intensive and extensive) in different regions of Chile. Faecal samples were collected from 383 female goats >2 years old belonging to 8 dairy goat herds located in the Metropolitan Region (2), 9th Region (5) and 10th Region (1). Differences in routine management were not considered when selecting the herds. Faecal samples were collected via rectum, decontaminated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC) and antibiotics, cultured on Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium with mycobactin J and incubated at 37 degrees C for up to nine months. The suspected colonies were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, IS900) technology using specific primers for this pathogen (P90+ and P91+). Thirty-five out of the 383 sampled goats were faecal culture positive (9.1%), and all of them belonging to only four herds. These infected herds were generally larger, intensively managed and they systematically violated most management recommendations for paratuberculosis control, including the routine introduction of animals of unknown paratuberculosis tests status from herds of unknown Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection status. The remaining four uninfected herds were extensively managed, did not import goats from other herds and were located in geographical areas where no mixed grazing with other susceptible ruminant species took place, this being a possible risk factor for paratuberculosis. This study reports the presence of caprine paratuberculosis in Chile, in particular in those dairy goat herds that have introduced high producing milk breeds of animals to improve the genetic capacity of milk production. Therefore, any attempt to evaluate the risk of introducing the infection in a paratuberculosis-free area as the result of purchasing animals is worthwhile. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, dairy goat herds, milk production, farm management, internsive management, extensive management, comparison study, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal testing, PCR, disease surveillance, epidemiology, regional differences, infection rates, risk factors, polymerase chain reaction, risk factors, Chile.

Kudahl , AB ; cstergaard, S; Scirensen, J.T.; Nielsen, S.S. A stochastic model simulating paratuberculosis in a dairy herd. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Feb 16; 78(2): 97-117. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.05.015
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (PTB) causes severe economic losses to farmers and the infection has very complex effects (many indirect) on the production of a dairy herd. These indirect effects have not or only briefly been described by earlier PTB-simulation models, and therefore they were included in a new model called PTB-Simherd. Our aim was to develop the basis for a decision-support tool which can predict herd-specific production-related effects from introduction of different control strategies against PTB. The PTB-Simherd is a dynamic, stochastic, and mechanistic Monte-Carlo model simulating a dairy herd including young stock. Paratuberculosis and relevant control strategies against this infection were built into an existing herd simulation model. The model simulates epidemiological and production related consequences of PTB and control strategies against it in the herd. It also reflects indirect effects of PTB and control strategies through effects on replacements and herd demographics. Every animal in the herd is specified with biological parameters (including PTB state and test results) and it is updated in weekly time-steps. Management is specified at herd level with 353 parameters of which 78 are related to PTB. To demonstrate the basic characteristics of the model, scenarios with varying infection risks (sensitivity analyses) plus scenarios with seven different control strategies in two herds with good and poor reproduction were simulated for 10 years. Breaking of infection routes turned out to be the only strategy predicted to reduce the true prevalence of PTB in a herd. Supplementing this strategy with test-&-cull strategies had limited effect on prevalence and using test-&-cull alone just delayed the increase in prevalence. The effects of different PTB-control strategies on the production (especially sale/purchase of heifers, feed consumption and prevalences of other diseases) were predicted to be affected by other conditions like heat-detection success, replacement% and herd demographics - which were again affected by PTB infection of the herd. These links and indirect effects of control strategies thus seem important to include when modeling and predicting effects of PTB control in dairy herds. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dairy herds, herd health, cattle production, disease transmission, animal reproduction, cow/calf operations, dairy farm management,cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, disease control, disease models, simulation models, stochastic processes, Monte Carlo method, prediction, estimation, risk assessment, decision support systems, PTB Simherd.

Kudahl, A.B.; Scirensen, J.T; Nielsen, S.S.; cstergaard, S. Simulated economic effects of improving the sensitivity of a diagnostic test in paratuberculosis control. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Feb 16; 78(2): 118-129. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.10.004
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Low sensitivity (Se) of diagnostic tools is often mentioned as a major problem in the control of paratuberculosis (PTB) and much effort is put into the improvement of these tests. The hypothetical perspectives of improving the Se of a milk-antibody ELISA (hereafter: milk-ELISA) used in test-&-cull strategies against PTB in dairy cattle were investigated by simulations. The current Se varies between 10 and 80%, increasing with increasing lactation stage, parity and infection stage. We simulated the effects on a dairy herd's production of improving this Se to 80% (independent of these factors) and assumed no concomitant decrease in specificity. By using a PTB model called PTB-Simherd, 12 scenarios were simulated to study three test-&-cull strategies in each of four herds with 200 dairy cows. To show the maximal effect of using test-&-cull with such an improved test we simulated three strategies: (1) no testing, (2) testing with milk-ELISA test with the current Se and culling of positive cows immediately and (3) testing with milk-ELISA test with a Se improved to 80% and culling positive cows immediately. The four herds were defined by a moderate (25%) or high (80%) initial true within-herd prevalence (including young stock), and a poor or good heat-detection success of 40 or 60%. We assumed that these factors influenced the effects of improving the Se of the milk-ELISA. Management both concerning calf management and in general was specified to represent a typical Danish herd. Using an improved milk-ELISA was predicted to reduce the prevalence of PTB more effectively than the current ELISA, and over 10 years bring the production of a herd with moderate initial prevalence up to a production level comparable to a non-infected herd (unlike if the current ELISA had been used). In a herd with high initial prevalence (80%) milk production was increased more by using the improved milk-ELISA, but after 10 years the replacement rate was still very high causing problems with having enough recruitment animals - especially in high-prevalence herds with poor reproductive performance. Economically important measurements in all four herds benefited from the improvement of the test over a 10-year period. However, in the first 3-5 years the improved test would be more expensive to use than the current test, due to increased replacement (reduced net annual revenue per cow Euro 15 on average) but after that, net annual revenue increased continuously; after 10 years it was Euro 70-90 higher, than if the current milk-ELISA was used. Also, the milk-ELISA test with its current Se seemed to be profitable already after 2 years in high-prevalence herds using a test-&-cull strategy based on the milk-ELISA alone. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, disease control, disease models, mathematical models, decision support systems, economic costs, cattle production, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, accuracy, disease prevalence, antibody detection, animal reproduction, lactation stage, animal performance, culling infected animals, serodiagnosis, economic impact, dairy farm management, PTB Simherd, Denmark.

Kumar, O.R.V.; Swain, N.; Rajendiran, A.S.; Rajapandi, S.; Parthasarathy, S. Paratuberculosis in Bharat Merino and Avikalin sheep in an organized sheep farm of Kodai hills. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 2007; 13(1): 98-99.
Abstract: The prevalence of paratuberculosis in 15 Bharat Merino and 15 Avikalin sheep in the Kodai hills of Tamil Nadu, India, was determined by analysis of faecal samples by staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [date not given]. It was shown that 4 Bharat Merino and 8 Avikalin sheep were positive for staining and PCR. In conclusion, two or more diagnostic tests are required to identify an animal positive for paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep breeds, Bharat Merino breed, Avikalin breed, fecal sampling, staining and PCR testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, Tamil-Nadu, India.

Kumar, P.; Singh, S.V.; Bhatiya, A.K.; Sevilla, I.; Singh, A.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Juste, R.A.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S. Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis (JCP) in India: Incidence and characterization by six diagnostic tests. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Nov; 73(1-3): 45-53. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.023
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Johne's considered a disease of adult goats was studied in young kids using six tests (direct microscopy, fecal culture, tissue culture, ELISA, histo-pathology, and PCR) to establish incidence of Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis. Cumulatively, 62.0% kids were positive from organized herds in direct microscopy (38.0%) and fecal culture (56.0%). Incidence by tissues culture was 60.0% (43.6% intestine and 40.0% MLN). In tissues culture, 27.2 and 67.3% kids were positive from organized and farmer's herds (slaughterhouse, Agra), respectively. In direct microscopy, 20.0 and 23.3% kids were positive from intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Age-wise, 6.6, 86.3 and 40.6% kids were positive in tissues culture, from 15 days to <2, 2-4 and 4-6 months age groups, respectively. Cultures were obtained both from weak and apparently healthy kids. Colonies usually appeared around 75 and 60-90 days post-inoculation in fecal and tissues cultures, respectively. Pauci-bacillary condition was more frequent both in fecal and tissues culture. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 61.5, 24.1 and 50.0% from highly, moderately and slightly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Two antigens (native protoplasmic antigen from indigenous Map genotype 'Bison type' of goat origin and commercial purified antigen from Map 'Bovine' were used in ELISA. Sero-incidence in kids was 47.9 and 1.4% with native and commercial antigens, respectively. Native antigen detected 35.4 and 58.6% and commercial, nil and 3.5% sero-positive kids from farmer's and organized herds, respectively. In kids, incidence of Map was 47.9, 60.0 and 56.0% by ELISA, tissues and fecal culture, respectively. Large numbers of mononuclear cells along with few epitheloid cells were present in cortical and medullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes. Villi of ileum showed mild degeneration in lining epithelial cells, which turned into goblet cells appearing as globular structure, filled with unstained homogenous mass. Peyer's patches located in the mucosal area were hyper-cellular with occasional presence of epitheloid cells. Clumps of Map bacilli were seen in epitheloid cells of lamina propria of intestine. Of the 17 DNA samples from decontaminated pellets and Map colonies, 64.7% were amplified in IS 900 PCR. The 229 bp band of amplified DNA was characteristic for Map. Samples detected in PCR were also positive in culture and histo-pathologically. Map strains isolated from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis were genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. It is the first report on incidence and characterization (genotyping) of Map from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis in India.
Descriptors: young goat kids, fecal culture, ELISA, histopathology, tissue sampling, in vitro culture, mononuclear blood cells, villi of ileum, infected epithiloid cells of lamina propria, incidence levels of Juvenile Capri Paratuberculosis.

Kurade, N.P.; Rajukumar, K.; Tripathi, B.N. Distribution of histologically detectable iron complexes in small intestine and mesenteric lymph node lesions of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2007; 31(1): 36-39. Print ISSN: 0250-4758, E-ISSN: 0873-970X
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&volume=31&issue=1&article=008
Abstract: Iron is essential for the intracellular survival and multiplication of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in macrophages. The presence of histologically detectable iron complexes in the small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes of experimentally infected sheep (n=22) and naturally infected goats (n=21) was correlated with the type of lesions and mycobacterial load. Sheep and goats with grade 3 or 4 lesions and abundant acid-fast bacilli had more siderotic macrophages compared to those with grade 1 or 2 lesions and lower mycobacterial load. Iron was not observed in most of the uninfected intestinal and lymph node sections. The existence of a close relationship between the presence of iron complexes in MAP-infected tissues and severity of lesions as well as mycobacterial load indicated the importance of iron levels in the tissue microenvironment for MAP multiplication. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, sheep, bacterial count, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, lesions, experimental infections, histopathology, iron, small intesting, mesentery, lymph nodes, macrophages, mesentery, paratuberculosis.

Lei, L.; Hostetter, J.M. Limited phenotypic and functional maturation of bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Dec 15; 120(3-4): 177-186. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.06.031
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: After encountering antigen, dendritic cells (DC) must differentiate into a fully mature phenotype to induce a protective, lasting T cell immunity. Paratuberculosis is a disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) and is characterized by a transient cell mediated immune response, that when dissipates correlates to the onset of clinical disease. In order to study the mechanism of early cellular immunity associated with M. paratuberculosis infection, we tested the hypothesis that M. paratuberculosis infected bovine DC have impaired activation and maturation thus are defective in the initiation of a sustainable and protective Th1 immune response locally. Our results demonstrate that M. paratuberculosis infected DC showed decreased endocytosis of ovalbumin, indicating some functional maturation. Co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 mRNA expression from M. paratuberculosis infected DC was increased over untreated immature DC. M. paratuberculosis infection induced chemokine receptor CCR7 increase in DC, yet CCR5 remained high. MHC II surface expression remained low on M. paratuberculosis infected DC. M. paratuberculosis infection inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 production and promoted IL-10 secretion by bovine DC. Together, our findings showed evidence of phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. However, we did not see the expected antigen presentation via MHC II and cytokine responses as a fully mature DC. This may suggest semi-mature DC phenotype induced by M. paratuberculosis infection.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, post infection effects invitro, maturation, decreased endocytosis of ovalbumin.

Leroy, B.; Roupie, V.; Noel-Georis, I.; Rosseels, V.; Walravens, K.; Govaerts, M.; Huygen, K.; Wattiez, R. Antigen discovery: a postgenomic approach to paratuberculosis diagnosis. Proteomics. 2007; 7(7): 1164-1176. ISSN: 1615-9853
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114188158/ABSTRACT
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic enteritis caused in domestic and wild ruminant species by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that is responsible for major economic losses to the agricultural industry. To date, no satisfactory therapeutic, vaccine, or diagnostic tools are available, globally impairing all control programmes. In this study, we have undertaken a large-scale postgenomic analysis of MAP proteins, to identify specific antigens that could potentially improve the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Two complementary approaches were implemented, the first one consisting in the systematic proteomic identification of proteins present in MAP culture filtrates (CFs), followed by the selection of MAP-specific proteins by BLAST query on available mycobacterial genomes. The resulting database represents the first established secretome of MAP and a useful source of potentially specific antigens. The second approach consisted in the immunoproteomic analysis of both MAP extracts and CFs, using sera from MAP-infected and uninfected cattle. Combining results obtained with both approaches resulted in the identification of 25 candidate diagnostic antigens. Five of these were tested in an ELISA assay for their diagnostic potential, on a limited panel of field sera, and the combination of three of them competed in performance with available commercial assays, reaching a test sensitivity of 94.74% and specificity of 97.92%.
Descriptors: cattle, ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, postgenomic analysis, antigens, assays, diagnosis issues, ELISA, disease levels, secretome database.

Li, Lingling; Munir, Shirin; Bannantine, John P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek. Rapid expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis recombinant proteins for antigen discovery. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(1): 102-105. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: diseased cattle, sera testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection method, MAP1272c protein selectively reacts.

Li, L.; Bannantine, J.P.; Zhang, Q.; Amonsin, A.; May, B.J.; Alt, D.; Banerji, N.; Kanjilal, S.; Kapur, V. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005 Aug 30; 102(35): 12344-12349. ISSN: 0027-8424
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/2718
NAL Call No.: 500 N21P
Abstract: We describe here the complete genome sequence of a common clone of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain K-10, the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. The K-10 genome is a single circular chromosome of 4,829,781 base pairs and encodes 4,350 predicted ORFs, 45 tRNAs, and one rRNA operon. In silico analysis identified >3,000 genes with homologs to the human pathogen, M. tuberculosis (Mtb), and 161 unique genomic regions that encode 39 previously unknown Map genes. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates with Mtb homologs suggest overall strong selection for a vast majority of these shared mycobacterial genes, with only 68 ORFs with a synonymous to nonsynonymous substitution ratio of >2. Comparative sequence analysis reveals several noteworthy features of the K-10 genome including: a relative paucity of the PE/PPE family of sequences that are implicated as virulence factors and known to be immunostimulatory during Mtb infection; truncation in the EntE domain of a salicyl-AMP ligase (MbtA), the first gene in the mycobactin biosynthesis gene cluster, providing a possible explanation for mycobactin dependence of Map; and Map-specific sequences that are likely to serve as potential targets for sensitive and specific molecular and immunologic diagnostic tests. Taken together, the availability of the complete genome sequence offers a foundation for the study of the genetic basis for virulence and physiology in Map and enables the development of new generations of diagnostic tests for bovine Johne's disease.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, genome, nucleotide sequences, genes, open reading frames, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, operon, molecular sequence data.

Lilenbaum, W.; Marassi, C.D.; Oelemann, W.M.R. Paratuberculosis: An update. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 38(4): 580-590. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, need for checking disease status, need for epidemiological research, national program, economic assessment, Brazil.

Lilenbaum, Walter; Ferreira, Rachel; Marassi, Carla Dray; Ristow, Paula; Roland Oelemann, Walter Martins; Fonseca, Leila de Souza. Interference of tuberculosis on the performance of ELISAS used in the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 38(3): 472-477. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: cows, infected and non-infected animals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effects of duel infections on tests, skin test, interferon test, two commercial ELISA for PTB, interference TB on testing for paratuberculosis.

Losinger, W.C. Economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA. Journal of Dairy Research. 2006 Feb; 73(1): 33-43. ISSN: 0022-0299
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract: An examination of the economic effects of epidemiologic risk factors for Johne's disease identified regional and herd size differences as having the greatest impact. Having dairy cows that were not born on the operation was the most important factor over which individual producers had the most immediate control. Economic consequences associated with using multiple-cow-maternity housing and multiple-preweaned-calf housing were not statistically significant. Economic welfare analysis was applied, and the GUM Workbench was used to analyse uncertainties in the estimates of the economic impacts.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp lparatuberculosis, cattle diseases, milk yield economic analysis, risk factors, epidemiology, geographical variation, risk assessment, United States.

Lundrigan, M.D.; Zhang, S. Kinases in pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 685-686. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Streptococcus-pneumoniae , Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, lysosomes, phagosomes, serine/threonine protein kinase, immune response, signal transduction.

Lynch, D.; Jordan, K.N.; Kelly, P.M.; Freyne, T.; Murphy, P.M. Heat sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk under pilot plant pasteurization conditions. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2007; 60(2): 98-104. ISSN: 1364-727X
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/idt
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, raw milk, spiked with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pasteurization studies, pilot study, levels of bacterial survival, bacterial inactivation, high temperature short time conditons, 72.5 degrees C for 27 s.

Mackintosh, C.G.; Labes, R.E.; Clark, R.G.; Lisle, G.W. de; Griffin, J.F.T. Experimental infections in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) with a bovine and an ovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2007; 55(1): 23-29. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: red deer, Cervus elaphus, experimental infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, virulence comparison of ovine and bovine strains, paratuberculosis clinical aspects, antibodies, body weight, histopathology, immune response, immunoglobulins, gamma globulins, immune globulins, immunity reactions, immunological reactions.

Malamo, M.; Okazaki, K.; Sakoda, Y.; Kida, H. Carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis shares homologous B-cell epitopes with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Veterinary Record. 2007 Dec 22-29; 161(25): 853-857. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were produced in mice. Two of the mAbs cross-reacted with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in both an ELISA and immunoblot. The recombinant protein also reacted with polyclonal sera produced in rabbits against all three mycobacteria, indicating the presence of cross-reactive epitopes in the protein. To determine the reactivity of cattle sera against epitopes recognised by the mAbs, competition assays between bovine sera and the mAbs were carried out. Two mAbs were significantly inhibited by sera from cattle that were naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis. The results indicate that epitopes on the carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein common to M. paratuberculosis, M. avium and M. intracellulare readily induce antibody production in naturally infected cattle. These epitopes reduce the diagnostic specificity of the carboxyl terminus of the 34 kDa protein, which was originally thought to contain only M. paratuberculosis-specific epitopes. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, epitopes, serodiagnosis.

Manning, E.J.; Cushing, H.F.; Hietala, S.; Wolf, C.B. Impact of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection on serologic surveillance for Johne's disease in goats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 Mar; 19(2): 187-190. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: goats, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, serodiagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, false positive results, cross reaction, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, immunodiffusion tests, hemolysins, antibodies, immune response, vaccination, feces, Midwestern States, USA.

Marassi, Carla Dray; Gonzaga, Janete da Silva; Ristow, Paula; Ferreira, Rachel; Fonseca, Leila Souza; Oelemann, Walter; Lilenbaum, Walter. Comparison of an in-house and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 38(1): 6-8. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, in-house PPA-ELISA, commercial ELISA, comparison study, 108 serum samples, in-house assay higher sensitivity, valuable diagnostic tool.

Marsh, I.B.; Whittington, R.J. Genomic diversity in Mycobacterium avium: Single nucleotide polymorphisms between the S and C strains of M. avium subsp paratuberculosis and with M. a. avium. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2007; 21(1): 66-75. ISSN: 0890-8508
Descriptors: sheep isolates; cattle isolates;Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; Mycobacterium avium subsp avium; large genomic polymorphisms; comparison study of isolates; single nucleotide polymorphisms; 26 loci across 25 genes; 11 SNPs in eight genes: hsp65, sodA, dnaA, dnaN, recF, gyrB, inhA, and pks8.

Martin, P.A.J. Current value of historical and ongoing surveillance for disease freedom: surveillance for bovine Johne's disease in Western Australia. In: D. J. Mellor and J/.R. Newton [Editors]. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Dipoli, Helsinki/Espoo, Finland, 28-30 March 2007. 2007; 38-48. ISBN: 9780948073793.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, herd control programs, mathematical models, Australia.

McGarvey, J.A.; Lathrop, J.R.; Boonjakuakull, J.; Stanker, L.; Bannantine, J.P.; Paustian, M.L.; Posey, J.E. Construction of a Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis luxR homolog (MAP0482) deletion mutant and identification of the MAP0482 regulon. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 684. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, MAC-T cell line, bovine mammary epithelial cells, Johne’s disease.

Mellor, D.J.; Peeler, E.J. Selected papers from the annual meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Devon, UK, 29-31 March 2006. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007; 79(1): v + 1-69. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: This special issue contains five selected papers from the 2006 annual meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. The papers deal with mathematical and statistical tools used for epidemiological investigations of animal diseases. The topics are: space-time interaction as an indicator of local spread during the 2001 FMD outbreak in the UK; remote sensing based identification of environmental risk factors associated with West Nile disease in horses in Camargue, France; assessing the effect of interventions on the risk of cattle and sheep carrying Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the abattoir using a stochastic model; Salmonella Dublin infection in young dairy calves: transmission parameters estimated from field data and an SIR-model, and Bayesian analysis to validate a commercial ELISA to detect paratuberculosis in dairy herds of southern Chile. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cattle, calves, dairy herds, sheep, horses,animal diseases, foot and mouth disease, FMD, disease transmission, West Nile fever, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Salmonella Dublin, Escherichia coli, epidemiology, risk analysis, statistical analysis, mathmetical/stochastic models, risk factors, disease monitoring at slaughter houses, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, UK, Chile, France.

Menagi, S.U. Tehnici de depistare folosite in programul de supravegere, prevenire si combatere a paratuberculozei la rumegatoare in Romania in perioada 2005-2007. [Techniques of disease detection used in the program of surveillance, prevention and control of paratuberculosis in ruminants in Romania during 2005 and 2007.] Lucrari Stiintifice Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti Seria C, Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 52: 368-373. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Abstract: In 2005, a serological survey on the prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep from six districts in Bucharest and Ilfov district, Romania, was performed using complement fixation test. All samples yielded negative results. In 2006, due to the low sensitivity of complement fixation test, ELISA, with higher specificity and sensitivity, was utilized. Results showed a clearer epidemiological situation for paratuberculosis in the studied area. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, serological survey, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, complement fixation tests, ELISA, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, Romania.

Menagi, S.U. Supravegherea epidemiologica a paratuberculozei la bovine si ovine pe raza judetului Ilfov si a municipiului Bucuresti prin teste de depistare in perioada 2005-2007.[Epidemiological surveillance of paratuberculosis in the case of cattle and sheep in the area of the Ilfov district and the Bucharest city through detection tests during the period between 2005 and 2007.] Lucrari Stiintifice Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti Seria C, Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 52: 374-381. Note: In Romanian with and English summary.
Abstract: For the past three years, epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep was carried out in the districts of Bucharest and Ilfov in Romania. In 2005, complement fixation was utilized. In 2006 and 2007, complement fixation was replaced with ELISA, which is easier to perform and has higher specificity. Blood samples were collected for 12 months from cattle and sheep. CFT yielded negative results for all samples, while ELISA yielded two false positive results in the samples obtained from Nuci cattle and sheep from Ilfov district. With the use of CF and ELISA, the epidemiological situation of paratuberculosis in the studied area was determined.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, Romania.

Mercier, P.; Baudry, C.; Martin, J.; Bertin, C.; Laroucau, K.; Beaudeau, F.; Seegers, H.; Malher, X. Utilisation des techniques bayesiennes pour estimer les caracteristiques de deux tests de diagnostic de la paratuberculose caprine. [Use of Bayesian techniques for estimating the characteristics of two diagnostic tests for goat paratuberculosis. ] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2007; (51): 57-64. Note: In French with an English summary.
Abstract: Two latent class models [maximum likelihood (ML) methods and Bayesian inference (BI)] were used to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and the specificity (Sp) of a serum ELISA test and faecal culture in the detection of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in French dairy goats. Samples of blood and faeces were collected from 532 goats in 15 herds. Estimates according to ML and BI methods were compared. The BI (WinBUGS) model with informative priors was found to be the more accurate of the 2 tests. The Se and Sp of the ELISA were estimated as 34 and 99%, respectively. For faecal culture, the Se and Sp were 53 and 100%, respectively. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, herd testing, Johne’s diaease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal testing, fecal cultures, serum ELISA test, sensitivity and specificity of tests, Bayesian-theory maximum likelihood, France.

Momotani, E.; Aodonqeril; Momotani, Y. Molecular strategies for studying hosts of Johne's disease mycobacterium. Journal of Veterinary Medicine , Japan. 2007; 60(10): 807-813. In Japanese.
URL: http://www.buneido-syuppan.com
Descriptors: molecular biology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, host animals, Johne’s disease.

More, S.J. Shaping our future: animal health in a global trading environment. Irish Veterinary Journal. 2007; 60(9): 540-545. ISSN: 0368-0762
URL: http://www.veterinary-ireland.org
Abstract: This paper addresses the current challenges faced by the livestock production sector in Ireland. Focus is given on the increasing global competition for quality agricultural products. The 2 broad categories of animal disease/health and the measures Ireland has taken to achieve international best practice in key areas of animal health are discussed. The implications for international trade of best practice in animal health are presented. The relevance of certain approaches of other countries currently leading international efforts in animal health to Irish agriculture and farmers are outlined: focus on continuous improvement; proactive planning; industry-government partnerships; industry funding; industry structures; national/regional coordination; coordination of technical efforts; excellence in technical support; planned, focused and coordinated research; and information for improved decision making. Reproduced by permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: livestock production, poultry, chickens, domesticated birds, animal diseases, animal health, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Brucella, brucellosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, prions, BSE, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, biosecurity brucellosis, control programs disease control, disease prevention, international trade, animal-based products, market competition, paratuberculosis, prices, quality, tuberculosis, world markets, Eire, Irish Republic.

Morris , C.A. A review of genetic resistance to disease in Bos taurus cattle. Veterinary Journal. 2007 Nov; 174(3): 481-491. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.09.006
Abstract: Cattle show considerable variability in their responses to a wide range of disease challenges, and much of the variability is genetic. This review highlights genetic variation in disease susceptibility in Bos taurus cattle, with variation found at the breed level and also within breeds. Disease challenges come from bacteria and viruses, parasites and feed-borne toxins. For an animal to survive, it needs its own mechanisms for resisting these challenges, or for being resilient to them, or it must be protected artificially from them. Disease challenges have been classified as 'diseases from without', but there is also another class of genetic diseases resulting from inborn errors of metabolism, which might be called 'diseases from within'. Degrees of inheritance (heritabilities) are reviewed for a range of economically important traits including resistance to mastitis, ketosis, lameness, nematode parasites, external parasites, eye disease, respiratory disorders, tuberculosis, brucellosis, Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, metabolic disorders caused by toxins found on the feed, and threshold levels of minerals and metabolites. Many, but not all, of the above require an immune response as part of the fight against an external challenge, and measurements have been made of general immune response as a way of describing or predicting how an animal will respond. There are now some examples of industry or breed societies applying selection for resistance to one or more diseases as part of a complete breeding objective in dairy cattle, beef cattle or dual purpose livestock. In most cases, industry and breed societies are in the early stages of applying effective selection pressure for resistance to specific cattle diseases, with the notable exceptions of Scandinavian cattle schemes, which lead the world in this respect. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Bos Taurus , cattle, dairy cattle, beef cattle, genetic variability, disease susceptibility, breed level differences, disease challenges, economically important traits, heritabilities, disease resistance to many conditions and diseases, selection disease resistance, many diseases mentioned including Johne’s

Moser, I.; Hotzel, H.; Kroschewski, K.; Schettler, E.; Frolich, K.; Prodinger, W.M.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P. Mycobacterial infections in wild cervids and zoo animals in Germany: a survey and a special case of epizootic. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin. 2007; (7): 178-179.
URL: http://www.izw-berlin.de
Abstract: A report on the epidemiology, immunological diagnosis, transmission, prevention and control of Mycobacterial infections in wild cervids and zoo animals in Germany is discussed. The animals which were evaluated comprise of 1100 wild and captive cevids (roe deer, red deer, and fallow deer) from different regions and the study covered a period of three years from 2002 to 2005. Of the examined animals 83% were infected with Mycobacterium avium while other species include M. tuberculosis and M. pinnipedii. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: wild animals, zoo animals, European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, red deer, Cervus elaphus; fallow deer, Cervus dama, mycobacterial infections survey, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, serological diagnosis, disease prevention, Germany.

Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro-Junior, J.W.; Gomes, M.J.P.; Peixoto, R.M.; Maia, F.C.L.; Brito, M.F.; Chies, J.A.B.; Snel, G.G.M.; Bercht, B.S.; Juffo, G.D. Paratuberculose em um rebanho bovino leiteiro no Estado de Pernambuco, PE. [Paratuberculosis in milking cows in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.]Arquivos do Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo. 2007; 74(2): 73-79. Note: In Portuguese with an English summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, serological and histopathological aspects of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in dairy cows from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from a dairy herd kept in the Zona da Mata region of the state of Pernambuco. Postmortem and histopathological examinations of the lesions were carried out on one animal. Faecal samples and mucosal scrapings from the terminal ileum were collected and tests were carried out for the isolation of the bacteria. 170 blood serum samples were also collected and tested by indirect ELISA for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) antibodies. Clinical examination showed profuse, dark, aqueous and chronic diarrhoea which did not improve during antibiotic treatment. Four (50%) of the eight faecal samples and one mucosal scraping from one animal were Johne's disease positive. The results of the indirect ELISA test indicated 55 (32.3%) positive results. There was also an increase in inflammatory granuloma comprised mainly of macrophages and many giant cells of Langhans. It is concluded that bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) occurs both clinically and subclinically in one herd in the state of Pernambuco, and thus, it is essential to take suitable sanitary precautions to prevent the spread of this disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease transmission, clinical aspects, granulomas, lesions, histopathology, postmortem examinations, ELISA tests, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Munjal, S.K.; Tripathi, B.N.; Paliwal, O.P.; Boehmer, J.; Homuth, M. Application of different methods for the diagnosis of experimental paratuberculosis in goats. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2007; 54(3/4): 140-146. ISSN: 1863-1959
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jvb
Descriptors: goats, 23 goat kids, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, oral inoculation, progressive experimental infection, subclinical disease levels, johnin PPD detection, diagnostic methods, fecal smears, bacterial cultures, PCR, indirect ELISA, agar gel immunodifussion.

Mutharia, L.; Banasure, K. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis kdpABC, senX3/regX3 and phoPR two-component system operon promoters are activated by potassium starvation, phosphate limitation and hyperosmotic conditions. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007;107: 684. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note. 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, beta gal gene, histidine-protein kinase, response regulator protein.

Narayan, Azeet; Sachdeva, Preeti; Sharma, Kirti; Saini, Adesh K.; Tyagi, Anil K.; Singh, Yogendra. Serine threonine protein kinases of mycobacterial genus: phylogeny to function. Physiological Genomics. 2007; 29(1): 66-75. ISSN: 1094-8341.
URL: http://physiolgenomics.physiology.org/
Descriptors: Mycobacterium genera, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, host-pathogen relations, 6 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs), comparative genome analysis, cyclophilin regulation, pknB, pknG, pknJ, genome divergence.

Navarre , C.B. Common diseases of goats. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 264-268
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: goats, various diseases, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Haemonchus contortus, Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycoplasma, Secernentea, Strongylida, lymphadenopathy, brain diseases, liver diseases, intestinal diseases and obstruction, toxemia, various conditions, urolithiasis, toxemia, uremia, anorexia treatments, biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques; drug-therapy, EDTA, glucocorticoids, histopathology, mycoplasmosis, phagocytosis, quarantine; rumen fluid, surgery, abdominocentesis, azotemia, chemotherapy, clinical picture, edetic acid, encephalomyelitis.

Nedrow, A.J.; Gavalchin, J.; Smith, M.C.; Stehman, S.M.; Maul, J.K.; McDonough, S.P.; Thonney, M.L. Antibody and skin-test responses of sheep vaccinated against Johne's Disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Mar 15; 116(1-2): 109-112. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.12.007
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Current vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, Johne's Disease) may cause animals to react positively when tested for Mycobacterium bovis (Bovis). Therefore, the effects of vaccination on MAP serum Ab and skin-test responses to MAP and Bovis PPD were compared in 25 ewes vaccinated against MAP with 24 control ewes in an infected flock 3 years post-vaccination. MAP-specific Ab levels were higher (P < 0.001) in vaccinated ewes than in control ewes. All increases in skinfold-thickness from 0 to 48 h were greater (P < 0.0001) than zero while increases in skinfold-thickness from 48 to 72 h were greater (P < 0.05) than zero for Johnin but not for Bovis PPD. The Vaccine x PPD x Time interaction for skinfold-thickness was significant (P < 0.001) with greater increases to Johnin than to Bovis, but with much greater increases in vaccinated ewes. These data suggest that administration of vaccines against MAP developed from whole organisms increase the likelihood that animals will be classified as responders to a Bovis screening test and negative by the follow-up comparative cervical tuberculin test, but they also show that vaccination initiates both humoral and cell-mediated MAP-specific responses.
Descriptors: ewes, sheep diseases, mycobacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, disease detection, disease diagnosis, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, serodiagnosis, skin tests, antibody formation, validity, screening, skinfold thickness, measurement, immune response, cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity.

Nielsen, S.S. Danish control programme for bovine paratuberculosis. Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(2): 161-168. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is widespread in Denmark and as a result, a voluntary control programme was established in 2006, aiming at providing tools for farmers to control infections, and to ultimately reduce the prevalence. Approximately 1140 (23%) of dairy farmers were enrolled in the programme by June 2007. Participating herds test all lactating cows four times/year by using a milk antibody ELISA. The test-results are primarily used for risk-based management of infectious animals. This risk-based approach is aimed to reduce the workload of herd managers, thereby making implementation of changes more feasible than if all cows had to be managed with increased awareness. The test results are also used for communication to farmers, as a central part of the programme. Communication between farmers and advisors also takes place via risk assessments, which helps the farmers identify risk areas of transmission. Farmers are informed that the control programme is expected to last 6 to 8 years. Therefore, there is a continued need from farmers, their advisors and the central administration to identify tools and methods to ensure ongoing enthusiasm. A surveillance component may be added to the programme at a later stage, but currently no officially recognised recommendations are available related to trade of live animals. The surveillance component may be a next step to keep farmers in the programme and encourage more farmers to join. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, antibodies antibody detection; antibody tests, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control programs, disease prevention, disease transmission, ELISA, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, risk assessment, Denmark.

Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. Assessment of management-related risk factors for paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds using Bayesian mixture models. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Oct 16; 81(4): 306-317. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.001
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, herds, herd management, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease risk in management systems, Bayesian computer model, Denmark.

Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N.; Jorgensen, E.; Bibby, B.M. Bayesian mixture models for within-herd prevalence estimates of bovine paratuberculosis based on a continuous ELISA response. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007; 81(4): 290-305. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.014
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Diagnostic inference by use of assays such as ELISA is usually done by dichotomizing the optical density (OD)-values based on a predetermined cut-off. For paratuberculosis, a slowly developing infection in cattle and other ruminants, it is known that laboratory factors as well as animal specific covariates influence the OD-value, but while laboratory factors are adjusted for, the animal specific covariates are seldom utilized when establishing cut-offs. Furthermore, when dichotomizing an OD-value, information is lost. Considering the poor diagnostic performance of ELISAs for diagnosis of paratuberculosis, a framework for utilizing the continuous OD-values as well as known coavariates could be useful in addition to the traditional approaches, e.g. for estimating within-herd prevalences. The objective of this study was to develop a Bayesian mixture model with two components describing the continuous OD response of infected and non-infected cows, while adjusting for known covariates. Based on this model, four different within-herd prevalence indicators were considered: the mean prevalence in the herd; the age adjusted prevalence of the herd for better between-herd comparisons; the rank of the age adjusted prevalence to better compare across time; and a threshold-based prevalence to describe differences between herds. For comparison, the within-herd prevalence and associated rank using a traditional dichotomization approach based on a single cut-off for an OD corrected for laboratory variation was estimated in a Bayesian model with priors for sensitivity and specificity. The models were applied to the OD-values of a milk ELISA using samples from all lactating cows in 100 Danish dairy herds in three sampling rounds 13 months apart. The results of the comparison showed that including covariates in the mixture model reduced the uncertainty of the prevalence estimates compared to the cut-off based estimates. This allowed a more informative ranking of the herds where low ranking and high ranking herds were easier to identify. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: cattle herds, cattle and other ruminant infections, continuous OD value, Bayesian mixture model, infected and non-infected cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 4 different within herd prevalence indicators, milk ELISA.

Norby, B.; Fosgate, G.T.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T.; Roussel, A.J. Environmental mycobacteria in soil and water on beef ranches: Association between presence of cultivable mycobacteria and soil and water physicochemical characteristics. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Sept 20; 124(1-2): 153-159. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Exposure to environmental mycobacteria has been reported to be a factor contributing to false-positive results on bovine serological tests detecting antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb). This study was conducted to investigate the association between recovery of mycobacteria from the environment of cattle and both (i) historically high or low seroprevalence to Mptb, and (ii) soil and water physicochemical characteristics. Eighty-two samples (soil and water) from nine beef cattle ranches in South-central and South Texas were assessed for the presence of mycobacteria. Twelve mycobacterial species were cultured from soil and water from four herds; no Mptb were detected in environmental samples. A positive culture of environmental mycobacteria from soil was significantly associated with lower pH and calcium as well as higher iron, zinc and manganese contents. Beef cattle are likely to be exposed to environmental mycobacteria that may contribute to false-positive results on ELISAs for Mptb infection. Exposure rates to these mycobacteria likely vary across small geographical areas and may be related to soil and/or water physicochemistry.
Descriptors: beef cattle ranches, environmental exposures to mycobacteria in soil and water, 12 species recovered, false positives in testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, South Texas.

Orpin, P. Johne's disease: practical approaches to control spread in dairy and beef herds. Part 1: Understanding the disease and diagnostic approaches. UK Vet: Livestock. 2007; 12(3): 21-26.
URL: http://www.ukvet.co.uk & http://www.ukvet.co.uk/issue.asp?vid=12&iid=3&journal=Livestock
Descriptors: beef cattle, beef cattle herds, dairy cattle, dairy cattle herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease prevalence, disease transmission, control measures, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, clinical aspects, disease transmission, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, risk analysis.

Orpin, P. Clinical forum - Johne's disease. Part 2: Practical approaches to control in cattle herds. UK Vet: Livestock. 2007; 12(4): 22-30
URL: http://www.ukvet.co.uk & http://www.ukvet.co.uk/issue.asp?vid=12&iid=4&journal=Livestock
Abstract: Proactive approaches to Johne's disease control are becoming increasingly possible with the increased interest within the industry. Refining surveillance programmes to involve targeted sampling of high risk groups, surveillance using milk screens (individual samples), improved timing of tests prior to calving will all improve the impact of control measures. The practitioner is best placed to help the farmer client to manage the Johne's risk and concentrating resources on the herds of low risk and prevalence is most likely to deliver results. Thus, the emphasis of this paper is to give guidance on how practitioners can manage Johne's disease within their own client base utilizing recent developments in Johne's control. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy cattle herds, dairy hygiene, screening, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, mycobacterial diseases, mycobacterial infections, disease control, milk, tests timing, pre-calving, culling of infected animals, disease control strategies, veterinary practice, control programs, surveillance programs, high risk groups.

Orru, G.; Meloni, M.; Spissu, F.; Isola, D.; Palmieri, G.; Melis, E.; Besharati, E.; Liciardi, M. Rilevamento di Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in campioni clinici di ovino mediante PCR real time. [Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in ovine clinical samples by real time PCR.] Large Animal Review. 2007; 13(1): 13-17. Note: In Italian with an English summary.
URL: http://cms.sivarnet.it/gDocument.aspx?id=901
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS) 1612 insertion sequence in ovine clinical samples collected from two different sheep farms with signs of enteritis along with samples negative for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were analysed using IS900 PCR but IS1612. Collected stool and gut tracts were examined by real time PCR and capillary sequencing methods. The real time PCR detected in reconstructed samples about 100 CFU/g and showed a high linear dynamic range of quantification (102-106IS1612 copies DNA/reaction) with a good correlation rate (R2=0.98). It is suggested that real time PCR assay represents a rapid and accurate molecular method to detect/quantify Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum in biological samples. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum,Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, PCR, polymerase chain reaction accuracy, viral diseases.

Ortegon, H. Johne's disease in Alberta. Advances in Dairy Technology: Proceedings of the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar. 2007; 19(19): 171-184. ISSN: 1184-0684. Note: Seminar held March 6-9, 2007, Red Deer, Alberta.
NAL Call No.: SF223.W478
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease survey, prevalence, Alberta, Canada.

Osterstock, J.B.; Fosgate, G.T.; Norby, B.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T.; Roussel, A.J. Contribution of environmental mycobacteria to false-positive serum ELISA results for paratuberculosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Mar 15; 230(6): 896-901. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: beef cattle, calves, seroprevalence, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, accuracy, cattle diseases, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, feces, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium terrae, diagnostic techniques, false positives, pathogen shedding.

Palmarini,-Massimo. A veterinary twist on pathogen biology. PLoS Pathogens. 2007; 3(2): 131-134. Print ISSN: 1553-7366. E-ISSN: 1553-7374 (
URL: http://www.plospathogens.org
Descriptors: animal pathogens, viruses, bacteria, zoonotic diseases, tyrosine kinase, animals diseases, cancers, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is mentioned.

Palmer, M.V.; Stabel, J.R.; Waters, W.R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Miller, J.M. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2007 Oct; 43(4): 597-608. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/4/597
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some nondomestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such as diarrhea, weight loss, and hypoproteinemia. Fecal shedding of Map is characteristic of both the subclinical and clinical phases, and it is important in disease transmission. Lesions of paratuberculosis are characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Animal models of paratuberculosis that simulate all aspects of the disease are rare. Oral inoculation of 9-day-old white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on 3 June 2002 with 1.87x1010 colony-forming units of Map strain K10 resulted in clinical disease (soft to diarrheic feces) as early as 146 days after inoculation; lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were observed in animals at the termination of the study. Intermittent fecal shedding of Map was seen between 28 and 595 days (4 March 2004) after inoculation. These findings suggest that experimental oral inoculation of white-tailed deer fawns may mimic all aspects of subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: deer, fawns, Odocoileus virginianus, paratuberculosis, wildlife diseases, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; animal disease models, simulation models, lesions (animal), disease signs and symptoms (animals and humans), females, immune response, inoculum density, oral administration, diarrhea, weight loss, feces testing, fecal shedding.

Parkin, Max; Shepherd, Joanna; Hall, Roger; Hill, Jeremy. Meeting the needs of markets and customers - ensuring the regulatory building blocks are in place. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology. 2007; 62(2, Sp. Iss. SI): 116-121. ISSN: 0004-9433
NAL Call No.: 44.8 AU74
Descriptors: safety of dairy products, regulations, cross border trade, regulatory harmonization, trans-Tasman regulatory environment, standards set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), European Union (EU), examples of importance, Enterobacter sakazakii,Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, international standard development, national standard development, customer-specific standards.

Parrish , N.M. ; Ko, C.G.; Dick, J.D. Growth and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 693. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cultured in aerobic and anerobic conditions, pharmacokinetics, various antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, azithromycin, metronidazole, rifampin, rifaximin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, efficacy of drugs.

Passucci, J.A.; Traversa, M.J.; Hagen, J. de; Jorge, M.C.; Schettino, D.M.; Sanz, H.E. Analisis economico del saneamiento de paratuberculosis en un rodeo de cria bovina. [Economic analysis of paratuberculosis animal health management in a bovine breeding herd.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2007; 27(Suppl.1): 337-338. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, animal health, costs, animal losses, economic-analysis, economics, paratuberculosis.

Petriceanu, G.; Radulescu, R.A.; Ragalie, A.; Gutu, E.; Ionescu, M. Testul imunoenzimatic utilizat in supravegherea serologica a paratuberculozei bovinelor si ovinelor. [The absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used in serosurveillance of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep.] Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 17(2): 467-475. ISSN: 1220-3173. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to analyse the accuracy of ELISA-abs in the diagnosis of paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in Immunology Department of IDAH and different veterinary laboratories. The observed specificity and sensitivity for cattle and sheep were 98 and 91.6%, and 83 and 86%, respectively. Out of the 295 serum samples from cattle, it was confirmed by IDAH that 145, 14 and 136 samples were positive, false positive and negative, respectively. On the other hand, 116, 17 and 21 samples out of the 154 serum samples from sheep were positive, false positive and negative, respectively. 39 veterinary laboratories were included in the proficiency testing and showed that 31, 6 and 2 laboratories obtained satisfactory, questionable and unsatisfactory results, respectively. It is suggested that majority of the laboratories are able to perform the method properly in diagnosing paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, Romania.

Pradeep, Kumar; Singh, S.V.; Bhatiya, A.K.; Sevilla, I.; Singh, A.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Juste, R.A.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Vihan, V.S. Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis (JCP) in India: incidence and characterization by six diagnostic tests. Small Ruminant Research. 2007; 73(1/3): 45-53. ISSN: 0921-4488.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Johne's considered a disease of adult goats was studied in young kids using six tests (direct microscopy, fecal culture, tissue culture, ELISA, histo-pathology, and PCR) to establish incidence of Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis. Cumulatively, 62.0% kids were positive from organized herds in direct microscopy (38.0%) and fecal culture (56.0%). Incidence by tissues culture was 60.0% (43.6% intestine and 40.0% MLN). In tissues culture, 27.2 and 67.3% kids were positive from organized and farmer's herds (slaughterhouse, Agra), respectively. In direct microscopy, 20.0 and 23.3% kids were positive from intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Age-wise, 6.6, 86.3 and 40.6% kids were positive in tissues culture, from 15 days to <2, 2-4 and 4-6 months age groups, respectively. Cultures were obtained both from weak and apparently healthy kids. Colonies usually appeared around 75 and 60-90 days post-inoculation in fecal and tissues cultures, respectively. Pauci-bacillary condition was more frequent both in fecal and tissues culture. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 61.5, 24.1 and 50.0% from highly, moderately and slightly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Two antigens native protoplasmic antigen from indigenous Map genotype 'Bison type' of goat origin and commercial purified antigen from Map 'Bovine' were used in ELISA. Sero-incidence in kids was 47.9 and 1.4% with native and commercial antigens, respectively. Native antigen detected 35.4 and 58.6% and commercial, nil and 3.5% sero-positive kids from farmer's and organized herds, respectively. In kids, incidence of Map was 47.9, 60.0 and 56.0% by ELISA, tissues and fecal culture, respectively. Large numbers of mononuclear cells along with few epitheloid cells were present in cortical and medullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes. Villi of ileum showed mild degeneration in lining epithelial cells, which turned into goblet cells appearing as globular structure, filled with unstained homogenous mass. Peyer's patches located in the mucosal area were hyper-cellular with occasional presence of epitheloid cells. Clumps of Map bacilli were seen in epitheloid cells of lamina propria of intestine. Of the 17 DNA samples from decontaminated pellets and Map colonies, 64.7% were amplified in IS 900 PCR. The 229 bp band of amplified DNA was characteristic for Map. Samples detected in PCR were also positive in culture and histo-pathologically. Map strains isolated from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis were genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. It is the first report on incidence and characterization (genotyping) of Map from Juvenile Capri-Paratuberculosis in India. Reproduced by permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goat kids, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ELISA, PCR, epidemiology, feces testing, serodiagnosis, histopathology; immunodiagnosis, lymph nodes; microscopy, tissue culture, India.

Probst, C.; Speck, S.; Hofer, H. Epidemiology of selected infectious diseases in zoo-ungulates: single species versus mixed species exhibits. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin. 2007; (7): 10-12
URL: http://www.izw-berlin.de
Abstract: A total of 926 ungulates of the three families of Bovids, Cervids, and Camelids from one Czech and ten German zoos were tested for antibodies against selected infectious agents that can be transmitted interspecifically. The relationship between taxonomy and exhibit type (single species/mixed species exhibit) and seroprevalence was examined. The highest seroprevalence (21.2%) was found against malignant catarrhal fever (MCFV). Especially Bovids (24.5%) and animals of petting zoos (60.6%) were seropositive. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: zoo ungulates, bovines, cervids, dromedary camels, antibodies check for infectious agents, ELISA testing, epidemiology, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine herpesviruses, caprine herpesvirus 1, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, catarrhal-fever, gangrenous coryza, malignant catarrh, mucosal disease virus, Czech and German zoos.

Rademaker, Jan L.W.; Vissers, Marc M.M.; te Giffel, Meike.C. Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology AEM. 2007 July 1; 73(13): 4185-4190. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10po to 3.5 x 10e cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90pC at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72pC and a holding time of 6 s, 70pC for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an Ea of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72pC and a Z value of 7.7pC. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at >=72pC result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: raw milk processing, high temperature, inactivation of pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis efficiency of short holding time (HTST) pasteurization, inactivation kinetic modeling, various parameters, bacterial levels, temperatures and time combinations.

Radosevich, T.J.; Reinhardt, T.A.; Lippolis, J.D.; Bannantine, J.P.; Stabel, J.R. Proteome and differential expression analysis of membrane and cytosolic proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains K-10 and 187. Journal of Bacteriology. 2007; 189(3): 1109-1117. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL : http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Little is known of protein expression in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and how this contributes to pathogenesis. In the present study, proteins from both membranes and cytosol were prepared from two strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, i.e., laboratory-adapted strain K-10 and a recent isolate, strain 187, obtained from a cow exhibiting clinical signs of Johne's disease. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cytosol and membrane proteins from K-10 and 187 showed marked differences in protein expression. Relative levels of protein expression from both M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were measured by using amine-reactive isobaric tagging reagents (iTRAQ) and tandem mass spectroscopy. Protein identification and relative expression data were obtained for 874 membrane and cytosolic proteins from the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteome. These data showed a number of significant differences in protein expression between strain K-10 and clinical isolate 187. Examples of proteins expressed at higher levels in clinical isolate 187 compared to strain K-10 are AtpC, RpoA, and several proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. In contrast, proteins such as AhpC and several proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism were expressed at higher levels in strain K-10 compared to strain 187. These data may provide insights into the proteins whose expression is important in natural infection but are modified once M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is adapted to laboratory cultivation. Results from these studies will provide tools for developing a better understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the host and offer potential as diagnostic reagents and vaccine candidates.
Descriptors: cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, cytosol, nitrogen metabolism, proteins, proteomes, surface membrane proteins.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Fetrow, J.; Oakes, J.M. The associations between culling due to clinical Johne's disease or the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding and the diagnosis of clinical or subclinical diseases in two dairy herds in Minnesota, USA. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 July 16; 80(2-3): 166-178. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.02.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle diseases, disease detection, livestock production, culling of diseased animals, epidemiological studies, dairy herds, lactation stage, disease diagnosis, pathogen identification, feces, pathogen shedding, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease signs and symptoms in animals and humans, pneumonia, diagnostic techniques, biomarkers, blood chemistry, body condition, Minnesota, USA.

Raizman, E.A.; Fetrow, J.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Oakes, M.J.; Vazquez, G. The association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding or clinical Johne's disease and lactation performance on two Minnesota, USA dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Mar 17; 78(3-4): 179-195. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.10.006
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: Lactation performance of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) was previously studied using only serum ELISA as a diagnostic method. This study evaluated on two dairy farms in Minnesota, USA the lactation performance (measures of health, production, reproduction, and survival) of cows shedding Map in faeces before calving and of cows culled with clinical signs consistent with Johne's disease (JD) during the subsequent lactation. Faecal samples were collected from 1052 cows within 21 day before calving and tested for Map with bacterial culture. Producers' observed signs of clinical disease (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, mastitis, pneumonia, and JD) and production and reproduction data were recorded for each cow. The association between faecal shedding or clinical JD and lactation performance was evaluated. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association with any clinical and subclinical diseases as the outcome. General linear model was used to evaluate the association with milk production, and survival analysis techniques were used to evaluate the association with days in the study before culling and days from calving to conception. In 84 cows (8% of 1052 cows) faecal samples were positive for Map (46% light, 26% moderate, and 28% heavy shedders). In multivariable analysis, light, moderate, and heavy faecal shedding cows produced on average 537, 1403, and 1534 kg, respectively, less milk per lactation and 1.4, 5.2, and 7.5 kg, respectively, less milk per day than faecal negative cows. Faecal culture positive cows were less likely to be bred and conceive. In the multivariable analysis the 56 cows culled with presumed JD produced approximately 1500 kg/lactation or 5 kg/day less than all other cows. The negative economic impact implied by decreased lactation performance in cows shedding Map or with clinical JD may motivate producers to implement programs to control Map infection and subsequent JD.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease detection, signs and symptoms (animals-and-humans), in vitro culture, feces, fecal contamination, lactation, calving, culling if sick cows, decision,making, dairy herd management, disease control, mathematical models, logit analysis, multivariate analysis, Minnesota, USA.

Rajeev, S.; Berghaus, R.D.; Johnson, J.; Pence, M.; Byrum, B.; Farrell, T.; Baldwin, C. Brain heart infusion broth may not be a required component for the decontamination process for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from fecal sample using ESP broth cultures. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 Nov; 19(6): 702-704. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Based on the authors' laboratory experience indicating that increased bacterial contamination in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cultures may be because of the addition of brain heart infusion broth (BHI) during the decontamination process, this study was designed to examine whether BHI is a required component for the isolation of MAP from ESPReg. broth cultures. Twenty-six National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) proficiency test samples supplied for the year 2005 were used for the comparison. Two paired sets of samples were processed in the experiment. In one set, the hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (HPC) and antibiotic brew were prepared in half strength BHI and for the other set, HPC and antibiotic brew were prepared in sterile distilled water. Culture of the 26 samples using the BHI/HPC decontamination method identified 13 (50%) positives, whereas culture using the water/HPC decontamination method identified 14 (54%) positives. The proportions of samples with a positive result did not differ significantly between the 2 decontamination methods. Although in most cases it took longer to identify a positive result by the BHI method, the difference between methods with respect to the number of days to a positive culture result was not statistically significant. Retrospective data collected from the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Ohio also suggest that inclusion of BHI in the decontamination protocol may not have any effect on MAP recovery or contamination rate. Elimination of BHI from broth cultures may increase the sensitivity of MAP isolation, and reduce the cost of testing. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, broth culture, bacterial contamination from broth components, fecal sampling, ESP broth, test sensitivity, test costs.

Rajkhowa, S.; Sarma, D.K.; Hazarika, G.C.; Rajkhowa, C. A preliminary study on Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in Mithun. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2007; 84(9): 988-989. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: The study was conducted on two mithun farms of the National Research Centre on Mithun in Nagaland, India (date not given). 104 mithuns (39 males and 65 females) of Arunachal, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland strains were included in the study. The animals were kept under semi-intensive system of management and examined for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection using Johnin single intradermal injection, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) and rectal punch smear examination. Results revealed that out of 104 animals tested, the number of animals positive for M. paratuberculosis infection by Johnin test, indirect ELISA and rectal pinch smear examination were 16 (15%), 31 (30%) and 12 (12%), respectively. All animals that were positive for M. paratuberculosis infection in Johnin test and rectal pinch smear examination were also positive in indirect ELISA. Significant difference was observed in the prevalence of M. paratuberculosis infection among different strains of mithun with the highest prevalence in Arunachal strain. The study revealed that indirect ELISA can detect the maximum number of positive cases of M. paratuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, Bos fontalis, mithun, various strains, females and males, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johnin test, ELISA, rectal punch smear, Nagaland, India.

Ribeiro-Guimaraes, Michelle-Lopes; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal. Comparative genomics of mycobacterial proteases. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2007; 43(5-6): 173-178. ISSN: 0882-4010.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08824010
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Abstract: Although proteases are recognized as important virulent factors in pathogenic microorganisms, little information is available so far regarding the potential role of these enzymes in diseases caused by mycobacteria. Here we use bioinformatic tools to compare the protease-coding genes present in the genome of Mycobacterium leprae,Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. This analysis allowed a review of the nomenclature of the protease family present in mycobacteria. A, special attention was devoted to the 'decaying genome' of M. leprae where a relatively high level of conservation of protease-coding genes was observed when compared to other genes families. A total of 39 genes out of the 49 found in M. bovis were identified in M. leprae. Of relevance, a core of well-conserved 38 protease genes shared by the four species was defined. This set of proteases is probably essential for survival in the host and disease outcome and may constitute novel targets for drug development leading to a more effective control of mycobacterial diseases. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis, comparative genomics, enzymes, proteases, nomenclature of protease of Mycobacteria, decaying genome of M. leprae, potential targets for drugs.

Ristow, P.; Marassi, C.D.; Rodrigues, A.B.F.; Oelemann, W.M.; Rocha, F.; Santos, A.S.O.; Carvalho, E.C.O.; Carvalho, C.B.; Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, L.S. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis in a dairy herd native to Brazil. Veterinary Journal. 2007 Sept; 174(2): 432-434. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.07.022
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (PTB) in Brazil has previously only been reported in imported animals and is officially considered as an exotic disease. A dairy herd, which had no imported animals, presented clinically suspect animals and was investigated for paratuberculosis using faecal culture, histopathology, indirect ELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion test. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) was confirmed by culture of faeces from five cows with clinical symptoms of PTB and in 7/24 randomly selected asymptomatic cows from the same herd. Two cows with clinical symptoms were necropsied and their tissues were positive for Map by culture and histopathology. Twelve asymptomatic, randomly selected cows were positive on ELISA. The results confirmed the presence of PTB in this dairy herd and for the first time demonstrated the disease in a herd of native-bred cattle in Brazil.
Descriptors: dairy cattle herd, fecal culture, histopathology, indirect ELISA, immunodiffusion, clinical signs,asymptomatic animals,first demonstrationof native bred herd with paratuberculosis, Brazil.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Stabel, J.R.; Morrical, D.G. Skin test and gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results in sheep exposed to dead Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis organisms. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 88-90. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) diagnostic tests, such as the gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IFN- gamma ELISA) and the Johnin skin test, have the potential to detect animals infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) early in the course of the disease. While these CMI tests tend to be relatively specific in noninfected flocks, in MAP-infected flocks, these tests often identify animals that cannot be confirmed infected by any other reference test, including necropsy and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if antigen exposure by inhalation or oral ingestion of killed MAP organisms would cause a detectable CMI response in sheep. Forty-eight lambs 4 months of age were randomly divided into a control group, an orally exposed group (dosed with 1x1010 autoclaved MAP organisms 3 times), and an inhalation-exposed group (dosed once with 1x105 dead organisms). Lambs were skin tested and/or bled pre-exposure and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 months postexposure. No significant difference was seen with either the oral- or inhalation-exposed groups of lambs versus controls with either the IFN- gamma ELISA or the skin test at any time pre- or postexposure. These results suggest that infection/invasion of MAP organisms must occur in order to have a positive skin test or IFN- gamma ELISA beyond the false-positive rate. Simple exposure is not enough to elicit a detectable CMI response. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, skin tests, intradermal tests, cell mediated immunity (CMI), cellular immunity, diagnosis, gamma interferon ELISA, diagnostic techniques, course of disease.

Roermund, H.J.W. van; Bakker, D.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Jong, M.C.M. de. Horizontal transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in an experimental setting: Calves can transmit the infection to other calves. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 June 21; 122(3-4): 270-279. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.016
NAL Call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract : In September 2001, two subsequent transmission experiments both lasting 3 months were carried out to study cow-calf transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) (Period 1), followed by calf-calf transmission of the infection (Period 2). Every 2 weeks, serum, heparinised blood and faecal samples were collected from all animals. After these experiments, the 20 calves were housed individually for more than 3 years to be able to detect the infection status and excretion pattern of each animal. In autumn 2004, the animals were inseminated, to observe a possible increase in faecal excretion of Map shortly before expected calving. One month before the expected calving date in 2005, animals were slaughtered and several tissues per cow and unborn calf were sampled for culture. The results indicate that horizontal cow-calf transmission is readily achieved (Period 1). At the highest infection pressure (six shedding cows of which three high shedders in Period 1) all five calves excreted Map in their faeces during Period 1 (shortly after infection), and four of these calves during Period 2 (when the shedding cows were absent). After that, excretion became less frequently. Horizontal calf-calf transmission did take place (Period 2), as the four donor-calves infected two receiver-calves. Transmission rates during the 3 months periods were quantified as a reproduction ratio R. The R [95% CI] of cow-calf and calf-calf transmission were estimated as 2.7 [1.1, 6.6] and 0.9 [0.1, 3.2] new infections per infectious animal during 3 months.
Descriptors: calves, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, disease transmission, excretion, feces, fecal contamination, virus transmission, epidemiological studies, longitudinal studies, infection microbial detection, blood serum, correlation, statistical analysis, probability analysis, estimation.

Roussel, A.J.; Fosgate G.T.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T. Association of fecal shedding of mycobacteria with high ELISA-determined seroprevalence for paratuberculosis in beef herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Mar 15; 230(6): 890-895. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: beef cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, feces, fecal sampling, disease transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, seroprevalence, antibodies, pathogen shedding, test sensitivity, test specificity, Texas, USA.

Salgado, M.; Kruze, J.; Collins, M.T. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis by fecal culture and ELISA on milk and serum samples in two types of Chilean dairy goat herds. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 99-102. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Faecal culture has been the primary method used to diagnose paratuberculosis in goats. It is laborious, slow, and expensive. Validation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on milk samples could make paratuberculosis testing more widely available for goat farmers. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of serum and milk ELISAs for paratuberculosis, relative to faecal culture, in Chilean dairy goats. Eight dairy goat herds were selected. Faeces, blood, and milk samples were collected from all female goats >2 years old. Faecal samples were cultured using Herrold egg yolk medium with mycobactin J and antibiotics. Serum and milk samples were tested using a commercial ELISA kit for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody detection. A total of 383 goats were tested by ELISA and faecal culture. The sensitivity of ELISA on serum and milk relative to faecal culture was 74.3% (95% CI: 59.8-88.8) and 60% (95% CI: 43.8-76.2), respectively. The corresponding values for ELISA specificity based on the percentage of non-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected goats testing ELISA-negative were 98.6% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 99.3% (95% CI: 97.9-100) on serum and milk, respectively. Proportions of positive results for serum and faecal samples were significantly different, whereas the proportions of positive results for milk and faecal samples were not significantly different. The milk ELISA had a moderate level of agreement with faecal culture results (Kappa=0.57). The paratuberculosis ELISA on goat milk samples may be a cost-effective, accurate alternative to faecal culture.
Descriptors: goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, accuracy, blood serum, fecal testing, goat milk testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques; ELISA test kit, Chile.

Samarineanu, M.; Miciora, R. Paratuberculoza - o gestiune dificula. [Paratuberculosis - a difficult management.] Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara. 2007; 17(4): 27-36. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Abstract: This article discusses the epidemiological management (pathogenesis, incubation period, immune response, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis and prophylaxis), risk management (limitations of direct (clinical, bacteriology and bacterioscopy) and immunological diagnostic techniques, and other risk factors), management of work forces and action means (institutions and persons involved permanently or temporarily in the control of the disease) and financial management (economic loss and costs) involved in paratuberculosis infection. The zoonotic character of the disease is also presented in the article. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: domestic animals, Johne’s disease, zoonotic disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, incubation period, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, epidemiology, disease control, disease prevalence, economics, costs, risk assessment, biohazard for workers, immune response; lesions prepatent period.

Schaik, G. van; Mcdnica, P.F.; Armcn, M.N.; Juan, K.V. Diagnostic validity and costs of pooled fecal samples and individual blood or fecal samples to determine the cow- and herd-status for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Nov 15; 82(1-2): 159-165. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.018
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, 12 dairy herds, diagnostic testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal culture, pooling feces of 10 individual cattle seems optimum, reduced costs, sensitivity better with lower level pathogen shedders, Chile.

Schaik, G. van; Haro, F.; Mella, A.; Kruze, J. Bayesian analysis to validate a commercial ELISA to detect paratuberculosis in dairy herds of southern Chile. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2007 Apr 16; 79(1): 59-69. ISSN: 0167-5877. Note: In the special issue "2006 SVEPM - All's Well at the Broad Church" / edited by D.J. Mellor and E.J. Peeler. Includes references.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.11.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection, analytical kits ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, validity, disease surveillance, screening, dairy herds, small scale farming, feces, bacterial colonization, estimation, disease diagnosis, disease course, pathogenicity, Bayesian theory, mathematical models, disease prevalence, Chile.

Scheld, W.M.; Hooper, D.C.; Hughes, J.M. [Editors]. Emerging infections 7. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. 2007: 381 pp. ISBN: 1555813771; 9781555813772. Note: 18 chapters.
Abstract: This volume is the seventh in a series of books based on the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy symposia on emerging infections. Consisting of 18 chapters, this book provides the latest update on the emerging infections facing us today and the approaches needed to control and prevent them. Some of these are newly recognized diseases, whereas others are previously known pathogens presenting new challenges. Some are described as domestic threats, while others affect populations elsewhere. Among the emerging pathogens described in this book are avian influenza A (H5N1) virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, West Nile virus, Chandipura virus, retroviruses, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other members of Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Zygomycetes, food- and waterborne protozoa, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Leishmania spp., and Variola virus. This volume is a valuable resource for a wide range of people working in microbiology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, public health, and clinical medicine. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: humans, livestock, wild animals, birds, many diseases, zoonotic diseases,emerging infectious diseases, Acinetobacter, Chandipura virus, Coronavirus, Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Influenza A virus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Leishmania, Metapneumovirus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Orthopoxvirus, water-borne Protozoa, Retroviridae, Staphylococcus aureus, Variola virus, West Nile virus, Zygomycotina, drug resistance, drug treatments, domestic disease threats, etc.

Scanu, Antonio M.; Bull, Tim J.; Cannas, Sara; Sanderson, Jeremy D.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Dettori, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Stefania; Hermon-Taylor, John. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in cases of irritable bowel syndrome and comparison with Crohn's Disease and Johne's Disease: common neural and immune pathogenicities. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-JCM. 2007 Dec; 45(12): 3883-3890. Print ISSN: 0095-1137. E-ISSN: 1098-660X.
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a systemic infection and chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many species, including primates. Infection is widespread in livestock, and human populations are exposed. Johne's disease is associated with immune dysregulation, with involvement of the enteric nervous system overlapping with features of irritable bowel syndrome in humans. The present study was designed to look for an association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and irritable bowel syndrome. Mucosal biopsy specimens from the ileum and the ascending and descending colon were obtained from patients with irritable bowel syndrome attending the University of Sassari, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. Crohn's disease and healthy control groups were also included. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected by IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing. Data on the potential risk factors for human exposure to these pathogens and on isolates from Sardinian dairy sheep were also obtained. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in 15 of 20 (75%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome, 3 of 20 (15%) healthy controls, and 20 of 23 (87%) people with Crohn's disease (P = 0.0003 for irritable bowel syndrome patients versus healthy controls and P = 0.0000 for Crohn's disease patients versus healthy controls). One subject in each group had a conserved single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 247 of IS900 that was also found in isolates from seven of eight dairy sheep. There was a significant association (P = 0.0018) between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and the consumption of hand-made cheese. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a candidate pathogen in the causation of a proportion of cases of irritable bowel syndrome as well as in Crohn's disease.
Descriptors: dairy sheep, humans,Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, association with pathogen infection and irritable bowel syndrome, risk of consuming, hand-made cheeses, Italy.

Scibelli, A.; Roperto, S.; Manna, L.; Pavone, L. M.; Tafuri, S.; Morte, R della; Staiano, N. Engagement of integrins as a cellular route of invasion by bacterial pathogens. Veterinary Journal. 2007; 173(3): 482-491. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
Descriptors: various pathogens, pathogenic bacteria, pathogenesis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Bartonella, Bordetella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Neisseria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Yersinia, carrier proteins, cell adhesion, integrins role, bacterial diseases, cellular invasion pathways, binding proteins, cyto-adherence, ligands, receptors, literature reviews.

Scott, H.M.; Sorensen, O.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Chow, E.Y.W.; Manninen, K. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Apr; 48(4): 397-406. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL : http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: adult beef cattle, cow/calf herds, ecological risk factors, animal disease pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Alberta, Canada.

Scott, H.M.; Fosgate, G.T.; Libal, M.C.; Sneed, L.W.; Erol, E.; Angulo, A.B.; Jordan, E.R. Field testing of an enhanced direct-fecal polymerase chain reaction procedure, bacterial culture of feces, and a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in adult dairy cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 Mar; 68(3): 236-245. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: dairy cattle, adult animals, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, feces, fecal sampling, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, serodiagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, test sensitivity, test specificity, disease detection, blood serum, disease incidence.

Scott, H.M.; Fosgate, G.T.; Libal, M.C.; Sneed, L.W.; Erol, E.; Angulo, A.B.; Jordan, E.R. Field testing of an enhanced direct-fecal polymerase chain reaction procedure, bacterial culture of feces, and a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in adult dairy cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 68(3): 236-245. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, 669 adults, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease testing, fecal BCF and enhanced PCR, gel-based PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, bacterial culture, serum testing, immunodiagnosis, accuracy of assays.

Sechi, Leonardo A.; Felis, Giovanna E.; Ahmed,-Niyaz; Paccagnini, Daniela; Usai, Donatella; Ortu, Silvia; MoliCotti, Paola; Zanetti, Stefania. Genome and transcriptome scale portrait of sigma factors in Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Infection Genetics and Evolution. 2007; 7(4): 424-432. ISSN: 1567-1348
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15671348
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, global gene regulation, sigma factors of other mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium,Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae,Mycobacterium smegmatis, gene expression during different growth conditions and in vitro infection of intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells figuring out survival pathogen strategies, pathogen methods of infection, amino acid sequences, gene expression, molecular biology, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, protein sequences phylogenetics.
 

Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M.; Geijo, Marivi; Juste, Ramon A. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile homogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats. BMC Microbiology. 2007; 7: Article No.: 18. ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-7-18.pdf
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains has led to classify paratuberculosis isolates into 2 main types, cattle type strains found affecting all host species and sheep type strains reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis, a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years was characterized. 520 isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar) and origins were cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction endonuclease analysis. 269 isolates were further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-cattle type strains. IS1311-sheep type encompassed 96 and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all 3 Portuguese sheep. 37 distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43%) and another 3 profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis clustered all profiles found in cattle, wild hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. It was concluded that cattle in Spain were infected with cattle type strains, whereas sheep and goats were mainly infected with sheep type strains. Although 7H9 broth-based culture media seemed to broadly cover the growth requirements of most Map strains, the use of various solid media was recommended to reduce any recovery biases. High genetic homogeneity of isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats had been detected.
Descriptors: sheep, goats, cattle, bison, deer, wild boar, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, pathogen strain typing from different species, epidemiology, strain characterization, 520 isolates, cultured/typed by IS1311 restriction endonuclease analysis, 269 further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases, 32 novel profiles, genetic homogeneity for cattle groups and sheep groups noted.

Sharma, S.; Alka; Mahajan, V.; Kaur, K.; Verma, S.; Meenakshi; Kumar, H. Screening of dairy farms for brucellosis and paratuberculosis. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2007; 84(3): 315-316. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: dairy farms, 2988 cattle and buffalo, disease survey, brucellosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Rose Bengal place test, standard tube agglutination test, disease prevalence, Johne’s prevalence was 1.72%, Punjab, India.

Shin, Sung Jae; Han, Jun Hee; Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Collins, Michael T. Rapid and reliable method for quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by use of the BACTEC MGIT 960 System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology--JCM. 2007 June; 45(6): 1941-1948. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46 .J6
Abstract: A simple method for the enumeration of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells was developed and evaluated using the MGIT 960 culture system. For each of 12 M. paratuberculosis strains isolated from either cattle or humans, single-cell suspensions of M. paratuberculosis cells were adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm of 1.00 (10".e to 10i.po cells/ml), and serial dilutions were prepared. Standard curves were established by relating the MGIT time-to-detection data to the log CFU for these suspensions using standard plate counting and BACTEC 460 results as reference methods. Universal and strain-specific standard quantification curves were generated. A one-phase exponential decay equation best fit the universal standard curve and strain-specific curves (Rpo of 0.96 and >0.99, respectively). Two subgroups within the universal curves were distinguished: one for laboratory-adapted strains and the other for recently isolated low-passage bovine strains. The predictive errors for log estimations using the universal standard curve, each subgroup's standard curve, and strain-specific curves were pl0.87, pl0.45, and pl0.31 log units, respectively. CFU estimations by all three standard curves were highly reproducible, regardless of the M. paratuberculosis strain or inoculum volume. In comparison with the previously described BACTEC 460 M. paratuberculosis counting method, quantification with MGIT 960 was less expensive, more rapid, more accurate, and more sensitive (<10 CFU). This MGIT counting method has broad applications for studies requiring the quantification of viable M. paratuberculosis cells, such as drug susceptibility testing or environmental survival studies.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, quantification, counting viable pathogen cells, methodology, MGIT 960 culture system, BACTEC 460 method, human and animal strains, methology comparison study, rapidity of test, accuracy compared to standard plate counting, sensitivity of test method.

Sibley, J.A.; Woodbury, M.R.; Appleyard, G.D.; Elkin, B. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in bison (Bison bison) from northern Canada. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2007 Oct; 43(4): 775-779. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map)-specific region, locus 251, was used as a screening tool for the detection of Map DNA in fecal samples from northern Canadian bison herds. Strain typing, using PCR-Restriction endonucleas assay (REA), was limited to two samples but revealed that the samples corresponded to a cattle-related strain and a sheep-related strain. Sequencing of part of the IS1311 region from the two samples revealed a unique three base-pair region found within the northern Canadian bison isolates.
Descriptors: bison, wild populations, conservation programs, wildlife diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, fecal sampling, pathogen identification, PCR, DNA, molecular epidemiology, Alberta, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Simutis, F.J.; Jones, D.E.; Hostetter, J.M. Failure of antigen-stimulated dt T cells and CD4+ T cells from sensitized cattle to upregulate nitric oxide and mycobactericidal activity of autologous Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Mar 15; 116(1-2): 1-12. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.12.005
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The function of dt T cells during ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is presently unknown. An ex vivo system was used to test the hypothesis that dt T cells are capable of activating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-(M. paratuberculosis)-infected macrophages. Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were infected in vitro with live M. paratuberculosis, and autologous LN-derived dt T cells or CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with infected macrophages for 48 h, at which time bacterial survival as well as production of nitrites and IFN-d was evaluated. Incubation of M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages with autologous dt T cells did not result in reduced intracellular bacterial viability compared to infected macrophage cultures without added T cells. IFN-d production by-infected cultures containing added dt T cells was not enhanced compared to that of infected macrophages alone. Although infection of macrophage cultures caused increased production of nitrites at both post-infection day (PID) 0 and PID 60, the addition of dt T cells did not further increase nitrite production. In contrast, addition of PPD-stimulated CD4+ T cells obtained at PID 60 to M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages resulted in significantly increased IFN-d production compared to cultures without added T cells or cultures containing unstimulated CD4+ T cells or unstimulated or antigen-stimulated dt T cells. However, the increased production of IFN-d by co-cultures containing PPD-stimulated CD4+ T cells did not result in increased bacterial killing or increased production of nitrites compared to cultures without added T cells. In additional in vitro experiments, M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages, but not uninfected macrophages, were unable to increase nitrite production when stimulated with recombinant IFN-d. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) dt T cells do not produce significant IFN-d and do not significantly increase NO production from M. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages in vitro, (2) the production of significant IFN-d by antigen-stimulated CD4+ T cells from infected calves is insufficient to enhance mycobacterial killing or nitrite production by infected macrophages, and (3) macrophages may have an impaired NO response following intracellular M. paratuberculosis infection, even in the presence of significant concentrations of IFN-d.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle bacterial diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, immune response, immune system, CD4-positive T lymphocytes, interferons, nitric oxide, biochemical-pathways, in vitro culture, bacteriophages, lymphocyte antigens, resistance mechanisms, macrophage activation, pathogen survival.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, R.; Sandhu, K.S.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Evaluation of highly sensitive indigenous milk ELISA kit with fecal culture, milk culture and fecal-PCR for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in India. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2007; 30(3): 175-186. ISSN: 0147-9571. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01479571
Abstract: Country lacks indigenous diagnostic kits against Johne's disease in animals. Indigenous ELISA and IS 900 PCR kits, originally developed for goats and sheep, have been adapted for screening of lactating cows. Multiple diagnostic tests were used to screen 26 lactating dairy cows against Johne's disease. Milk ELISA was evaluated with faecal culture, milk culture and faecal PCR. Of the 26 samples from lactating cows, 84.6, 96.1, 88.4 and 23.0% were positive in faecal culture, milk culture, m-ELISA and m-PCR, respectively. Comparatively milk sediment and milk fat culture detected 84.6 and 76.9% cows positive, respectively. Comparatively faecal culture and milk culture detected 84.6 and 96.1% cows positive, respectively. M-ELISA detected 11.5, 0.0, 11.5, 61.0 and 15.3%, cows as negative, suspected, low positive, positive and strong positive, respectively. There was good correlation between milk and faecal culture with m-ELISA. Three negative cows in m-ELISA were also detected in milk and faecal culture. Of the 26 decontaminated faecal samples, 23.0% cows were positive using specific IS 900 f-PCR. Comparative evaluation of m-ELISA with faecal and milk culture showed agreement in 80.7 and 84.6% cows, respectively. Sensitivity of m-ELISA with respect to faecal and culture was 90.9 and 95.6%, respectively. Comparative evaluation of four tests (milk culture, faecal culture, m-ELISA and f-PCR) showed that only 15.3% cows were detected in all the four tests. In three tests (faecal and milk culture and m-ELISA), 57.6% cows were detected positive. None of the cow was exclusively detected in f-PCR. Of the four diagnostic tests used milk culture was most sensitive (96.15%), followed by faecal culture (86.6%), m-ELISA (76.9%) and IS 900 PCR (23.0%) for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD). Milk ELISA detected only one cow extra, which was negative in milk culture. In view of the simplicity, rapidity and efficacy present milk ELISA kit employing soluble protoplasmic antigen from native Map 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin can be reliable for screening of bovine population against Johne's disease in India. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk composition, milk quality, analytical methods, antigens, antigenicity, assays accuracy, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, PCR, immunodiagnosis, Punjab, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Shukla, N.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Seroprevalence of Johne's disease in prospective young bulls of Hariana breed by indigenous ELISA kit, using protoplasmic antigen from 'Bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis of goat origin. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(8): 659-662. ISSN: 0367-8318
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is in the list B of OIE and requires certification of breeding animals. At present, India lacks diagnostic kits and reagents against JD. The ELISA kit initially developed for screening of goats and sheep was applied to cattle. Prospective young bulls of best native milch breeds of cows (Hariana) belonging to farmers' herds were screened against JD by indigenous ELISA kit using protoplasmic antigen from novel the Bison type genotype of Map of goat origin. Young males to be used as breeding bulls and aged between 2.5 and 3.5 years were earmarked for purchase from Rohtak district of Haryana. Of the 23 bulls, none was strongly positive, 20 were positive (86.9%) and 3 were slightly positive (13.0%). However, none were suspected and negative. The seroprevalence was 86.9% in young bulls of Hariana breed. In another study, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from all the 5 categories of S/P ratio in goats. Therefore, the real prevalence of JD in Hariana bulls might still be higher. The high seroprevalence of JD in the native tract of best Indian milch breed of cows was due to the poor attention and low priority given to JD surveillance and control in the country..
Descriptors: cattle, bulls, Hariana breed, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease levels, disease surveys, indigenous ELISA for sheep and goats used, antigens, immunodiagnosis, paratuberculosis, serological surveys; seroprevalence, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Singh, N.P. Evaluation of an indigenous ELISA for diagnosis of Johne's disease and its comparison with commercial kits. Indian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 47(3): 251-258. Print ISSN: 02555-0857. E-ISSN: 1988-3646
URL: http://www.ijmm.org/
Abstract: The country lacks sensitive and indigenous diagnostic kits for the screening of goats and sheep against Johne's disease. Therefore, an indigenous ELISA kit was developed using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison Type' strain of goat origin (Kit 1). In the present study, kit 1 and two commercial kits (kits 2 and 3) were evaluated with respect to faecal culture, which is considered as the gold standard. A total of 71 animals (55 goats and 16 sheep) were screened. Kit 1, which utilized an indigenous antigen (protoplasmic antigen), was sensitive at very low concentration (0.1 micro gm/well) compared to the purified commercial protoplasmic antigen (4 micro gm/well) used in kit 2, for the Type 1 reactors (strong positive as positive). Screening of 71 animals by faecal culture detected positive results (clinical shedders of bacilli) in 38.0% of the animals (goats, 40.0% and sheep, 31.2%). Of the farm animals from the Central Institute for Research on Goats, the herds of goat were endemic, while the sheep flock was comparatively resistant to Johne's disease. 29.5 and 61.9, 15.4 and 57.7 and 4.2 and 14.0% of the animals (goats and sheep) were categorized as sero-reactors type 1 and 2 based on ELISA kits 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In the type 1 sero-reactors, sensitivity and specificity of kits 1, 2 and 3 were 53.7 and 86.0, 17.8 and 86.0 and 3.5 and 94.7%, respectively. Indigenous ELISA test (Kit 1) was significantly superior for the screening of goat herds and sheep flocks against JD compared to commercial ELISA kits (Kit 2 and 3). In comparison to kits 2 and 3, kit 1 had the highest sensitivity, comparable specificity and substantial to nearly perfect proportional agreement (Kappa Scores) with respect to faecal culture. Type I sero-reactors showed better correlation with faecal culture in comparison to Type II sero-reactors. Therefore, this technique can be used for the estimation of Johne's disease seroprevalence. The newly developed indigenous ELISA kit was simple, inexpensive, sensitive and reliable for screening of goat and sheep population against Johne's disease. The study reports high prevalence of Johne's disease in farm goat herds and sheep flocks. The results of Type 1 reaction in kit 1 were optimally correlated with culture and were good for estimating the seroprevalence. To control Johne's disease in endemic herds, initial removal of strongly positive animals (Type 1 reactors) will eliminate heavy shedders. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goat herds, sheep flocks, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, disease surviellance, disease testing, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, immunological testing techniques, ELISA-Bison Typel, indigenious ELISA, comparison with commercial ELISA kits, diagnostic tools, culling of heavy shedders recommended, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, P.K.; Singh, A.V.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Comparative efficacy of an indigenous 'inactivated vaccine' using highly pathogenic field strain of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' with a commercial vaccine for the control of Capri-paratuberculosis in India. Vaccine. 2007; 25(41): 7102-7110. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) is endemic in goatherds located at Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, since 1979 and lately it has been reported from farmer's herds in equal frequencies. Despite using test and slaughter method for the control of JD for more than 25 years in these herds, incidence of JD has not been reduced. Efficacy of 'indigenous vaccine' containing native 'Bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was compared with commercial vaccine using challenge studies with homologous strain of MAP. Goat kids (85) were randomly divided in to three groups. Kids were vaccinated with 1 ml of vaccine subcutaneously and Sham-immunized with 1 ml of sterile PBS. All kids except 3 in each group were challenged twice at 75- and 275-day post- vaccination (DPV). Four goats each from three groups were sacrificed at 200-day post-challenge to evaluate carcass and histopathologically for vaccine and challenge response in kids of different groups. Samples (blood, serum and fecal) were screened for LTT, ELISA and shedding of bacilli and data on live animal traits, mortality and experimental sacrifice were compared. Average body weights gained by goats in three groups at different stages of trials (0 1-75 76-2757 276-425 DPV) showed marked improvements in performance of vaccinated groups over 'Sham-immunized' group. Effect of vaccines against challenge became visible in terms of body weights gained at 276-425 DPV ('Bison' group gained significantly higher body weights than 'Sham-immunized'). Mortality was significantly less in two vaccinated as compared to 'Sham-immunized'. Vaccinated groups also had significant stimulation and sero-conversion for cell mediated and Immoral immune response, respectively as compared to 'Sham-immunized'. Results of post-challenged fecal culture showed significant reduction in shedding of MAP in both vaccinated groups than in 'Sham-immunized'. There was significant improvement in external and internal body traits and histological lesions in case of vaccinated than 'Sham-immunized' group. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: goats, fecal culture, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Bison-type strain, used for indigenious vaccine, post vaccination challenge, reduced pathogen shedding, infection, immune response, chemical coordination and homeostasis, pharmacognosy, pharmacology, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, P.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Kumar, S.; Vohra, J. Sero-prevalence of paratuberculosis in young kids using 'Bison type', Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen in plate ELISA. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 July; 70(2-3): 89-92. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.11.019
NAL Call No .: SF380.I52
Abstract : Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antigens (native--S 5, 'Bison type' and commercial antigens 'Bovine'), were compared for screening of kids against paratuberculosis infection. Using MAP (S 5) antigen ('Bison type') in plate ELISA, 47 serum samples driven from farmer's herds of Jakhrana, Sirohi, and Marwari breeds in their home tract in Rajasthan state were screened. Of the 47 kids randomly sampled, 8.5% were found sero-positive by plate ELISA test. Breed-wise sero-prevalence was 10.5%, 7.6%, and nil in the Jakhrana, Sirohi, and Marwari male kids, respectively. Whereas, none of the serum sample was found positive using commercial MAP 'Bovine' antigen. Sero-prevalence of paratuberculosis has been found to be low in young kids (2 months old) belonging to the farmer's herds of Jakhrana and Marwari in their home tracts.
Descriptors: goat kids, goat diseases, Jakhrana and Marwari breeds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, pathotypes, goat breeds, disease detection, disease diagnosis, serodiagnosis, screening, immunologic techniques, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, bacterial antigens, serotypes, plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, P.K..; Singh, A.V.; Sohal, J.S.; Subodh, Swati; Narayanasamy, K. Non-chemical method of DNA recovery and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using IS900PCR. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007; 45(9): 812-816. ISSN: 0019-5189
URL: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijeb/ijeb0.asp
NAL call no.: 442.8 IN2
Descriptors: cattle, humans, raw milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, methods, DNA from stunted colonies.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, R.; Misra, S.; Shukla, N.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Sharma, S.; Kumar, H.; Patil, P.K.; Sandhu, K.S. Real time estimates of seroprevalence of Johne's disease in farmer's and farm goat herds in North India, using indigenous ELISA kit and faecal culture. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(11): 1074-1079. ISSN: 0367-8318
Abstract: Real time seroprevalence of Johne's disease was estimated in farmer's (UP and Punjab) and farm goat herds (UP) using indigenous ELISA kit and culture (2000-2006). In 72 randomly selected villages (UP) there were 4.81 livestock per farmer's family. Per cent preference for buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep was 54.7, 22.1, 21.5, and 1.5, respectively. Of 976 animals sampled, 153 serum were from goats. Of the 876 animals from farmer's herds reported to Department of Epidemiology ( Veterinary College, Ludhiana) in the year 2004, 177 samples were from goats. All the 330 serum samples from farmer's goat herds (UP and Punjab) were screened by indigenous ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of JD in farmer's goat herds in North India was 21.5%. Seroprevalence of JD in farmer's goat herds of UP was 32.6% (30.9% in South and 50.0% in West Uttar Pradesh). In South Uttar Pradesh, seroprevalence of JD was higher in young goats (47.6%) compared to adults (27.9%). In Ludhiana ( Punjab), the seroprevalence was 15.2% in goats. An outbreak of Johne's disease was investigated in a commercial goat farm located in Mathura district in 2006. Of 35 goats sampled, 77.1% (80.0% kids and 75.0% adult) were positive in culture. Of 77.1% positives, 65.7 and 11.4% cultures were pauci and multi-bacillary, respectively. In ELISA kit, 40.0% (14/35) animals were sero-positives. Of the 14 goats positive in ELISA, only 71.4% were detected in culture. Of the 7 low positives, 7 suspected and 7 sero-negative goats, 6, 5 and 6 (80.9%) were positive in culture, respectively. Faecal culture was highly sensitive as compared to ELISA kit in detecting Johne's disease from clinical cases. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA kit with respect to faecal culture (Gold Standard), was 37.0 and 50.0%, respectively. Outbreak of weakness and diarrhoea on a commercial goat farm (20.2.06) was confirmed as caused due to Johne's disease by faecal culture and ELISA kit. High prevalence of JD in farmer's and farm goat herds is alarming and a major cause of low per goat productivity. In absence of diagnostic kits and reagents, the ELISA kit using protoplasmic antigen from native MAP' Bison type' genotype was rapid and fairly efficient 'screening test'. This is the first report of real time survey of Johne's disease in farmer's and farm goat herds in 2 important agro-states of North India. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, goat herds, diagnosis, diagnostic-techniques, diarrhea, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ELISA, epidemiology, feces, outbreaks, seroprevalence, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, fecal testing, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, India.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Singh, R.; Sandhu, K.S.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S. Comparison of multiple diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis in lactating cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(11): 1115-1117. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, lactating dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, multiple diagnostic tests for Johne’s disease, milk ELISA kit, IS900 PCR for fecal culture, milk culture, test comparative study, test effectiveness, test specificity.

Singh, U.M.; Tripathi, B.N.; Paliwal, O.P. Status of caprine paratuberculosis at organised and unorganised farms of Nepal. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(9): 852-854. ISSN: 0367-8318
URL: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijeb/ijeb0.asp
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22
Descriptors: goats, organized and unorganized farming systems, disease levels, comparison study, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Nepal.

Singh, U.P.; Singh, S.; Singh, R.; Karls, R.K.; Quinn, F.D.; Potter, M.E.; Lillard, J.W. Jr. Influence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on colitis development and specific immune responses during disease. Infection and Immunity. 2007; 75(8): 3722-3728. ISSN: 0019-2119.
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: The granulomatous and intramural inflammation observed in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and veterinary Johne's disease suggests that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a causative agent. However, an incomplete understanding of the immunological steps responsible for the pathologies of IBD makes this conclusion uncertain. Sera from interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice with spontaneous colitis displayed significantly higher M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immunoglobulin G2a antibody responses than did sera from similar mice without disease. Pathogen-free IL-10-/- mice received control vehicle or the vehicle containing heat-killed or live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mucosal CD4+ T cells from the mice that developed colitis proliferated and secreted higher levels of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha after ex vivo stimulation with a V beta 11+ T-cell receptor-restricted peptide from the MPT59 antigen (Ag85B) than those secreted from cells from mice before the onset of colitis. The data from this study provide important information regarding the mechanisms of colitis in IL-10-/- mice, which are driven in part by Ag85B-specific T cells. The data suggest a plausible mechanism of Ag-specific T-cell responses in colitis driven by potent Ags conserved in Mycobacterium species.
Descriptors: mice, animal models, colitis, immune response, inflammation, interleukin-10; laboratory animals, T lymphocytes, T cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, Johne's disease.

Sivakumar, P.; Nem-Singh; Tripathit, B.N.; Praveena, P.E.; Saravanan, D. Seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in Indian buffaloes. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2007; 31(1): 62-63. Print ISSN: 0050-4758. E-ISSN: 0873-970X
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&volume=31&issue=1&article=017
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in Indian buffaloes. 365 sera samples were tested by absorbed-ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion test developed in the laboratory for the detection of antibodies specific to paratuberculosis. Absorbed-ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion test showed that 14.5 and 3.2% of the sera were positive for paratuberculosis, respectively. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: buffaloes, seroprevalence of Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antibodies testing, absorbed ELISA, disease surveys; paratuberculosis, India.

Skoric, M.; Shitaye, E. J.; Halouzka, R.; Fictum, P.; Trcka, I.; Heroldova, M.; Tkadlec, E.; Pavlik, I. Tuberculous and tuberculoid lesions in free living small terrestrial mammals and the risk of infection to humans and animals: a review. Veterinarni Medicina. 2007; 52(4): 144-161. ISSN: 0375-8427
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: small terrestrial mammals, rodents, infectious agents, tuberculosis and tuberculoid lesions, pathogenesis, Mycobacterium, Brucella, brucellosis, Francisella tularensis, tularaemia, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella, salmonellosis, literature reviews.

Skovgaard,-Niels. New trends in emerging pathogens. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2007; 120(3): 217-224. ISSN: 0168-1605
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681605
NAL Call No.: QR115.I57
Abstract: The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The 'demerging' of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as minimally processed foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer.
Descriptors: food borne pathogens, food safety, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD, etc., better understanding of pathogens needed, emerging pathogens, reactions of pathogens to stressors and sublethal treatments, contagious resistance, minimally processed foods, quorum sensing in intestinal colonization, contamination of food processing equipment, opportunistic pathogens, probiotics, etc.

Smeed, J.A.; Watkins, C.A.; Rhind, S.M;. Hopkins, J. Differential cytokine gene expression profiles in the three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis. BMC Veterinary Research. 2007; 3(18): (14 August 2007). ISSN: 1746-6148
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1746-6148-3-18.pdf
Abstract: Background - Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual death. Three forms of Johne's disease have been described in sheep - paucibacillary, multibacillary and asymptomatic. The paucibacillary form is characterized by an inflammatory, Th1-type immune response. The multibacillary form of the disease, which disseminates the infection, is characterized by macrophage infiltration mediated by a Th2-type immune response, and asymptomatic animals have no clinical symptoms or pathology but are infected with MAP. What determines these three forms of the disease is unknown. To further understand these differences, we used realtime RT-PCR to compare the expression of thirteen cytokine and cytokine-related genes in ileal tissue from sheep with the three forms of the disease. Results - Three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis were defined on the basis of histopathology, cytochemistry (Zeihl-Neelsen) and IS900 PCR. Paucibacillary lesions have largely T cell and eosinophil infiltration and are ZN negative; multibacillary lesions have macrophage infiltration and large numbers of acid-fast bacteria. The pauci- and multibacillary forms are linked to the differential expression of IFN gamma and IL-10 respectively. In addition the increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and TNF alpha ), IL-8, IL-18 and TRAF-1 in both diseased forms is indicative of persistent inflammatory lesions. No changes were seen in IL-1 alpha in any sheep ileum tissues. Asymptomatic animals are IS900+ with normal histology but have significantly decreased levels of IL-18 and increased levels TNF alpha. Conclusions - We have quantified the expression levels of thirteen cytokine and cytokine related genes in three forms of ovine paratuberculosis using real-time PCR analyses and confirm that sheep pauci- and multibacillary disease are linked to type 1 and type 2 T cell responses respectively. The expression patterns of other cytokines shows that both disease forms have an inflammatory aetiology but that the central role for IL-1 alpha in bovine paratuberculosis is not seen in the sheep infection. Asymptomatic animals are infected and show no pathology but can be distinguished, in terms of cytokine expression pattern, from uninfected controls.
Descriptors: sheep, cytokines, gene expression, genes, histopathology, immunogenetics, interferon, interleukin 10, interleukins, macrophages, paratuberculosis, T lymphocytes, interleukin 8, Johne's disease, T cells.

Sohal, J.S.; Singh, S.V.; Subhodh, Swati; Singh, A.V.; Singh, P.K.; Sheoran, Neelam; Sandhu, Komal; Narayansamy, K.; Maitra, A. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis diagnosis and strain typing - Present status and future developments. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007; 45(10): 843-852. ISSN: 0019-5189
URL: http://www.niscair.res.in/ScienceCommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijeb/ijeb0.asp
NAL call no.: 442.8 IN2
Descriptors : ruminant pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, strain typing tools, advantages of methods compared, literature review.

Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A.; Sreevatsan, S.; Weiss, D.J. Cell membrane receptors on bovine mononuclear phagocytes involved in phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 Sept; 68(9): 975-980. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To determine cell membrane receptors involved in phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms. Sample Population - Monocytes were obtained from healthy adult Holstein dairy cows that were test negative for MAP infection on the basis of bacteriologic culture of feces and serologic test results. Procedures - Monocytes or bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) cells were incubated with MAP organisms for 30, 60, or 120 minutes with or without inhibitors of integrins, CD14, or mannose receptors. Phagocytosis was evaluated by light microscopy or by flow cytometry. CD11a/CD18, CD11b, and CD14 expression on monocytes and BoMac cells was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Results - Monocytes and BoMac cells rapidly phagocytized MAP organisms. However, compared with BoMac cells, monocytes had a greater total capacity to phagocytize MAP organisms. Addition of neutralizing anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b) substantially inhibited phagocytosis by monocytes during the first 60 minutes of incubation with MAP organisms, but were less effective at 120 minutes of incubation. Anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies were less effective in inhibiting phagocytosis by BoMac cells. Addition of inhibitors of CD14 or mannose receptors also inhibited phagocytosis of MAP by monocytes. Addition of a combination of integrin and mannose inhibitors had an additive effect in reducing phagocytosis, but addition of integrin and CD14 inhibitors did not have an additive effect. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Multiple receptors are involved in phagocytosis of MAP organisms. Although CD11/CD18 receptors appear to be the major receptors used by MAP at early time points, mannose receptors and CD14 also contribute substantially to phagocytosis.
Descriptors: cattle blood cells, mononuclear phygocytes, membrace receptors, phagocytosis of bacterial cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A.; Weiss, D.J. Role of the MAPK(ERK) pathway in regulation of cytokine expression by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis-exposed bovine monocytes. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 June; 68(6): 625-630. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: dairy cows, monocytes, in vitro studies, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, cytokines, protein synthesis, biochemical pathways, mitogen activated protein kinase, signal transduction, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, messenger RNA, gene expression, antimicrobial properties.

Stabel, J.R.; Kimura, K.; Robbe-Austerman, S. Augmentation of secreted and intracellular gamma interferon following johnin purified protein derivative sensitization of cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 43-51. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Measurement of secreted interferon (IFN)- gamma has proven to be a valuable tool for the detection of animals infected with mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Previous reports have suggested that tuberculin skin testing can influence the performance of the IFN- gamma assay. In the present study, healthy noninfected cows, and cows subclinically and clinically infected with M. paratuberculosis were administered an intradermal injection of johnin purified protein derivative (JPPD) and effects on secreted and intracellular IFN- gamma were observed. Intradermal injection resulted in significant increases in secreted IFN- gamma for subclinically infected cows after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with concanavalin A or M. paratuberculosis antigen preparations (whole-cell sonicate and JPPD) on days 7 and 10 postinjection. Intracellular IFN- gamma was increased after intradermal injection in total PBMC for all treatment groups and was higher within CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations for infected cows compared to healthy controls throughout the study. When T-cell populations were further defined by CD45RO expression, intracellular IFN- gamma was higher within CD8+/CD45RO+ lymphocytes compared to CD4+/CD45RO+ cells for subclinically and clinically infected cows but similar within these subpopulations for healthy controls. These results indicate that intradermal sensitization of cows in the subclinical stage of infection will upregulate expression of IFN- gamma , enhancing the sensitivity of this assay. In addition, CD8+ lymphocytes appear to play an important role as a mediator of M. paratuberculosis infection in naturally exposed cattle. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cows, natural infection, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, secreted IFN-gamma, detection for paratuberculosis, effects of tuberculin skin testing on IFN testing, johnin purified protein derivative (JPPD, intradermal injection, infected and non-infected animals, comparison study, CD8+ cells, serological diagnosis, T4 lymphocytes.

Stanley, Emma C.; Mole, Richard J.; Smith, Rebecca J.; Glenn, Sarah M.; Barer, Michael R; McGowan, Michael; Rees, Catherine E.D. Development of a new, combined rapid method using phage and PCR for detection and identification of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacteria within 48 Hours. Applied and Environmental Microbiology--AEM. 2007 Mar 15; 73(6): 1851-1857. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: The FASTPlaqueTB assay is an established diagnostic aid for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human sputum samples. Using the FASTPlaqueTB assay reagents, viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected as phage plaques in just 24 h. The bacteriophage used does not infect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis alone, so to add specificity to this assay, a PCR-based identification method was introduced to amplify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sequences from the DNA of the mycobacterial cell detected by the phage. To give further diagnostic information, a multiplex PCR method was developed to allow simultaneous amplification of either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. tuberculosis complex-specific sequences from plaque samples. Combining the plaque PCR technique with the phage-based detection assay allowed the rapid and specific detection of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk samples in just 48 h.
Descriptors: FASTPlaqueTB assay, diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, plaque PCR technique, phage-based detection assay, rapid detection, viable pathogen cells in milk.

Stephan, R. Diagnostische Systeme zum Nachweis von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.[Diagnostic systems for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.] Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. 2007; 2(2): 222-227. ISSN: 1661-5751. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.bvl.bund.de
NAL Call No.: TX531.J68
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the aetiological agent for bovine paratuberculosis also known as Johne's disease. The infection of domestic food animals with MAP organisms is associated with significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide through subclinical effects and subsequent death of the affected animals. The suggestions by some investigators of a possible link between human Crohn's disease and MAP has led to increased awareness of these micro-organisms as far as public health is concerned. However, due to the complex nature of human Crohn's disease as well as conflicting experimental evidence, a definitive link between MAP and Crohn's disease can neither be confirmed nor discarded at present. The classical detection method is based on isolation of MAP organisms from samples by culture techniques. However, this approach is labour intensive and time consuming. Moreover, this approach may underestimate or fail to detect MAP organisms as a result of the chemical decontamination step involved in order to prevent culture overgrowth by competing microflora. This step may also be deleterious to the MAP organisms in the sample. Immunology based detection methods are faster than culture, but are hampered by low sensitivity and cross reactivity problems. PCR provide a rapid alternative for qualitative and sensitive detection of MAP. Hence, to date a number of conventional PCR assays designed for MAP detection have been described. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, humans, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, etiology, analytical methods, disease detection methods, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, PCR, immunodiagnosis, methodology.

Stephan, R.; Schumacher, S.; Tasara, T.; Grant, I.R. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Swiss raw milk cheeses collected at the retail level. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Aug; 90(8): 3590-3595. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract : A total of 143 raw milk cheese samples (soft cheese, n = 9; semihard cheese, n = 133; hard cheese, n = 1), collected at the retail level throughout Switzerland, were tested for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by immunomagnetic capture plus culture on 7H10-PANTA medium and in supplemented BAC-TEC 12B medium, as well as by an F57-based real-time PCR system. Furthermore, pH and water activity values were determined for each sample. Although no viable MAP cells could be cultured, 4.2% of the raw milk cheese samples tested positive with the F57-based real-time PCR system, providing evidence for the presence of MAP in the raw material. As long as the link between MAP and Crohn's disease in humans remains unclear, measures designed to minimize public exposure should also include a focus on milk products.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, hard cheeses, semisoft cheeses, soft cheeses, cheese milk, raw milk, grocery stores, immunomagnetic separation, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, bacterial contamination, food contamination, food safety, food quality, food microbiology, Switzerland.

Stewart, D.J.; Vaughan, J.A.; Stiles, P.L.; Noske, P.J.; Tizard, M.L.V.; Prowse, S.J.; Michalski, W.P.; Butler, K.L.; Jones, S.L. A long-term bacteriological and immunological study in Holstein-Friesian cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and necropsy culture results for Holstein-Friesian cattle, Merino sheep and Angora goats. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 May 16; 122(1-2): 83-96. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.12.030
NAL Call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The aims were to longitudinally evaluate the interferon-d (IFN-d) test in comparison to faecal culture and the absorbed ELISA in a cattle infection model for Johne's disease and to determine the adult infection status, by necropsy and tissue culture, of sheep, goats and cattle infected as young animals. Clinical disease, faecal culture results and immunological responses for Merino sheep [Stewart, D.J., Vaughan, J.A., Stiles, P.L., Noske, P.J., Tizard, M.L.V., Prowse, S.J., Michalski, W.P., Butler, K.L., Jones, S.L., 2004. A long-term study in Merino sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies. Vet. Microbiol. 104, 165-178] and Angora goats [Stewart, D.J., Vaughan, J.A., Stiles, P.L., Noske, P.J., Tizard, M.L.V., Prowse, S.J., Michalski, W.P., Butler, K.L., Jones, S.L., 2006. A long-term study in Angora goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies. Vet. Microbiol. 113, 13-24], in the same experiments as the Holstein-Friesian cattle, have been described. Two longitudinal experiments involving Holstein-Friesian cattle challenged with either bovine or ovine strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) have been conducted over a period of 54 and 35 months, respectively. Blood samples for the IFN-d test and the absorbed ELISA and faecal samples for bacteriological culture were taken pre-challenge and monthly post-challenge. Cell-mediated (CMI) responses were substantially higher for the bovine Map strain during the 42-month period following dosing but then declined in the remaining 12 months. However, for the ovine Map challenge and control groups, CMI responses were not significantly different from each other. None of the cattle developed clinical disease and only one of the cattle in the bovine Map gut mucosal tissue challenged group was a persistent faecal shedder and also an ELISA antibody responder which developed after shedding commenced. Culture of tissues, following necropsy at the completion of the experiments, showed no evidence of infection in any of the challenged cattle and sheep for either the bovine or ovine Map strain in contrast to positive cultures for challenged goats in the same experiments. The tissues from the control cattle, sheep and goats were culture negative. The cattle were less susceptible to the bovine and ovine Map strains than goats and sheep with the goats being the least naturally resistant.
Descriptors: Merino sheep, Holstein cattle, Angora goats, paratuberculosis, bovine and ovine Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenicity, disease resistance, cell mediated immunity, species differences, epidemiological studies, longitudinal studies, in vivo studies, in vitro studies, diagnostic techniques, immunologic techniques, interferons, gamma interferon.

Stratmann, Janin; Dohmann, Karen; Heinzmann, Julia; Gerlach, Gerald F. Peptide aMptD-mediated capture PCR for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology AEM. 2006 Aug; 72(8): 5150-5158. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: A peptide-mediated capture PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples was developed and characterized. Capture of the organism was performed using peptide aMptD, which had been shown to bind to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MptD protein (J. Stratmann, B. Strommenger, R. Goethe, K. Dohmann, G. F. Gerlach, K. Stevenson, L. L. Li, Q. Zhang, V. Kapur, and T. J. Bull, Infect. Immun. 72:1265-1274, 2004). Consistent expression of the MptD receptor protein and binding of the aMptD ligand were demonstrated by capturing different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I and type II strains and subsequent PCR analysis using ISMav2-based primers. The analytical sensitivity of the method was determined to be 5 x 10 superscript 2(B CFU ml superscript -1(B for artificially contaminated milk. The specificity of aMptD binding was confirmed by culture and competitive capture assays, showing selective enrichment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (at a concentration of 5 x 10 superscript 2(B CFU ml superscript -1(B) from samples containing 100- and 1,000-fold excesses of other mycobacterial species, including M. avium subsp. avium and M.avium subsp. hominissuis. The aMptD-mediated capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using paramagnetic beads, followed by culture, demonstrated the ability of this approach to capture viable target cells present in artificially contaminated milk. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the aMptD peptide is a high-affinity ligand with a calculated association rate constant of 9.28 x 10 superscript 3(B and an association constant of 1.33 x 10 superscript 9(B. The potential use of the method on untreated raw milk in the field was investigated by testing 423 bulk milk samples obtained from different dairy farms in Germany, 23 of which tested positive. Taken together, the results imply that the peptide-mediated capture PCR might present a suitable test for paratuberculosis screening of dairy herds, as it has an analytical sensitivity sufficient for detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples under field conditions, relies on a defined and validated ligand-receptor interaction, and is adaptable to routine diagnostic laboratory automation.
Descriptors: bulk milk, bacterial contamination, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; polymerase chain reaction, PCR, microbial detection, peptides, control methods, disease control, disease surveillance, dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, dairy herds, peptide mediated capture polymerase chain reaction, peptide aMptD.

Su,Chun Lung; Gardner, I.A.; Johnson, W.O. Bayesian estimation of cluster-level test accuracy based on different sampling schemes. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 2007; 12(2): 250-271. ISSN: 1085-7117
URL: http://miranda.asa.catchword.org/vl=7700313/cl=13/nw=1/rpsv/cw/asa/10857117/v12n2/s7/p250
NAL Call No.: S566.55.J68
Abstract: We develop Bayesian models to estimate cluster-level test characteristics, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, and predictive values, based on four different sampling schemes: a single test case and three sequential test cases. The corresponding cluster-level characteristics are calculated and compared for different sample sizes, sampling schemes, individual-level sensitivities, specificities, and cut-off values. We compared posterior estimates of individual-level and cluster-level characteristics for these four sampling schemes with simulated data. Two illustrations, one for Johne's disease in cattle and another for Salmonella in pig herds, are used to demonstrate application of the methods..
Descriptors: cattle, hogs, ruminants, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, salmonellosis, accuracy of disease estimates, Bayesian theory, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis.

Swan, H.; Godden, S.; Bey, R.; Wells, S.; Fetrow, J.; Chester-Jones, H. Passive transfer of immunoglobulin G and preweaning health in Holstein calves fed a commercial colostrum replacer. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Aug; 90(8): 3857-3866. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to describe passive transfer of IgG and preweaning health in newborn calves fed a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum replacement (CR) product or maternal colostrum (MC). Twelve commercial Holstein dairy farms enrolled singleton newborn heifer calves to be fed fresh MC (n = 239 calves) or one dose of CR containing 125 g of Ig (n = 218 calves) as the first colostrum feeding. For 7 of these farms that routinely provided a second feeding of 1.9 L of MC to their calves 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding, calves assigned to the CR treatment group were offered a second feeding consisting of 1.9 L of commercial milk replacer supplemented with one dose of a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum supplement, containing 45 g of Ig per dose, 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding. A blood sample was collected from all calves between 1 to 8 d of age for serum IgG and total protein (TP) determination, and records of all treatment and mortality events were collected until weaning. Serum IgG and TP concentrations were significantly higher in calves fed MC (IgG = 14.8 pl 7.0 mg/mL; TP = 5.5 pl 0.7 g/dL) compared with calves fed CR (IgG = 5.8 pl 3.2 mg/mL; TP = 4.6 pl 0.5 g/dL). The proportion of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <10.0 mg/mL) was 28.0 and 93.1% in the MC and CR treatment groups, respectively. Though a trend was present, the proportion of calves treated for illness was not statistically different for calves fed MC (51.9%) vs. CR (59.6%). Total number of days treated per calf (MC = 1.7; CR = 2.0), treatment costs per calf (MC = $10.84; CR = $11.88), and proportion of calves dying (MC = 10.0%; CR = 12.4%) was not different between the 2 colostrum treatment groups. The mean serum total protein concentration predictive of successful passive transfer (serum IgG = 10 mg/mL) was 5.0 g/dL in calves fed MC or CR. Long-term follow-up of these calves (to maturity) is ongoing to describe the effects of feeding CR on longevity, productivity, risk for Johne's disease, and economics.
Descriptors: Holstein calves, risk of Johne’s disease, neonates, passive immunity, immunoglobulin G; weaning, animal health, calf feeding, colostrum, colostrum replacement, ruminant nutrition, experimental diets.

Szteyn, J; Wiszniewska aszczych, A; Ruszczynska, A.l. PCR w wykrywaniu Mycobacterium paratuberculosis w mleku surowym.[PCR method for detecting Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk samples.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 2007; 63(9): 1106-1107. ISSN: 0025-8628. Note: In Polish with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 M463
Abstract: The aim of the study was to detect Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in raw milk samples. DNA from 103 udder milk samples was isolated using the eQIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). IS-900 - a part of genome characteristic for MAP - was detected in 21 samples.
Descriptors: lactating cows, milk comtamination, raw milk sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, PCR diagnostic techniques; food-safety, Poland.

Taghipour-Bazargani, T.; Charkhkar, S.; Sadeghi, F.; Khalaj, M.; Rashtibaf, M.; Bagheri, M.; Bazargani, M. Protective effect of Johne's disease attenuated vaccine in an intensive non-tuberculosis free dairy. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 8(2): 161-165. ISSN: 1728-1997. Note: In English with a Persian summary.
URL: http://www.shirazu.ac.ir/en/index.php?page_id=60
Descriptors: dairy cattle herd, calves, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine tuberculosis, attenuated live vaccines, vaccine development, adverse effects, immune response, immunity, immunization, live vaccines, vaccination, vaccine development, culling of sick animals, inflammation at site of inoculation.

Tavasoly, A.; Moosavi, Z.; Taghipour-Bazargani, T.; Bazargani, M. Accidental self-inoculation in a veterinarian with attenuated vaccine of bovine Johne's disease. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 8(4): 374-376, Pe389-390. Note: In English with a Persian summary.
Abstract: Herein, we described the first case of self-inoculation in a veterinarian with bovine Johne's disease (BJD) attenuated vaccine in Iran that required medical attention. A needle-stick injury to the right thumb of a young veterinarian during vaccination of cattle with BJD vaccine resulted in an inflammation that not only failed to resolve but also progressed to a lesion 2.5 cm in diameter. The usual conservative treatment of this wound was not effective. Surgical intervention for debridement of the inflammatory tissue was not performed. For diagnosis of lesion, needle biopsy was prepared from the inflamed tissue mass. Histopathologic examination revealed a tuberculoid granulomatous inflammation without any caseous necrosis. The wound healed by taking rifampin. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : veterinarians, risk of exposure to biohazards in the workplace, case study, needle stick accident, live vaccine for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, case-reports, clinical aspects, lesion formation, inflammation, histopathology, iatrogenic diseases, occupational hazards, treatment with rifampicin, Iran.

Taylor , A.J. Live cattle exports - our time is now!Cattle Practice. 2007; 15(1): 67-71. ISSN: 0969-1251
URL: http://www.bcva.org.uk
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Abstract: After a ban lasting 17 years, the export of live cattle from the UK has once again been permitted since 3 May 2006. However, eight months later, we still only have access to the other 26 EU Member States and one Third Country, namely Switzerland. Whilst the UK has been concentrating its efforts on controlling BSE, other countries have made great strides towards eliminating some of the production disease such as IBR, BVD and Johne's Disease. Unless the UK cattle industry now turns its attention to eradicating those diseases from the UK cattle herd, breeders may find that the newly opened door is shut in their faces once again. Transport rules have been substantially changed since we last exported live cattle and exporters must learn to cope with all the new welfare friendly regulations. Reproduced by permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: beef cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE, bovine diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Johne’s disease, mucosal disease, disease control, export controls, import controls, animal quarantine, regulations, European Union; Switzerland, UK.

Taylor , D.L.; Thomson, P.C.; De Silva, K.; Whittington, R.J. Validation of endogenous reference genes for expression profiling of RAW264.7 cells infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by quantitative PCR. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Jan 15; 115(1-2): 43-55. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.10.007
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Reference genes are frequently used to normalize between different biological samples the levels of mRNA measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression level of many commonly used reference genes has been shown to vary between tissues or cells, or following exposure to various treatments including infection with microbes. The selection of an appropriate reference gene for an individual experiment is therefore a crucial step in the process of accurately determining changes in gene expression. For this purpose, we analyzed the expression of nine commonly used reference genes in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, for their potential use in the analysis of differential gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) following experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Only one of nine putative reference genes tested, casc3a, was found to be suitable, and combinations of two or more reference genes were disadvantageous. Based on data from the study, we recommend an approach for selection of reference genes, conducting assays with technical replicates in duplicate rather than triplicate, determining decision-limit quality control criteria for technical replicates and assessing the significance of gene expression fold differences using (SEE(BCt based on knowledge of the variation in the reference gene.
Descriptors: mice, cell lines, validity, immunology, gene expression, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, messenger RNA, quantitative analysis, genes, RAW264.7 cells.

Thibault, Virginie C.; Grayon, Maggy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Hubbans, Christine; Overduin, Pieter; Stevenson, Karen; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Supply, Philip; Biet, Franck. New variable-vumber tandem-repeat markers for typing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains: Comparison with IS900 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-JCM. 2007 Aug; 45(8): 2404-2410. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR46 .J6
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, affects a wide range of domestic ruminants and has been suggested to be involved in Crohn's disease in humans. Most available methods for identifying and differentiating strains of this difficult species are technically demanding and have limited discriminatory power. Here, we report the identification of novel PCR-based typing markers consisting of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements called mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs). Eight markers were applied to 183 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from bovine, caprine, ovine, cervine, leporine, and human origins from 10 different countries and to 82 human isolates of the closely related species M. avium from France. Among the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 21 patterns were found by MIRU-VNTR typing, with a discriminatory index of 0.751. The predominant R01 IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism type, comprising 131 isolates, was divided into 15 MIRU-VNTR types. Among the 82 M. avium isolates, the eight MIRU-VNTR loci distinguished 30 types, none of which was shared by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, resulting in a discriminatory index of 0.889. Our results suggest that MIRU-VNTR typing is a fast typing method that, in combination with other methods, might prove to be optimal for PCR-based molecular epidemiological studies of M. avium/M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogens. In addition, presumably identical M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis 316F vaccine strains originating from the Weybridge laboratory and from different commercial batches from Mcbrial actually differed by one or both typing methods. These results indicate a substantial degree of genetic drift among different vaccine preparations, which has important implications for prophylactic approaches.
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR-based typing markers, variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs), markers applied to 183 strains, isolates from cattle, sheep, deer, rabbits, hares, humans, procedure for typing strains, vaccine strains tested show genetic drift.

Thompson, B.R.; Clark, R.G.; Mackintosh, C.G. Intra-uterine transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in subclinically affected red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2007; 55(6): 308-313. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL : http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Abstract: AIM: To determine the rate of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. ptb) from hind to fetus in utero, and the risk of transmission from dam to fawn via infected colostrum and milk in subclinically affected red deer hinds. METHODS: Hinds were sourced from farms in Otago or Southland and selected for the study if they were positive to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Paralisa) and exhibited no clinical signs of Johne's disease. The hinds (n=35) were sent to a deer slaughter premises (DSP; n=31) or were killed on-farm (n=4). All post-mortem samples were collected from the fetus first and then from the dam, taking care to avoid cross contamination between samples. Fresh samples (n=185) were collected for culture, and tissue samples (n=72) were collected from 24 hinds and their fetuses for histopathological examination. RESULTS: A total of 24/35 hinds selected were suitable for inclusion in the study. Eighteen of these pregnant hinds were culture-positive for M. ptb, and 14 of these had culture-positive fetuses, representing a transmission rate of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.58-0.98) from dam to fetus. Of the 16 mammary glands sampled, 11 (69%) were culture-positive for M. ptb while 12/15 (80%) mammary lymph nodes sampled were also culture-positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a high rate of transmission of M. ptb from dam to fetus in red deer, and a potential risk of transmission to fawns suckling from mothers that are subclinically affected with Johne's disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: red deer , hinds, fetuses, Cervus elaphus, disease transmission via infected colostrum, ELISA, histopathology, IgG, milk, paratuberculosis, New Zealand.

Thompson, J.A.; Scott, H.M. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue-Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Dec; 48(12): 1281-1285. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL : http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Bayesian kriging, seroprevalence of pathogens, Alberta, Canada.

Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Dohoo, I.R.; Keefe, G.P.; Haddad, J.P.; Tremblay, R.; Scott, H.M.; Whiting, T. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Feb; 90(2): 659-669. ISSN: 0022-0302 .
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer >=1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research will contribute to understanding the economic impacts of these pathogens and justify their control.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, effects of various diseases on fats, milk, protein, serum antibody testing by many diagnostic tests, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), Neospora caninum, economic impacts of disease, Canada.

Toribio, J.A.; Sergeant, E.S.G. A comparison of methods to estimate the prevalence of ovine Johne's infection from pooled faecal samples. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Aug; 85(8): 317-324. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72k
Descriptors: sheep, flock health, ovine Johne’s disease, pooled fecal sampling, disease prevalence levels, diagnostic testing for paratuberculosis, Australia.

Traversa, M.J.; Alcobedo, J.; Schettino, D.M.; Sanz, H.E.; Rodriguez, E.M.; Olmos, M.R.; Jorge, M.C. Perdidas economicas de un rodeo con para tuberculosis en el oeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Argentina. [Economic losses due to paratuberculosis in a herd from the west of Buenos Aires province, Argentina.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2005; 25(Supl. 1): SA5. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, economic losses, paratuberculosis, Argentina.

Tschuor, A. Chronische Abmagerung von Ziegen und Schafen: Paratuberkulose? [Chronic wasting in goats and sheep: paratuberculosis?]Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2007; (10): 6-9, ISSN: 0429-2766. Note: In German and French.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Descriptors: goats, sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial pathogen describes, transmission between animals, clinical signs of disease, treatment, control, wasting condition, diarrhea.

Turenne, Christine Y.; Wallace, Richard Jr; Behr, Marcel A. Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2007; 20(2): 205-229,CP1. ISSN: 0893-8512
URL: http://cmr.asm.org/
Descriptors: human and animal pathogens, pathogen’s genetic variation, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain K-10, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium avium silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium hominissuis, Mycobacterium lapraemurium, Mycobacterium avium strain 104, functional understand of epidemiology pathogen subsets, relationships between members of this species, propensity to cause disease.

van den Driessche, P.; Wang, Lin; Zou, Xingfu. Modeling diseases with latency and relapse. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering. 2007; 4(2): 205-219. ISSN: 1547-1063
Descriptors: mathematical modes, exposed period and relapse, tuberculosis, human and animal pathogens, cattle, wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, probability of remaining in exposed class, etc., computational biology, endemic equilibrium, basic reproduction number, threshold property, probability function, step function.

Vansnick E.; Rijk, P. de; Vercammen, F.; Rigouts, L.; Portaels, F.; Geysen, D. A DNA sequence capture extraction method for detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in feces and tissue samples. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 May 16; 122(1-2): 166-171. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.011
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Culturing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) remains difficult and is time consuming. An alternative for the rapid detection of Map in samples is PCR. We have developed a sensitive DNA-extraction method based on sequence capture for the rapid detection of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis by PCR in fecal and tissue samples. The method detected 10po Map/g feces using spiked samples, and reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 33,7% compared to 22% for culture. Analysis of tissue samples gave 65 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive (42.2%) and 49 culture-positive samples (31.8%). Therefore, the detection limit of the DNA-extraction is the same as previously reported for culture, the PCR assay could detect more positive samples than the culture method.
Descriptors: red deer, Cervus elaphus, cattle, cattle diseases, ruminant diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, pathogen identification, disease detection, rapid methods, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, DNA, extraction, sequence analysis, microbial detection, feces, nucleotide sequences, tissue analysis, accuracy, validity, sequence capture, molecular sequence data.

Verna, A.E.; Garcia-Pariente, C.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, O.; Garcia-Marin, J.F.; Romano, M. I.; Paolicchi, F.; Perez, V. Variation in the immuno-pathological responses of lambs after experimental infection with different strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Zoonoses Public Health. 2007; 54(6-7): 243-252. ISSN: 1863-1959
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jvb?cookieSet=1
Descriptors : 1 month old lambs, experimental infections, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, different immuno-pathological responses, two bovine strains of Argentina, 1 Spanish strain, ovine strain, intestinal mucosa inoculum, lesion size and body location.

Villarino, M.A.; Jordan, E.R. Evaluation of disease-control measurements for Johne's disease in a Texas dairy. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 690. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy farm, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effectiveness of disease control measures, Texas.

Voelkel, I.; Urstadt, S.; Karapetyan, A.; Thebille, S.; Niederhausen, M.; Schmelz, F.; Czerny, C.P. Development of semi-nested and quantitative real time pool PCR methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in seropositive and seronegative dairy cows. International Journal of Medical Microbiology-IJMM. 2007; 297(Suppl. 43): 14. ISSN: 1438-4221. Note: 59th Annual Meeting of the Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Gottingen, Germany; September 30 -October 04, 2007.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14384221
NAL Call No.: QR1.Z443
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR method, detection test method, serum testing.

Wang Chong; Turnbull, B.W.; Grohn, Y.T.; Nielsen, S.S. Nonparametric estimation of ROC curves based on Bayesian models when the true disease state is unknown. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 2007; 12(1): 128-146. ISSN: 1085-7117
URL: http://miranda.asa.catchword.org/vl=7700313/cl=13/nw=1/rpsv/cw/asa/10857117/v12n1/s8/p128
NAL Call No.: S566.55.J68
Abstract: We develop a Bayesian methodology for nonparametric estimation of ROC curves used for evaluation of the accuracy of a diagnostic procedure. We consider the situation where there is no perfect reference test, that is, no "gold standard." The method is based on a multinomial model for the joint distribution of test-positive and test-negative observations. We use a Bayesian approach which assures the natural monotonicity property of the resulting ROC curve estimate. MCMC methods are used to compute the posterior estimates of the sensitivities and specificities that provide the basis for inference concerning the accuracy of the diagnostic procedure. Because there is no gold standard, identifiability requires that the data come from at least two populations with different prevalences. No assumption is needed concerning the shape of the distributions of test values of the diseased and nondiseased in these populations. We discuss an application to an analysis of ELISA scores in the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) for several herds of dairy cows and compare the results to those obtained from some previously proposed methods.
Descriptors: dairy cows, cattle, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Bayesian theory, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, paratuberculosis, testing, accuracy, detection, Monte Carlo method, statistical models, probability analysis, algorithms, estimation, Markov chain, specificity, sensitivity.

Wang, Hongyu; Aodon-geril; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Yuriko; Wang, Xiaofei; Mori, Yasuyuki; Momotani, Eiichi. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin expression in peripheral blood cells from experimentally infected cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Microbes and Infection. 2007; 9(9): 1061-1069. ISSN: 1286-4579
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12864579
NAL Call No.: QR180.M53
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, urocortin (UCN) neuropeptide, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), immune responses, expression in peripheral blood cells, uninfected and infected cattle, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods.

Warns, M.T.; Pfeltz, R.F. BACTEC (TM) MGIT (TM) 960 para TB system performance for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) recovery. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 738-739. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, BACTEC-MGIT-960-Para-TB automated liquid culture system, detection method for pathogen.

Weering, H. van; Schaik, G. van; Meulen A.van der; Waal, M.; Franken, P.; Maanen, K.van. Diagnostic performance of the Pourquier ELISA for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in individual milk and bulk milk samples of dairy herds. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Nov 15; 125(1-2): 49-58. ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.010
NAL Call No: SF601.V44
Abstract : The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic performance of the Pourquier ELISA for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in individual milk samples and in bulk milk samples. For individual milk samples the specificity of the Pourquier ELISA was estimated by testing a panel of individual milk samples from certified Map-free herds. The relative sensitivity of the assay in individual milk samples and agreement of the results with those of serum samples was estimated by testing panels of paired serum-milk samples from seropositive cattle, whole-herd investigations, and moderate or heavy shedders. The specificity of the ELISA for individual milk samples was still 99.8% at a cut-off of 20% sample to positive (S/P) value, clearly lower than the cut-off defined by the manufacturer (30% S/P). The relative sensitivity for individual milk samples as compared with positive serum samples was 87% for a cut-off of 20% S/P, and 80% for a cut-off of 30% S/P. The sensitivity of this ELISA for detection of high shedders was >90% both for individual milk and serum samples, also agreement was very good ( = 0.91 for all paired samples). The specificity of the Pourquier ELISA in bulk milk samples was investigated by testing bulk milk samples from certified Map-free herds. Feasibility of bulk milk testing was investigated by titrating ELISA positive individual milk samples in negative milk. In addition, 383 bulk milk samples from herds with a known within-herd seroprevalence were tested. The specificity of the ELISA for bulk milk samples was 100% at a cut-off of 12.5% S/P. At the cut-off recommended by the manufacturer (30% S/P) performance of the bulk milk ELISA related to herd status (>=2 seropositive cows) was rather poor, corresponding with a sensitivity of 24% and a specificity of 99% relative to serology. However, at the revised cut-off for bulk milk of 12.5% S/P and a within-herd seroprevalence of >=3%, sensitivity and specificity relative to serology were 85% and 96%, respectively. Given the current herd-level seroprevalence in The Netherlands, these test characteristics corresponded with positive and negative predictive values for bulk milk of 67% and 94%, respectively. In conclusion, the diagnostic performance of the Pourquier ELISA for individual milk samples creates opportunities for a cheaper and more feasible testing scheme, while the diagnostic performance for bulk milk samples warrants further consideration.
Descriptors: testing bovine milk samples, individual and bulk milk sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Pourquier ELISA test kit, diagnostic performance, The Netherlands.

Woo, Seng Ryong; Barletta, Raul G.; Czuprynski, Charles J. Extracellular ATP is cytotoxic to mononuclear phagocytes but does not induce killing of intracellular Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(9): 1078-1083. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, effect on viability of ATP, infected bovines, short-term effect of ATP on viability of M.A.P infected bovine mononuclear phagocytes and infecting bacilli.

Woo, Seng Ryong; Heintz, Joseph A; Albrecht, Ralph; Barletta, Raul G.; Czuprynski, Charles J. Life and death in bovine monocytes: The fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Microbial Pathogenesis. 2007; 43(2-3): 106-113. ISSN: 0882-4010
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08824010
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Descriptors: bovine monocytes, infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, 8 day incubation, staining of bacilli, Ca 2+/ CaM and P13 kinase inhibitors, survival of intracellular pathogen.

Wu, C. w.; Shin, S.; Talaat, A.M. Identification of novel virulence factors of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by transcriptome analysis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007;107: 685. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, virulence factors, gene expression profiling, transcriptome analysis, novel virulence factors.

Wu, Chia Wei; Livesey, Michael; Schmoller, Shelly K.; Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Steinberg, Howard; Davis, William C.; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Talaat, Adel M. Invasion and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during early stages of Johne's disease in calves. Infection and Immunity--IAI. 2007 May; 75(5): 2110-2119. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in cattle and is a serious problem for the dairy industry worldwide. Development of models to mimic aspects of Johne's disease remains an elusive goal because of the chronic nature of the disease. In this report, we describe a surgical approach employed to characterize the very early stages of infection of calves with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. To our surprise, strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were able to traverse the intestinal tissues within 1 h of infection in order to colonize distant organs, such as the liver and lymph nodes. Both the ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes were persistently infected for months following intestinal deposition of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis despite a lack of fecal shedding of mycobacteria. During the first 9 months of infection, humoral immune responses were not detected. Nonetheless, using flow cytometric analysis, we detected a significant change in the cells participating in the inflammatory responses of infected calves compared to cells in a control animal. Additionally, the levels of cytokines detected in both the ileum and the lymph nodes indicated that there were TH1-type-associated cellular responses but not TH2-type-associated humoral responses. Finally, surgical inoculation of a wild-type strain and a mutant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain (with an inactivated gcpE gene) demonstrated the ability of the model which we developed to differentiate between the wild-type strain and a mutant strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis deficient in tissue colonization and invasion. Overall, novel insights into the early stages of Johne's disease were obtained, and a practical model of mycobacterial invasiveness was developed. A similar approach can be used for other enteric bacteria.
Descriptors: calves, early stages of infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, spread of bacterial cells, ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, immune response, inflammatory responses, model for bacterial invasiveness.

Wu, Chia Wei; Schmoller, Shelly K.; Shin, Sung Jae; Talaat, Adel M. Defining the stressome of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in vitro and in naturally infected cows. Journal of Bacteriology. 2007; 189(21): 7877-7886. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL: http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes an enteric infection in cattle, with a great impact on the dairy industry in the United States and worldwide. Characterizing the gene expression profile of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to different stress conditions, or shed in cow feces, could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In this report, the stress response of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a genome-wide level (stressome) was defined for the first time using DNA microarrays. Expression data analysis revealed unique gene groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that were regulated under in vitro stressors while additional groups were regulated in the cow samples. Interestingly, acidic pH induced the regulation of a large number of genes (n = 597), suggesting the high sensitivity of M. avium subsp.paratuberculosis to acidic environments. Generally, responses to heat shock, acidity, and oxidative stress were similar in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting common pathways for mycobacterial defense against stressors. Several sigma factors (e.g., sigH and sigE) were differentially coregulated with a large number of genes depending on the type of each stressor. Subsequently, we analyzed the virulence of six M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutants with inactivation of differentially regulated genes using a marine model of paratuberculosis. Both bacterial and histopathological examinations indicated the attenuation of all gene mutants, especially those selected based on their expression in the cow samples (e.g., lipN). Overall, the employed approach profiled mycobacterial genetic networks triggered by variable stressors and identified a novel set of putative virulence genes. A similar approach could be applied to analyze other intracellular pathogens.
Descriptors: Holstein cows, natural infection, invitro stressors, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterial defense against stressors, stress response, pH range, BALB C mouse, intracellular pathogens.

Zhu, X.; Coussens, P.; Janagama, H.; Sreevatsan, S. Gene expression profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in primary monocyte derived macrophages. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2007; 107: 736-737. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada; 2007.
Descriptors: complimentary DNA library, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, BLAST analysis, gene expression oxidative-stress response, NCBI database, K-10 genome.

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2006



Alfaro, C; Rolo, M de; Clavijo, A; Valle, A. Caracterizacion de la paratuberculosis bovina en ganado doble proposito de los llanos de Monagas, Venezuela.[Characterization of bovine paratuberculosis in dual purpose cattle at the plains of Monagas state, Venezuela.] Zootecnia Tropical. 2006; 24(3): 321-332. ISSN: 0798-7269. Note:XIII congreso de Produccion e Industria Animal 2006. Maracay, Venezuela: Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP). In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?pid=0798-7269&script=sci_serial
NAL Call No.: SF1Z665
Abstract: The prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis in dual purpose cattle of Monagas plains, Venezuela was determined using the skin (Johnina) and ELISA tests. 30 animals from each of the 8 selected production systems in high and low agroecological zones were used in the study and analysed using the Z-test in establishing farm disease prevalence and risk factors. Results revealed that significant differences in disease prevalence among the farms were 4.16 and 72.15% using the Johnina and ELISA tests, respectively. A significant difference was observed between agroecologic zones with 61.7 and 82.25% for high and low plains, respectively. The farm management conditions were 69.9 and 77.3% for the open and close systems, respectively. It is concluded that disease control strategies should be applied for each production system to minimize zoonotic risk and economic losses. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, farm management, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, ELISA, intradermal tests, skin tests, serological diagnosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, immunodiagnosis, risk factors, Venezuela.

Animal Welfare Information Center ( U.S.). Disease Publications. Published by the Animal Welfare Information Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, National Agricultural Library. [ Beltsville, Md.]: [2006]. Note: Title from CD label. "March 2006." System requirements: CD-ROM drive. Contents: Avian influenza; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Johne's; Newcastle; Tuberculosis; West Nile virus; Zoonotic diseases.
NAL Call No.: aZ6674.D57 2006
Descriptors: a compilation of seven full text documents, information resources, bibliographic information, Web resources, zoonotic diseases, avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathies, BSE, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium diseases in animals, West Nile Virus.

Anonymous. 3rd Annual Meeting of the Israel Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology Association, Bet Dagan, Israel; 200412. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2006; 61(3-4): 97-98. ISSN: 0334-9152.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R25
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, livestock, swine, goats, sheep, dairy cattle, foxes, Vulpes vulpes, wolf, Canis lupus, golden jackal, Canis aureus, horses, Corynebacterium equi,Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Rhodococcus equi, Clostridium botulinus, humans, bacterial infections, epidemiology of disease, bacterial cell counting in milk, detection of Clostridium toxin antibodies, role of inducible nitric oxide in mycobacterial infections, Israel.

Aranaz, Alicia; De Juan, Lucia; Bezos, Javier; Alvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Lozano, Francisco; Paramio, Jose L.; Lopez-Sanchez, Jesus; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas. Assessment of diagnostic tools for eradication of bovine tuberculosis in cattle co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and M-avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Research (Les Ulis). 2006; 37(4): 593-606. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.vetres.org/content/view/104/116/lang,en/
NAL Call No. SF602.A5
Descriptors: cattle, wildlife, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, cattle herd with dual infections, testing performance of diagnostic tests, intradermal tuberculin (IDTB) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay, 3.5 year study, false positives, cross-reactivity, need for several diagnostic techniques in dual infections.

Arbuckle, B. Herd prevalence of Johne's disease. Veterinary Record. 2006; 159(19): 644. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
Descriptors: cattle, herd management, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, culling infected cattle, disease control, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease surveillance, UK.

Bach, Horacio; Sun, Jim; Hmama, Zakaria; Av Gay, Yossef. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA is an endogenous tyrosine phosphatase secreted during infection. Infection and Immunity IAI. 2006 Dec; 74(12): 6540-6546. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
Abstract: Adaptive gene expression in prokaryotes is mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. These regulatory proteins mediate phosphorylation of histidine or aspartate in two-component systems and serine/threonine or tyrosine in eukaryotic and eukaryote-like protein kinase systems. The genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, does not possess a defined tyrosine kinase. Nevertheless, it encodes for protein tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we report that Map1985, is a functional low-molecular tyrosine phosphatase that is secreted intracellularly upon macrophage infection. This finding suggests that Map1985 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dephosphorylating essential macrophage signaling and/or adaptor molecules.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, regulatory proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, pathogensis, dephosphorylation of host moleculres, Map1985, secreted intracellularily in macrophage infection,
 

Bae,YouChan; Kim, HaYoung; Kim, HeuiJin; Yoon, SoonSeek; Park, JungWon; Jean, YongHwa; Cho, KyoungOh; Kang, MunIl. Paratuberculosis in mouflon (Ovis musimon): a case report. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 46(3): 271-274. ISSN: Note: In Korean with an English summary.
Abstract: A 2-years-old female domesticated mouflon with a clinical history of chronic diarrhea and emaciation was submitted to NVRQS. Grossly, there were severe thickening of small intestine wall and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Microscopically, severe granulomatous inflammation was found in small and large intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver. By Ziehl-Neelsen stain, innumerable acid-fast rod bacteria were found in the cytoplasm of epithelioid and Langhans type giant cells present in these organs. By PCR assay with primer pair specific for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (IS 900) with small intestine sample, strong positive reaction was detected, although the organism was not isolated from this organ. Based on the results of histopathology and PCR, we concluded that the case was a typical paratuberculosis in mouflon. As far as we know, this is the first case report of paratuberculosis in mouflon in Korea.
Descriptors: mouflon, first case report, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques, PCR, histopathology, PCR, postmortem examinations, postmortem sampling, autopsy, Korea Republic.

Bannantine, J.P.; Waters, W.R.; Stabel, J.R.; Kapur, V.; Paustian, M.L. Development and use of a Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis partial protein array for discovery of novel antigens. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: cattle, rabbits, mice, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, novel antigens, partial protein array, bioassay techniques.
 

Bannantine, John P.; Paustian, Michael L. Identification of Diagnostic Proteins in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by a Whole Genome Analysis Approach. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, NJ. USA. 2006. ISSN: 1064-3745. ISBN: 158829594X
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, whole genome, diagnostic proteins, search for simple, rapid, non-invasive tests, 39 genes identified and amplified, serum antigens in cattle, protein antigens specific to paratuberculosis.

Barrett, D.J.; Good, M.; Hayes, M.; More, S.J. The economic impact of Johne's disease in an Irish dairy herd: a case study. Irish Veterinary Journal. 2006; 59(5): 282-288. ISSN: 0368-0762
URL: http://www.veterinary-ireland.org
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Descriptors: Irish dairy herd, epidemiological study, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, transmission from infected heifers from the Netherlands, feeding pooled colostrum milk, economic impact, reduced milk yields, culling infection animals, reduced cull cow values, case study, Ireland.

Barrington , G.M.; Allen, A.J.; Parish, S.M.; Tibary, A. Biosecurity and biocontainment in alpaca operations. Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 61(2/3): 217-225. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: alpacas, South American camelids production operations, measures to prevent introduction and spread of diseases, infectious diseases, coccidians, Giardia, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, prevention and treatment, proper nutrition, housing, implementation of appropriate vaccination program, cleaning and disinfection procedures, feeding, treatment of equipment, disease factors, South America.

Bartos, Milan; Hlozek, Pavel; Svastova, Petra; Dvorska, Lenka; Bull, Tim; Matlova, Ludmila; Parmova, Ilona; Kuhn, Isolde; Stubbs, Janine; Moravkova, Monika; Kintr, Jaromir; Beran, Vladimir; Melicharek, Ivan; Ocepek, Matjaz; Pavlik, Ivo. Identification of members of Mycobacterium avium species by Accu-Probes, serotyping, and single IS900, IS901, IS1245 and IS901-flanking region PCR with internal standards. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2006; 64(3): 333-345. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Abstract: From Mycobacterium avium species Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 961), Mycobacterium a. avium (n = 677), Mycobacterium a. silvaticum (n = 5), and Mycobacterium a. hominissuis (n = 1566) were examined, and from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex M. tuberculosis (n = 2), Mycobacterium bovis (n = 13), M. bovis BCG (n = 4), and Mycobacterium caprae (n = 10) were examined. From other mycobacterial species Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 60) and atypical mycobacteria (n = 256) including Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium gastri and other species of conditionally pathogenic mycobacteria were analysed. The internal standard molecules corresponding to insertion sequences IS900, IS901, IS1245, and flanking region (FR300) of IS901 were produced by PCR of alfalfa genome segment and inserted into plasmid vector. The resulting recombinant plasmid molecules were used as internal standards in coamplification with a total of 4729 mycobacterial collection strains and field isolates between 1996 and 2003. The size differences between amplicons obtained from IS900 (258 bp), IS901 (1108 bp), IS1245 (427 bp), and FR300 (300 bp) and from corresponding internal standard molecules ISIS900 (591 bp), ISIS901 (1336 bp), ISIS1245 (583 bp), and IS901 flanking region of 300 bp ISFR300 (488 bp), respectively, allowed easy discrimination. The internal amplicons were visible by naked aye on agarose gel when 10(1), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(2) molecules for ISIS900, ISIS901, ISIS 1245, and ISFR300 were used in the PCR, respectively, when no bacterial DNA was added to the reaction. The system was tested to define the amount of internal standards that could be used in the PCR without affecting the amplification of the specific segment. Non-specific amplifications were observed in M. fortuitum with IS1245 PCR and mixed infections with M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis from pigs and cattle were found. PCR results of typing were compared with serotyping and Accu-Probes analyses in selected field isolates. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: identification testing, many species of Mycobacterium, recombinant DNA vectors, 4719 strains and field isolates tested, amplifications, mixed infection of pigs and cattle, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium avium silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium hominissuis.

Basagoudanavar, S.H.; Goswami, P.P.; Tiwari, V. Cellular immune responses to 35 kDa recombinant antigen of Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosis. Veterinary Research Communications. 2006 May; 30(4): 357-367. ISSN: 0165-7380
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3253-0
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne disease, a chronic ulcerative intestinal condition in ruminant animals. Owing to the predominance of cellular response in subclinical forms of the infection, identification of M. a. paratuberculosis antigens eliciting host cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction is crucial for early control of the disease. A 35 kDa protein of M. a. paratuberculosis was studied for its ability to elicit CMI responses using a mouse model. Lymphoproliferation and IFN-(Sd(B response were used to measure the CMI response. Recombinant 35 kDa protein (P35) stimulated proliferation of mouse mononuclear splenocytes sensitized with M. a. paratuberculosis. The P35 elicited increased nitrite production from mononuclear splenocytes from M. a. paratuberculosis-sensitized mice. In addition, RT-PCR-based semiquantitative IFN-(Sd(B measurement showed that stimulation with P35 is associated with significant expression of IFN-(Sd(B mRNA in M. a. paratuberculosis-sensitized mouse splenocytes. The results indicate that the 35 kDa protein of M. a. paratuberculosis is associated with CMI response in the host.
Descriptors: ruminants, animal diseases, digestive system diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease detection, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immune response, antibody detection, cell mediated immunity, bacterial proteins, recombinant proteins, antigen antibody reactions, bacterial antigens, animal disease models, mice.

Basler, Tina; Jeckstadt, Sabine; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and lipopolysaccharide induce different transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the IRG1 gene in murine macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2006; 79(3): 628-638. ISSN: 0741-5400
URL: http://www.jleukbio.org/
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain DSM-44135, Mycobacterium smegnatis, molecular mechanisms, murine macrophage activation or deactivation, post-infection with MAP, subtractive hybridization, cDNA, immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), compared lipopolysaccharide stimulated and MAP infected.

Baumgartner, A. Auswirkungen auf die Lebensmittel-kontrolle. [New food related pathogens - impact on the official food safety control.] Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(1): 58-69. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: New food-Related Pathogens - Eine Herausforderung fur die Lebensmittelhygiene? 38th Symposium of the Swiss Society of Food Hygiene, Zurich, Switzerland, 16 September 2005. In German, English and French.
URL: http://www.speciation.net/Appl/Literature/Source/sources.html?id=200
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: animal-based feed products, food contamination, food safety, microbial contamination, public health, regulations, risk-assessment, Enterobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Switzerland.

Baumgartner, W.; Khol, J.L. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants - an ongoing story. Slovenian Veterinary Research. 2006; 43(1): 5-10. ISSN: 1580-4003. Note: Review papers. 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress, Radenci, Slovenia, 2006. In: English with a Slovenian summary. A review article.
NAL Call No.: SF604.L52
Descriptors: domestic and wild rumanints, dairy cattle, calves, infected colostrum, transmission of Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, modes of transmission depending on the animals age and exposures, clinical signs, subclinical infections, prognosis emaciation and death, testing methods, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, fecal culture, PCR, ELISA, hygienic measures, prevention and control measures.

Bazant, J. Narodni ozdravovaci program od IBR v CR byl zahajen.[National health schemes from IBR was commenced in the Czech Republic.] Veterinarstvi. 2006; 56(4): 237...248. ISSN: 0506-8231. Note: In Czech with an English summary.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, negative status of many disease in the Republic, Czech programs, collaboration between veterinarians and breeders, qualitative diagnosis, research support, officially disease free state in 2004, EU cattle market, dealing with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) and paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Czech Republic.

Beran, V.; Havelkova, M.; Kaustova, J.; Dvorska, L.; Pavlik, I. Cell wall deficient forms of mycobacteria: a review. Veterinarni Medicina. 2006; 51(7): 365-389. ISSN: 0375-8427
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: humans, livestock, mycobacterial cells, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cell walls, Johne’s disease, Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, spheroplasts, reviews.

Berger, Sven; Hinz, Dominik; Bannantine, John P.; Griffin, J. Frank T. Isolation of high-affinity single-chain antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis surface proteins from sheep with Johne's disease. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(9): 1022-1029. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: sheep with Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, surface protens, single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for surface proteins, diagnostic and detection tools, 34-kDa proteinase-susceptible determinant, heavy chain and lambda light-chain variable regions, expressing in fusion with gene III of filamentous phages, 2 clones, cross-reactivity with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, non-reactive with against Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium phlei, surface binding did not impede pathogen growth, potential as diagnostic agents.

Berger, Sven T.; Griffin, Frank T. A comparison of ovine monocyte-derived macrophage function following infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp avium and Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis. Immunology and Cell Biology. 2006; 84(4): 349-356. ISSN: 0818-9641
URL: http://www.nature.com/icb/index.html
Descriptors : Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, 1 strain of each tested, characteristis of strains, survivability, induce cytokines, suppress MHC class I and II expression, induce apoptosis, or necrosis in monocyte-derived macrophages, intracellular survival, secression of IL1, TNF-alpha, downregulation of MHC class I and II, some difference in apoptosis.

Berghaus, R.D.; Farver, T.B.; Anderson, R.J.; Adaska, J.M.; Gardner, I.A. Use of age and milk production data to improve the ability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test results to predict Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal culture status. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 May; 18(3): 233-242. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Cows from 2 California dairies were tested for paratuberculosis at the end of lactation by using fecal culture and a commercially available serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Individual cow characteristics and production variables were evaluated along with ELISA testing results as predictors of fecal culture status. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age and a herd-standardized version of 305-day mature equivalent (305 ME) milk production were significant predictors of fecal culture status after adjusting for herd, quarter of the study year, and ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio. The area under a nonparametric receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly greater for a multivariable model that included age and the level of milk production when compared with a model without these covariates. In conclusion, consideration of cow-level covariates was useful as an aid in predicting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) fecal culture status. For a given ELISA S/P ratio, older cows and those with lower 305 ME milk production relative to other cows in the herd were significantly more likely to be shedding MAP in their feces at the end of lactation.
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, pathogen shedding, paratuberculosis, milk yield, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, disease diagnosis, feces, diagnostic techniques, animal age, cattle diseases, California, USA.

Berghaus, R. D.; Farver, T.B.; Anderson, R. J.; Jaravata, C.C.; Gardner, I.A. Environmental sampling for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on large California dairies. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Mar; 89(3): 963-970. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Environmental samples collected from each of 3 locations on 23 large California dairies were cultured to evaluate the utility of this approach for identifying herds infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Results were compared with concurrent ELISA testing of [>/=] 60 animals in each herd, and with previously performed individual and pooled fecal cultures of 60 animals. The estimated proportions of infected herds did not differ significantly among the testing methods (environmental sampling, 74%; previous fecal culture, 70%; and concurrent ELISA testing, 65%). Measures of agreement between environmental sampling and the results of previous fecal cultures were 70% (observed agreement), 85% (positive agreement), 62% (negative agreement), and 0.47 (kappa), whereas agreement between environmental sampling and concurrent ELISA testing was 65, 75, and 43%, and 0.19, for the same measures, respectively. The proportion of positive environmental samples on each farm was significantly correlated with the proportion of seropositive animals (r = 0.53), suggesting that environmental sampling may also provide a qualitative estimate of within-herd prevalence. Of the sampling locations that were evaluated, samples of lagoon water (15/23; 65%) were significantly more likely to yield a positive result than were composite manure samples (8/22; 36%) collected from the sick/fresh cow pen or from the alleyway (9/23; 39%) where cows exited from the milking parlor. Environmental sampling was an effective and inexpensive method of identifying herds infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dairy cows, dairy herds, herd health, paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, screening, sampling, dairy manure, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, herd size, California, USA.

Bhide, M.; Chakurkar, E.; Tkacikova, L.; Barbuddhe, S.; Novak, M.; Mikula, I. IS900-PCR-based detection and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from buffy coat of cattle and sheep. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Jan 10; 112(1): 33-41. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: cattle sheep, disease detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, sheep diseases, nucleotide sequences, leukocytes, single stranded conformational polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, molecular sequence data.

Bielanski, A.; Algire, .J; Randall, G.C.B.; Surujballi, O. Risk of transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by embryo transfer of in vivo and in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. Theriogenology. 2006 July 15; 66(2): 260-266. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.11.010
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Over a 5-year interval, experiments were conducted to determine if Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) is associated with in vivo and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos and whether it can be transmitted by embryo transfer. The present studies included: collection of embryos from five asymptomatic, naturally infected donors and transfer to uninfected recipients; collection of oocytes from two naturally infected donors with overt clinical signs; exposure of in vivo and IVF embryos to Map and transfer to uninfected recipients; and the inoculation (transfer) of "clean" IVF embryos to the uterine lumen of infected cows. The presence of Map was confirmed in the uterine horns of all asymptomatic, infected donors. None of the tested embryos, which were not used for embryo transfer, or unfertilized ova (two per batch), were positive for Map, as determined by culture (n = 19) or by PCR (n = 13). However, all in vivo fertilized embryos exposed to Map in vitro (and subsequently sequentially washed) tested positive for Map, by both culture (12 batches) and PCR (15 batches), whereas IVF embryos treated in the same manner tested positive on culture (51%, 18/35 batches) and by PCR (28%, 20/71 batches). Transferring both in vivo embryos and IVF embryos potentially contaminated with Map into 28 recipients resulted in 13 pregnancies and eight calves born without evidence of disease transmission to either the recipients or the offspring over the following 5-year period. In samples collected from one of the clinically infected animals, two of seven (28%) cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) and follicular fluid tested positive by PCR and 10/10 cumulus oocyte complexes on culture for Map. From the second clinically infected cow, three of five batches of IVF embryos (n = 20) were positive on PCR and two of four batches containing unfertilized oocytes and embryos were positive on culture. Only 10% of embryos reached the morula and blastocyst stage 10 days after fertilization. In conclusion, Map is unlikely to be transmitted by embryo transfer when the embryos have been washed as recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society.
Descriptors: cattle, embryo transfer, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, disease transmission, in vitro fertilization, superovulation, zona pellucida, oocytes cattle embryos, International Embryo Transfer Society.

Bielanski, A.; Algire, J.; Randall, G.; Surujballi, O. Risks of transmitting Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis by transfer of in vivo-derived and in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos. Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2006; 18(1-2): 212. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: 32nd Annual Conference of the International-Embryo Transfer Society, Orlando, FL, USA; January 07-11, 2006.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/44.htm
NAL Call No.: QP251.R47
Descriptors : cattle, bovine embryos, in vitro fertilization, transmission risk of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, potential for transmission to recipient, economic losses.

Bolton, M.W.; Grooms, D.L.; Kaneene, J.B. Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in calves: implications for disease control and management. Note: In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Stillwater, USA. 2005:163. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy calves, disease control programs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, disease control, disease transmission, Michigan, USA.

Bosshard, C.; Stephan, R.; Tasara, T. Application of an F57 sequence-based real-time PCR assay for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis detection in bulk tank raw milk and slaughtered healthy dairy cows. Journal of Food Protection. 2006 July; 69(7): 1662-1667. ISSN: 0362-028X
URL: http://www.foodprotection.org
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824
Abstract: A light cycler-based real-time PCR assay that targets the F57 sequence was used to collect data on the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in 100 bulk tank raw milk samples and in a population of 101 slaughtered dairy cattle. The assay's reproducible detection limit in total genomic DNA templates isolated from 10-ml samples of MAP-spiked raw milk was 100 cells per ml. Similarly, the evaluation of MAP-spiked bovine feces also demonstrated that the assay had a reproducible detection limit of 100 cells if they were contained within 200 mg of fecal sample material. Among the 100 bulk tank milk samples that were tested, we found 3 samples (3%) to be positive for MAP. In the slaughterhouse part of the study, 8.9% (9 of 101) of the cows were positive for MAP DNA in fecal samples, 4.9% (5 of 101) in mesenteric lymph nodes, 0.9% (1 of 101) in ileum tissue, and 3.6% (3 of 84) in milk. Meanwhile, for 2.9% (3 of 101) of the culled cows, MAP DNA was detected in samples of diaphragmatic muscles.
Descriptors: dairies, dairy cows, culling diseased animals, bulk milk, milk tanks, raw milk, slaughterhouses, beef carcasses, fecal sampling, microbial detection, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, food pathogens, bacterial contamination, food contamination, virulence, genes, genomics, genomic libraries, nucleotide sequences, Switzerland.

Bowen, J.S. Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 263-267.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: goats, sheep, farm management, ruminants, animal health, animal nutrition, bacterial diseases, coccidiosis, control programs, disease control, drug residues, metabolic disorders, nutrient requirements animal diseases, zoonotic diseases, prion diseases, scrapie, prion proteins, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Clostridium perfringens, Corynebacterium ovis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis,Eimeria, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma mycoides, ovine progressive pneumonia virus, prions.

Bowen, J.S. Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 649-653.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: small ruminants, sheep, goats, various diseases, small animal veterinarians, disease prevention and control, clinical aspects, clinical examination, colostrum, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, drug residues, drug therapy, enterotoxemia, enterotoxins, lymphadenitis, metabolic disorders; zoonotic diseases, coccidiosis, coccidiostats, mycoplasmosis, paratuberculosis, prion diseases, scrapie, tetanus toxoid, vaccination, Campylobacter, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Chlamydia, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, contagious ecthyma virus, Corynebacterium ovis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Eimeria, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma mycoides, ovine progressive pneumonia virus, prions.

Brey, Becky J.; Radcliff, Roy P.; Clark, Dorn L.; Ellingson, Jay L.E. Design and development of an internal control plasmid for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis using real-time PCR. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2006; 20(1): 51-59. ISSN: 0890-8508
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08908508
Abstract : Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. The hspX gene and insertion sequence IS900 can be used to diagnose Johne's with PCR. Generally, a single PCR tube containing the DNA sequence of interest is run as a positive control with each set of reactions. Single reactions within a PCR run can fail while the positive control does not. Thus, a single positive control tube does not determine if all PCR reactions worked properly. Our objective was to construct a plasmid to use as an internal control in each reaction. A plasmid containing an insert of M. bovis-hspX-M. bovis DNA was modified to remove a portion of the hspX insert used by the reverse hspX primer. The remaining insert was ligated back together and transformed into competent cells. Sequencing confirmed removal of 71 bp. PCR reactions using three primers (TB/M. bovis reverse, hspX forward and reverse) for hspX gene detection and four primers (IS900 forward and reverse, hspX forward, and TB/M. bovis reverse) for IS900 detection were optimized by titrating various amounts of plasmid against varied amounts of MAP genomic DNA. Plasmid insert amplification confirms a successful PCR reaction and identifies true positives and negatives within each individual reaction. The optimal plasmid amounts are 10 fg/reaction (hspX detection) and 1 fg/reaction (IS900 detection). (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, internal control plasmid, detection methods.

Buergelt, C D.; Williams, E.; Monif, G.R.G.; Pinedo, P.; Decker, J.H. Nested polymerase chain reaction and prenatal detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in bovine allantoic fluid and fetuses. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine. 2006; 4(3): 232-238. ISSN: 1559-470X
URL: http://www.jarvm.com
NAL Call No.: SF601.J63
Descriptors: 11 Holstein dairy cows, in utero transmission of pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, blood and/or milk testing, fetal infection, fetal tissues or allantoic fluid, PCR.

Burton , Jeanne L.; Rosa, Guilherme J.M. Physiological genomics special issue on animal functional genomics. Physiological Genomics. 2006; 28(1): 1-4. ISSN: 1094-8341
Descriptors: animals, cattle, humans, mice, pigs, functional genetics, infectious diseases responses, bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Trypanosoma congolense, small intestine, neutrophils, cytoplasm, oocytes, Peyer's patch, gene expression, espressed sequence tag, glucocorticoid, Africa.

Bush, A. Effect of pasteurization on the survival of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis.Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 157. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors : cattle-based products, milk, zoonotic potential contaminated foods, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk, organoleptic properties, pasteurization, survival of pathogenic contaminants.

Bush, R.D.; Toribio, J.A.L.M.L.; Windsor, P.A. The impact of malnutrition and other causes of losses of adult sheep in 12 flocks during drought. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006 July; 84(7): 254-260. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: Objective: To establish the range and cost of losses in Merino flocks in southern New South Wales during drought conditions by determining the cause of death, morbidity or wasting in adult sheep. Design and population: Pathological studies were performed on 392 dead or moribund adult sheep from 12 Ovine Johne's disease (OJD)-infected flocks during 2002 and a further 58 sheep culled due to wasting from one of these flocks in 2003. Flocks ranged between 3,500 and 20 000 sheep. Method: The most likely cause of death, morbidity or wasting was determined following consideration of the environment in which the animal was found, clinical and gross pathological findings, plus histopathology of tissues collected during necropsy. Results: A most likely cause of death, morbidity or wasting was determined for 362 sheep in 2002 and 58 sheep in 2003. OJD contributed to the death of 250 sheep in 2002, and wasting of 48 sheep in 2003. Of the sheep that died or were euthanased due to other causes, malnutrition was a contributing factor in the death of 70 sheep (63%) in 2002 and 2 sheep (20%) in 2003. Losses were not evenly distributed across flocks, with 57% of mortalities caused by malnutrition in 2002 occurring in one flock. Malnutrition accounted for 18% of the annual cost of all deaths among adult sheep in 2002 with an average cost of $16 882 per farm. Losses not attributed to malnutrition included a range of infectious and non-infectious disorders. These included balanoposthitis, clostridial enterotoxaemia, cutaneous myiasis, endoparasitism, enteritis, intestinal adenocarcinoma, misadventure, peritonitis, periparturient death of ewes, photosensitisation, pneumonia, post-shearing stress and squamous cell carcinoma of the perineum. Conclusion: Almost one third of mortalities in OJD-infected flocks during drought were unrelated to OJD and could be reduced by improving nutritional and disease management practices. The importance of close supervision of the flock is highlighted so that early management intervention can be instituted, including the culling of cases of welfare concern. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, flocks, mortality, drought, water stress, malnutrition, economic impact, farm income, morbidity, culling of infected animals, wasting syndrome, geographical distribution of sheep paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease incidence, animal welfare, New South Wales, Australia.

Bush, R.D.; Windsor, P.A.; Toribio, J.A.L.M.L. Losses of adult sheep due to ovine Johne's disease in 12 infected flocks over a 3-year period. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006 July; 84(7): 246-253. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: Objective: To measure the biological and financial impact of ovine Johne's disease (OJD) mortalities on 12 infected flocks within the endemic area of southern New South Wales over a 3-year period. Design and population: An observational study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 on sheep from 12 OJD-infected flocks from southern NSW. Flocks ranged from between 3,500 and 20 000 sheep. At the start of the study owner estimates of OJD mortality were 5% or greater. Method: Annual mortality rates were estimated from farm records provided by owners. The proportion of OJD mortalities was assessed after histological examination of tissues collected from dead and moribund sheep during 5-day necropsy inspections conducted in autumn, winter, spring and summer in 2002. The financial impact was estimated using a gross margin analysis for each of the three study years and by placing a financial value on the necropsied sheep. Results: On the 12 farms, the average OJD mortality rate was 6.2% (range 2.1% to 17.5%) in 2002, 7.8% (range 1.8% to 14.6%) in 2003 and 6.4% (range 2% to 11.9%) in 2004. The average decrease in gross margin due to OJD infection on a farm in 2002 was 6.4% (range 2.2% to 15.4%), 8.5% (range 3.1% to 15.8%) in 2003 and 7.4% (range 1.5% to 15.4%) in 2004. This equates to an average reduction in annual income of $13 715 per farm per year. OJD losses accounted on average for two thirds of the total estimated financial loss associated with sheep deaths. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the significant biological and financial impact of OJD on sheep flocks. These findings are of relevance to all Australian sheep flocks infected or at risk of OJD infection. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep flocks, adult animals, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sheep diseases, disease incidence, mortalities, economic impact, histopathology, farm income, New South Wales, Australia.

Catanho, M.; Mascarenhas, D.; Degrave, W.; Miranda, A.B. de. GenoMycDB: a database for comparative analysis of mycobacterial genes and genomes. Genetics and Molecular Research. 2006; 5(1): 115-126. Note: S. J. De Souza [Editor]. X meeting 1st International Conference of the AB3C, Caxambu, MG, Brazil, 4-7 October 2005.
URL: http://www.funpecrp.com.br/gmr/year2006/vol1-5/xm0003_abstract.htm
Abstract: Several databases and computational tools have been created with the aim of organizing, integrating and analyzing the wealth of information generated by large-scale sequencing projects of mycobacterial genomes and those of other organisms. However, with very few exceptions, these databases and tools do not allow for massive and/or dynamic comparison of these data. GenoMycDB (http://www.dbbm.fiocruz.br/GenoMycDB) is a relational database built for large-scale comparative analyses of completely sequenced mycobacterial genomes, based on their predicted protein content. Its central structure is composed of the results obtained after pair-wise sequence alignments among all the predicted proteins coded by the genomes of six mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strains H37Rv and CDC1551), M. bovis AF2122/97, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10, M. leprae TN, and M. smegmatis MC2 155. The database stores the computed similarity parameters of every aligned pair, providing for each protein sequence the predicted subcellular localization, the assigned cluster of orthologous groups, the features of the corresponding gene, and links to several important databases. Tables containing pairs or groups of potential homologs between selected species/strains can be produced dynamically by user-defined criteria, based on one or multiple sequence similarity parameters. In addition, searches can be restricted according to the predicted subcellular localization of the protein, the DNA strand of the corresponding gene and/or the description of the protein. Massive data search and/or retrieval are available, and different ways of exporting the result are offered. GenoMycDB provides an on-line resource for the functional classification of mycobacterial proteins as well as for the analysis of genome structure, organization, and evolution. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, amino acid sequences, bacterial proteins, databases, evolution, genes, genome analysis, genomes, genotypes, nucleotide sequences, data banks, gene sequences, protein sequences.

Cemicchiaro, N.; Wells, S.J.; Munoz-Zanzi, C.; Gaulke, J.; Wees, C. Use of a Fecal PCR assay on environmental samples: Implications for detection of dairy cattle herds infected with Johne's disease. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental sampling, pathogen load.

Champ, P. Christoph; Binnewies, Tim T.; Nielsen, Natasja; Zinman, Guy; Kiil, Kristoffer; Wu, Heng; Bohlin, Jon; Ussery, David W. Genome update: purine strand bias in 280 bacterial genomes. Microbiology. 2006; 152(Part 3): 579-583. Print ISSN: 1350-0872. E-ISSN: 1465-2080
URL: http://mic.sgmjournals.org/misc/about.shtml
Descriptors: population genetics, purine standard bias, bacterial genomes, Candidatus pelagibacter ubique strain HTCC1062, Chlamydia trachomatis strain A HAR 13, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain TAC125, Streptococcus agalactiae strain A909, Staphylococcus saprophyticus saprophyticus strain ATCC 15305, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola 1448A, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria 85-10.

Chandrasekaran, S.; Eckstein, T.M.; Chatterjee, D.; Belisle, J.T.; Inamine, J.M. Structural and serological characterization of lipoarabinomannan from different isolates of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 609. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, different isolates, characterization of lipoarabinomannan.

Chitra, M. Ananda; Ram, G.C.; Goswami, T.K. Characterization of antigen presenting function of caprine macrophages and B cells. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2006; 83(1): 7-10. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors : goats, Streptococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain III, and strain V, immune rsponses, milk contamination.

Chitra, M.A.; Ram, G.C. Effect of indomethacin on caprine antigen presenting cells. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2006; 2(5): 171-177.
Descriptors: goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, tetanus toxid, T cell proliferation assessed, indometacin-treated caprine B cells and macrophage cultures, some dual treatment with dexamathasone and indometacin, cytotoxicity, immunostimulatory properties, immunogens.

Cho, D.H.; Sung, N.M.; Collins, M.T. Identification of proteins of potential diagnostic value for bovine paratuberculosis. Proteomics. 2006; 6(21): 5785-5794. ISSN: 1615-9853
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113388677/ABSTRACT
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, proteins of diagnostic value, culture filtrates, sera of infected cows, antigens for serodiagnosis, bovine paratuberculosis.

Cho, Donghee; Collins, Michael T. Comparison of the proteosomes and antigenicities of secreted and cellular proteins produced by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(10): 1155-1161. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, test development for early detection, protein expression profiles, antigenicities, culture filtrates, pathogen cell extracts, cattle serum reactions.

Choi, Y.K.; Johnson, W.O.; Collins, M.T.; Gardner, I.A. Bayesian inferences for receiver operating characteristic curves in the absence of a gold standard. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics. 2006 June; 11(2): 210-229. ISSN: 1085-7117
NAL Call No.: S566.55.J68
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, diagnostic techniques, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, statistical analysis, Monte Carlo method, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Bayesian analysis.

Collette, D.; Minicucci, L.; Wells, S.J. Evaluation of a risk assessment tool in characterizing environmental Salmonella and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis status in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 135. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09-13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, diary herds, Salmonella, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, biosecurity, risk assessment tool, Minnesota, USA.

Collins, M.T.; Gardner, I.A.; Garry, F.B.; Roussel, A.J.; Wells, S.J. Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006 Dec 15; 229(12): 1912-1919. ISSN: 0003-1488. Note: A literature review.
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: The report provided here contains a simplified set of diagnostic testing recommendations. These recommendations were developed on the basis of research funded by the USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Veterinary Services through a cooperative agreement. The report is intended to provide simple, practical, cost-effective consensus testing recommendations for cattle herds that are not enrolled in the US Test-Negative Program. The information has been reviewed by paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) experts at the USDA and academic centers as well as stakeholders in various segments of the cattle industry. The recommendations were accepted by the National Johne's Working Group and Johne's Disease Committee of the US Animal Health Association during their annual meetings in October 2006. The report is intended to aid veterinarians who work with cattle producers in the United States. The recommendations are based on information available up to October 2006. There is a paucity of large-scale, high-quality studies of multiple tests conducted on samples obtained from the same cattle. It is understood that there may be special circumstances that require deviation from these recommendations. Furthermore, as new information becomes available and assays are improved and their accuracy is critically evaluated, changes to these recommendations may be necessary. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Dscriptors: cattle, herd health, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease detection, disease diagnosis, disease surveillance, milk, blood serum, testing, screening, guidelines, bioassays, antibody detection, pathogen identification, in vitro culture, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, disease control, food safety, USA.

Cook, K.L. Targeting Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in the environment. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 561. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006
Descriptors: dairy farm location, environmental contaminant, pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease etiology, bacterial infection, locating pathogen in water and soil.

Crawford, G.C.; Ziccardi, M.H.; Gonzales, B.J.; Woods, L.M.; Fischer, J.K.; Manning, E.J.; Mazet, J.A. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infections in a tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) herd. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006 Oct; 42(4): 715-723. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Between 2 August and 22 September 2000, 37 hunter-killed tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) were evaluated at the Grizzly Island Wildlife Area, California, USA, for evidence of paratuberculosis. Elk were examined post-mortem, and tissue and fecal samples were submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. Acid-fast isolates were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that discriminates among members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Histopathologic evaluations were completed, and animals were tested for antibodies using a Johne's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion. In addition, 104 fecal samples from tule elk remaining in the herd were collected from the ground and submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. No gross lesions were detected in any of the hunter-killed animals. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was cultured once from ileocecal tissue of one adult elk and was determined to be a strain (A18) found commonly in infected cattle. One or more isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) were isolated from tissues of five additional adult elk. Gastrointestinal tract and lymph node tissues from 17 of the 37 elk (46%) examined had histopathologic lesions commonly seen with mycobacterial infection; however, acid-fast bacteria were not observed. All MAC infections were detected from adult elk (P=0.023). In adult elk, a statistically significant association was found between MAA infection and ELISA sample-to-positive ratio (S/P)>=0.25 (P=0.021); four of five MAA culture-positive elk tested positive by ELISA. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA S/P>=0.25 for detection of MAA in adult elk were 50% and 93%, respectively. No significant associations were found between MAC infection and sex or histopathologic lesions. Bacteriologic culture confirmed infection with MAP and MAA in this asymptomatic tule elk herd. The Johne's ELISA was useful in signaling mycobacterial infection on a population basis but could not discriminate between MAA and MAP antibodies. The multiplex PCR was useful in discriminating among the closely related species belonging to MAC. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: elk, Cervus elaphus, wildlife diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacteriumavium subsp avium, bacterial infections, histopathology, California, USA.

De Juan, L.; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Romero, B.; Bezos, J.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L. Molecular epidemiology of Types I/III strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolated from goats and cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 115(1-3): 102-110. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) isolates classifies them into three groups: cattle or Type II, sheep or Type I, and intermediate or Type III. To avoid problems associated with characterization of extremely slow growth strains, PCR-based techniques that divide the M. a. paratuberculosis strains in two main groups (cattle or Type II, and sheep or Types I/III) can be performed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the M. a. paratuberculosis isolates identified by different PCR-based tests (IS1311-PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR test based on a DNA sequence difference, and a PCR aimed at three Type I-specific loci), and to determine the clinical and epidemiological implications of Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains in livestock. One hundred and fifty-eight M. a. paratuberculosis strains from domestic ruminants were analyzed. One hundred and six M. a. paratuberculosis isolates (61 from goats and 45 from cattle) were classified as Type II strains; and 52 (29 from cows, 20 from goats, and three from sheep) were included in the Types VIII. The Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains were associated to Spanish native breeds. The majority of these animals had not been in direct or indirect contact with sheep flocks infected with M. a. paratuberculosis. This fact should be taken into account when implementing paratuberculosis control programs. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors : cattle; goats; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis types I, II, III MC; molecular characterization, various PCR-based tests.

DeHaven, W.R.; Goldberg, R. Animal health: foundation of a safe, secure, and abundant food supply. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 2006; 33(4): 496-501. ISSN: 0748-321X
URL: http://www.jvmeonline.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.J62
Abstract: During the past century, reductions in animal diseases have resulted in a safer, more uniform, and more economical food supply. In the United States, the passage of the 1906 Federal Meat Inspection Act mandated better sanitary conditions for slaughter and processing, as well as inspection of live animals and their processed products. Following World War II, Congress passed the Poultry Products Inspection Act. Both acts are regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for regulations governing the health of live animals prior to slaughter. This article is a brief overview of the ways in which the current predominance of zoonotics among emerging diseases underscores the importance of veterinary health professionals and the need for continued coordination between animal-health and public-health officials. Examples of intersections between animal- and public-health concerns include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and Johne's disease, as well as extending beyond food safety to diseases such as avian influenza (AI). In the United States, we have in place an extensive public and private infrastructure to address animal-health issues, including the necessary expertise and resources to address animal-health emergencies. However, many challenges remain, including a critical shortage of food-animal veterinarians. These challenges can be met by recruiting and training, a cadre of additional food-supply veterinarians, pursuing new technologies, collaborating with public-health officials to create solutions, and sending a clear and consistent message to the public about important animal-health issues. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: livestock, animal production systems, animal diseases, animal health, food hygiene, food safety, legislation and regulations regarding food safety, zoonotic diseases, USA.

Dorshorst , N.C. ; Collins, M.T.; Lombard, J.E. Decision analysis model for paratuberculosis control in commercial dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 July 17; 75(1-2): 92-122. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.02.002
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, decision support systems, production economics, decision analysis econometric models, computer software, dairy farm management, disease diagnosis, cost benefit analysis, milk quality, culling sick animals, herd health.

Dreier, S.; Khol, J.L.; Stein B.; Fuchs, K.; Gutler, S.; Baumgartner, W. Serological, bacteriological and molecularbiological survey of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) in Austrian cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B. 2006 Dec; 53(10): 477-481. ISSN: 0931-1793
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00997.x
NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Because of its long incubation period, high economic losses, difficulties in diagnosis and possible links to Morbus Crohn in humans, paratuberculosis is one of the most important diseases of ruminants today. An abattoir-based nationwide survey on the occurrence of MAP in the Austrian cattle population was performed using serology (SVANOVIRTM-ELISA) as well as culture, ZN-stain and IS900-PCR on faeces and lymph node samples. A total of 756 Austrian slaughter cattle were serologically, bacteriologically and molecularbiologically tested for the occurrence of MAP and specific antibodies respectively. Samples were collected following a statistical plan to obtain balanced specimens from the whole country. Nineteen per cent of the animals tested were serological positive, 10.1% gave an inconclusive result and 70.9% showed no specific antibodies against MAP. Only in four individuals MAP could be detected by stain, bacteriology or Polymerase Chain Reaction. The calculated prevalence of 19.0% positive cattle, each representing one farm, showing specific antibodies against MAP is rather high in terms of animal-level but low in herd level prevalence compared with other countries. When this study is compared with a similar study performed in Austria 1999, a significant increase of positive cattle and farms could be seen in Austria.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, disease surveillance, serodiagnosis, bacteriology, molecular epidemiology; paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control, statistical analysis, Crohns disease antibody detection zoonoses, Austria.

Duffield, T.; Hendrick, S. Impact of ionophores on Johne's disease. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006: 23-25.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ionophores, monensin, paratuberculosis, disease prevention and control programs, clinical aspects, bacterial shedding.

Dukkipati, V.S.R.; Blair, H.T.; Garrick, D.J.; Murray, A. 'Ovar-Mhc' - ovine major histocompatibility complex: role in genetic resistance to diseases. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(4): 153-160. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: sheep, bovine leukemia virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Dichelobacter nodosus, Nematoda, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, antigenicity histocompatibility complex, immunity reactions, immunogens, immunological reactions, resistance to disease, T cells.

Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert Behandlung der Milch mit gepulsten elektrischen Feldern - eine Alternative zur Warmebehandlung. [Treatment of milk with pulsed electric fields - an alternative heat treatment.] Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(6): 407-432. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: In German.
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: milk, alternative heat treatment,pulsed electric field, survival of microorganisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Byssochlamys nivea, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin, Staphylococcus aureus,Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strain ATCC 19698, strain ATCC 43105, Pseudomonas fluorescent, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

Eckstein, Torsten M.; Chandrasekaran, Sukantha; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; McNeil, Michael R.; Chatterjee, Delphi; Rithner, Christopher D.; Ryan, Philip W.; Belisle, John T.; Inamine, Julia M. A major cell wall lipopeptide of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2006 Feb 24; 281(8): 5209-5215. ISSN: 0021-9258
URL: http://www.jbc.org/
NAL Call no.: 381.J824
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne disease in cattle and other ruminants, is proposed to be at least one of the causes of Crohn’s disease in humans. MAP and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, a closely related opportunistic environmental bacterium, share 95% of their genes and exhibit homologies of more than 99% between these genes. The identification of molecules specific for MAP is essential for understanding its pathogenicity and for development of useful diagnostic tools. The application of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance led to the structural identification of a major cell wall lipopeptide of MAP, termed Para-LP-01, defined as C20 fatty acyl-D-Phe-N-Me-L-Val-L-Ile-L-Phe-L-Ala methyl ester. Variations of this lipopeptide with different fatty acyl moieties (C16 fatty acyl through C17, C18, C19, C21 to C22) were also identified. Besides the specificity of this lipopeptide for MAP, the presence of an N-Me-L-valine represents the first reported N-methylated amino acid within an immunogenic lipopeptide of mycobacteria. Sera from animals with Johne disease, but not sera from uninfected cattle, reacted with this lipopeptide, indicating potential biological importance.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cell wall structural biochemistry, lipopeptide, bacterial pathogen of zoonotic potential, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, pathogenicity, search for diagnostic tools, cattle sera testing, infected and uninfected cattle.

Eda, S.; Scott, M.C.; Barmantine, J.P.; Waters, W.R.; Mori, Y.; Whitlock, R.H.; Speer, C.A. A novel ELISA for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infections (Johne's disease) in cattle. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 601. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, diagnostic tests, ELISA.

Eda, Shigetoshi; Bannantine, John P.; Waters, W.R.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Whitlock, Robert H.; Scott, M. Cathy; Speer, C.A. A highly sensitive and subspecies-specific surface antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(8): 837-844. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: livestock and ruminants, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, surface antigen-based test, ethanol vortex enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (EVELISA), diagnostic speficity and sensitivity testing, serum and fecal testing, compared to Biocor ELISA test, newly developed test was better.

Elzo, M.A.; Rae, D.O.; Lanhart, S.E.; Wasdin, J.G.; Dixon, W.P.; Jones, J.L. Association between reproduction and preweaning growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of cattle. Proceedings of the 8 th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 13-18 August, 2006. 2006; 03-36. ISBN: 8560088016
Descriptors: cattle, cows, Brahman cows, Angus cows, multi-breed herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ELISA scores may predict health and reproduction, calf weights, genetic effects, growth preweaning, production, regression analysis, breed traits.

Elzo, M.A.; Rae, D.O.; Lanhart, S.E.; Wasdin, J.G.; Dixon, W.P.; Jones, J.L. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 2006 Jan; 84(1): 41-48. ISSN: 0021-8812
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Abstract : Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 ([3/4] A [1/4] B); 45 ([1/2] A [1/2] B); 34 ([1/4] A [3/4] B); and 33 Brangus ([5/8] A [3/8] B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 * left-pointing-double-angle * 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors identified as associated with ELISA scores could help producers with culling decisions related to paratuberculosis control and eradication in beef cattle.
Descriptors: Angus-Brahman multibreed cattle herds, herd health, cattle breeds, cattle diseases, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease course, body weight.

Ewer, Katie; Cockle, Paul; Gordon, Steve; Mansoor, Huma; Govaerts, Marc; Walravens, Karl; Marche, Sylvie; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin. Antigen mining with iterative genome screens identifies novel diagnostics for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(1): 90-97. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: cattle, infected with various pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovisMycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium avium, Streptomyces coelicolor, novel diagnostics, high throughput peptide-based screening system, differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals, pharmacology, comparative molecular genetics potential antigens Mb2555, Mb2890, Mb3895, antigenic cross reactivity, protein sequencing.

Ferrouillet, C.; Wells, S. Results from Minnesota Johne's disease demonstration herd control program. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 133. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, beef cattle,Johne’s disease, demonstration herd disease control program, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, Minnesota, USA.

Foster, D.M.; Smith, G.W.; Sanner, T.R.; Basso, G.V. Evaluation of two colostrum replacer products in dairy calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 722. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0891-6640&site=1
NAL Call No.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: dairy cattle, newborn male calves, Holstein, Salmonella, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, passive disease transfer of pathogen, colostrum as animal feed, dairy product.

Fthenakis, G.C.; McKellar, Q.A (editors). Keynote Lectures of the 6th International Sheep Veterinary Congress, Hersonnisos, Crete, Greece, 17-21 June 2005. Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 62(1/2): vi + 147 pp. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: Special issue of 28 papers.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors : sheep, health and welfare, sheep production levels in some countries, control of various infections and diseases, parasites, bacterial pathogens, viruses, disease prevention and control, diagnosis, prophylaxis, vaccination, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Brucella, Coxiella burnetii;Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma, Chlamydophila abortus, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Neospora caninum.

Fus-Szewczyk, M.M.; Szteyn, J.; Wiszniewska, A. Changes in raw milk quality in herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Puawy. 2006; 50(1): 69-72. ISSN: 0042-4870
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, effect of Johne’s on raw milk quality, milk production, milk yield, raw milk, serological surveys, seroprevalence, somatic cell count.

Ghisleni, G.; Caniatti, M. Citopatologia clinica: l'esame citologico. [A cytological examination.]Summa, Animali da Reddito. 2006; 1(9): 69-70. ISSN: 1125-6745. Note: In Italian.
Descriptors: Friesian cow, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection and symptoms, cytological examination, diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

Gioffrae, A.; Caimi, K.; Zumaarraga, M.J.; Meikle, V.; Morsella, C.; Bigi, F.; Alito, A.; Santaangelo, M.P.; Paolicchi, F.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A. Lpp34, a novel putative Lipoprotein from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine=Zentralblatt feur Veterinearmedizin Reihe B. 2006 Feb; 53(1): 34-41. ISSN: 0931-1793
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00905.x
Abstract: A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis expression library in lambda ZAP was screened with immunized mice sera. One clone was selected, sequenced and further characterized. The sequence analysis of the hypothetical open-reading frame (ORF) predicts a protein of 20.8 kDa with a probable signal sequence compatible with Cys-acylation at Cys24, characteristic of lipoproteins. In consequence, the protein was termed Lpp34. Recombinant expression of Lpp34 was achieved by cloning the lpp34 gene into the histidine-tag expression vector pRSET-A. Western blot analysis showed a protein band with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The native protein was localized in the membrane fraction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and extracted in the detergent phase of Triton X-114. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction showed that the gene is absent from all the non-M. avium complex mycobacterial genomes tested. Humoral reactivity using bovine sera demonstrated that this protein is widely recognized by both the infected and non-infected animals. This could partly be due to the conserved sequence in close-related environmental bacteria such as M. avium subsp. avium and to the presence of a conserved epitope in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli. In conclusion, these findings show that Lpp34 is a membrane protein and a putative lipoprotein present in M. avium complex mycobacteria and absent in the M. tuberculosis complex.
Descriptors: cattle, food animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, lipoproteins, bacterial proteins, gene expression, open reading frames, amino acid sequences, molecular weight, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, Western blotting, humoral immunity, bacterial antigens, membrane proteins, microbial genetics, sequence analysis, molecular sequence data.

Glawischnig, W.; Steineck, T.; Spergser, J. Infections caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) in Austria, 2001-2004. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006 Oct; 42(4): 724-731. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No .: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2004, 14 Austrian free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) infected by Mycobacterium avium species were observed. Eight of the cases were from different geographical regions, and six originated from the same hunting area. The affected animals had signs of diarrhea, severe weight loss, and emaciation. On post-mortem examination, lymphadenitis associated with grossly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes as well as multiple caseous or purulent nodular lesions in the thickened wall of the intestines were present in all animals. In 10 cases M. avium subsp. avium and in four cases M. a. hominissuis were isolated. In three red deer, a mixed infection with M. a. hominissuis and M. a. paratuberculosis was evident. Typing of M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis isolates was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of insertion sequence IS901 and the virulence-associated macrophage-induced gene (mig), inverted repeat (IR) typing (IS1245/IS1311), and random amplified polymorph DNA (RAPD) analysis. While all M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis contained the mig gene, IS901 was detected only in M. a. avium. The prevalence of IS901-positive isolates correlated well with the geographic location of affected animals. The IS901-containing isolates were shown to be genotypically closely related, as they exhibit similar patterns in IR-typing and in RAPD analysis. In contrast, IS901-negative isolates (M. a. hominissuis) displayed distinct profiles in both molecular systems. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Cervus elaphus , wild free-ranging red deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, bacterial infections, wildlife diseases, Austria.

Godden, S.; McMartin, S.; Feirtag, J.; Stabel, J.; Bey, R.; Goyal, S.; Metzger, L.; Fetrow, J.; Wells, S.; Chester-Jones, H. Heat treatment of bovine colostrum. II: Effects of heating duration on pathogen viability and immunoglobulin G. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Sept; 89(9): 3476-3483. ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Batches (30-L) of first-milking bovine colostrum, inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis (10i cfu/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (10e cfu/mL), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10e cfu/mL), Salmonella enteritidis (10e cfu/mL), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map; 10pd cfu/mL), were heat-treated at 60pC for 120 min in a commercial on-farm batch pasteurizer system. Duplicate 50-mL subsamples of colostrum were collected at 15-min intervals throughout the heat-treatment process for the purpose of bacterial culture and for measurement of IgG concentration (mg/mL) and antibody activity [log(bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer)]. Four replicate batches of colostrum were run for each of the 5 pathogens studied. There was no effect of heating moderate- to high-quality colostrum at 60pC for at least 120 min on mean IgG concentration (pre = 60.5 mg/mL; post = 59.1 mg/mL). Similarly, there was no effect of heat-treatment on the mean log bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 serum neutralization titer (pre = 12.3; post = 12.0). Viable M. bovis, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enteritidis added to colostrum could not be detected after the colostrum was heat-treated at 60pC for 30 min. Average bacteria counts showed that Map was not detected when batches were heated at 60pC for 60 min. Although the authors believe that heat-treating colostrum at 60pC for 60 min should be sufficient to eliminate Map from colostrum in most situations, further research is needed to determine whether these findings may be replicated, given that variability was observed in Map culture results.
Descriptors: cow colostrum, pasteurization, pasteurizers, heat treatment, duration, immunoglobulin G, plate count, pasteurization, pathogen survival, Mycoplasma bovis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Gonda, M. G.; Chang, Y.M.; Shook, G.E.; Collins, M.T.; Kirkpatrick, B.W. Genetic Variation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 May; 89(5): 1804-1812. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate genetic variability of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Blood and fecal samples were collected primarily from daughters of 12 bulls in their second or third lactation. Routine disease testing of the sires documented that they were not infected. Herds without a "suspect" or positive ELISA (sample/positive ratio [>/=] 0.10) or positive fecal culture test were deleted from the data set. The remaining 4,603 cows from 238 herds and 46 sires were used to estimate heritability of M. paratuberculosis infection. Heritability was estimated with 3 Johne's disease diagnostic tests: 1) fecal culture alone, 2) serum antibody ELISA alone, and 3) both tests (combined) with a positive animal defined as all animals with either a positive fecal culture or ELISA test. Four statistical models were used to estimate heritability: 1) linear (ELISA), 2) threshold (fecal culture and combined), 3) ordered threshold (ELISA), and 4) bivariate linear-threshold (ELISA-fecal culture). A sire model and Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used in each case. Heritability of infection based on the fecal culture test was 0.153 [posterior standard deviation (PSD) = 0.115]. Heritability with the ELISA was 0.159 (PSD = 0.090) with a linear model and 0.091 (PSD = 0.053) with an ordered threshold model. Heritability of the combined tests was 0.102 (PSD = 0.066). Heritability estimates of fecal culture and ELISA with the bivariate model varied slightly from estimates obtained with the univariate models (0.125 and 0.183, respectively), with a corresponding increase in precision (PSD = 0.096 and 0.082, respectively). This study demonstrates that exploitable genetic variation exists in dairy cattle for M. paratuberculosis infection susceptibility.
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease resistance, sire evaluation, heritability, statistical analysis, linear models, USA.

Grant, I.R. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(1): 2-9. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: New Food Related Pathogens - Eine Herausforderung fur die Lebensmittelhygiene? 38th Symposium of the Swiss Society of Food Hygiene, Zurich, Switzerland, 16 September 2005. In English, German and French.
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, humans,Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, pathogens in milk and feces, pathogen in blood and tissues, transmission via animal derived food products, milk, beef, water, MAP cultured from retail raw and pasteurized milk and cheese, public health concerns, goal to reduce Johne’s disease in cattle worldwide.

Grant, Irene R. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in foods: current evidence and potential consequences. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2006 May; 59(2): 112-117. ISSN: 1364-727X. Note: Paper presented at the "Bacteria in Food and Health Conference", March 14, 2005, Dublin, Ireland. A literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2006.00248.x
NAL Call No.: SF221.I58
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of Johne's disease in cattle, sheep and goats, may have a role in Crohn's disease in humans. Animals with Johne's disease shed viable MAP in their milk and faeces. The organism is also widely disseminated in the blood and tissues of infected animals. Consequently, transmission to humans via consumption of animal-derived foods is a distinct possibility. Milk, other dairy products, beef and water have been identified as possible food vehicles of transmission. To date, viable MAP has been cultured from raw cows', sheep and goats' milk, retail pasteurized cows' milk, and some retail cheeses in several countries during recent studies. MAP has not been isolated from retail beef to date, although limited testing has been carried out. The public health consequences, if any, of low numbers of viable MAP being periodically consumed by susceptible individuals are uncertain. An association between MAP and Crohn's disease is not proven, but neither can it be discounted on the basis of current evidence. A precautionary approach is therefore warranted in relation to the existence of MAP in food, and action is needed to reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease in the cattle population worldwide, in order to minimize public exposure to this potential human pathogen.
Descriptors: beef, dairy cattle, ruminant-based foods, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, food microbiology, food contamination, food pathogens, etiology, milk, feces, disease transmission, dairy products, beef, water, ewe milk, goat milk, cheeses, pasteurized milk, public health, disease incidence, disease prevalence, zoonoses, pathogen shedding.

Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C. Jr. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and other zoonotic pathogens during simulated composting, manure packing, and liquid storage of dairy manure. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(1): 565-574. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 10(6) CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55 degrees C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M. paratuberculosis was detected by standard culture only on day 0 in all the treatments, but was undetectable in any treatment at 3 and 7 days. On days 14, 28, and 56, M. paratuberculosis was detected in the liquid storage treatment but remained undetectable in the compost and pack treatments. However, M. paratuberculosis DNA was detectable through day 56 in all treatments and up to day 175 in liquid storage treatments. Taken together, the results indicate that high-temperature composting is more effective than pack storage or liquid storage of manure in reducing these pathogens in dairy manure. Therefore, thermophilic composting is recommended for treatment of manures destined for pathogen-sensitive environments such as those for vegetable production, residential gardening, or application to rapidly draining fields.
Descriptors: livestock manures, dairy manure, pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella ssp, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, pathogen persistence, artificial inoculation with pathogens, various treatments, thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), liquid lagoon storage.

Griffiths , M.W. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. 2006: 522-556. ISBN: 9781855739635; 1855739631. Note: a book chapter.
Descriptors: livestock animals, humans, zoonotic bacterial pathogen, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, pathogen prevalence in animals and food products, epidemiology, possible transmission routes, detection tests, typing of MAP, strategies for effective control.

Gumber, S.; Eamens, G.; Whittington, R.J. Evaluation of a Pourquier ELISA kit in relation to agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for assessment of the humoral immune response in sheep and goats with and without Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 June 15; 115(1-3): 91-101. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.01.003
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate a commercial ELISA kit (Institut Pourquier) for the diagnosis of ovine and caprine paratuberculosis under Australian conditions and to compare its accuracy with the existing AGID test. The sensitivity of the ELISA in sheep and goats was 34.9% and 56.4%, with a specificity of 98.8% and 100.0%, respectively. Sensitivity of AGID was 13.8% for sheep and 39.5% for goats, with specificity of 100.0% for both species. The sensitivity of the ELISA in sheep depended on the category of histological lesions. AGID and ELISA were conditionally independent, and appeared to detect overlapping but distinct subgroups of infected animals. The ELISA was significantly more sensitive than the AGID. The ELISA was simple to perform, robust and repeatable. Coefficients of variation of <12.0% were observed for positive and negative controls included on 193 plates over a 10-month period and there was a high level of intraassay repeatability with 12.0% of the duplicate samples having CV of >15.0%.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, analytical kits, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, agar, immunodiffusion tests, humoral immunity, immune response, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical trials, accuracy, disease control.

Gwozdz, J.M. Comparative evaluation of two decontamination methods for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from faecal slurry and sewage. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 July 20; 115(4): 358-363. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.02.016
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Faecal slurry of animal origin from sale yards and raw sewage from a sewage treatment plant were sampled for the radiometric culture over 5 months at approximately weekly intervals. Before the radiometric culture, samples were decontaminated using the double incubation method. One set of triplicate samples of slurry and sewage was decontaminated at 37 AC and the other set was decontaminated at 42 AC. M. a. paratuberculosis or its DNA was detected in seven of 45 cultures (15.6%) of slurry decontaminated at 37 AC and in 14 of 39 cultures (35.9%) of slurry decontaminated at 42 AC. The contamination rates in cultures of slurry processed at 37 AC and 42 AC were 82.2% and 69.2%, respectively. M. a. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in one of 45 cultures (2.2%) of sewage decontaminated at 42 AC. The contamination rates in samples of sewage processed at 37 AC and 42 AC were 84.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Results of this study warrant further investigations to evaluate the suitability of a decontamination method at 42 AC for the isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from faeces, tissues and milk.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, feces, slurries, sewage, DNA, decontamination, heat treatment, microbial genetics, microbial detection, microbial contamination, in vitro culture.

Hagman, D.; Johnson, J.; Godden, S.; Molitor, T.; Ames, T.; Bandrick, M.; Becker, M.; Steffenhagen, K. The effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in dairy calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 721-722. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0891-6640&site=1
NAL Call No.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine leukosis virus, feeding heat treated colostrum, effect on immune system.

Hajikolaei, M.R.H.; Ghorbanpoor, M.; Solaymani, M. The prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in ileocaecal valve of cattle slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir, southern Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 7(2(Ser.15)): 77-80. ISSN: 1728-1997. Note: In English with a summary in Persian.
URL: http://www.shirazu.ac.ir/en/index.php?page_id=60
Descriptors: cattle, prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, tissue from slaughtered animals. ileocacecal valve, rectal mucosa, ileocaecal lymph node, fecal sampling, histopathology, smears by Ziehl-Neelsen, 5 of 250 animals positive, Iran.

Harris, N. Beth; Payeur, Janet B.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand. Short sequence repeat analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates collected from animals throughout the United States reveals both stability of loci and extensive diversity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology-- JCM. 2006 Aug; 44(8): 2970-2973. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
Abstract: We analyzed the multilocus short sequence repeats (SSRs) of 211 and 56 isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, respectively. The M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates could be differentiated into 61 genotypes. The M. avium subsp. avium isolates showed limited diversity. These SSRs are stable and suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: bacterial pathogens of animals, isolates, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, short sequence repeats, genetic stability and diversity, molecular epidemiology.

Hasonova, L.; Pavlik, I. Economic impact of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds: a review. Veterinarni Medicina. 2006; 51(5): 193-211. ISSN: 0375-8427. Note: A review article.
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
NAL Call No.: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: dairy cattle, herds, livestock losses, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, economic losses, loss of milk production, changes in milk composition, contaminats, poor body condition, mortality, culling of sick animals, herd replacements, lost progeny costs, subclinical disease, production systems effects.

Hearn, M. Alonso; Patel, D.; Bermudez, L.E. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis 3464 gene encodes an oxidoreductase involved in invasion of bovine epithelial cells through the interaction with host cell Cdc 42. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602-603. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain 3464, oxidoreductase, gene of pathogen, invasion process of bovine epithelial cells, Cdc 42, host and pathogen cell interactions, ABC transporter, RhoA, activation, GTPase, fibronectin attachment protein.

Hendrick, S.H.; Duffield, T.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M;. Bagg, R.; Dick, P.; Kelton, D.F. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Oct 17; 76(3-4): 237-248. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.05.007
NAL Call No: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy herds, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease incidence, disease detection, seroprevalence, disease transmission, disease prevention, chemoprevention, monensin-sodium feed additive to milking cows, role in protection from Johne’s disease, cross-sectional study, summer months study, composite milk samples, milk ELISA sampling, calf hutches, impact of monensin on disease transmission is unknown, Ontario, Canada.

Hendrick, S.H.; Kelton, D.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M;. Bagg, R.; Dick, P.; Duffield.T.F. Efficacy of monensin sodium for the reduction of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in infected dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Aug 17; 75(3-4): 206-220. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.03.001
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, drug therapy, drug evaluation, monensin-sodium, randomized clinical trials, laboratory techniques, fecal egg count, serodiagnosis, in vitro culture, pathogen shedding.

Hermoso de Mendoza, J.; Parra, A.; Tato, A.; Alonso, J.M.; Rey, J.M.; Pena, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Larrasa, J.; Teixido, J.; Manzano, G. Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and cattle (Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004). Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 May 17; 74(2-3): 239-247. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.10.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, wildlife, wild boars, Sus scrofa, red deer, Cervus elaphus, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, epidemiological studies, disease transmission, wildlife livestock relations, game animals as disease resevoirs, risk assessment, ecosystems, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, disease detection, wildlife management, Spain.

Herthnek, D.; Bolske, G. New PCR systems to confirm real-time PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. BMC Microbiology. 2006; 6(87): (04 October 2006). ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-6-87.pdf
Descriptors : livestock disease, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, 267 strains, 56 fecal samples, PCR-based diagnostic methods, MAP-specific gene IS900 and F57 gene, 2 real time PCR systems, fecal testing, sensitivity and specificity of tests, DH3 PCR system on the F57 gene, DH1 and DH2 PCR.

Herthnek, D.; Englund, S.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Bolske, G. Sensitive detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine semen by real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2006 May; 100(5): 1095-1102. ISSN: 1364-5072
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02924.x
DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02924.x
Abstract: To develop a fast and sensitive protocol for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine semen and to make a critical evaluation of the analytical sensitivity. Processed semen was spiked with known amounts of MAP. Semen from different bulls as well as semen of different dilutions was tested. The samples were treated with lysing agents and beadbeating and the DNA was extracted with phenol and chloroform. Real-time PCR with a fluorescent probe targeting the insertion element IS900 detected as few as 10 organisms per sample of 100 [mu]l semen. PCR-inhibition was monitored by inclusion of an internal control. Pre-treatment with immunomagnetic separation was also evaluated, but was not shown to improve the overall sensitivity. Real-time PCR is a sensitive method for detection of MAP in bovine semen. Lysis by mechanical disruption followed by phenol and chloroform extraction efficiently isolated DNA and removed PCR-inhibitors. The high sensitivity of the applied method allows reliable testing of bovine semen used for artificial insemination to prevent the spread of Johne's disease, caused by MAP.
Descriptors : bull semen, spiked with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, detection methods, different dilutions, test procedure, PCR, insertion element IS900, sensitivity, prevention of disease spread through artificial insemination.

Hodgson, J.C.; Watkins, C.A.; Bayne, C.W. Contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006 July 15; 112(1-2): 12-23. ISSN: 0165-2427. Note: In a special issue: P. Kaiser and D. Werling [Editors]. Innate Immunity and Vaccination. Includes references. Literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.03.008
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. Alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. However, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. This review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical methods for oxygen-dependent mechanisms of respiratory burst in phagocytes initiated by soluble and particulate activators. Particular reference is given to the study in vitro of phagocytes from healthy and diseased ruminants during either natural infection with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis or experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida or Mannheimia haemolytica.
Descriptors: immunology, immunopathology, respiratory physiology, immune response, animal health, chemiluminescence, ruminants, phagocytes, in vivo studies, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Pasteurella multocida,Mannheimia haemolytica, respiratory burst measurement.

Hoe, F.G.H.; Ruegg, P.L. Opinions and practices of Wisconsin dairy producers about biosecurity and animal well-being. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 June; 89(6): 2297-2308. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize opinions and practices of Wisconsin dairy producers about biosecurity and animal wellbeing. Wisconsin dairy producers were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire and responder herds were categorized based on the number of lactating cows: very small herds (<=50 lactating cows; n = 279); small herds (51 to 100 lactating cows; n = 202); medium herds (101 to 200 lactating cows; n = 42); and large herds (>200 lactating cows; n = 37). Producers from large herds adopted more biosecurity practices than those from small herds, but biosecurity risks were common. Almost half of the responders indicated that they purchased cattle, but few (49.4%) performed diagnostic testing of those cattle. The frequency of diagnostic testing and examination of purchased cattle increased with herd size. Producers generally (80%) believed that they used the "right amount" of antibiotics, but the use of written treatment protocols increased with herd size. Producers from large and medium herds reported much higher usage of computerized (65.7 and 17.5%, respectively) and paper records (42.9 and 22.5%, respectively) compared with producers from smaller herds. Almost all (92.6%) believed that Johne's disease was an important issue for the dairy industry, but only 9% had enrolled in the official Wisconsin control program. Most producers (88.6%) believed that dehorning caused at least a small amount of pain, but the majority (81%) did not use local anesthetics. Producers minimized risks with which they were most familiar. Drinking raw milk was not considered a human health risk by almost half the responders, whereas bovine spongiform encephalopathy was considered "no risk" to only 37%. Raw milk was consumed by more than 60%, but regular consumption of raw milk decreased from 47.7% (very small herds) to 24.3% (large herds); perception of the risk of raw milk increased from 46.2% (very small herds) to 56.8% (large herds) with herd size. Larger farms had more knowledge of personal health risks related to zoonotic pathogens. Overall, most management practices were associated with herd size, but many beliefs regarding important dairy farm issues were consistent.
Descriptors: dairy farming, survey of farmers' attitudes, livestock biosecurity, risks of humans drinking raw milk, farmer health risks, herd size, paratuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, awareness of zoonotic risks, zoonoses, Wisconsin, USA.

Hodgson, J.C.; Watkins, C.A.; Bayne, C.W. Contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006; 112(1-2): 12-23. ISSN: 0165-2427. Note: A review.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652427
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: The mechanisms of interaction between phagocytes and different bacteria that help resolve lung infections or contribute to lung pathology are poorly defined. Alveolar phagocytes (resident macrophages and recruited neutrophils) make a major contribution to innate immunity by mounting a respiratory burst that helps kill internalised bacteria. However, this ability may be altered during or after exposure to infection. This review considers the application and limitations of a variety of analytical methods for oxygen-dependent mechanisms of respiratory burst in phagocytes initiated by soluble and particulate activators. Particular reference is given to the study in vitro of phagocytes from healthy and diseased ruminants during either natural infection with Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosis or experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida or Mannheimia haemolytica. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, in vitro phagocytes from healthy and disease ruminants.

Hostetter, J.; Zhang, W.; Simutis, F. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection of cattle does not diminish peripheral blood-derived macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Immunology Letters. 2006; 107(1): 76-79. ISSN: 0165-2478
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652478
Abstract: Ruminants infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis consistently develop a multibacillary form of disease that is centred on the ileum. Mechanisms responsible for failure of macrophage function during multibacillary disease are incompletely characterized. Our data suggest that mycobactericidal functions are present, and potentially enhanced, in monocyte-derived macrophages from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected cattle. Addition of CD4+ T cells from infected animals to autologous in vitro infected macrophages did not increase bacterial killing. In contrast, CD4+ T cells from non-infected animals did increase bacterial killing in autologous macrophages. In macrophages from both infected and non-infected cattle, bacterial killing appeared to be independent of interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma ) and nitric oxide production. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: infectedcattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, ileum centered damage, T lymphocytes cells, macrophage activation, macrophages, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, IFN gamma.

Hovingh, E.; Whitlock, R.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Fyock, T.; Wolfgang, D.R.; Smith, J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Van-Kessel, J.S. Identification and implications of MAP supershedders. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09-13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors : cattle, supershedders of pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microbial shedding, identifying infected animals, risks, culling of infected animals.

Humphry, R.W.; Stott, A.W.; Adams, C.; Gunn, G.J. A model of the relationship between the epidemiology of Johne's disease and the environment in suckler-beef herds. Veterinary Journal. 2006 Nov; 172(3): 432-445. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.07.017
NAL Call No.: SF601.V484
Abstract: A non-predictive, dynamic and stochastic herd-level simulation model of an outbreak of Johne's in a suckler-beef herd is reported. Importantly, the model incorporates, with a simple method, the environment as the primary source of infection, reflecting the consensual understanding of the disease. The model also takes into account the density of the infectious agent in the environment. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the model is highly and equally sensitive to certain parameters (probability of infection in the presence of one unit of bacterial density, infectious area and bacterial shedding rate). Mathematical reasons for this similarity in sensitivity are presented. Compared to many other diseases, data for Johne's are scarce. Therefore models of Johne's outbreaks including this one cannot be predictive or easily validated. The qualitative results: (a) demonstrate the modelled effect of inclusion of infection via the environment; (b) suggest management factors that could be tested by experimentation or observation. Estimates for the rate of transmission, arising from the model output, are similar to published empirical estimates. The results of future empirical research should aid scientific understanding of the disease, help validate this model and might bring economic benefits through improved management.
Descriptors: beef cattle,calves, calving, herd health, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental factors, disease models,

Huygen, Kris. DNA vaccines against mycobacterial diseases. Future Microbiology. 2006; 1(1): 63-73. ISSN: 1746-0913
URL: http://www.futuremedicine.com/loi/fmb
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, humans, mice,plasmid DNA vaccination, booting with recombinant protein, recombinant pox viruses, Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette Guerin.

Hutchings, Michael R.; Judge, Johanna; Gordon, Iain J.; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Kyriazakis, Ilias. Use of trade-off theory to advance understanding of herbivore-parasite interactions. Mammal Review. 2006; 36(1): 1-16. Print ISSN: 0305-1838. E-ISSN: 1365-2907
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0305-1838&site=1
Descriptors: Alouatta seniculus , red howler monkey, Alouatta palliate, mantled howler monkey, Oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit, Meles meles, badger, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, herbivore-parasite relationship, forage environments, parasite aquired in forage situations, host behaviors, host avoidance of parasites, avoidance of contaminated areas, diets that increase resistance, foods selections with anti-parasitic properties, transmission via the fecal-oral route, trade offs between nutrients and parasite exposure.

Janagama, H.K.; Jeong, K.I.; Kapur, V.; Coussens, P.; Sreevatsan, S. Cytokine responses of bovine macrophages to diverse clinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains. BMC Microbiology. 2006; 6(10): (14 February 2006). ISSN: 1471-2180.
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-6-10.pdf
Abstract:M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. While it is established that substantial genotypic variation exists among MAP, evidence for the correlates that associate specific MAP genotypes with clinical or subclinical disease phenotypes is presently unknown. Thus we studied strain differences in intracellular MAP survival and host responses in a bovine monocyte derived macrophage (MDM) system. Intracellular survival studies showed that a bovine MAP isolate (B1018) and a human MAP isolate (Hu6) persisted in relatively higher numbers when compared with a sheep MAP isolate (S7565) at 24-, 48- and 96-h postinfection (PI). MDMs stimulated with B1018 upregulated IL-10 at the transcript level and downregulated TNF Alpha at the protein and transcript levels compared with stimulations by the S7565 and Hu6. MDMs infected with Hu6 showed a down regulatory pattern of IL-10 and TNF Alpha compared to stimulations by S7565. Cells stimulated with B1018 and Hu6 had low levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) and high levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) at 96-h PI relative to MDMs stimulated by S7565. These results suggest that the bovine (B1018) and the human (Hu6) MAP isolates lead to antiinflammatory and anti-invasive pathways in the macrophage environment, whereas the sheep (S7565) MAP isolate induces a pro-inflammatory pathway. Thus the infecting strain genotype may play a role in polarizing the host immune responses and dictate the clinicopathological outcomes in this economically important disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors : cattle, cattle diseases, sheep, sheep diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, infection and survival in host macrophages, cytokines, immune response, immunity, interleukin 10, metalloproteinases, tumour necrosis factor, cachectin, cachexin, immunological reactions.

Jaravata, C.V.; Smith, W.L.; Rensen, G.J.; Ruzante, J.M.; Cullor, J.S. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine manure using Whatman FTA card technology and lightcycler real-time PCR. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2006; 3(2): 212-215. ISSN: 1535-3141
URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/fpd.2006.3.212
NAL Call No.: QR115.F6637
Abstract: A modified forensic DNA extraction and real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay has been evaluated for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine faecal samples using primers and fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes targeting the IS900 gene sequence of MAP. DNA was successfully extracted from manure samples by utilizing the Whatman FTAReg. card technology, which allows for simple processing and storage of samples at room temperature. The FTAReg. cards were washed and subjected to a Chelex-100 incubation to remove any remaining polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors and to elute the DNA from the FTAReg. card. This isolated DNA was then subjected to direct real time fluorescent PCR analysis. Detection of MAP DNA from bovine faecal samples spiked with known concentrations of viable MAP cells was obtained. The detection limits of the assay was consistently found to be between 102 and 104 colony forming units [CFU]/g, with some samples containing as low as 10 CFU/g, yielding positive assay results. This cost-efficient assay allows reporting of results as early as 4 h after faecal collection, which can be particularly useful in high-throughput herd screening..
Descriptors: bovine fecal samples, manures, screening and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, analysis, assays, DNA extraction, PCR, inhibitors.

Jensen, S.; Wagner, B.; Garber, L. Preliminary results from the national Johne's Disease demonstration herd project. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 133. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk production impacts, demonstration dairy herd, National Johne’s Disease Herd Project, preliminary program results, USA.

Johansen, K.A.; Hugen, E.E.; Payeur, J.B. Growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the presence of hexadecylpyridinium chloride, natamycin, and vancomycin. Journal of Food Protection. 2006 Apr; 69(4): 878-883. ISSN: 0362-028X
URL: http://www.foodprotection.org/publications/jfp.asp
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824
Abstract: A design-of-experiments approach was used to examine the effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), alone or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin and natamycin, on the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). At concentrations above 74.4 microgram/ml, HPC had a highly significant detrimental effect on the growth of MAP, whereas natamycin at 10.8 and 21.6 microgram/ml and vancomycin at 5.2 and 10.4 microgram/ml did not have such an effect. Titration of the amount of HPC tolerated by MAP indicated that growth can occur in the presence of 24.8 microgram/ml or lower. Processing of bovine fecal specimens indicated that reducing the concentration of HPC from 32.22 to 1.07 mg/ml during decontamination may improve detection when cultures are grown on solid medium but not when cultures are grown in liquid medium. Further investigation into optimizing HPC concentration during processing of fecal samples is warranted. Natamycin, in conjunction with vancomycin, may be useful for controlling fungal contamination during isolation of MAP from fecal samples.
Descriptors: ruminants,fecal sampling, enteropathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, bacterial infections, animal pathogenic bacteria, natamycin, antifungal agents, antibiotics, veterinary drugs, antibacterial properties, culture media, pathogen survival, chlorides, drug interactions.

Jones, P.H.; Farver, T.B.; Beaman, B.; Cetnkaya, B.; Morgan, K.L. Crohn's disease in people exposed to clinical cases of bovine paratuberculosis. Epidemiology and Infection. 2006; 134(1): 49-56. ISSN: 0950-2688
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=HYG
Descriptors: cattle, humans, dairy cattle, farmers, risk factors for zoonotic diseases from infected animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, work related illness, questionnaire survey of dairy farmers with and without infected animals, levels of Crohn’s disease, no association due to association with bovine paratuberculosis, univariate association with geographical region, univariate association with age, frequency of contact with cattle and smoking, UK.

Juan, L. de; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Romero, B.; Bezos, J.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L. Molecular epidemiology of types I. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 June 15; 115(1-3): 102-110. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.01.008
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) isolates classifies them into three groups: cattle or Type II, sheep or Type I, and intermediate or Type III. To avoid problems associated with characterization of extremely slow growth strains, PCR-based techniques that divide the M. a. paratuberculosis strains in two main groups (cattle or Type II, and sheep or Types I/III) can be performed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the M. a. paratuberculosis isolates identified by different PCR-based tests (IS1311-PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR test based on a DNA sequence difference, and a PCR aimed at three Type I-specific loci), and to determine the clinical and epidemiological implications of Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains in livestock. One hundred and fifty-eight M. a. paratuberculosis strains from domestic ruminants were analyzed. One hundred and six M. a. paratuberculosis isolates (61 from goats and 45 from cattle) were classified as Type II strains; and 52 (29 from cows, 20 from goats, and three from sheep) were included in the Types I/III. The Types I/III M. a. paratuberculosis strains were associated to Spanish native breeds. The majority of these animals had not been in direct or indirect contact with sheep flocks infected with M. a. paratuberculosis. This fact should be taken into account when implementing paratuberculosis control programs.
Descriptors: goats, goat diseases, cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis strains, molecular epidemiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strain differences, disease control.

Juan, Lucia de; Alvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Castellanos, Elena; Aranaz, Alicia; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas. Comparison of four different culture media for isolation and growth of type II and type I. Applied and Environmental Microbiology-AEM. 2006 Sept; 72(9): 5927-5932. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Culture is considered the definitive technique for Johne's disease diagnosis, and it is essential for later applications of certain molecular typing techniques. In this study, we have tested four solid media (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEYM] with sodium pyruvate and mycobactin [HEYMm-SP], HEYM with mycobactin and without sodium pyruvate [HEYMm], Middlebrook 7H11 with mycobactin [Mm], and Lowenstein-Jensen with mycobactin [LJm]) for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains in 319 tissue samples from cattle herds and goat flocks. We have shown that each of the two main groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (type II and type I/III) has different requirements for growth in the culture media studied. The recommended solid media for isolation of type I/III strains are LJm and Mm, since the combination of both media allowed the recovery of all these strains. The most widespread culture medium, HEYM, is not suitable for the isolation of this group of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Regarding the type II strains, HEYMm-SP was the medium where more strains were isolated, but the other three media are also needed in order to recover all type II strains. The incubation period is also related to the strain type. In conclusion, because the type of strain cannot be known in advance of culture, coupled with the fact that cattle and goats can be infected with both groups of strains, we recommend the use of the four solid media and the prolongation of the incubation period to more than 6 months to detect paratuberculous herds/flocks and to determine the true prevalence of the infection.
Descriptors: culture media, cell culture, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, isolation, 4 culture methods compared, cattle herds, goat flocks, paratuberculosis, pathogen identification, bacterial strains, strain differences, disease detection, disease diagnosis.

Juan, L. de; Alvarez, J.; Aranaz, A.; Bezos, J.; Romero, B.; Rufian, L.; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L.; Travnicek, M. Epizootologia a diagnostika mykobakterialnych infekcii. Cast' II. Paratuberkuloza.[Epidemiology and diagnostics of mycobacterial infections. Part II. Paratuberculosis.] Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis. 2006; 31(3): 168-172. ISSN: 1335-0099. Note: In Slovakian with an English summary.
URL: http://www.uvm.sk/dept/journals/svc.html
Descriptors: humans, animals, mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis,Johne’s disease, zoonotic diseases, etiology, epidemiology, disease prevention, clinical aspects, Crohn's disease, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevention, histopathology, identification, isolation techniques, molecular genetics,disease control, vaccination.

Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Davidson, Ross S.; Hutchings, Michael R. Routes of intraspecies transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a field study. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 72(1): 398-403. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Rabbits have been increasingly linked to the persistence of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in domestic ruminants in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to determine the routes of intraspecies transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in rabbits and to estimate the probability of transmission via each route, in order to gain understanding of the dynamics of MAP in this host. Rabbits were sampled from two sites where MAP had previously been isolated from the livestock and rabbit populations. No pathology was noted in any animals, but the overall prevalence of MAP in rabbits was high at both sites studied, 39.7% and 23.0%, respectively. MAP was isolated from the testes, uterus, placenta, fetuses, and milk. This is the first time that the bacterium has been isolated from any of these tissues in a nonruminant wildlife species. These results suggest that transmission may occur vertically, pseudovertically, and horizontally. Vertical, i.e., transplacental, and/or pseudo-vertical, i.e., through the ingestion of contaminated milk and/or feces, transmission occurred in 14% of offspring entering the population at 1 month of age. As infection via these routes is only possible from infected adult females, this equates to a probability of infection via this route of 0.326. Probability of infection via horizontal transmission (including interspecies transmission) occurred at up to 0.037 per month. The presence of these routes of transmission within natural rabbit populations will contribute to the maintenance of MAP infections within such populations and, therefore, the environment.
Descriptors: Oryctolagus cuniculus , wild rabbits, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, intraspecies disease transmission, epidemiology, transplacental transmission, animal diseases, disease reservoirs, pathogens in numerous organs, vertical transmission, pseudo-vertically, horizontal transmission, Scotland.

Kapur, V. Johne's Disease integrated program - An overview. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle diseases, integrated program, production systems, disease elimination and control, animal biosecurity, pharmacology, education.

Kapur, V.; Bannantine, J.P.; Li, L.L.; Zhang, Q.; Amonsin, A. Mycobacterial diagnostics. United States Department of Agriculture Patents. 2006 July 11, no US 7,074,559 B2.
NAL Call No.: aT223.V4A4
Abstract : The present invention provides nucleic acid molecules unique to M. paratuberculosis. The invention also provides the polypeptides encoded by the M. paratuberculosis-specific nucleic acid molecules of the invention, and antibodies having specific binding affinity for the polypeptides encoded by the M. paratuberculosis-specific nucleic acid molecules. The invention further provides for methods of detecting M. paratuberculosis in a sample using nucleic acid molecules, polypeptides, and antibodies of the invention. The invention additionally provides methods of preventing a M. paratuberculosis infection in an animal.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, U.S. patent, antibody-based diagnostic, polypetides, method to prevent MAP in animals, USA.

Kemp, R.; Caldow, G.; Strain, S. Herd prevalence of Johne's disease. Veterinary Record. 2006; 159(17): 572. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, disease prevalence, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, genetic diversity, paratuberculosis, risk factors, seasonal variations, UK.

Khol, J. L.; Stein, B.; Dreier, S.; Baumgartner, W. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in small ruminants in Austria. Slovenian Veterinary Research. 2006; 43(Supplement 10): 129-130. ISSN: 1580-4003. Note: 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress, Radenci, Slovenia, 29 March-1 April 2006.
NAL Call No.: SF604.L52
Descriptors: goats, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, prevalence, serum testing, fecal testing, organ sampling, MAP antibody testing, commercial ELISA, pathogen culture on Herold’s Yolk Medium, Ziehl Neelsen stain, PCR, Austria.

Koets, Ad; Hoek, Aad; Langelaar, Merel; Overdijk, Marije; Santema, Wiebren; Franken, Peter; van Eden, Willem; Rutten, Victor Mycobacterial 70 kD heat-shock protein is an effective subunit vaccine against bovine paratuberculosis. Vaccine. 2006; 24(14): 2550-2559. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Descriptors : cattle, experimental infection, cattle pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain 316F, economic losses from premature culling and production losses, recombinant MAP Hsp70 as a subunit vaccine, reduced fecal shedding.

Kooten, H.C.J. van; Mackintosh, C.G.; Koets, A.P. Intra-uterine transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in farmed red deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(1): 16-20. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: farmed red deer, Cervus elaphus, pregnant hinds, intra-uterine transmission of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, tissue sampling of hinds, hepatic, ileocaecal and mesenteric lymph nodes, posterior ileum, fetuses sampling, lung, liver, spleen, jejunum, ileum, tissues cultured in BACTEC system, hinds and fetuses were positive, maternal transmission, New Zealand.

Kopecna, M.; Lamka, J.; Parmova, I.; Trcka, I.; Svastova, P.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I. Paratuberculosis in wild ruminants in the Czech Republic from 1997 to 2004. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2006; 76(Supplement): S19-S26. ISSN: 0372-5480. Note: “Game and Ecology.” Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium, Brijuni Islands, Croatia, 10-13 October 2005.
URL: http://www.vef.hr/vetarhiv
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6416
Descriptors: ruminants, Capra, goats, Capra aegagrus, Capreolus capreolus, red deer, Cervus elaphus, fallow deer, Cervus nippon; chamois, mouflon, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease surveillance, Johne's disease, resistance to disease, disease prevalence, disease resistance, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, Czech Republic.

Kopecna, Marketa; Ondrus, Stanislav; Literak, Ivan; Klimes, Jiri; Horvathova, Alica; Moravkova,-Monika; Bartos, Milan; Trcka, Ivo; Pavlik, Ivo. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in two brown bears in the central European Carpathians. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006; 42(3): 691-695. ISSN: 0090-3558
URL: http://www.wildlifedisease.org
NAL Call no.: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: The incidence of mycobacterial infections was monitored in brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the National Park Low Tatras in the central European Carpathians in Slovakia. Tissue samples of 20 brown bears were examined microscopically and by culture for the presence of mycobacteria. Acid-fast rods were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining in a smear from the kidney of one brown bear, although the culture was negative for mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, was isolated from the intestinal mucosa of another two brown bears. The isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction for the specific insertion sequence IS900. Using standardized IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the M. a. paratuberculosis isolates were classified as RFLP type B-C1, which also were detected in the infected cattle in surrounding area. This study describes the first isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from a brown bear. Our results confirm that animal species other than ruminants can become infected with M. a. paratuberculosis and can act as potential vectors and/or reservoirs of the infection. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: brown bears,Ursus arctos, tissue sampling, kidneys, intestinal mucosa, IS900 RFLP analysis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, RFLP type B-CL, first known isolation from a brown bear, wildlife as potential vector and disease reservoir, National Park Low Tatras, central European Carpathians, Slovakia.

Kostoulas, P.; Leontides, L.; Billinis, C.; Florou, M. Application of a semi-dependent latent model in the Bayesian estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of two faecal culture methods for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sub-clinically infected Greek dairy sheep and goats. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Sept 15; 76(1-2): 121-134. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.04.008
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: sheep, goats, sheep diseases, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection, diagnostic techniques, culture media, feces, fecal shedding and sampling, Bayesian theory, latent class model, validity, disease prevalence, probabilistic models, estimation, accuracy, analytical kits, Greece.

Kostoulas, P.; Leontides, L.; Enoe, C.; Billinis, C.; Florou, M.; Sofia, M. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of serum ELISA and faecal culture for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in Greek dairy sheep and goats. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Sept 15; 76(1-2): 56-73. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.04.006
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease detection, disease diagnosis, seroprevalence, blood serum, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, feces, fecal culture, testing, analytical kits, accuracy, probabilistic models, Bayesian theory, estimation, latent class models, validity, Greece.

Kostoulas, P.; Leontides, L.; Billinis, C.; Amiridis, G.S.; Florou, M. The association of sub-clinical paratuberculosis with the fertility of Greek dairy ewes and goats varies with parity. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 May 17; 74(2-3): 226-238. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.12.001
NAL Call No .: SF601.P7
Descriptors: sheep diseases, nanny goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal reproduction, animal fertility, vivipary (animals), parity (reproduction), female fertility, ewes, epidemiological studies, disease prevalence, cross sectional studies, disease detection, seroprevalence, feces, logit analysis, Greece.

Kovich, D.A.; Wells, S.J.; Friendshuh, K. Evaluation of the voluntary Johne's disease herd status program as a source of replacement cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Sept; 89(9): 3466-3470. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the perceived value that enrolled producers gained from participation in the Voluntary Johne's Disease Herd Status Program (VJDHSP), and to evaluate the risk of infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) of cattle reared in a presumed Johne's free environment vs. cattle raised in an environment of unknown Johne's status. Producers enrolled in level 3 or 4 of the VJDHSP (98 and 99% probability, respectively, of being free from MAP infection) were interviewed via telephone. Producers were asked questions pertaining to their participation in the VJDHSP, and asked to identify herds to which they had sold replacement heifers. These cattle were presumed to be uninfected before sale. Fifty-nine cattle (identified as having been purchased into infected herds as heifers) were identified as having been raised in uninfected herds and sold to producers with herds of unknown Johne's disease status. On the purchasing farm, fecal and blood samples were collected from each cow of VJDHSP origin and 3 randomly selected home-reared cows per VJDHSP cow matched by lactation as controls. Samples were tested using commercial ELISA (serum) and bacterial culture (feces). Results indicated that enrolled producers saw value in VJDHSP participation, and that cattle reared in VJDHSP herds were less likely to be infected with MAP than herdmates as measured by serum ELISA MAP antibody and by fecal culture. This study provides evidence of the value of the VJDHSP in providing economic value to participants and supports the promotion of VJDHSP herds as a source of replacement cattle of low infection risk for MAP.
Descriptors: dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease incidence, specific pathogen free animals, heifers, bacterial infections, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, Minnesota, USA.

Kruze, J.; Salgado, M.; Paredes, E.; Mella, A.; Collins, M.T. Goat paratuberculosis in Chile: first isolation and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in a dairy goat. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Sept; 18(5): 476-479. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descripators : goats, food animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, animal diseases, disease diagnosis, pathogen identification, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), histopathology, animal pathology, new geographic records, paucibacillary paratuberculosis, Chile.

Kumar, A.A.; Tripathi, B.N.; Jolhe, D.K. Immunohistochemical demonstration of mycobacterial antigens in sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2006; 30(2): 1-4. ISSN 0250-4758, E-ISSN: 0873-970X
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&type=home
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of indirect immunoperoxidase (IPT) and Ziehl Neelsen's (ZN) methods in the histological confirmation of paratuberculosis. 15 lambs were orally infected with a caprine isolate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A group of 8 lambs were kept in the contact with the infected group and 8 lambs as uninfected control. The animals of the infected and in-contact groups were classified as suspected (2), mild (9), moderate (3) and severe (3) infection categories on the basis of severity of histological lesions and positivity in other diagnostic tests. The efficacy of demonstration of acid-fast bacilli and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen in tissues of 15 experimentally infected sheep were compared. Two sheep showing no lesions were negative in both tests. Out of 2 suspected and 9 mild cases, only IPT detected 1 and 6 cases, respectively. In moderate and severe cases, both IPT and ZN methods were equally sensitive, with the former giving more positive signals than the latter. The overall sensitivity of IPT (76.5%) was found to be far superior as compared with ZN method (35.3%). These results suggest the utility of IPT in the diagnostic confirmation of histological lesions without demonstrable AFB. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sheep, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, peroxidase labeled antibody technique, experimental infection, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunoperoxidase technique, paratuberculosis.

Kuralkar, S.V.; Sahatpure, S.K.; Waghmare, S.P.; Shyam-Sharma. Prevalence of tuberculosis and Johne's disease in an organized dairy farm. Intas Polivet. 2006; 7(2): 251-254. ISSN: 0972-1738
Abstract: The prevalence of tuberculosis and Johne's disease in an organized dairy farm in India was studied. Of the 1132 animals tested, 15 (1.32%) and 1 (0.095%) were positive to tuberculin and Johnin tests, while there were 54 (4.77%) and 6 (0.53%) doubtful reactions for tuberculin and Johnin tests, respectively. Three animals were positive to both tuberculin and Johnin tests. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: 1132 cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, organized dairy farm, prevalence of paratuberculosis, skin testing, tuberculin and Johnin testing, epidemiological survey, India.

Laopez-Pedemonte, Tomaas; Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M.; Aduriz, Gorka; Guamis, Buenaventura; Juste, Ramaon A.; Roig Saguaes, Artur X. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cow's milk by means of high hydrostatic pressure at mild temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 June; 72(6): 4446-4449. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Two strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (3644/02 and ATCC 19698) were inoculated (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) into sterilized milk to evaluate inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure. Reductions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis increased with pressure level. Significant differences were also found between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains and between the media used. Average reductions of 4 log CFU/ml after treatment with 500 MPa are comparable to those caused by thermal treatments.
Descriptors: sterilized milk, spiking with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, food contamination, bacterial contamination, decontamination, high pressure treatment, temperature inactivation of bacterial contaminants, food microbiology, food processing, high hydrostatic pressure.

Le Puil, M.; Biggerstaff, J.P.; Weidow, B.L.; Price, J.R.; Naser, S.A.; White, D.C.; Alberte, R.S. A novel fluorescence imaging technique combining deconvolution microscopy and spectral analysis for quantitative detection of opportunistic pathogens. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2006; 67(3): 597-602. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors : Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, public health, pathogen identification, methods and techniques, public health concerns, fluorescence imaging technique, deconvolution microscopy, spectral analysis, rapid and specific test.

Lee, Kyung Woo; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Moon, Oun Kyoung; Yang, Dong Kun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kweon, Chang Hee. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Korean Black Goats (Capra hircus aegagrus). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2006; 68(12): 1379-1381. ISSN: 0916-7250
NAL Call No.: SF604.J342
Abstract: 582 sera from 116 black goat herds were analysed by a commercially available ELISA kit to monitor the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus). The mean number of goats sampled per herd was 5.11, 4.66, and 5.38 for the northern, central, and southern regions of Korea, respectively. The apparent regional prevalence of Mpt was estimated at 18.2-38.2% and 4.6-15.3% for herds and goats, respectively. The Mpt-positive goats were predominantly detected in the south (n=28), compared to either the northern (n=9) or central (n=11) regions ( chi =14.459, P<0.05). Our findings indicate that Mpt is prevalent among the goat population, but regional variation exists. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: 116 black goat herds, Capra hircus aegagrus, 582 serum samples, ELISA kit, disease survey, seroprevalance of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, regional variation exists, Korea.

Lehtola, Markku J.; Torvinen, Eila; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Keevil, C. William. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes for rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in potable-water biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 72(1): 848-853. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 Ap5
Abstract: Here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting Mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies M. avium subsp. avium,M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. There is evidence that M. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive and grow in drinking-water biofilms and possibly transmit via drinking water. The designed PNA probe (MAV148) specificity was tested with several bacterial species, including other mycobacteria and mycolic acid-containing bacteria. From the range of bacterial strains tested, only M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were hybridized. The PNA FISH method was applied successfully to detect M. avium subsp. avium spiked in water samples and biofilm established within a Propella biofilm reactor fed with potable water from a distribution supply.
Descriptors: testing potable water, biofilms, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium,Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, successful detection method, high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence, testing for several bacterial species, mycolic acid containing bacteria, experimental spiking of water samples.

Li, L.L.; Munir, S.; Bannantine, J.P.; Sreevatsan, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Kapur, V. Rapid expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins for antigen discovery. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2007; 14(1): 102-105. ISSN: 1556-6811.
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: cattle, ruminants, other species, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease detection, serological diagnosis, utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins, antigen discovery, MAP1272c protein.

Liandris, E.; Piccinini, R.; Dapra, V.; Cesaris, L.; Zecconi, A. Controllo della paratubercolosi applicazione di un programma pilota in allevamenti di bovine da latte della Lombardia.[Control of paratuberculosis. Application of a pilot programme on dairy farms in Lombardy.] Obiettiv e Documenti Veterinari. 2006; 27(4): 27-31. ISSN: 0392-1913. Note: In Italian with an English summary.
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, paratuberculosis disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control program, Lombardy, Italy.

Lisle, G.W. de; Cannon, M.C.; Yates, G.F.; Collins, D.M. Use of a polymerase chain reaction to subtype Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, an increasingly important pathogen from farmed deer in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(4): 195-197. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: farmed deer, 600 infected herds, confirmed cases, Johne’s disease, disease prevalence, cattle strains, sheep strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, IS900 PCR testing, epidemiology, January 2001 to October 2005, New Zealand.

Ljubljani University . Review papers. 7th Middle European Buiatric Congress, Radenci, Slovenia, 2006. Slovenian Veterinary Research. 2006; 43(1): 5-49. ISSN: 1580-4003. Note: A proceedings, in English.
NAL Call No.: SF604.L52
Descriptors: cattle, dogs, dairy cows, uterine infection, inherited disorders, milk production, fertility, diseases, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, periodontal diseases, PCR, reviews, Slovenia.

Lombard , J.E.; Byrem, T.M.; Wagner, B.A.; McCluskey, B.J. Comparison of milk and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Sept; 18(5): 448-458. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Milk and serum samples from 35 dairy herds in 17 states were evaluated for cow- and herd-level Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody test agreement. Evaluation of 6,349 samples suggested moderate agreement between milk and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, with a kappa value of 0.50. Cow-level sensitivity (Se) for 18 dairy operations with 1,921 animals was evaluated relative to fecal culture results. At the cow level, the milk ELISA relative Se was not significantly different from that of the serum ELISA (21.2 and 23.5%, respectively). Logistic regression models revealed a positive association between lactation number and milk ELISA status. Non-Holstein cows were more likely to test milk ELISA positive than Holstein cows. Cows in the first 2 weeks of lactation and after week 45 of lactation were more likely to test milk ELISA positive than cows between 3 and 12 weeks of lactation. Milk production >80% of herd average was negatively associated with testing milk ELISA positive. Animals in the West and Midwest regions were less likely than animals in the Southeast region to test ELISA positive by either test. Estimates for herd-level sensitivity for the milk and serum ELISA, relative to fecal culture results, ranged from 56 to 83%. At the cow and herd levels, milk ELISA performed equivalent to serum ELISA using fecal culture as a reference for MAP infection and has the advantage of decreased labor costs on farms that use Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing..
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, cow and herd levels of Johne’s disease, milk sampling, serum sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, immunological techniques, ELISA, fecal culture reference, Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing, USA.

Lombard, J.E.; Wagner, B.A . ; Smith, R.L.; McCluskey, B.J.; Harris, B.N.; Payeur, J.B.; Garry, F. B.; Salman, M.D. Evaluation of environmental sampling and culture tod Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis distribution and herd infection status on US dairy operations. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Nov; 89(11): 4163-4171. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in the environment and assess the relationship between the culture status of MAP in the farm environment and herd infection status. The National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2002 study surveyed dairy operations in 21 states. One component of the study involved collection and culturing of environmental samples for MAP from areas on farms where manure accumulated from a majority of a herd's cows. Operations were selected for inclusion based on perceived risk factors for MAP infection identified in a previously administered questionnaire. Individual animal and environmental samples were collected and used to determine the efficiency of environmental sampling for determination of herd infection status. Individual animal fecal, serum, and milk samples were used to classify herds as infected or not infected based on the presence of at least one test-positive animal in the herd. A total of 483 environmental samples (approximately 5 per farm) were collected, and 218 (45.1%) were culture-positive for MAP. A similar percentage of environmental cultures collected from all designated areas were positive [parlor exits (52.3%), floors of holding pens (49.1%), common alleyways (48.8%), lagoons (47.4%), manure spreaders (42.3%), and manure pits (41.5%)]. Of the 98 operations tested with the environmental sample culture, 97 had individual serum ELISA results, 60 had individual fecal culture results, and 34 had individual milk ELISA results. Sixty-nine of the 98 operations (70.4%) had at least one environmental sample that was culture-positive. Of the 50 herds classified as infected by fecal culture, 38 (76.0%) were identified by environmental culture. Two of the 10 operations classified as not infected based on individual animal fecal culture were environmental culture-positive. Of the 80 operations classified as infected based on serum ELISA-positive results, 61 (76.3%) were identified as environmental-positive, whereas 20 of the 28 (71.4%) operations identified as infected based on milk ELISA were detected by environmental sampling. Environmental sample culturing is less costly than individual animal sampling, does not require animal restraint, and identified more than 70% of infected operations. Environmental sampling is another diagnostic tool that veterinarians and dairy producers can use to determine herd infection status for MAP.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, herd health, sampling, disease transmission, dairy farm management, bacterial contamination, milk quality, environmental contamination.

Lopez-Pedemonte, Tomas; Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M.; Aduriz, Gorka; Guamis, Buenaventura; Juste, Ramon A.; Roig-Sagues, Artur X. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in cow's milk by means of high hydrostatic pressure at mild temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(6): 4446-4449. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Two strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (3644/02 and ATCC 19698) were inoculated (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) into sterilized milk to evaluate inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure. Reductions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis increased with pressure level. Significant differences were also found between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains and between the media used. Average reductions of 4 log CFU/ml after treatment with 500 MPa are comparable to those caused by thermal treatments.
Descriptors: cow’s milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains ATCC-19698 and 3644-02, spiked samples of milk, inactivation parameters, temperature and pressure, strain differences.

Losinger, W.C. Welfare effects of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive versus Johne's-negative dairy operations. Journal of Dairy Research. 2006 Aug; 73(3): 378-384. ISSN: 0022-0299
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002007
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J823
Abstract : An examination of the economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive and Johne's-negative dairy operations indicated that, if Johne's disease had not existed in US dairy cows in 1996, then the economic surplus of Johne's-negative operations would have been $600 millionpl $530 million lower, while the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations would have been higher by $28 millionpl$79 million, which was not significantly different from zero. The data available for projecting changes in surplus were not sufficiently precise to allow an exact statement on whether Johne's-positive operations would have been better or worse off economically, in terms of the value received for producing more milk if they had not been affected by Johne's disease. The changes in producer surplus, based upon eliminating specific epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease, were disaggregated between Johne's-positive dairy operations exposed to the risk factor and all other US dairy operations. Eliminating the risk factor of having any cows not born on the operation would have had a significant positive effect on the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations that had any cows not born on the operation.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy farming, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, milk yield, milk production, profitability, economic impact, economic analysis, epidemiology, risk factors, economic welfare.

Losinger, Willard C. Economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA. Journal of Dairy Research. 2006; 73(1): 33-43. ISSN: 0022-0299
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=DAR
Descriptors: dairy cows, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, milk production, regional and herd size differences in disease levels, multiple cow maternity housing, multiple preweaned calf housing, risk of adding cows from outside the operation, GUM Workbench, uncertainties of economic impacts.

Lyche, Jan L.; Larsen, Hans J.S.; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Tverdal, Aage; Johansen, Grethe M.; Ropstad, Erik. Perinatal exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunity in goat kids. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A. 2006; 69(1-2): 139-158. ISSN: 1528-7394.
URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/15287394.html
Descriptors: goat does, goat kids, oral dosing with PCB153 and PCB 126, DES intramuscular injection, blood sampling, effects on immunity, disease susceptibility, suppressed maternal and neonatal immunity, maternal IgG and specific antibodies to environmental microbes and pathogens, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mannheimia haemolytica, reovirus (REO-1), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, equine influenza virus, variation between PCB types.

Malamo, M.; Sakoda, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Kida, H. Development of ELISA to detect antibodies specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with truncated 34 kDa proteins. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 54(2/3): 99-107. ISSN: 0047-1917.
URL: http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/bulletin/jjvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6446
Abstract: To develop ELISA to detect antibodies specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), the carboxyl termini of the 34 kDa proteins of M. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. avium) were expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. Antibodies specific to M. paratuberculosis were detected with the truncated 34 kDa protein of M. paratuberculosis in ELISA after pre-absorption of serum samples with the truncated 34 kDa protein of M. avium. All the serum samples from cattle confirmed to be infected with M. paratuberculosis were positive and those from healthy cattle were negative in the present ELISA system. These results indicate that the established ELISA detects antibodies specific to M. paratuberculosis with high specificity and sensitivity and is an useful tool for the screening of Johne's disease. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, screening tests, serum testing, antibodies, detection, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immune response.

Manzer, S.N.; Cogswell, D.R.; Eckstein, T.M.; Chatterjee, D.; Belisle, J.T.; Inamine, J.M. Structural and serological characterization of two polar lipids specific to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 609. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, cell wall, phospholipid, lipopeptide, glycophospholipid, polar lipids, Johne’s disease.

Marcos, J.; Garcia, A. Trabajo de campo desarrollado durante cinco anos de vacunacion con Gudair Paratuberculosis ovina, un grave problema que se puede resolver. [Ovine paratuberculosis, a serious problem that could be resolved.] Albeitar. 2006; (93): 54-55. ISSN: 1699-7883. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ovine Johne’s disease, vaccination, Guidair vaccine, efficacy of vaccine tested, clinical disease, mortality and subclinical diseases, fecal excretion and immune responses, New South Wales, Australia.

Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Bannantine, John P.; Golding, Geoffrey B. Comparative genomics of metabolic pathways in Mycobacterium species: gene duplication, gene decay and lateral gene transfer. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 2006 Nov; 30(6): 906-925. ISSN: 0168-6445
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2006.00041.x
NAL Call No.: QR1.F46
Abstract: The genus Mycobacterium comprises significant pathogenic species that infect both humans and animals. One species within this genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the primary killer of humans resulting from bacterial infections. Five mycobacterial genomes belonging to four different species (M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium avium ssp. Paratuberculosis) have been sequenced to date and another 14 mycobacterial genomes are at various stages of completion. A comparative analysis of the gene products of key metabolic pathways revealed that the major differences among these species are in the gene products constituting the cell wall and the gene families encoding the acidic glycine-rich (PE/PPE/PGRS) proteins. Mycobacterium leprae has evolved by retaining a minimal gene set for most of the gene families, whereas M. avium ssp. Paratuberculosis has acquired some of the virulence factors by lateral gene transfer.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium species, biochemical pathways, pathogenicity, protein variances, comparative Mycobacterium genomics.

Marri, P.R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Paustian, M.L.; Golding, G.B. Lateral gene transfer in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 2006 June; 52(6): 560-569. ISSN: 0008-4166. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/W06-001
NAL Call No.: 448.8 C162
Abstract: Lateral gene transfer is an integral part of genome evolution in most bacteria. Bacteria can readily change the contents of their genomes to increase adaptability to ever-changing surroundings and to generate evolutionary novelty. Here, we report instances of lateral gene transfer in subsp. paratuberculosis, a pathogenic bacteria that causes Johne's disease in cattle. A set of 275 genes are identified that are likely to have been recently acquired by lateral gene transfer. The analysis indicated that 53 of the 275 genes were acquired after the divergence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from M. avium subsp. avium, whereas the remaining 222 genes were possibly acquired by a common ancestor of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium after its divergence from the ancestor of M. tuberculosis complex. Many of the acquired genes were from proteobacteria or soil dwelling actinobacteria. Prominent among the predicted laterally transferred genes is the gene rsbR, a possible regulator of sigma factor, and the genes designated MAP3614 and MAP3757, which are similar to genes in eukaryotes. The results of this study suggest that like most other bacteria, lateral gene transfers seem to be a common feature in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and that the proteobacteria contribute most of these genetic exchanges. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, evolution, genes, introgression, phylogeny, microbial genetics, animal pathogenic bacteria, lateral gene transfer, unique genes.

Marsh, Ian B.; Bannantine, John P.; Paustian,-Michael L.; Tizard, Mark L.; Kapur, Vivek; Whittington, Richard J. Genomic comparison of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis sheep and cattle strains by microarray hybridization. Journal of Bacteriology. 2006; 188(6): 2290-2293. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL: http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Microarray-based comparisons of three Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates, including one sheep strain and two cattle strains, identified three large genomic deletions in the sheep strain, totaling 29,208 bp and involving 24 open reading frames. These deletions may help explain some of the differences in pathogenicity and host specificity observed between the cattle and sheep strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: cattle pathogen, sheep pathogen, genomics, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strain comparisons, host specificity.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Dohoo, I.R. Using and interpreting diagnostic tests. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice. 2006; 22(1): 195-205. ISSN: 0749-0720
URL: http://www.vetfood.theclinics.com/
NAL Call No.: SF601.V535
Descriptors: livstock herd health, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic testing, animal health, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease surveys, infectious diseases, prediction disease, disease screening, statistical analysis.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.; Barkema, H.W. Johne's disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Nov; 47(11): 1089-1099. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English and French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, risk factors, economic impact, disease control programs, dairy farm management, literature reviews, disease diagnosis, pathophysiology, disease transmission, milk production, culling of infected animals, animal age; strains, Canada, Australia, USA, Netherlands.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Vanleeuwen, J.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Jansen, J.T.; Hauer, G; Hendrick, S.H.; Cote, G.; Salsberg, E.B.; Empringham, R.E. Proposed Canadian Voluntary National Johne's Disease Prevention and Control Program. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue-Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 June; 47(6): 539-541. ISSN: 0008-5286
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases,paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control programs, disease prevention, zoonoses, literature reviews, Canada.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Barkema, H.W.; Keefe, G.P.; Sockett, D.C. Agreement between three ELISAs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 May 31; 114(3-4): 285-291. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.12.002
NAL CallNo.: SF601.V44
Abstract: During a 10-month period in 1999, 994 serum and tissue samples were collected from dairy cows at slaughter in eastern Canada. The sources of these cattle were from all four Atlantic Canadian provinces along with some cows from the state of Maine. The sera were used to assess the agreement of three commercially available ELISAs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two ELISAs were indirect absorbed ELISAs licensed for use in North America, the third was an indirect non-absorbed ELISA licensed for use in Europe. Overall, there was poor agreement between the three ELISAs. The highest and lowest (Sm(B values were 0.33 and 0.18, which is fair and poor agreement, respectively. However, when only tissue culture-positive cattle were compared, the ELISAs had better agreement ((Sm(B = 0.37-0.51). The proportions of positive tests, however, were significantly different among the three ELISAs. The poor agreement among the three ELISAs is as concerning as the fact that these tests have low sensitivity. The implications are greatest when the tests are used at the cow level to make individual animal decisions, which is not the recommended method on the product labels. At the cow level, if the result obtained from one ELISA is positive, using a different ELISA in a pre-clinical animal has a high likelihood of giving a different result due to low predictive values of positive test results.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, analytical kits, disease prevalence, disease detection, disease diagnosis, blood serum, tissue culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, field experimentation, screening, validity, statistical analysis, prediction, disease surveillance, veterinary medicine, North America, Canada, Maine, Europe.

Metzger Boddien, Christoph; Khaschabi, Daryush; Schoenbauer, Michael; Boddien, Sylvia; Schlederer, Thomas; Kehle, Johannes. Automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation-PCR for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bovine milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2006; 110(3): 201-208. ISSN: 0168-1605
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681605
NAL Call No.: QR115.I57
Descriptors: naturally infected dairy herds; bulk milk; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; detection tests development; two monoclonal antibody-mediated immunomagnetic separation PCR kits (AnDiaTec ParaTub-S (R) IMS-PCR-ELISA; ParaTub-SL (R) IMS-real time PCR); testing diagnostics for sensitivity, specificity, speed; acceptable costs; detection threshold levels; tests acceptible for screening for paratuberculosis pathogen.

Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Baldwin, Charles A. Preliminary pathologic findings in bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) and green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae collected from farm ponds in Tennessee. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. 2006; 13: 1-3.
Descriptors: bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, green frog, Rana clamitans, larvae, fresh water farm ponds, impact of farm runoff, ponds with and without cattle grazing, infected tadpoles, microbial diseases, larval pathology, parasites, diseases, disorders, tadpoles as vectors of disease, Iridovirus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium spp. Mycobacterium spp., Crossville, Tennessee, USA.

Miller, R.A.; Kaneene, J.B. Evaluation of historical factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection among wildlife in Michigan. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 67(4): 604-615. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
DOI: doi:10.2460/ajvr.67.4.604
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: cattle, deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, habitat destruction, history, starvation, tuberculosis, Michigan, USA.

Milne, E.; Scott, P. Cost-effective biochemistry and haematology in sheep. In Practice. 2006 Sept; 28(8): 454-456. ISSN: 0263-841X
URL: http://inpractice.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
Descriptors : sheep, ewes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, lambs, hematology, hematologic tests, hematocrit, serum albumin, globulins, trace elements, blood glucose, 3 hydroxybutyric acid, creatinine, body condition, fascioliasis, urinary calculi, paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis.

Morris , C.A. ; Hickey, S.M.; Henderson, H.V. The effect of Johne's disease on production traits in Romney, Merino and Merino x Romney-cross ewes. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(5): 204-209. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: sheep, Romney, Merino breed, Merino x Romney crossbred-ewes, lamb size, lamb weight, effects of infection in Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, performance, age differences, body weight, breed differences, diagnosis, enteritis, fleece weight, lifetime performance, performance traits.

Motarjemi, Y; Adams, M. [Editors]. Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. Published by Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Cambridge , UK. 2006; xxii + 634 pp. ISBN: 9781855739635; 1855739631
Descriptors: emerging foodborne pathogens, animal and human diseases, zoonotic diseases, evolution of pathogens, risks, surveillance systems, individual pathogens described, characteristics, dectction, control measures, Arcobacter, Campylobacter, Trematoda, Eucestoda, Nematoda, Escherichia coli, hepatitis A and E viruses, prions, Vibrio, Yersinia, Listeria, Helicobacter pylori, Enterobacteriaceae, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Enterococcus.

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Janagama, Harish K.; Paustian, Michael L.; Zhu, Xiaochun; Bannantine, John P.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand. Comparative transcriptional analysis of human macrophages exposed to animal and human isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with diverse genotypes. Infection and Immunity. 2006; 74(11): 6046-6056. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in animals and has been hypothesized to be associated with Crohn's disease in humans. Recently, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from Crohn's disease patients were shown to have limited diversity, implying the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals (A. H. Ghadiali et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:5345-5348, 2004). To explore whether these genotypic differences or similarities among human and animal isolates translated to functionally significant attributes such as variance in host preference and/or difference in magnitude of infections, we performed a global scale analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates that were representative of different genotypes and host species using DNA microarrays. Genome-wide characterization of the transcriptional changes was carried out using a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) in response to different genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from various hosts. We identified several differentially expressed genes during early intracellular infection, including those involved in common canonical pathways such as NF-kappa B, interleukin-6 (IL-6), mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase signaling, as well as genes involved in T helper type 1 (Th1) responses (such as CCL5 ligand) and those that encode several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine receptors. The cattle and human isolates of M. avium subsp.paratuberculosis, regardless of their short sequence repeat (SSR) genotype, induced similar global gene expression patterns in THP-1 cells. They differentially regulated genes necessary for cell survival without causing major alterations in proinflammatory genes. In contrast, the sheep isolates representing diverse SSR genotypes closely resembled the global gene expression pattern of an M. avium subsp. avium isolate, and they significantly up-regulated proinflammatory genes related to IL-6, T-cell receptor, B-cell receptor, and death receptor signaling within THP-1 cells. Additionally, we demonstrated consistency among infecting genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from diverse hosts [cattle (n = 2), human (n = 3), sheep (n = 2), and bison (n = 1)] in quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of seven differentially expressed genes. While the levels of expression induced by the bison isolate were different compared with cattle or human isolates, they followed the common anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic trend. Our data suggest that the macrophage responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and human sources, regardless of genotype, follow a common theme of anti-inflammatory responses, an attribute likely associated with successful infection and persistence. However, these expression patterns differ significantly from those in THP-1 cells infected with sheep isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or the M. avium subsp. avium isolate. These data provide a transcriptional basis for a variety of pathophysiological changes observed during early stages of infection by different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a first step in understanding trait-allele association in this economically important disease.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosi, isolates from cattle, sheep, bison, human; early infection stages; pathophysiology, human macrophages.

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand. Current understanding of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Microbes and Infection. 2006; 8(5): 1406-1418. ISSN: 1286-4579
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12864579
NAL Call No.: QR180.M53
Descriptors: sheep; cattle; Johne’s disease; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; genetic diversity of pathogen; pathogen (i) mobile genetic elements, (ii) repetitive elements, (iii) single nucleotide polymorphisms, (iv) whole-genome comparisons; molecular epidemiology, advantages and disadvantages of each.

Mura, Manuela; Bull, Tim J.; Evans, Hugh; Sidi Boumedine, Karim; McMinn, Liz; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger; Hermon-Taylor, John. Replication and long-term persistence of bovine and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 72(1): 854-859. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: Free-living protists are ubiquitous in the environment and form a potential reservoir for the persistence of animal and human pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease, a systemic infection accompanied by chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many animals, including primates. Most humans with Crohn's disease are infected with this chronic enteric pathogen. Subclinical infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in domestic livestock. Infected animals excrete large numbers of robust organisms into the environment, but little is known about their ability to replicate and persist in protists. In the present study we fed laboratory cultures of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with bovine and human strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Real-time PCR showed that the numbers of the pathogens fell over the first 4 to 8 days and recovered by 12 to 16 days. Encystment of the amoebic cultures after 4 weeks resulted in a 2-log reduction in the level of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which returned to the original level by 24 weeks. Extracts of resection samples of human gut from 39 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were fed to cultures of A. polyphaga. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detected by nested IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing and visualized by IS900 in situ hybridization and auramine-rhodamine staining was found in cultures derived from 13 of the patients and was still present in the cultures after almost 4 years of incubation. Control cultures were negative. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has the potential for long-term persistence in environmental protists.
Descriptors: humans, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain isolation, paratuberculosis, infection of Acanthamoebapolyphaga, cell division, protists as disease reservoirs.

Murphy, Judith T.; Sommer, Sandra; Kabara, Edward A.; Verman, Nitin; Kuelbs, Michael A.; Saama, Peter; Halgren, Robert; Coussens, Paul M. Gene expression profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages following infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Physiological Genomics. 2006; 28(1): 67-75 ISSN: 1094-8341
URL: http://physiolgenomics.physiology.org/
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, mature bovine monocyte-derived macrophages, infection affects, genes differentially express in infected cells of the two pathogens, comparative study, prolonged activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 by MAA, relative to MAP.

Navetat, H.; Schelcher, F. [Editor]. 24th World Buiatrics Congress, Nice, France, 15-19 October, 2006. World Association for Buiatrics. Paris, France. 2006. 531 p. ISBN: 2903623407. Note: 51 papers grouped in 5 general topics related to diseases and society, many diseases and disorders are mentioned, medicine and surgery, zoonotic disease, food safety, animal welfare, herd medicine, production techniques.
Descriptors: beef cattle,dairy cattle, animal diseases and conditions, Lyme disease, bovine mastitis, Johne’s disease, animal breeding, animal welfare, diarrhea, digestive disorders, disease vectors, parasites, protozoa infections, reproductive performance, milk production, respiratory diseases, lameness, diagnosis, epidemiology, testing, drug therapy, epidemiology, lipidosis, meat production, metabolic disorders, nutrient requirements, physiopathology, surgery, teaching, therapy, vaccination veterinary care, food safety, Anaplasma phagocytophila, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etc.

Nebbia, P.; Robino, P.; Zoppi, S.; De-Meneghi, D. Detection and excretion pattern of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of asymptomatic sheep and goats by Nested-PCR. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 Nov; 66(1-3): 116-120. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.07.049
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: IS900 Nested-PCR was applied to milk from asymptomatic sheep and goats known to have a history of Johne's disease in order to detect the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Experimental animals were from two MAP seropositive flocks (90 heads) in Piedmont, North-western Italy. During a 6-month period, milk samples were collected from 29 lambing and kidding animals (20 sheep and 9 goats, five milk collections per animal). MAP DNA was intermittently recovered in milk samples from 13 out of 29 animals (44.8% prevalence). MAP was particularly found in 9 out of 15 seropositive animals, and in 4 out of 14 seronegative. Sensitivity of Nested-PCR was assessed by analyzing a serial dilution of MAP DNA. Results suggest that sheep and goats' raw milk may represent a potential vehicle for transmitting MAP to off-springs. Control measures could be usefully applied to small ruminants as already used for cattle. Taking into account the possible link between MAP, Crohn's disease and consumption of raw milk products, it is suggested that there should be more careful collaboration in veterinary and public health services, livestock breeders and dairy producers, as well as improved diagnostic tools for routine tests.
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, goats, goat diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, maternal milk, progeny, disease detection, raw milk, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, risk assessment, food pathogens, foodborne illness, goat cheese, zoonotic diseases, Crohn’s disease, human diseases, Italy.

Nielsen, S.S.; Ersbcill, A.K. Age at occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in naturally infected dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Dec; 89(12): 4557-4566. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants and other species caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Establishing test strategies for paratuberculosis will require insight into the temporal aspects of certainty with a given test. In this study, the age at which cows tested positive by ELISA and fecal culture (FC) was investigated by use of time-to-event analyses. The effects of herd, parity, and shedding group were evaluated at the age of test-positive ELISA and FC, respectively. Finally, the test frequency was investigated for the probability of cows being tested ELISA-positive. Milk and fecal samples were collected repeatedly over a 3-yr period from 1,776 Danish dairy cows from 8 herds. The milk samples were tested for the presence of antibodies by using an ELISA, and an FC test was used for detection of Map. Repeated ELISA testing detected 98 and 95% of cows classified as high and low shedders, respectively, suggesting that most infected cows develop antibodies. Among the high shedders, 50% were positive before 4.3 yr of age (quartiles 1 to 3: 3.4 to 5.7 yr of age). Repeated FC detected only 72% of the cows that were ELISA-positive, and 50% of the ELISA-positive cows were detected by FC at 7.6 yr of age. The age with the highest probability of testing positive was determined as the interval with the steepest slope in the survival probability plots. The highest probability of testing positive by ELISA was from 2.5 to 4.5 yr of age. The highest probability of testing positive by FC was from 2.5 to 5.5 yr of age. For both ELISA and FC, testing positive was highest in the first 300 d in milk. For cows younger than 4 yr of age, monthly testing with ELISA, compared with testing every 2 yr, could increase the probability of detecting cows with antibodies by 19%. In older cows, there were no apparent differences in the probability of testing positive by monthly sampling compared with sampling every second year. Therefore, for older animals the effect of more frequent sampling would be for early detection rather than to obtain additional information. Cows shedding high numbers of Map will produce antibodies, although not necessarily concomitantly with the shedding. These antibodies can be detected by ELISA with a test strategy that is different for younger and older cows. We suggest testing younger cows more frequently than older cows and that testing should be done prior to 350 d in milk.
Descriptors: dairy cows, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, animal age, disease incidence, disease surveillance, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, feces, fecal sampling, parity-(reproduction), disease transmission, antibodies, early diagnosis, disease detection, pathogen shedding.

Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. Age-specific characteristics of ELISA and fecal culture for purpose-specific testing for paratuberculosis. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Feb; 89(2): 569-579. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection, and animals are not equally affected by it. Therefore, diagnostic tests that are able to detect different stages of the infection are needed for objective decision making. A longitudinal study was carried out to describe the ability of 2 tests to predict 2 conditions in dairy cattle: "infection" and "infectious," exemplifying 2 different purposes of testing. "Infection" is the term of choice for certification and eradication purposes, and "infectious" is more relevant for control purposes. In the study period of 3 yr, repeated sampling of milk (n = 23,219) and feces (n = 8,832) was performed. A total of 1,985 Danish dairy cows provided material for the study. Milk samples were analyzed for antibodies using an ELISA, and fecal samples were analyzed for mycobacteria by culture. A reference test to correctly classify cattle antemortem does not exist; thus, "infection" and "infectious" were defined by repeated testing using one test as the condition to be detected by the other test. Fecal culture responses were evaluated against antibody status, and ELISA responses were evaluated against detected bacterial shedding. The results of this study indicate that the ability of both tests to detect "infection" increases almost linearly from 2 to 5 yr of age, whereas the ability of both tests to detect "infectious" is not affected by age. Purpose-specific tests are required to appropriately interpret and use test results for management of paratuberculosis, and relevant covariates, such as age, should be included when possible.
Descriptors: dairy cows, bacterial shedding, antibody detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal age, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, Denmark.

O' Brien, R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.; Kopecna, M.; Pavlik, I.; Griffin, J.F.T. Immunological and molecular characterization of susceptibility in relationship to bacterial strain differences in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 June; 74(6): 3530-3537. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Johne's disease (JD) infection, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, represents a major disease problem in farmed ruminants. Although JD has been well characterized in cattle and sheep, little is known of the infection dynamics or immunological response in deer. In this study, typing of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from intestinal lymphatic tissues from 74 JD-infected animals showed that clinical isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from New Zealand farmed red deer were exclusively of the bovine strain genotype. The susceptibility of deer to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was further investigated by experimental oral-route infection studies using defined isolates of virulent bovine and ovine M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Oral inoculation with high (10[superscript 9] CFU/animal) or medium (10[superscript 7] CFU/animal) doses of the bovine strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis established 100% infection rates, compared to 69% infection following inoculation with a medium dose of the ovine strain. The high susceptibility of deer to the bovine strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was confirmed by a 50% infection rate following experimental inoculation with a low dose of bacteria (10[superscript 3] CFU/animal). This study is the first to report experimental M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in red deer, and it outlines the strong infectivity of bovine-strain M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates for cervines.
Descriptors: farmed ruminants, infected red deer, Cervus elaphus, bovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dynamics of infection, experimental inoculation with 10 3CFU, strong infectivity of strain.

Olson, K.E. Producer focused Johne's information. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, producer oriented information resources, educational resources, disease monitoring, epidemiology, production systems, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Europs, Japan, North America.

Park, K.T.; Ahn, J.; Davis, W.C.; Koo, H.C.; Kwon, N.H.; Jung, W.K.; Kim, J.M.; Hong, S.K.; Park, Y.H. Analysis of the seroprevalence of bovine paratuberculosis and the application of modified absorbed ELISA to field sample testing in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Science. 2006 Dec; 7(4): 349-354. ISSN: 1229-845X
URL: http://www.ksvs.or.kr
NAL Call No.: SF604.J68
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a major disease problem worldwide, and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. Although PTB has been reported in Korea, no studies have been conducted to determine its prevalence and no program has been developed to control the disease. In this study, the sera of beef (n=1,056) and dairy cattle (n=1,105) from all provinces in Korea were tested to determine the prevalence of PTB using two different ELISA: an 'in house' modified absorbed ELISA (P-ELISA) based on sonicated antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698, and a commercial ELISA (C-ELISA). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the cutoff point for P-ELISA. Based on C-ELISA results, the area under the curve for P-ELISA was 0.913 (95% CI, 0.883 to 0.943). Using a cutoff point of 0.100, P-ELISA showed a sensitivity of 62.0% and a specificity of 93.7%. The kappa value and the percent agreement between the two ELISAs were 0.322 and 92.5%, respectively. Both ELISAs showed a significant correlation between age and seropositivity (p<0.01). According to C-ELISA, 71 of 2,161 sera (3.3%, 95 CI, 2.6% to 4.1%) were test-positive. The national true prevalence of PTB was estimated to be 7.1%. The findings suggest that a control program should be implemented to limit the spread of this disease, and that P-ELISA could be used as a screening test that produces results similar to C-ELISA. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: beef cattle, dairy cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, antibody detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, animal age, Korea Republic.

Patel, Dilip; Danelishvili, Lia; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Alonso, Marta; Paustian, Michael L.; Bannantine, John P.; Meunier Goddik, Lisbeth; Bermudez, Luiz E. The ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to enter bovine epithelial cells is influenced by preexposure to a hyperosmolar environment and intracellular passage in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 May; 74(5): 2849-2855. ISSN: 1098-5522
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of the bovine host is not well understood; however, it is assumed that crossing the bovine intestinal mucosa is important in order for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to establish infection. To examine the ability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to infect bovine epithelial cells in vitro, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells were exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. It was observed that bacteria can establish infection and replicate within MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis also has been reported to infect mammary tissue and milk, and we showed that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line). Using polarized MAC-T cell monolayers, it was also determined that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis crosses apical and basolateral surfaces with approximately the same degree of efficiency. Because M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be delivered to the naive host by milk, it was investigated whether incubation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with milk has an effect on invasion of MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to milk entered epithelial cells with greater efficiency than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to broth medium or water (P < 0.01). Growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within MAC-T cells also resulted in augmented ability to subsequently infect bovine MDBK cells (P < 0.001). Microarray analysis of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis RNA indicates the increased transcription of genes which might be associated with an invasive phenotype.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, infection related factors, ability to cross intestinal mucosa, infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney epithelial cells in vitro, bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line), effect of prior exposure to milk, transcription of genes.

Paustian, M.L.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Lippolis, J.D.; Stabel, J.R.; Bannantine, J.P. Identification of differences in the protein content of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis purified protein derivative preparations with different skin test specificities. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strain ATCC 19698, strain Johnin 0202, skin testing,differences in protein content, diagnositic techniques, protein derivative synthesis, lipid synthesis, degradation.

Pence, M. Georgia Johne's disease demonstration herd. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132-133. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: beef cattle, new borns, adults, demonstration herd, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, infection rates, sanitation, environmental contamination, epidemiology, population studies, diagnostic methods and techniques, Georgia.

Perry, G.H.; Vivanco, H.; Holmes, I.; Gwozdz, J.M.; Bourne, J. No evidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in in vitro produced cryopreserved embryos derived from subclinically infected cows. Theriogenology. 2006 Sept 15; 66(5): 1267-1273. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.02.052
NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: The aim of the project was to ascertain if Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) could be cultured from frozen-thawed in vitro produced (IVP) embryos derived from cows with subclinical Johne's disease (JD). Straws of 109 IVP embryos were obtained from 267 cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) collected from 12 clinically normal cows in which antibodies against Map were detected in blood by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These embryos were processed, washed using the standard protocol as described by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) and frozen in a commercial IVP embryo laboratory. Of the 12 donor cows, 11 had histopathological or bacteriological evidence of infection at post-mortem inspection. The frozen embryos were thawed and the contents of the straws were cultured using the radiometric mycobacterial culture method. No Map was detected in any of the 109 embryos or freezing media. This suggests that the use of in vitro produced and cryopreserved embryos derived from cows with subclinical JD poses very low, if any, risk of spreading infection to susceptible animals.
Descriptors : dairy cows, serodiagnosis, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, latent period, animal embryos, embryo culture, cryopreservation of embryos, disease transmission via commercial invitro produced embryos, Australia.

Pickup, R.W.; Rhodes, G.; Bull, T.J.; Arnott, S.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Hurley, M.; Hermon Taylor, J. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lake catchments, in river water abstracted for domestic use, and in effluent from domestic sewage treatment works: Diverse opportunities for environmental cycling and human exposure. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006 June; 72(6): 4067-4077. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. We studied the River Tywi in South Wales, United Kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km[superscript 2] containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. The River Tywi is abstracted for the domestic water supply. Between August 2002 and April 2003, 48 of 70 (68.8%) twice-weekly river water samples tested positive by IS900 PCR. In river water, the organisms were associated with a suspended solid which was depleted by the water treatment process. Disposal of contaminated slurry back onto the land established a cycle of environmental persistence. A concentrate from 100 liters of finished water tested negative, but 1 of 54 domestic cold water tanks tested positive, indicating the potential for these pathogens to access domestic outlets. In the separate English Lake District region, with hills up to 980 m, tests for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the high hill lakes and sediments were usually negative, but streams and sediments became positive lower down the catchment. Sediments from 9 of 10 major lakes receiving inflow from these catchments were positive, with sediment cores indicating deposition over at least 40 to 50 years. Two of 12 monthly 1-liter samples of effluent and a single 100-liter sample from the Ambleside sewage treatment works were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Since Lake Ambleside discharges into Lake Windermere, which is available for domestic supply, there is a potential for these organisms to cycle within human populations.
Descriptors: infected animals, fecal runoff, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pasture contamination, agricultural watersheds, water pollution, bacterial contamination, surface water, rivers, sewage effluent, sediment contamination, lakes, water treatment, drinking water, water resources, epidemiology, Wales, England.

Pittius, N.C.G. van; Sampson, S.L.; Lee, HyeYoung; Kim, Yeun; Helden, P.D. van; Warren, R.M. Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2006; 6(95): (15 November 2006)
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-6-95.pdf
Abstracts: Background: The PE and PPE multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis comprise about 10% of the coding potential of the genome. The function of the proteins encoded by these large gene families remains unknown, although they have been proposed to be involved in antigenic variation and disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, some members of the PE and PPE families are associated with the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, which are regions of immunopathogenic importance, and encode a system dedicated to the secretion of members of the potent T-cell antigen ESAT-6 family. This study investigates the duplication characteristics of the PE and PPE gene families and their association with the ESAT-6 gene clusters, using a combination of phylogenetic analyses, DNA hybridization, and comparative genomics, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary history and distribution in the genus Mycobacterium. Results: The results showed that the expansion of the PE and PPE gene families is linked to the duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, and that members situated in and associated with the clusters represent the most ancestral copies of the two gene families. Furthermore, the emergence of the repeat protein PGRS and MPTR subfamilies is a recent evolutionary event, occurring at defined branching points in the evolution of the genus Mycobacterium. These gene subfamilies are thus present in multiple copies only in the members of the complex and close relatives. The study provides a complete analysis of all the PE and PPE genes found in the sequenced genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium such as M. smegmatis, M. aviumparatuberculosis, M. leprae, M. ulcerans, and M. tuberculosis. Conclusion: This work provides insight into the evolutionary history for the PE and PPE gene families of the mycobacteria, linking the expansion of these families to the duplications of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, and showing that they are composed of subgroups with distinct evolutionary (and possibly functional) differences.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium family, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium ulcerans, phylogeny, gemone analysis, evolution genes, multigene families, nucleotide sequences.

Platt, R.; Roth, J.A.; Royer, R.L.; Thoen, C.O. Monitoring responses by use of five-color flow cytometry in subsets of peripheral T cells obtained from cattle inoculated with a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis vaccine. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 Dec; 67(12): 2050-2058. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: cattle, food animals, animal ages, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, flow cytometry, T lymphocytes, inactivated vaccines, vaccination, bacterial antigens, immune response, cell mediated immunity, bioassays, interferons.

Radosevich, T.J.; Stabel, J.R.; Bannantine, J.P.; Lippolis, J.D.; Reinhardt, T.A. Proteome and differential expression analysis of membrane and cytosolic proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains K10 and 187. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 602. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, strains K10 and K 187, proteoms, membrane proteins, cytosolic prteins, RpmD regulation, MAP2433 regulations, Tuf regulation, DesA1 regulation, differential expression analysis, lab techniques.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S.M.; Fetrow, J.; Friendshuh, K; Oakes, J.M. Characterization of Minnesota dairy herds participating in a Johne's disease control program and evaluation of the program risk assessment tool. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 July 17; 75(1-2): 22-33. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.01.012
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herd health, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiological studies, disease prevalence, seroprevalence, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorben assay, ELISA, blood serum, disease control, risk assessment, validity, dairy farm management, herd size, milk production, disease control programs, program evaluation, culling diseased animals, Minnesota.

Raizman, E.A.; Fetrow, J.; Godden, S.M.; Wells, S.J. The impact of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis fecal shedding and clinical Johne's disease on lactation performance. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle,infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s effects on lactation, fecal shedding, milk production.

Rajeev, S.; Shulaw, W.; Berghaus, R.; Zhang, Y.; Byrum, B. A testing scheme for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine feces utilizing the ESP Para-JEM liquid culture system. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Nov; 18(6): 529-535. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, feces, disease detection, pathogen identification, diagnostic techniques, real time polymerase chain reaction, PCR, culture media.

Rajukumar, K.; Tripathi, B.N.; Kurade, N.P.; Parihar, N.S. A dot-enzyme immunoassay for large scale screening of sera for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2006; 29(1): 49-52. ISSN: 0971-2119
Abstract: A simple and effective dot-enzyme immunoassay procedure for large scale screening of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated using sequential sera from goats experimentally infected with M. a. paratuberculosis. Field evaluation of the test was carried out on 168 serum samples from three goat flocks. The diagnostic value of the dot-EIA was comparable to that of plate ELISA. The sensitivities and specificities for the dot-EIA were found to be 65.6% and 92.9% and for plate ELISA 78% and 89%, respectively. Significant differences were not found in the positive and negative predictive values of both tests. The test design is suitable for screening of sera for antibodies to M. a. paratuberculosis at the field level.
Descriptors: goats, experimental infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, dot-ELISA, sensitivity and specificity of test, screening of sera, field testing.

Reddacliff, L.; Eppleston, J.; Windsor, P.; Whittington, R.; Jones, S. Efficacy of a killed vaccine for the control of paratuberculosis in Australian sheep flocks. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 June 15; 115(1-3): 77-90. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.12.021
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: A field trial was undertaken from 1999 until 2004 to determine the efficacy of a killed M. a. paratuberculosis vaccine, Gudair, for the control of ovine Johne's disease (OJD) in merino sheep run under Australian pastoral conditions. On each of three farms experiencing significant OJD losses (5-15% per annum), 200 merino lambs (age 1-4 months) were vaccinated, and 200 lambs were left unvaccinated. Animal assessments and sample collections were conducted twice yearly until 4 or 5 years of age. The impact of vaccination on mortality rate, faecal shedding of M. a. paratuberculosis (by pooled and individual faecal culture), liveweight, wool productivity, vaccine injection site lesions and cellular (BOVIGAM) and humoral (PARACHEK) immunity was examined. Vaccination stimulated cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, reduced mortalities due to OJD by 90% and delayed faecal shedding for the first year post-vaccination. Thereafter, the prevalence of shedders among vaccinates was reduced by 90%. The numbers of M. a. paratuberculosis excreted by the vaccinated groups were also reduced by at least 90% at most sampling times. However, high levels of excretion by vaccinates occurred on some occasions, and although only 7 of 600 vaccinates died from OJD, all 7 had multibacillary lesions. Thus there remains a risk that some vaccinated sheep will transfer the disease. Small reductions in liveweight were found in vaccinated lambs in the first year, but there was little effect on wool production. Vaccine injection site lesions were detected in almost 50% of sheep after 2 months, and these persisted for at least 4 years in 20-25% of vaccinates. Data from this trial enabled the registration of Gudair in Australia in 2002 and underpins the pivotal role of vaccination in the current management of OJD.
Descriptors: Merino sheep, sheep diseases, flock health,inactivated vaccines, disease control, paratuberculosis, field experimentation, vaccination, immune response, Australia.

Rigden, Rachael C.; Jandhyala, Dakshina M.; Dupont, Chris; Crosbie Caird, Dianna; Lopez Villalobos, Nicolas; Maeda, Norihiro; Gicque, Brigitte; Murray, Alan. Humoral and cellular immune responses in sheep immunized with a 22 kilodalton exported protein of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2006; 55(12): 1735-1740. ISSN: 0022-2615
URL: http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
Abstract: An immunogenic 22 kilodalton exported Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) lipoprotein (P22) was previously identified, and found to belong to the LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins. N-terminal polyhistidine-tagged P22 was produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Antibody recognition of P22, and interferon-gamma (IFN- gamma ) responses in vitro using blood from a sheep vaccinated with Neoparasec, confirmed its immunogenicity. To evaluate the immunogenicity of P22 in vivo, five sheep were immunized with a single dose containing 0.8 mg recombinant P22 protein in adjuvant. Blood was collected at 4, 13 and 29 weeks post-immunization (p.i.) and tested for anti-P22 antibodies and P22-specific IFN- gamma production. P22-specific antibodies were detected by Western blot analysis in all five Neoparasec-immunized sheep at the three time points. Three out of five P22-immunized sheep produced P22-specific antibodies for up to 13 weeks p.i., and two gave a response at 29 weeks p.i. Recombinant P22 was able to stimulate significant IFN- gamma production in blood of P22-immunized sheep at 13 and 29 weeks p.i. Recombinant P22 also elicited an IFN- gamma response in blood of sheep immunized with Neoparasec.
Descriptors: New Romney sheep, Escherichia coli strain XL 1 Blue, strain BL 21 CodonPlus- (DE3-)RP, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain 316F, humoral immune response, cellular immune response, LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins, immunogenicity of recombinant P22 protein, antibody testing, vaccination with Neoparasec, IFN gamma production, serum testing.

Ristow, Paula; Silva, Marlei Gomes; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Lilenbaum, Walter. Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis faecal culture protocols and media. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 2006; 26(1): 1-4. ISSN: 0100-736X
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0100-736X&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors: cattle, herds, serological surveys, isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, in vitro culture, 3 formulations of Herrold’s egg yolk agar with mycobactinj, 4 fecal culture protocols, centrifugation protocol and HEYM of OIE best, Brazil.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Stabel, J.R.; Palmer, M.V. Evaluation of the gamma interferon ELISA in sheep subclinically infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a whole-cell sonicate or a johnin purified-protein derivative. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Mar; 18(2): 189-194. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: sheep, sheep diseases, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, interferons, disease diagnosis, infection, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, microbial detection, diagnostic techniques, bacterial antigens, antibody detection, cell mediated immunity, subclinical infection, whole cell sonicate, purified protein derivatives, gamma interferon.

Robbe-Austerman, S.; Krull, A.C.; Stabel, J.R. Time delay, temperature effects and assessment of positive controls on whole blood for the gamma interferon ELISA to detect paratuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine –Zentralblatt feur Veterinearmedizin Reihe B. 2006 June; 53(5): 213-217. ISSN: 0931-1793
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00944.x
Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of time and temperature on whole blood used in the gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IFN-[gamma] ELISA) for paratuberculosis along with evaluating four potential positive controls, and four different mycobacterial antigens for the ELISA. Nine adult Holstein cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis were used in a randomized complete block design. Forty-nine blood tubes were collected from each animal and held at 48.9, 37.8, 26.7, 21.1, 15.6 and 4.4AC for 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 72 h. Each blood tube was tested with four mycobacterial antigens (two johnin PPDs, an avain PPD and a whole cell sonicate) and four potential positive controls [concanavalin A (conA), phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA)]. After incubation for 24 h, the plasma was assayed with a commercial IFN-[gamma] ELISA. Blood stored at 21.1 and 15.6AC maintained the highest ELISA optical densities (OD) over time with severe reduction in OD values at or above 37.8AC. None of the potential positive controls exactly mimicked the antigen response. SEA and PWM were able to elicit a response after the whole blood quit responding to the antigen and conA underestimated the responsiveness. Phytohemagglutinin A was similar to the antigens on an average, but there was significant disagreement among samples. The PPDs were more potent at stimulating IFN-[gamma] production than the whole cell sonicate. In conclusion, whole blood should be stored/transported at ambient room temperature and stimulated within 12 h of collection.
Descriptors: Holstein cattle,infected withMycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, whole blood testing, ELISA, effects of storage and transport parameters—time and temperature, detection methods.

Robbe Austerman, Suelee; Gardner, Ian A.; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Morrical, Daniel G.; Martin, Barbara M.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thoene, Charles O.; Ewing, Chad. Sensitivity and specificity of the agar-gel-immunodiffusion test, ELISA and the skin test for detection of paratuberculosis in United States Midwest sheep populations. Veterinary Research (Les Ulis). 2006; 37(4): 553-564. ISSN: 0928-4249
URL: http://www.vetres.org/content/view/104/116/lang,en/
NAL Call No. SF602.A5
Descriptors: sheep, 14 flocks, infected and non-infected, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, skin testing, blood sampling, agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), ELISA, comparison study of methods, sensitivity and specificity of tests, Bayesian 3 test and 1-population model fitted in WinBugs, USA.

Rocca, S.; Sanna, M.P.; Farigu, S.; Leoni, A.; Nieddu, A.M.; Pirino, S.; Appino, S. Map lesions: In situ investigation on samples of multibacillar and paucibacillar ovine PTBC. Veterinary Research Communications. 2006; 30(Suppl. 1): 265-268. ISSN: 0165-7380
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0165-7380
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Descriptors : sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, lesions, organ sampling, pathogen sampling.

Rock, K.E.; Secott, T.E. Effect of oxygen depletion and conditioned media on the recovery in culture of dormant Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 297. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s pathogen, in vitro culturing, pathogen in dormant state.

Rosseels, Valaerie; Roupie, Virginie; Zinniel, Denise; Barletta, Raaul G.; Huygen, Kris. Development of luminescent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis for rapid screening of vaccine candidates in mice. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 June; 74(6): 3684-3686. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a slowly growing mycobacterial species, requiring 6 to 8 weeks of culture before colonies can be counted visually. Here, we describe the development of luminescent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis expressing luxAB genes of Vibrio harveyi and its use for vaccine testing in an experimental mouse model, replacing fastidious CFU counting by rapid luminometry.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, luminescent test, luxAB genes of Vibrio harveyi, vaccine testing, replacement for CFU counting.

Rosseels, Valerie; Marche, Sylvie; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Godfroid, Jacques; Walravens, Karl; Huygen, Kris. Members of the 30- to 32-Kilodalton mycolyl transferase family (Ag85) from culture filtrate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis are immunodominant Th1-Type antigens recognized early upon infection in mice and cattle. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 Jan; 74(1): 202-212. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: The characterization of protective antigens is essential for the development of an effective, subunit-based vaccine against paratuberculosis. Surface-exposed and secreted antigens, present abundantly in mycobacterial culture filtrate (CF), are among the well-known protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Culture filtrate, prepared from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698 grown as a surface pellicle on synthetic Sauton medium, was strongly and early recognized in experimentally infected B6 bg/bg beige mice and cattle, as indicated by elevated spleen cell gamma interferon (IFN-[gamma]) secretion and lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Strong proliferative and ex vivo IFN-[gamma] responses against antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (a major protein component from M. bovis BCG culture filtrate) could be detected in cattle as early as 10 weeks after oral M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Synthetic peptides from the Ag85A and Ag85B components of this complex were strongly recognized, whereas T-cell responses were weaker against peptides from the Ag85C protein. A promiscuous T-cell epitope spanning amino acids 145 to 162 of Ag85B (identical sequence in M. bovis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) was identified in experimentally infected cattle. Finally, young calves, born from cows with confirmed paratuberculosis, demonstrated proliferative responses to purified, recombinant Ag85A and Ag85B from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. These results indicate that the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis Ag85 homologues are immunodominant T-cell antigens that are recognized early in experimental and natural infection of cattle.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, sub-unit-based vaccine, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Ag85 protein, Ag85 homologues, immunodominant T cell antigens, experimental and natural infections.


Rowe, J.D. Control programmes for chronic goat diseases. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 290-293.
URL :http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: goats, goat diseases, disease prevalence, scrapie, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasmamycoides subsp mycoides, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, prion diseases, viral shedding, chronic course, disease control programs, culling of infected animals, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, milk heat treatment, pasteurization.

Rowe, M.T.; Grant, I.R. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and its potential survival tactics. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2006 Apr; 42(4): 305-311. ISSN: 0266-8254. Note: Literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01873.x
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) is an important animal pathogen with a potential, but as yet unproven, role in human disease. This review briefly describes the characteristics of Map that distinguish it from other Mycobacterium spp., presenting new information arising from completion of the sequencing of the Map genome. It then focuses on the potential mechanisms Map might employ to survive and disseminate in the environment, including interaction with protozoa and insects, dormancy, biofilm formation and aerosolization.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, enteropathogen, microbial genetics, genomics, pathogen survival, disease transmission, disease vectors, paratuberculosis, animal diseases.

Ruzante, J.M.; Smith, W.L.; Gardner, I.A.; Thornton, C.G.; Cullor, J.S. Modified culture protocol for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from raw milk. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2006; 3(4): 457-460.
URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/fpd.2006.3.457
Descriptors:Mycobacterium avium complex, culture techniques for raw milk, screening and detection method, detection, milk, egg yolk, eggs, enzymes.

Sajid, M.S.; Iqbal, Z.; Muhammad, G.; Iqbal, M.U. Immunomodulatory effect of various anti-parasitics: a review. Parasitology. 2006; 132(Part 3): 301-313. ISSN: 0031-1820
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=PAR
Abstract: This paper reviews the immunomodulatory effects (immunosuppression or immunoactivation) of various anthelmintics including levamisole, fenvalerate, dieldrin, carbofuron, aminocarb, thiabendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole and ivermectin. The induced modulation of immune function may occur via direct and/or indirect mechanisms. The immunomodulatory effects of these anti-parasitics have been studied in a variety of bacterial (e.g. brucellois, salmonellosis, paratuberculosis, mastitis), viral (e.g. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Herpes, foot and mouth disease, parasitic (e.g. onchocerciasis, coccidiosis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis) and neoplastic diseases. Some antiparasitics have also been used to boost immunity in a number of human diseases including leprosy, Hodgekin's disease, rhumatoid arthritis, and in adjuvanted therapy of colerectal cancer. The ability to stimulate the immune response of animals offers a new means of disease intervention. Future research on immunomodulatory effects of anti-parasitics, for humans and domestic farm animals, will provide additional methods of treating immunosuppressed subjects. The immunopotentiating or immunosuppressing activity of anti-parasitics will dictate whether co-administration of vaccines and anthelmintics or administration of vaccine during the window of immunoactivation is justified or not.
Descriptors: animals, humans, immunomodulation, immunosupression, immunoactivation, of antihelmintics, anti-parasitics, affects on various bacterial pathogens,

Savuta, G.; Matei, I.; Murat, S.; Anita, D. Epidemiologia paratuberculozei rumegatoarelor in Romania. [The epidemiology of ruminants paratuberculosis in Romania.]Lucrai Stiinifice Medicina Veterinara, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iasi. 2006; 49(8): 845-849. ISSN: 1454-7406. Note: In Romanian with an English summary.
Descriptors : cattle, goats, sheep, disease prevalence, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Schaik, G. van; Haro, F.; Mella, A.; Kruze, J. Test validation of a commercial ELISA to detect paratuberculosis in dairy herds of Southern Chile. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Exeter, UK, 29-31 March 2006. 2006: 141-151. ISBN: 0948073748. Note: Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A.M. [Editors]. Published by the Society, Roslin, UK.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy herds, paratuberculosis disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, serum testing, fecal testing, ELISA testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, statistical analysis, Bayesian theory, mathematical models, Chile.

Schonenbrucher, H.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M. Real Time-PCR zum Nachweis des Erregers der Paratuberkulose. [Real Time-PCR-assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Development and validation.] Fleischwirtschaft. 2006; 86(9): 123-125. ISSN: 0015-363X. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.fleischwirtschaft.de
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, seroprevalance, herd prevalence rates, Real Time-PCR-assay combines oligonucleotides, two MAP-marker genes "ISMav2", "F57", internal amplification control (IAC), potential for routine diagnosis, Germany.

Scott, H.M.; Sorensen, O.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Chow, E.Y.W.; Manninen, K.; VanLeeuwen, J.A. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Bovine leukemia virus, and Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in Alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivity. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Oct; 47(10): 981-991. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English and French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, neosporosis, bovine leukemia virus, enzootic bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine respiratory disease, bovine viral diarrhea, seroprevalence, agroecological risk factors, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, heifers, soil water, arid lands, soil pH, Alberta, Canada.

Sechi, Leonardo A.; Ahmed, Niyaz; Felis, Giovanna E.; Dupre, Earia; Cannas, Sara; Fadda, Giovanni; Bua, Alessandra; Zanetti, Stefania. Immunogenicity and cytoadherence of recombinant heparin binding haemagglutinin (HBHA) of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis: Functional promiscuity or a role in virulence?Vaccine. 2006; 24(3): 236-243. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Descriptors: cattle, humans, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, analysis of species-specific proteins, pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases, the recombinant heprin binding, hemagglutinin of MAP complex bacilli, host humoral responses, adherent to Caco2 cell lines in vitro, virulence mechanisms.

Sechi, L.A.; Mara, L.; Cappai, P.; Frothingam, R.; Ortu, S.; Leoni, A.; Ahmed, N.; Zanetti, S. Immunization with DNA vaccines encoding different mycobacterial antigens elicits a Th1 type immune response in lambs and protects against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Vaccine. 2006; 24(3): 229-235. ISSN: 0264-410X
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/0264410x
Descriptors: sheep; Sarda lambs; paratuberculosis; Johne's disease; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis; experimental infection; oral dosing with live MAP; DNA vaccinations; 3 different mycobacterial antigens in cloned mammalian expression vector; fusion protein with enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-N1); evaluate type of immune response; various vaccination regimines: 1) physiological solution; 2) Gudair (TM), 3) p-85A-Mav; 4) p-85A-BCG; 5) p-Hsp65).

Semret, M.; Turenne, C.Y.; Behr, M.A. Insertion sequence IS900 revisited. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006; 44(3): 1081-1083. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: Many studies investigating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease have used molecular detection of IS900 in clinical samples, but some have described polymorphisms in IS900 as variants of this organism. Analysis of 23 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates revealed that IS900 is highly conserved, with only two sequevars distinguishing sheep and cattle lineages. Amplification of IS900-like sequences is not sufficient as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, humans, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, IS900, Crohn’s disease, zoonotic diseases, nucleotide sequences, transposable elements.

Semret, Makeda; Turenne, Christine Y.; de Haas, Petra; Collins, Desmond M;. Behr, Marcel A. Differentiating host-associated variants of Mycobacterium avium by PCR for detection of large sequence polymorphisms. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006 Mar; 44(3): 881-887. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: The Mycobacterium avium species consists of a group of organisms that are genetically related but phenotypically diverse, with certain variants presenting clear differences in terms of their host association and disease manifestations. The ability to distinguish between these subtypes is of relevance for accurate diagnosis and for control programs. Using a comparative genomics approach, we have uncovered large sequence polymorphisms that are, respectively, absent from bird-type M. avium isolates and from cattle types and sheep types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. By evaluating the distribution of these genomic polymorphisms across a panel of strains, we were able to assign unique genomic signatures to these host-associated variants. We propose a simple PCR-based strategy based on these polymorphisms that can rapidly type M. avium isolates into these subgroups.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, genetic testing, large sequence polymorphisms, comparative genomics, genomic uniqueness, PCR-based strategy for rapid typing.

Shin, Sung Jae; Wu, Chia wei; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M. Identification of novel virulence determinants in Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by screening a library of insertional mutants. Infection and Immunity-IAI. 2006 July; 74(7): 3825-3833. ISSN: 0019-9567
URL: http://iai.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: QR1. I57
Abstract: Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection, is a worldwide problem for the dairy industry and has a possible involvement in Crohn's disease in humans. To identify virulence determinants of this economically important pathogen, a library of 5,060 transposon mutants was constructed using Tn5367 insertion mutagenesis, followed by large-scale sequencing to identify disrupted genes. In this report, 1,150 mutants were analyzed and 970 unique insertion sites were identified. Sequence analysis of the disrupted genes indicated that the insertion of Tn5367 was more prevalent in genomic regions with G+C content (50.5 to 60.5%) lower than the average G+C content (69.3%) of the rest of the genome. Phenotypic screening of the library identified disruptions of genes involved in iron, tryptophan, or mycolic acid metabolic pathways that displayed unique growth characteristics. Bioinformatic analysis of disrupted genes identified a list of potential virulence determinants for further testing with animals. Mouse infection studies showed a significant decrease in tissue colonization by mutants with a disruption in the gcpE, pstA, kdpC, papA2, impA, umaA1, or fabG2_2 gene. Attenuation phenotypes were tissue specific (e.g., for the umaA1 mutant) as well as time specific (e.g., for the impA mutant), suggesting that those genes may be involved in different virulence mechanisms. The identified potential virulence determinants represent novel functional classes that could be necessary for mycobacterial survival during infection and could provide suitable targets for vaccine and drug development against Johne's and Crohn's diseases.
Descriptors: dairy industry;Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection; worldwide problem; possible cause of Crohn's disease; zoonotic disease; humans.virulenct determinants; 5,060 transposon mutants; constructed Tn5367 insertion mutagenesis; unique site identified; gene disruptions in: gcpE, pstA, kdpC, papA2, impA, umaA1, or fabG2_2; possible targets for vaccine and drug development.

Singh, S.V.; Singh, A.V.; Makharia, G.; Naser, S.A.; Singh, P.K.; Sohal, J.S.; Gupta, V.K.; Vihan, V.S. Crohn's disease and Johne's disease: a comparison with reference to national and international perspective and public health significance. Intas Polivet. 2006; 7(2): 275-300. ISSN: 0972-1738
Abstract: This paper reviews the present perspective of Johne's disease (JD) and Crohn's disease (CD) both nationally ( India) and internationally, with reference to their public health significance. The production losses brought about by JD worldwide, the economic impact of CD and the prevalence of both diseases are presented. The clinical features, histopathological lesions, diagnosis, control and prevention of JD and CD are discussed.
Descriptors: ruminants, buffaloes, sheep, goats, cattle, humans, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, host range, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, prevalence of both diseases, production and economic losses, dairy products, possible zoonotic aspects, inflammatory bowel disease, clinical picture, disease progression, immunity, immunological reactions, serological diagnosis, chemotherapy, animal disease control, culling of infected animals, drug therapy, vaccination, public health concerns, contaminated animal-based products, India, worldwide.

Sivakumar, P.; Tripathi, B.N.; Singh, N.; Sharma, A.K. Pathology of naturally occurring paratuberculosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Veterinary Pathology. 2006 July; 43(4): 455-462. ISSN: 0300-9858
URL: http://vet.sagepub.com/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P28
Abstract: Gross and histologic lesions of paratuberculosis were studied in water buffaloes. Small intestines and associated mesenteric lymph nodes of 405 water buffaloes were examined. Of these, 20 animals having visible changes of intestinal thickening, mucosal corrugations, and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes exhibited histologic alteration characteristics of mild to moderate granulomatous inflammation. The histologic lesions observed in these animals were classified into 3 grades on the basis of type of cellular infiltration, granuloma formation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli. Grade-1 lesions observed in 8 animals were marked by the presence of scattered epithelioid macrophages amid large number of lymphocytes in the intestinal villi and in the paracortical regions of the associated mesenteric lymph nodes. Another 8 animals classified under grade-2 revealed microgranulomas, infiltration with a larger number of epithelioid macrophages besides lymphocytes in the intestinal villi, and granulomas in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Grade-3 lesions observed in 4 animals were characterized by the presence of epithelioid granulomas and giant cells in the intestines and the mesenteric lymph nodes. The Ziehl-Neelsen's stained tissue sections revealed acid-fast bacilli in grade-3 and -2 animals and acid-fast granular debris in grade-1 animals. Among these 20 buffaloes, 14 (70%) were positive in the IS900 specific polymerase chain reaction and 6 (30%) were positive in the bacterial culture.
Descriptors: water buffalo, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease course, disease resistance, histopathology, disease prevalence, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, India.

Skovgaard, K.; Grell, S.N.; Heegaard, P.M.H.; Jungersen, G.; Pudrith, C.B.; Coussens, P.M. Differential expression of genes encoding CD30L and P-selectin in cattle with Johne's disease: Progress toward a diagnostic gene expression signature. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006 Aug 15; 112(3-4): 210-224. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.02.006
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (paraTB) or Johne's disease in ruminants, is a health problem for the global cattle industry with significant economic losses related to decreased milk production and reduced fertility. Commonly paraTB in cattle is diagnosed by antibody detection by serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by detection of the pathogen by cultivation of individual faecal samples, or by in vitro measurement of cell mediated immune responses using the IFN-(Sd(B test. There is an ongoing need for developing new diagnostic approaches as all currently available diagnostic tests for paraTB may fail to detect sub-clinical infection. We used cDNA microarrays to simultaneously measure expression of over 1300 host genes to help identify a subset of gene expression changes that might provide a unique gene expression signature for paraTB infection. In the present study, non-stimulated leukocytes isolated from 10 sub-clinical paraTB infected cows were examined for genes being expressed at significantly different levels than in similar cells from control cows with the same herd background. We included cattle (Holstein) from two locations ( Denmark and USA) for the microarray experiment. Our results indicate that expression profiles of at least 52 genes are different in leukocytes from M. paratuberculosis infected cattle compared to control cattle. Gene expression differences were verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) on the same group of cattle ( Holstein) used for the microarray experiment. In order to assess the generality of the observed gene expression, a second and different group of cattle ( Jersey) was also examined using qRT-PCR. Out of the seven genes selected for qRT-PCR, CD30 ligand (CD30L) and P-selectin were consistently differentially expressed in freshly isolated leukocytes from paraTB infected and control animals of both breeds of cattle. Although further work is clearly needed to develop a more complete gene expression signature specific for paraTB, our results demonstrate that a subset of genes in leukocytes are consistently expressed at different levels, depending upon M. paratuberculosis infection status.
Descriptors: animal genetics, gene expression, cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microarray technology, new methods, genes, leukocytes, CD30L, P selectin.

Smith, M.C. Veterinary experiences with the Cornell STAR system of accelerated lambing. Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 62(1-2): 125-128. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The system of five lambing periods per year limits risks associated with having the entire flock pregnant or in the barn at one time, and favours coccidiosis control by the small spread in lamb age. However, continual presence of susceptible sheep perpetuates contagious ectlayma and amplifies worm burdens on pasture. Pregnancy toxaemia threatens early lambing prolific ewes, paratuberculosis is easily spread if thin ewes are housed with the lambing flock, and newly weaned lambs are exposed to diseases carried by unthrifty lambs from the preceding lambing period if management is not excellent. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: sheep management system, various lambing periods, effects on a various common diseases, animal diseases and conditions, ovine paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Souza, C.D.; Evanson, O.A; Weiss, D.J. Mitogen activated protein kinasep38 pathway is an important component of the anti-inflammatory response in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2006; 41(2/3): 59-66. ISSN: 0882-4010
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08824010
NAL Call No.: QR175.M53
Abstract: We investigated the role of cell signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase-p38 (MAPKp38) pathway on the antimicrobial functions and cytokine expression by bovine monocytes after ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We evaluated the dynamic secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- alpha ) as well as phagosome acidification and organism killing at several time points after in vitro infection of bovine monocytes with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Monocytes treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had a significant increase in IL-10 expression at 2, 4, and 6 h postinfection and an increase expression of TNF- alpha at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h postinfection. In contrast, IL-12 expression did not increase at any time point postinfection. Moreover, MAPKp38 was rapidly phosphorylated at 10 and 60 min after M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ingestion. Chemical inhibition of the MAPKp38 signalling pathway (SB203580) resulted in decreased expression of IL-10 and increased expression of IL-12 at 6 h postinfection. Chemically blocking the MAPKp38 pathway also increased acidification of phagosomes as well as increasing the capacity of macrophages to kill organisms. Taken together, these results indicated that selective activation of MAPKp38 may be a major mechanism exploited by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to circumvent the antimycobacterial effects of mononuclear phagocytes.
Descriptors: cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, bovine monocytes post ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- alpha ), phagosome acidification, organism killing, MAPKp38 was rapidly phosphorylated, several time points, in vitro infection.

Souza, Cleverson D.; Evanson, Oral A.; Weiss, Douglas J. Regulation by Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase of cytokine expression in Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 67(10): 1760-1765. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To evaluate activation of Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in bovine monocytes after incubation with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Mptb) organisms. Sample Population-Bovine monocytes obtained from 4 healthy adult Holstein dairy cows. Procedures-Bovine monocytes were incubated with Mptb organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the JNK/SAPK pathway (SP600125) for 2, 6, 24, or 72 hours. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18; transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta); and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the capacity of Mptb-infected monocytes to acidify phagosomes and kill Mptb organisms were evaluated. Phosphorylation status of JNK/SAPK was evaluated at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after Mptb incubation. Results-Compared with uninfected control monocytes, Mptb-infected monocytes had increased expression of IL-10 at 2 and 6 hours after incubation and had increased expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-18, and TGF-beta at 2, 4, and 6 hours. Additionally, Mptb-infected monocytes had increased expression of IL-12 at 6 and 24 hours. Addition of SP600125 (specific chemical inhibitor of JNK/SAPK) resulted in a decrease in TNF-a expression at 2, 6, and 24 hours, compared with untreated Mptb-infected cells. Addition of SP600125 resulted in a decrease in TGF-beta expression at 24 hours and an increase in IL-18 expression at 6 hours. Addition of SP600125 failed to alter phagosome acidification but did enhance the capacity of monocytes to kill Mptb organisms. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Activation of JNK/SAPK may be an important mechanism used by Mptb to regulate cytokine expression in bovine monocytes for survival and to alter inflammatory and immune responses.
Descriptors: cattle, cows, bovine monocytes, incubation with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway, pathogen regulates pathway in bovine cells.

Speer, C.A.; Scott, M. Cathy; Bannantine, John P.; Waters, W. Ray; Mori, Yasuyuki; Whitlock, Robert H.; Eda,-Shigetoshi. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infections (Johne's disease) in cattle. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(5): 535-540. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: infected and non-infectedcattle, Johne’s disease, ELISA, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium avium, whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde, surface antigens from treatment with formaldehyde and sonicated, serum testing, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity with sonicated prduct was best.

Spergser, J.; Fuchs, K.; Deutz, A. Molekulare Charakterisierung von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Isolaten aus Rindern und Wild-tieren in der Steiermark. [Molecular characterisation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from cattle and wild animal species from Styria.]Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2006; 93(2): 47-52. ISSN: 0043-535X Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345
Abstract: This study was conducted to analyse isolates from cattle and wild animal species from Austria and to investigate their genetic relationships. A total of 58 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains isolated from cattle (n=27) and wild animal species (n=31) were investigated by multiplex PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis. Three distinct PFGE profiles designated [1,1], [5,5] and [3,4] were detected in both bovine and wildlife isolates. RAPD analysis revealed an identical grouping of the investigated strains (A, B and C), confirming the results obtained by PFGE analysis. No correlation between profile type and host species of origin was detected, but significant differences between the occurrence of certain profile types in different geographical regions were evident. Multiplex PFGE and RAPD analysis were appropriate molecular typing methods to study the genetic relationship of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. As profile types correlated with geographical location but not with host species of origin, transmission might occur between cattle and wild animal species or vice versa. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, disease transmission, genetic analysis, geographical distribution, paratuberculosis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, Johne's disease, molecular characterization, pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Stabel, J.R. Host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a complex arsenal. Animal Health Research Reviews. 2006; 7(1/2): 61-70. ISSN: 1466-2523
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=AHR
NAL Call No.: SF601.A547
Abstract: The immune system is not always successful in recognizing and destroying pathogens it may encounter. Host immunity to mycobacteria is characterized by a very complex series of events, designed to clear the infection. The first line of defense is uptake and processing of the pathogen by macrophages, followed by the initiation of cell-mediated immunity. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN- gamma is credited with containment of mycobacterial infections. Yet it is clear that activated T-cells may contain but fail to clear the infection in some hosts. Further, it is recognized that if infection progresses to a more clinical state, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is suppressed and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines is increased. It is unclear what defines a host that can successfully contain the infection versus one that succumbs to severe immunopathologic disease. This review will address some of the key elements in host immunity to mycobacterial pathogens, with an emphasis on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), in an attempt to understand the dialogue between immune cells and their mediators during infection and what causes this discourse to go awry.
Descriptors: domestic animals, wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, T lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity, cytokines, defence mechanisms, hosts, cellular immune response, immune system, immunity, inflammation, interferon, macrophages, defense mechanisms.

Stabel, J.R. Paratuberculosis: an update. In: H. Navetat and F. Schelcher [Editors]. 24 th World Buiatrics Congress, Nice, France, 15-19 October, 2006. Published by the World Association for Buiatrics. 2006: 315-321. ISBN: 2903623407
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease transmission, milk, colostrum, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, antigens, cytokines, disease prevention and control, fecal testing, vaccines, vaccination.

Stabel, J.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Kimura, K. Early diagnosis of Johne's Disease: evaluation of methods. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 133-134. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, early diagnosis, diagnostic methods, diagnostic tests, accuracy of detection methods.

Stephan, R. New food-related pathogens - eine Herausforderung fur die Lebensmittelhygiene? 38th Symposium of the Swiss Society of Food Hygiene, Zurich, Switzerland, 16 September 2005. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2006; 97(1): 1-72. ISSN: 1424-1307. Note: In English and German. Includes 7 papers presented at the Symposium.
URL: http://www.bag.admin.ch/dokumentation/publikationen/02212/index.html?lang=de
NAL Call No.: RA421.M76
Descriptors: new foodborne pathogens, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Enterobacter sakazakii, shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Norovirus, contaminated animal-based food products.

Stewart, D.J.; Vaughan, J.A.; Stiles, P.L.; Noske, P.J.; Tizard, M.L.V.; Prowse, S.J.; Michalski, W.P.; Butler, K.L.; Jones, S.L. A long-term study in Angora goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Clinical disease, faecal culture and immunological studies. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Mar 10; 113(1-2): 13-24. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.09.015
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Two longitudinal experiments involving Angora goats challenged with either bovine or ovine strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) have been conducted over a period of 54 and 35 months, respectively. Blood samples for the interferon-(Sd(B (IFN-(Sd(B) test and the absorbed ELISA and faecal samples for bacteriological culture were taken pre-challenge and monthly post-challenge. Persistent shedding, IFN-(Sd(B production, seroconversion and clinical disease occurred earlier with the bovine Map gut mucosal tissue challenge inoculum than with cultured bacteria. The IFN-(Sd(B responses of the gut mucosal tissue and bacterial challenge groups were substantially and consistently higher than those of the control group. The in vivo and cultured cattle strains were much more pathogenic for goats than the sheep strains with persistent faecal shedding, seroconversion and clinical disease occurring in the majority of bovine Map challenged goats. With the ovine Map, 3 goats developed persistent antibody responses but only one of these goats developed persistent faecal shedding and clinical disease. However, there was no significant difference between the IFN-(Sd(B responses of the tissue challenged, bacterial challenged and control groups. Compared with sheep, the ELISA appeared to have higher sensitivity and the IFN-(Sd(B test lower specificity.
Descriptors: Angora goats, goat diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis strains, strain differences, disease course, fecal shedding of pathogen, immune response, interferons, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, disease transmission, blood chemistry, intestinal mucosa, pathogenicity, seroconversion, disease severity, diagnostic techniques, disease diagnosis, pathogen shedding, test sensitivity, test specificity, wool.

Stratmann,-Janin; Dohmann, Karen; Heinzmann, Julia; Gerlach, Gerald F. Peptide aMptD-mediated capture PCR for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(8): 5150-5158. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 AP5
Abstract: A peptide-mediated capture PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples was developed and characterized. Capture of the organism was performed using peptide aMptD, which had been shown to bind to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MptD protein (J. Stratmann, B. Strommenger, R. Goethe, K. Dohmann, G. F. Gerlach, K. Stevenson, L. L. Li, Q. Zhang, V. Kapur, and T. J. Bull, Infect. Immun. 72:1265-1274, 2004). Consistent expression of the MptD receptor protein and binding of the aMptD ligand were demonstrated by capturing different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I and type 11 strains and subsequent PCR analysis using ISMav2-based primers. The analytical sensitivity of the method was determined to be 5 X 10(2) CFU ml(-1) for artificially contaminated milk. The specificity of aMptD binding was confirmed by culture and competitive capture assays, showing selective enrichment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (at a concentration of 5 X 10(2) CFU ml(-1)) from samples containing 100- and 1,000-fold excesses of other mycobacterial species, including M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The aMptD-mediated capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using paramagnetic beads, followed by culture, demonstrated the ability of this approach to capture viable target cells present in artificially contaminated milk. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the aMptD peptide is a high-affinity ligand with a calculated association rate constant of 9.28 X 10(3) and an association constant of 1.33 X 10(9). The potential use of the method on untreated raw milk in the field was investigated by testing 423 bulk milk samples obtained from different dairy farms in Germany, 23 of which tested positive. Taken together, the results imply that the peptide-mediated capture PCR might present a suitable test for paratuberculosis screening of dairy herds, as it has an analytical sensitivity sufficient for detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples under field conditions, relies on a defined and validated ligand-receptor interaction, and is adaptable to routine diagnostic laboratory automation.
Descriptors: contaminated milk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, Germany.

Surujballi, Om P.; Stilwell, Kathryn Irene. Rapid serological test for paratuberculosis using fluorescence polarization technology. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents. 2006. ISSN: 0098-1133
Abstract: The present invention provides an assay for detection of serum antibodies to M. paratuberculosis. A tracer, comprising a carbohydrate antigen isolated from M. paratuberculosis that is conjugated to a fluorophore, is added to a serum sample from an animal to form a mixture. The fluorescence polarization of the mixture is then measured. The presence of serum antibodies to M. paratuberculosis is indicated by a fluorescence polarization value of the mixture that is higher than the fluorescence polarization value of a control. The present invention further provides a tracer for use in a fluorescence polarization assay for antibodies specific for M. paratuberculosis. The tracer comprises a carbohydrate antigen isolated from M. paratuberculosis and conjugated to a fluorophore, such that the tracer is able to bind to antibodies specific for M. paratuberculosis to produce a detectable change in fluorescence polarization.
Descriptors: assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, serum test, detectable fluorescence change.

Sweeney, R.W. Whitlock, R.H.; McAdams, S.; Fyock,.T. Longitudinal study of ELISA seroreactivity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in infected cattle and culture-negative herd mates. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Jan; 18(1): 2-6. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Two thousand nine hundred fifty-two serum samples, collected once or twice annually from 545 cows of known fecal culture status were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Overall, 13.5% of the samples from 282 infected cows had positive ELISA results, but when tested multiple times, 38.3% of the cows had at least 1 serum sample with positive results. Among 263 fecal culture-negative cows, 98.1% of the serum samples had negative ELISA results, but when tested multiple times, 7.8% of the cows had at least 1 positive ELISA sample. Fecal culture was positive on a test before the first positive ELISA in 50 cows, ELISA was positive before fecal culture in 12 cows, and in 38 cows, both tests became positive at the same testing time. An additional 174 cows were positive on fecal culture and always negative on ELISA until culled. For cows that had ELISA sample:positive (S/P) ratios below the cutoff point, the change in S/P between sequential tests was evaluated to determine whether a rise in S/P could predict infection status. In this study, change in S/P was not a useful predictor of infection status in seronegative cows.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, herd health, disease surveillance, disease detection, serodiagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, longitudinal studies, seroprevalence, antibody detection, culture media, feces, screening, absorbance.

Sweeney, R.W.; Uzonna, J.; Whitlock, R.H.; Habecker, P.L.; Chilton, P.; Scott, P. Tissue predilection sites and effect of dose on Mycobacterium avium subs. paratuberculosis organism recovery in a short-term bovine experimental oral infection model. Research in Veterinary Science. 2006 June; 80(3): 253-259. ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.07.007
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a short-term experimental infection model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, using small oral doses of organisms. Specifically, the effect of dose size was evaluated, as well as specific tissue predilection sites for recovery of MAP. Oral doses as low as 1.5 x 10e CFU reliably produced infection that could be detected 3 weeks following infection. Detection of infection required culture of multiple intestinal samples (jejunum and ileum) for MAP. Histological examination did not permit detection at this early stage. Results from this study suggest intestinal mucosa, rather than tonsil, as the primary portal of entry for MAP. The experimental infection model described here is useful for studying the early effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for paratuberculosis in cattle.
Descriptors: cattle, calves, neonates, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, animal models, experimental design, inoculum, oral administration, dose response, disease detection, infection levels, disease course, tissue analysis, tissue culture, sampling intestinal mucosa, histopathology.

Sweeney, R.W.; Whitlock, R.H.; McAdams, S.C. Comparison of three DNA preparation methods for real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth in an automated broth culture system. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Nov; 18(6): 587-590. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Descariptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, pathogen identification, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, cultured cells, culture media, microbial growth, egg yolk, DNA preparation methods, DNA extraction, sample preparation.

Szteyn, Joanna; Wiszniewska Laszczych, Agnieszka; Ruszczynska, Aleksandra Wystepowanie Mycobacterium paratuberculosis w mleku surowym. [Occurrence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in samples of raw milk.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 2006; 62(10): 1186-1187. ISSN: 0025-8628. Note: In Polish.
Descriptors: dairy herds, milk samples, occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, udder milk sampling, cultures, PCR with IS900 fragment, north-eastern Poland.

Tavornpanich, S.; Gardner, I.A.; Carpenter, T.E.; Johnson, W. O.; Anderson, R.J. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of targeted sampling methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 May; 67(5): 821-828. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To investigate the epidemiologic and financial impacts of targeted sampling of subpopulations of cows, compared with random sampling of all cows, for classification of dairy herd infection status for paratuberculosis. Animals-All cows from 4 infected herds with a low-to-moderate prevalence of paratuberculosis and from 1 noninfected herd in California. Procedure-The infection status of each cow was classified on the basis of results of an ELISA or combined ELISA and fecal culture results. Thirteen sampling schemes designed to randomly sample cows on the basis of lactation number, stage of lactation, and milk production were evaluated. Sampling without replacement was used to obtain a probability of herd detection of paratuberculosis for each evaluated sampling method and for simulated sample sizes between 30 and 150 cows. Marginal cost-effectiveness analysis was used to determine the cost increase relative to the increase in detection probability. Results-Sampling cows in the third or higher lactation and greater than or equal to 200 days into lactation yielded the highest detection probability in most instances, resulting in a detection probability that was 1.4 to 2.5 times that obtained by sampling 30 cows in the second or higher lactation. Costs of testing via the alternative method with a 95% detection probability were approximately $300 lower in a high-prevalence herd (31 %) and $800 lower in a low-prevalence herd (9%), compared with use of the reference method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Detection of herds with paratuberculosis could be improved, and costs of testing substantially reduced by sampling targeted groups of cows.
Descriptors: dairy cows, cattle diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, dairy herds, disease detection, cost effectiveness, sampling for pathogens, economic impact, lactation number, lactation stage, milk production, agricultural economics, California, USA.

Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Barkema, H.W. Johne's disease in Canada. Part I: Clinical symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevalence in dairy herds. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Sept; 47(9): 874-882. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: dairy cattle herds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), pathophysiology, disease diagnosis, disease prevalence, literature reviews, Canada.

Tobler, Nadia E.; Pfunder, Monika; Herzog, Katrin; Frey, Juerg E.; Altwegg, Martin. Rapid detection and species identification of Mycobacterium spp. using real-time PCR and DNA-Microarray. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2006; 66(1): 116-124. ISSN: 0167-7012
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677012
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium haemophilum, Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium malmoense,Mycobacterium avium avium, Mycobacterium genavense, Mycobacterium celatum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium alvei, Mycobacterium heckenshornense, Mycobacterium heidelbergense, identification method, 2 PCR probes, using 5' exonuclease real time PCR and DNA microarray, based region upstream of the 65 kDa heat shock protein.

Tomar, S.K.; Rejeesh, R. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: an emerging threat in the dairy field. Indian Dairyman. 2006; 58(10): 53-56. ISSN: 0019-4603
URL: http://www.indairyasso.org
NAL Call No.: 44.8 IN282
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease effects, dairy farms, reduced production and milk quality, pathogen detection in milk and milk products, Johne’s prevention and control.

Trcka, Ivo; Lamka, Jiri; Kopecna, Marketa; Beran, Vladimir; Parmova, Ilona; Pavlik, Ivo Mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Czech Republic. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2006; 76(Suppl. S): S27-S32. ISSN: 0372-5480
Nal Call No.: 41.8 V6416
Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) was detected in Central Europe during 1983-2001 in Croatia, Hungary and Slovakia. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was investigation of mycobacterial infections in our country during 2002-2004 in a total of 2319 samples originating from 766 wild boars of different age categories from 29 (39.2%) of 74 districts of the Czech Republic. Individually collected anonymous faecal samples from 309 animals and 1 947 samples of various tissues from 457 animals were examined. Wild boars originated from both free nature (239 animals), and game parks (527 animals). Fifty boars and sows and 388 piglets and yearlings at the age of 1 to 2 years were included among 438 (57.1%) animals with known age and sex. Small tuberculous lesions in the intestinal lymph nodes were detected in 2 (0.3%) wild boars only. Causative agents of tuberculosis or paratuberculosis were not isolated from any of the animals. Mycobacteria were isolated from 64 (8.3%) wild boars. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, the causative agent of avian tuberculosis was isolated from intestinal lymph nodes of 7 (0.9%) wild boars (tuberculous lesions were detected in two animals). Thirty four infected wild boars originated from free nature and from a game park with occurrence of avian tuberculosis in domestic fowl, respectively. Atypical mycobacteria of 8 species (M fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. scrofulaceum, M triviale, M. terrae, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. flavescens) were isolated from 57 (7.4%) animals. Atypical mycobacteria were isolated from pulmonary lymph nodes, small and large intestines, intestinal mucosa and faeces of wild boars both from free nature and game parks. Due to the high density of wild boars and their large migration radius, they can be viewed as a potential source of a number of infections including the causative agent of avian tuberculosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: wild boar, Sus scrofa, wild and game park animals, tissue samples, fecal sampling, mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mybacterium flavescens, potential wild animals as disease resevoirs, pulmonary lymph nodes, small and large intestines, intestinal mucosa, feces sampling, fecal shedding of pathogens, Czech Republic.

Trcka, I.; Lamka, J.; Suchy, R.; Kopecna, M.; Beran, V.; Moravkova, M.; Horvathova, A.; Bartos, M.; Parmova, I.; Pavlik, I. Mycobacterial infections in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Czech Republic during the years 2002 to 2005. Veterinarni Medicina. 2006; 51(5): 320-332
URL: http://vetmed.vri.cz
Descriptors: 842 wild boars, varing ages, piglets, juveniles, adults, wild animals, game parks, 2704 samples, intestingal tissues, intestinal lymph nodes, fecal shedding, fecal sampling, surveyed for mycobacterial infections, various Mycobacterium species found, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium triviale, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium avium, IS900 RFLP, IS901+ and IS1245+, Czech Republic.

Tripathi, B.N.; Periasamy, S.; Paliwal, O.P.; Singh, N. Comparison of IS900 tissue PCR, bacterial culture, johnin and serological tests for diagnosis of naturally occurring paratuberculosis in goats. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 Aug 25; 116(1-3): 129-137. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.03.017
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Comparative efficacy of an IS900 tissue PCR, bacterial culture, johnin, agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and absorbed-ELISA tests was investigated in 43 goats naturally infected with paratuberculosis. On histological examination, tissue sections from all animals showed typical granulomatous inflammatory changes. The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n = 30), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and paucibacillary (PB) (n = 13), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few AFB. The sensitivities of johnin test, tissue culture, faecal culture, tissue PCR, AGID and ELISA were 68% (17/25), 100% (30/30), 84.6% (22/26), 100% (30/30), 96.2% (25/26) and 100% (26/26) in MB goats, and 88.8 (8/9), 46.1% (8/13), 40% (4/10), 61.5% (8/13), 50% (5/10), and 70% (7/10) in PB goats, respectively. Except for the johnin test, which showed higher sensitivity in PB goats, all other tests displayed significantly higher sensitivities in MB goats. The results indicate the usefulness of tissue PCR, culture and serological tests in the diagnosis of clinically affected paratuberculous goats, especially with multibacillary pathology.
Descriptors: goats, goat diseases, bacterial pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, immunologic techniques, disease diagnosis, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, immune response, cell culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, clinical trials, histopathology, IS900 tissue polymerase chain reaction, johnin.

Turenne, C.Y.; Semret, M.; Alexander, D.C.; Behr, M.A. Evolutionary events within the Mycobacterium avium complex. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 585. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strain K10, Mycobacterium avium avium heat shock protein 65-gene, Mycobacterium avium silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium strain 104, Mycobacterium intracellulare strain FCC-1804, strain ATCC 13950T, Mycobacterium avium hominusuis, genone sequence, ecolutionary event, polymorphism.

Turenne, Christine Y.; Semret, Makeda; Cousins, Debby V.; Collins, Desmond M.; Behr, Marcel A. Sequencing of hsp65 distinguishes among subsets of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006 Feb; 44(2): 433-440. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Abstract: The Mycobacterium avium complex consists of epidemiologically distinct subsets. The classification of these subsets is complicated by a number of factors, including the ambiguous results obtained with phenotypic and genetic assays and the recent appreciation that human and avian strains appear to be distinct. In previous work, sequencing based on a 441-bp portion of the hsp65 gene has proven to efficiently classify isolates within the Mycobacterium genus but provides low resolution for distinguishing among members of the M. avium complex. Therefore, in this study, we have targeted the more variable 3' region of the hsp65 gene to determine whether it can effectively discriminate M. avium complex isolates at the levels of species and subspecies. Primers designed for this target consistently generated amplicons for all organisms classified as M. avium complex. Sequences obtained indicate that M. intracellulare is genetically divergent from M. avium organisms, and distinct sequevars were obtained for M. avium subsets, including M. avium subsp. avium (bird type), M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In addition, sequence differences served to distinguish bovine from ovine strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A unique profile for M. avium subsp. silvaticum was not obtained. These results indicate that sequencing the 3' region of the hsp65 gene can simply and unambiguously distinguish species and subspecies of the M. avium complex.
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium complex, distinguishing species, distinct subsets, 3` region of hsp65 gene, classification of isolates, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium (bird type), Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis, and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium silvaticum.

Villarino, M.A.; Scott, H. M.; Jordan, E.R. Johne's demonstration project in Texas. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors: dairy cattle, infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, epidemiology, population studies, milk production, milk production per lactation, demonstration herd project, Texas, USA.

Van Kooten, H.C.J.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Koets, A.P. Intra-uterine transmission of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in farmed red deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006 February; 54(1): 16-20. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors : red deer, Cervus elaphus, farms, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, transmission of bacteria, intra-uterine transmission, South Canterbury, New Zealand.

Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Tiwari, A.; Plaizier, J.C.; Whiting, T.L. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Aug; 47(8): 783-786.

ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: beef cows, dairy cows, bovine leukemia virus, enzootic bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine viral diarrhea, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, neosporosis, seroprevalence, Manitoba, Canada.

Van Pittius, Nicolaas C Gey; Sampson, Samantha L.; Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Yeun; van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M. Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2006; 6. ISSN: 1471-2148
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcevolbiol/
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, PE and PPE multigene families, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium ulcerans, gene cluster regions, duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, evolutionary history.

Vengust, G.; Zele, D. Nekatere infekcijske bolezni pri jelenjadi v oborah s poudarkom na zoonozah.[Some infectious diseases of deer in enclosures with emphasis on zoonosis.]Veterinarske Novice. 2006; 32(3/4): 57-62. ISSN: 0351-5842. Note: In Slovenian with an English summary.
Descriptors : fallow deer Dama dama, red deer Cervus elephus, farmed captive animals, intensive management situations, infectious diseases, zoonotic pathogens, anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, malignant catarrhal fever virus, meat animals paratuberculosis, public health concerns, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis, Brucella abortus, Herpesviridae, Leptospira, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Slovenia.

Wang, C.; Turnbull, B.W.; Greohn, Y.T.; Nielsen, S.S. Estimating receiver operating characteristic curves with covariates when there is no perfect reference test for diagnosis of Johne's disease. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Aug; 89(8): 3038-3046. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a significant animal health problem. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Johne's disease has been difficult due to lack of a gold standard test. In recent years, there has been interest in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve estimation without any gold standard test. Typically, either Bayesian or maximum likelihood methods are proposed. Although these methods overcome the lack of a gold standard test in ROC curve estimation, little work has been done to incorporate covariates in the analysis. In this paper, we propose a method for estimation of ROC curves based on statistical models to adjust for covariate effects when the true disease states of test animals are unknown. The covariates may be correlated with the disease process or with the diagnostic testing procedure, or both. We propose a 2-part Bayesian model: first, a logistic regression model for disease prevalence is used to fit the covariates; second, a linear model is used to fit the covariates to the distribution of test scores. We used Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to compute the posterior estimates of the sensitivities and specificities that provide the groundwork for inference concerning the diagnostic procedure's accuracy. We applied the methodology to milk ELISA scores from several dairy-cow herds for the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis. We found that both milk yield and its interaction with age had significant effects on the disease process whereas only milk yield was significant on the testing procedure.
Descriptors: statistical analysis, dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, accuracy, milk yield, animal age, Denmark.

Weber, M.F.; Roermund, H.J.W. van; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Koeijer, A.A. de; Jong, M.C.M. de; Nielen, M. Stochastic simulation of a milk quality assurance programme for paratuberculosis: within-herd infection dynamics and economics. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Exeter, UK, 29-31-March 2006. 2006: 25-38. IBSN: 0948073748. Note: Mellor, D.J.; Russell, A. M. [Editors]. Published by the Society in Roslin, UK.
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, milk quality assurance program, stochiastic simulation model, herds certified low MAP, test negative testing herds in surveillance procedure, positive testing herds into control procedure, evaluate epidemiological and economic effect of various test schemes and preventive management, ELISA, cost effectiveness.

Weber, M.F. Risk management of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Irish Veterinary Journal. 2006; 59(10): 555-561. ISSN: 0368-0762
URL: http://www.veterinary-ireland.org
NAL Call No.: 41.8 IR4
Descriptors: cattle, dairy herd, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, sub-clinical and clinical levels, risk management, economic impacts, control measures, disease prevalence, introduction of animals from contaminated herds, production losses, reduced prices for contaminated milk, test and cull schemes, quality assurance and control programs, incentives for farmers to participate in programs.

Weber, M.F.; Roermund, H.J.W. van; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Kalis, C.H.J.; Stegeman, J.A. Cattle transfers between herds under paratuberculosis surveillance in The Netherlands are not random. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006 Oct 17; 76(3-4): 222-236. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.05.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, animal husbandry, animal transport, disease surveillance, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, disease incidence, cattle diseases, feces, disease transmission, disease control programs, risk assessment, Netherlands.

Weber, A. Paratuberculosis - zoonosis vagy sem? [Paratuberculosis - a zoonosis or not?] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 2006; 128(10): 587-589. ISSN: 0025-004X. Note: Translated from Amtstierarztliche Dienst und Lebensmittelkontrolle (2005) 12, 194-196 (De). In Hungarian.
Descriptors: humans, livestock animals, zoonotic disease, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease transmission, domestic animals, epidemiology.

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O. A.; Souza,.C.D. Mucosal immune response in cattle with subclinical Johne's disease. Veterinary Pathology. 2006 Mar; 43(2): 127-135. ISSN: 0300-9858
URL: http://vet.sagepub.com/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 P28
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of wild and domestic ruminants. During a long subclinical period, the organism persists in the intestine despite systemic cellular and humoral immune responses. To explore the mucosal immune response in Johne's disease, we isolated mononuclear leukocytes from the ileum of cows naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and from cows that were not infected. We evaluated the immunophenotype of these cells and the proliferative responses after the addition of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sonicate or B-cell or T-cell mitogens. Although the percentage of T cells was increased in infected cows, these cells consisted mostly of memory (CD2[superscript +]CD62L[superscript -]) and regulatory (CD4[superscript +]CD25[superscript +]) T cells. Further evidence of immune hyporesponsiveness included a decrease in the percentage of T cells with an activated phenotype and a decrease in cells expressing major histocompatibility factor class II (MHC class II). Unlike the spleen, ileal lymphocytes from infected cows failed to proliferate in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sonicate. Additionally, ileal lymphocytes from infected cows proliferated poorly in response to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, suggesting generalized T cell and B cell hyporesponsiveness. These results indicate that a state of tolerance may exist in the intestine of cows subclinically infected with M. avium subsp.paratuberculosis organisms in subclinically infected cows. This effect may be induced, at least in part, by proliferation of regulatory T cells that nonspecifically suppress mucosal immune responsiveness.
Descriptors: cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ileum, intestinal mucosa, mucosal immunity, immune response, monocytes, T lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, major histocompatibility complex, subclinical infection, regulatory T lymphocytes.

Wells, Scott J.; Collins, Michael T.; Faaberg, Kay S.; Wees, Carrie.; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Petrini, Kristine R.; Collins, James E.; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Whitlock, Robert H. Evaluation of a rapid fecal PCR test for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2006; 13(10): 1125-1130. ISSN: 1556-6811
URL: http://cvi.asm.org/
Descriptors: dairy cattle, 1808 animals, 7 naturally infected herds, 347 from 7 herds free from Johne‘s, fecal sampling, milk sampling, blood sampling, TaqManPCR assay, 3 cell culture procedures, and the BACTEC filter concentration method, 2 serologic ELISAs and 1 milk ELISA, comparative study.

Whan, L.; Grant, I.R.; Rowe, M.T. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa. BMC Microbiology. 2006; 6(63): (13 July 2006). ISSN: 1471-2180
URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-6-63.pdf
Abstract: Background: Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results: Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698), which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25 degrees C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25 degrees C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1-1.5 log< sub>10</ sub> increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 micro g/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log< sub>10</ sub> reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log< sub>10</ sub> reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: free living protozoa, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga,Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains, interactions in nature, phagocytosis, amoeba as a pathogen reservoir.

Whittington, R. Global veterinary defence: where to from here veterinary science?Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006 Aug; 84(8): 265-270. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: veterinary education, veterinary medicine, zoonoses, disease surveillance, disease control programs, public health, human resources management, higher education, university programs, case studies, fish diseases, Iridovirus, Monkeypox virus, paratuberculosis, health policy, public policy, national planning, Australia

Willemsen, P.T.J.; Westerveen, J.; Dinkla, A.; Bakker, D.; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Thole, J.E.R. Secreted antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis as prominent immune targets. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006 May 31; 114(3-4): 337-344. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.12.005
NAL Call No.: SF601.V44
Abstract: We here describe the identification and characterization of three novel secreted Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens of 9, 15 and 34 kDa (Map2609, Map2942c and Map0210c, respectively) by screening a genomic expression library with a serum of a naturally infected clinical cow. The 9, 15 and 34 kDa antigens display strong homology to previously described M. tuberculosis antigens, TB8.4, MPT53 and Erp, respectively. Furthermore, these antigens were shown to be recognized by antibodies from infected cattle, when tested with a limited number of sera from subclinical (n = 7) and clinical (n = 3) infected cattle.
Descriptors: cows, cattle diseases, ruminants, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease detection, disease diagnosis, new methods, antigen detection, bacterial antigens, secretion, genomics, gene expression, blood serum, antibodies, antigen antibody reactions, screening, analytical kits, antibody detection, veterinary medicine.

Williams, E.L.; Stabel, J.R. Characterization of cytokine gene expression in periparturient dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 111. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09 -13, 2006
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 49 J82
Descriptors : dairy cattle, Holstein cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, cytokine gene expression, birth and lactation impacts.

Windsor, P. Research into vaccination against ovine Johne's disease in Australia. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 Mar; 62(1-2): 139-142. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: G.C. Fthenakis and Q.A. McKellar. [Editors]. Keynote Lectures of the 6th International Sheep Veterinary Congress held June 17-21, 2005, Hersonnisos, Crete, Greece. A literature review.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.07.044
NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: A review of Australian trials with GUDAIR vaccine for control of ovine paratuberculosis in Australian sheep is presented. Vaccination delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of mortalities and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by approximately 90%. A rapid decrease in losses occurred in a very high prevalence flock following whole flock vaccination and numerous management changes. Persistent injection lesions were common in vaccinated sheep and although human exposure to the vaccine was uncommon, accidental self-injection of vaccine may produce lesions requiring surgical intervention.
Descriptors: sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sheep diseases, animal pathogenic bacteria, vaccines, vaccination, disease control, mortality, fecal sampling, fecal shedding, disease transmission, animal husbandry, disease prevalence, adverse effects, skin lesions, occupational health and safety, veterinarians, pathogen shedding, literature reviews.

Windsor, P.A.; Eppleston, J. Lesions in sheep following administration of a vaccine of a Freund's complete adjuvant nature used in the control of ovine paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(5): 237-241. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
NAL Call No.: 41.8 N483
Descriptors: Merino sheep flocks, ovine paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, adverse vaccination site reactions, Freund’s complete adjuvant, skin injection sites, lesions, caseous nodules, granulomatous wounds, myiasis, adjuvants, cellulitis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevention, paralysis, risk factors; Australia.

Woo(l?) S.R.; Sotos, J.; Hart, A.P.; Barletta, R.G.; Czuprynski, C.J. Bovine monocytes and a macrophage cell line differ in their ability to phagocytose and support the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006 Mar 15; 110(1-2): 109-120. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.09.010
NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Bovine monocytes exhibited a greater ability to phagocytose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (i.e. greater percentage of infected cells, and more bacilli per infected cell), than did a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac). Phagocytosis of M. paratuberculosis by monocytes, but not the cell line, was significantly enhanced by the addition of autologous serum. Following ingestion, the numbers of viable M. paratuberculosis cells in monocytes increased during the first 4 days and then declined between day 4 and day 8 after infection, as determined by a radiometric method. In contrast, BoMac cells were not permissive for bacillary multiplication; the numbers of M. paratuberculosis remained largely unchanged in the cell line during the 8 day incubation period. The numbers of microscopically visible acid-fast bacilli increased with time in monocytes but not in the macrophage cell line. These observations suggest that replication and inactivation of bacilli may both occur in monocytes. The differing abilities of bovine monocytes and the macrophage cell line to ingest and restrain the intracellular growth of M. paratuberculosis provide contrasting model systems for investigating how M. paratuberculosis enters and persists within its preferred niche, the mononuclear phagocyte.
Descriptors: cattle, food animals, monocytes, macrophages, cell lines, phagocytosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, cell invasion, blood serum, microbial growth, phagocytes.

Wool, S.R.; Hart, A.P..; Kuckleburg, C.J.; Barletta, R.G.; Czuprynski, C.J. IL-1 beta mediated activation of bovine monocytes promotes phagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits intracellular survival of M-paratuberculosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 91-92. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: bovine monocytes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, immune cell responses, interleukin-1, interleukin- 1 beta, interleukin 1-alpha, lysosomes, phagosomes, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase: PI3K, intracellular pathogen survival.

Wu, Chia Wei; Glasner, Jeremy; Collins, Michael; Naser,-Saleh; Talaat, Adel M. Whole-genome plasticity among Mycobacterium avium subspecies: Insights from comparative genomic hybridizations. Journal of Bacteriology. 2006; 188(2): 711-723. ISSN: 0021-9193
URL: http://jb.asm.org/
NAL Call No.: 448.3 J82
Abstract: Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in cattle and is also implicated in cases of Crohn's disease in humans. Another closely related strain, M. avium subsp. avium, is a health problem for immunocompromised patients. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of M. avium subspecies, we analyzed the genome contents of isolates collected from humans and domesticated or wildlife animals. Comparative genomic hybridizations indicated distinct lineages for each subspecies where the closest genomic relatedness existed between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates collected from human and clinical cow samples. Genomic islands (n = 24) comprising 846 kb were present in the reference M. avium subsp. avium strain but absent from 95% of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Additional analysis identified a group of 18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-associated islands comprising 240 kb that were absent from most of the M. avium subsp. avium isolates. Sequence analysis of DNA regions flanking the genomic islands identified three large inversions in addition to several small inversions that could play a role in regulation of gene expression. Analysis of genes encoded in the genomic islands reveals factors that are probably important for various mechanisms of virulence. Overall, M. avium subsp. avium isolates displayed a higher level of genomic diversity than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Among M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, those from wildlife animals displayed the highest level of genomic rearrangements that were not observed in other isolates. The presented findings will affect the future design of diagnostics and vaccines for Johne's and Crohn's diseases and provide a model for genomic analysis of closely related bacteria.
Descriptors: cattle, immunocompromised humans, zoonotic bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, virulence mechanism, genomic diversity, molecular pathogenesis, genomic island, whole genome plasticity, vaccines, diagnostics.

Yellaboina, Sailu; Ranjan, Sarita; Vindal, Vaibhav; Ranjan, Akash. Comparative analysis of iron regulated genes in mycobacteria. FEBS Letters. 2006; 580(11): 2567-2576. ISSN: 0014-5793
URL: http://www.febsletters.org/previousissues
Descriptors: Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium smegmatis,Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, iron dependent regulator, intra cellular iron levels, conserved genes in mycobacteria, 4-hydroxy benzoyl coA hydrolase (Rv1847), protease dependent antibiotic regulatory system (Rv1846c, Rv0185c), pathogenic bacteria genome.

Yuroff, A.S.; Manning,-E.J.B.; Hoffman, R.M.; Collins, M.T. Efficient enumeration of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria: a comparison of MGIT, flow cytometry and ATP assays. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006; 106: 608. ISSN: 1060-2011. Note: 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Orlando, FL, USA; May 21 -25, 2006.
Descriptors: animal pathogen,Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum, flow cytometry, ATP assay, mycobacterial growth indicator tube system, time-to-positive-signal, inoculum cell number.

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2005



Acypreste, C.S.; Juliano, R.S.; Riveira, F.E.B.; Silva, L.A.F. da; Fioravanti, M.C.S.; Dias Filho, F. de C. Uso da tecnica do ELISA indireto na deteccao de anticorpos anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis em vacas em lactacao.[ELISA indirect technique for identification of immunoglobulin anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cows in Goias, Brazil.] Ciencia Animal Brasileira. 2005; 6(1): 55-59. ISSN: 1518-2797. Note: In Portuguese with an English summary.
URL: http://www.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/vet
Descriptors: cattle, nursing cows, antibody prevalence of Johne’s, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, serum sampling, indirect ELISA on 166 samples, 60% positive for MAP, Goias, Brazil.

Alvarez, J.; Juan, L. de; Briones, V.; Romero, B.; Aranaz, A.; Fernandez-Garayzabal, J.F.; Mateos, A.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in fallow deer and wild boar in Spain.  Veterinary Record.  2005; 156(7): 212-213.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease incidence, fallow deer, wild boar, Spain.

Aly, S.S.; Thurmond, M.C.  Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of dairy cows attributable to infection status of the dam.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 227(3): 450-454.  ISSN: 0003-1488.
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cow infection, transmission levels from mother to calves.

Anonymous.  3rd Annual Symposium of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Bet Dagan, Israel.  Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 60(1): 33-38.  ISSN:  0334-9152.
Descriptors:  domestic animals, cats, dogs, cattle, pigs, West Nile virus, Streptococcus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, laboratory animals, fish, various topics, infectious diseases, immunology.

Aradaib, I.E.; Abbas, Z.A.; Abbas, B.; El Sanousi, S.M.  Evaluation of conventional methods and nested PCR (nPCR) for detection of paratuberculosis in goats.  Veterinary Research Communications.  2005; 29(5): 381-385. ISSN:  0165-7380.  
URL:  http://www.springerlink.com/(adb1ua55ubfoab45vpcz30vb)/app/home/journal.asp?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresults,1:103009,1
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V38
Descriptors:  goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnostic methods, PCR, animal pathology, case reports, paratuberculosis, postmortem examinations, Sudan. 

Archuleta, Rebecca Joy; Hoppes, Patricia Yvonne; Primm, Todd P.  Mycobacterium avium, enters a state of metabolic dormancy in response to starvation.  Tuberculosis.  2005; 85(3): 147-158.  ISSN:  1472-9792.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14729792
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, biphasic response to starvation, lipid catabolism, mycolate modification, loss of catalase and urease activities, sensitivity reduction to antibiotics, atanine tRNA synthetase decline, increase in ribonuclease E levels, metabolic dormancy, primary reservoir is natural and municipal water.

Barrett , D.C. Cattle Review 2005 Parts 38-40. Cattle Practice. 2005; 13(3): 273-276. ISSN: 0969-1251
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, dairy bulls, animal breeding, animal nutrition, bulls, feed intake, dry matter feed, reproductive cycle, estrous cycle, progesterone, pregnancy complications, uterine diseases, disease diagnosis, endometritis, mathematical models, neosporosis, protozoal infections, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Pasteurella haemolytica, Proteus, Streptococcaceae, Mannheimia, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurellales.

Baselga, R.; Belen-Fernandez, A.; Moreno, B.; Chacon, G.; Albizu, I. Toma de muestras. [Taking of samples in cutaneous, articular, nervous and ocular symptoms of infectious origin.]Albeitar. 2005; (91): 24-26. Note: In Spanish.
URL: http://www.albeitar.com/
Descriptors: cattle, tissue sampling, various conditions and diseases, cutaneous abscesses, articular problems, conjunctivitis, neurological symptoms, paratuberculosis.

Basler, T.; Goethe, R.  IRG1 is differentially regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level in LPS stimulated and Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis infected murine macrophages.  Immunobiology.  2005; 210(6-8): 395.  ISSN:  0171-2985.  Note: Joint Annual Meeting of the German and Scandinavian Societies of Immunology, Kiel, Germany, September 21-24, 2005. 
NAL Call No.:  QR180.Z4
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, IRG1 gene, gene expression, in vitro, murine macrophages.

Baumgartner, W.; Damoser, J.; Khol, J.L. Vergleich zweier serologischer Untersuchungen der osterreichischen Rinderpopulation zur Verbreitung der bovinen Paratuberkulose (Johne'sche Krankheit) in den Jahren 1995-97 und 2002/03 sowie Vorstellung geplanter Bekampfungsmassnahmen. [Comparison of two studies concerning the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Austrian cattle in the years 1995-97 and 2002/03.] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2005; 92(11): 274-277. ISSN: 0043-535X. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: cattle, cattle farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, serum testing, Allied ELISA (Allied Monitor, Fayette, USA), antibody detection testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, seroprevalence, disease surveillance, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, seroepidemiology, Austria.

Begg, D.J.; O'Brien, R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Griffin, J.F.T.  Experimental infection model for Johne's disease in sheep. Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(9): 5603-5611.  ISSN: 0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Abstract:  Johne's disease in ruminants results in chronic enteritis caused by the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  This study examined two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains (JD3 and W), using different doses and routes of infection, to establish the optimal time postchallenge when predictable levels of infection, gut lesions, and clinical disease occur in a large proportion of sheep.  While a small proportion (25%) of sheep challenged with a low-passage-number laboratory culture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (strain W) became infected, no infection was found in animals exposed to a high-passage-number culture isolate of strain W.  In contrast, a primary tissue homogenate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (JD3) resulted in high (90%) infection rates and gut histopathology following oral or intratonsillar challenge.  The optimal conditions necessary to produce Johne's disease involve oral inoculation of 3-month-old lambs with four doses of 5 x 108 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated directly from the gut lymphatic tissues of clinically affected sheep.  This resulted in consistent gut histopathology at 9 months and the onset of clinical disease by 11 months postchallenge.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, strain comparison, strain W, strain JD3, animal disease model, oral inoculations of lambs, dosing regimen, optimum conditions, dosing age.

Begg, D.J.; Griffin, J.F.T.  Vaccination of sheep against M. paratuberculosis: immune parameters and protective efficacy.  Vaccine.  2005; 23(42): 4999-5008.  ISSN:  0264-410X.
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Neoparasec (TM) vaccine, comparison study, aqueous formulation of Map 316F (AquaVax), tested in sheep,  vaccination and challenge with virulent strain, immunological study, blood, lymphoid tissue in gut, CD4(+), CD8(+), CD25(+), B cells.

Berghaus, Roy D.; Lombard, Jason E.; Gardner,-Ian A.; Farver, Thomas B. Factor analysis of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire with evaluation of factor scores and a subset of original questions as predictors of observed clinical paratuberculosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 72(3-4): 291-309. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: dairy cattle, questionnaire, Johne’s disease infection risks, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, computational biology, factor analysis, 38 variables, risk assessment variable relationships analysed, recommend reduced number of questions.

Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Thorel, Marie Francoise; Guilloteau, Laurence A.  Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC).  Veterinary Research. 2005; 36(3): 411-436.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
NAL Call No.:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  livestock, cattle, humans, wildlife, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, disease control programs, environmental reservoirs of pathogens, epidemiology, tuberculosis, zoonoses, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease.

Bires, J.; Juras, M.; Beracova, L.  Plan kontroly a eradikacie paratuberkulozy na Slovensku.  [Plan for paratuberculosis control and eradication in Slovakia.]  Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis.  2005; 30(4): 221-223. ISSN:  1335-0099.  Note:  In Slovakian.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control programs, disease prevalence, disease prevention, epidemiology, paratuberculosis.

Blajan, L. [Editor] Journee AEEMA: 19 Mai 2005. [Proceedings of the AEEMA Meeting, 19 May 2005.] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2005; (47): 1-92. ISSN: 0754-2186. Note: In French. Contains 11 papers dealing with the use of models in studying the epidemiology of various animal diseases.
URL: http://aeema.vet-alfort.fr/public/php/sommaire.php?lang=1
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Puumala virus, rabies virus, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, vector borne diseases, disease control, disease prevalence, disease prevention, disease surveys, disease transmission, disease vectors, epidemics, epidemiology, geographical distribution, horizontal transmission, models, risk assessment, stochastic models, cost benefit analysis, deterministic models, trends, Europe, Belgium, France, Spain.

Bogli-Stuber, K.; Kohler, C.; Seitert, G.; Glanemann, B.; Antognoli, M.C.; Salman, M.D.; Wittenbrink, M.M.; Wittwer, M.; Wassenaar, T.; Jemmi, T.; Bissig-Choisat, B.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Swiss dairy cattle by real-time PCR and culture: a comparison of the two assays.  Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2005; 99(3): 587-597.  ISSN:  1364-5072.
URL:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1364-5072
NAL Call No.:  QR1.J687
Descriptors:  Swiss dairy cattle, diagnostic assays, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal sampling, 13 dairy herds, in vitro culture, real time PCR, alternative method, Switzerland.

Bolton , M.W.; Grooms, D.L.; Kaneene, J.B. Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in calves: implications for disease control and management. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater. Note: In French and English. 2005; 163.
Descriptors: diary cows, dairy calves, disease control programs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, disease control, disease transmission, Michigan, USA.

Bradley, T.L.; Cannon, R.M.  Determining the sensitivity of abattoir surveillance for ovine Johne's disease. Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(10): 633-636.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Johne's disease, intestinal tract lesions, post slaughter sampling, diagnostic test validation, histopathological examination, experienced meat inspectors, sheep identification, inspector surveillance was 70%.

Brugere-Picoux, J.; Maillard, R.; Douart, A.  Paratubercolosi: quali test diagnostici utilizzare?  [Paratuberculosis: which diagnostic tests to use?]  Summa.  2005; 22(6): 50-54, 2.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic assays, fecal culture, PCR, mesenteric lymph note biopsy, immunological methods, complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence, gel precipitation test, ELISA, review of advantages and disadvantages.

Buelte, Michael; Schoenenbruecher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir. From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp.paratuberculosis (MAP) als Zoonoseerreger? [From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) as zoonotic agent?] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2005; 118(9-10): 377-385. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In German.
URL: www.vetline.de/bmtw/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45
Descriptors: humans, ruminants, domestic and wild animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, possible zoonotic pathogen, epidemiology, transmission between humans and animals, good diagnostics needed.

Bujnakova, D.; Melicharek, I.; Feckova, M.; Skarbova, B.; Kmet', V.  Detekcia a kvantifikacia Mycobacterium paratuberculosis pomocou Real Time PCR u hovadzieho dobytka.  [Detection and quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis using the real time PCR in cattle.]  Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis.  2005; 30(3): 174-175.  ISSN:  1335-0099.  Note:  In Slovakian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, fecal sampling, PCR, IS900, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection method, quantitative analysis, Slovakia.

Bulte, Michael; Schoenenbruecher, Holger; Abdulmawjood, Amir.  From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) als Zoonoseerreger?  [From farm to fork - Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) as zoonotic agent?]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2005; 118(9-10): 377-385. ISSN:  0005-9366.  Note:  In German with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, potential zoonotic disease, transmission from infected animals to humans, intensive research for diagnosis, valid epidemiological investigations.

Cabre, O.; Gonthier, A.; Davoust, B. Inspection sanitaire des animaux de boucherie. 1 - Petits ruminants. [Health inspection of slaughtered animals. 1 - Small ruminants.] Medecine Tropicale. 2005; 65(1): 27-31. ISSN: 0025-682X. Note: In French with an English summary.
Descriptors: goats, sheep, Taenia ovis,Toxoplasma gondii, tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, anthrax, foot and mouth or contagious ecthyma, diarrhea, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, colibacillosis, yersiniosis, zoonotic diseases, clinical signs antemortem, postmortem tissue surveys, abnormal behaviors, lesions, food protection, meat inspection.

Campbell , J.R.; Power, C.; Hood, R.; Olaloku, N.; Mainar-Jaime, R.; Waldner, C. Seroprevalence of Johnes disease, Neospora caninum and bovine leukosis virus in Canadian cow-calf herds. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 212. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: calves, cows, herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, neosporosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, serological surveys, seroprevalence, Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Cheng, J.; Bull, T.J.; Dalton, P.; Cen, S.; Finlayson, C.; Hermon Taylor, J.  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the inflamed gut tissues of patients with Crohn's disease in China and its potential relationship to the consumption of cow's milk:  A preliminary study.  World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.  2005; 21(6-7): 1175-1179.  ISSN:  0959-3993.
URL:http://www.springerlink.com/(dtfvovf5jv3uot2uol4kxtvj)/app/home/journal.asp?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresults,1:100229,1
NAL Call No.:  QR1.M562
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Crohn’s disease, milk production and consumption increases in China, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestines of human’s with Crohn’s, possible association with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, recommend testing dairy herds and retail milk.

Collins, M.T.; Wells, S.J; Petrini, K.R.; Collins, J.E.; Schultz, R.D.; Whitlock, R.H. Evaluation of five antibody detection tests for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12(6): 685-692. ISSN: 1071-412X
URL: http://cdli.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/6/685
DOI : doi:10.1128/CDLI.12.6.685-692.2005
Abstract: Five diagnostic tests based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology for bovine paratuberculosis were evaluated by using individual serum or milk samples from 359 dairy cattle in seven paratuberculosis-free herds and 2,094 dairy cattle in seven Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected dairy herds. Three independent laboratories using three different culture procedures completed faecal cultures for M. paratuberculosis on these cattle and found 417 cows to be shedding M. paratuberculosis in their faeces. An animal that was faecal culture positive for M. paratuberculosis by any of the three laboratories was considered a confirmed case of infection. The specificity of three ELISAs (two on serum and one on milk) was >=99.8%. The specificity of the remaining two ELISAs, both done on serum, was 94.9 and 84.7%. Four of the five ELISAs evaluated produced similar sensitivity in detecting faecal culture-positive cattle (27.8 to 28.9%). Serum ELISA "D" had the lowest specificity (84.7%) and the highest sensitivity (44.5%), but if the cutoff value defining a positive test was changed from 125 to 250% (of the positive control) the sensitivity and specificity, 31.8 and 97.5%, respectively, were comparable to those of the other four assays. If the case definition for M. paratuberculosis infection was based on the culture results of a single laboratory instead of the combined results of three laboratories, ELISA sensitivity estimates were 45.7 to 50.0%. With the exception of ELISA D, assay agreement was high (kappa 0.66 to 0.85) for categorical assay interpretations (positive or negative), but linear regression of quantitative results showed low correlation coefficients (r2=0.40 to 0.68) due to the fact that ELISA results for some cows were high in one assay but low in another assay. Likelihood ratio analysis showed a direct relationship between the magnitude of ELISA result and the odds of a cow shedding M. paratuberculosis in its faeces. If used judiciously and interpreted quantitatively, these ELISAs are useful tools in support of paratuberculosis control programs in dairy herds.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, fecal testing, accuracy, antibody testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, antibody detection, serological diagnosis, serological techniques.

Conraths, F.J.; Kohler, H.; Werner, O.; Beer, M.; Depner, K.R.; Geue, L.; Kaden,V.; Staubach, C.; Potzsch, C.; Schares, G.; Mettenleiter, T.C.  The "Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut": past, present and future of research in infectious diseases of animals.  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.  2005; 118(9/10): 354-364.  ISSN:  0005-9366. Note:  In English with a German summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, research accomplishments, history, poultry, pigs, livestock, animal diseases, aquatic animals, infectious diseases, biosafety, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, foot and mouth disease, neosporosis, parasitoses, paratuberculosis, prion diseases, swine fever, zoonoses, Aphthovirus, avian influenza, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, swine fever virus, Germany.  

Corn, Joseph L.; Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Fischer, John R.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging birds and mammals on livestock premises.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(11): 6963-6967.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  dairy farms, 25 mammalian species sampled, 22 avian species sampled, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, feces, radiometric culture, acid fast isolates, 16S/IS900/IS1311 PCR and mycobactin dependency testing, 9 mammals and 3 avian species were positive, effect probably negative compared to manure, Wisconsin, Georgia, United States.

Coussens, P.M.; Pudrith, C.B.; Skovgaard, K.; Ren, X.; Suchyta, S.P.; Stabel, J.R.; Heegaard, P.M.H.  Johne's disease in cattle is associated with enhanced expression of genes encoding IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2, and factors promoting apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005; 105(3-4): 221-234.  ISSN: 0165-2427.  Note:  In the special issue: Functional Genomics of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Species of Veterinary Importance, edited by E.J. Glass and P.M. Coussens.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776
NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle disease, peripheral mononuclear blood cells, enhanced gene expression, IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors, metalloproteinases 1 and 2, apoptosis.

Crossley, Beate M.; Zagmutt Vergara, Francisco J.; Fyock, Terry L.; Whitlock, Robert H.; Gardner, Ian A.  Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dairy cows. Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 107(3-4): 257-263. ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  786 dairy cows; shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 93 dairy herds, disease prevalence, fecal sampling, cultured in Herrold's egg yolk medium, livestock numbers, seasonal variation, herd size, multivariable negative binomial model, Pennsylvania.

D'Haese, E.; Dumon, I.; Werbrouck, H.; de Jonghe, V.; Herman, L.  Improved detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.  Journal of Dairy Research.  2005; 72(Special issue): 125-128.  ISSN:  0022-0299.
URL:  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=DAR&bVolume=y
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J823
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection in milk samples, sample pretreatment, solid phase cytometry, detection of viable cells in 1 day.

Deutz, Armin; Spergser, Joachim; Wagner, Peter; Rosengarten, Renate; Koefer, Josef.  Nachweise von Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis bei wildtieren und rindern in der Steiermark/Osterreich.  [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animal species and cattle in Styria/Austria.]  Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenshrift.  2005; 118(7-8): 314-320.  ISSN:  0005-9366.  Note:  In German.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 B45
Descriptors:  clinical aspects, diarrhea, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, fetus, histopathology, liver, lungs, lymph nodes, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, wild animals, cattle, Capra ibex, Capreolus capreolus, red deer, Cervus elaphus, chamois, fallow deer, foxes, hares, mouflon, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Austria.

Djonne, B.; Pavlik, I.; Svastova, P.; Bartos, M.; Holstad, G.  IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from goats and cattle in Norway. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica.  2005; 46(1/2): 13-18.  ISSN:  1751-0147.  Note:  In English with a Danish summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87
Descriptors:  cattle, goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, genotype variation, 51 isolates from goats, 4 isolates from cattle, IS900 RFLP analysis, no differences in host origin, epidemiological surveys, 5 new RFLP found, epidemiology, genetic variation, genotypes, paratuberculosis, Norway.

Donat, K.; Eulenberger, Karin; Kaempfer, Petra.  Blutserologische Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung von Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis in sachsischen Rinderbestanden.  [Seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle in Saxony.]  Tieraerztliche Umschau.  2005; 60(9): 497-501.  ISSN:  0049-3864.  Note:  In German.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 T445
Descriptors:  Saxon cattle herds, blood sampling (55,394) for antibody testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, commercial test IDEXX Worrstadt, prevalence testing, data on herd positives, Saxony, Germany. 

Douart, A.; Maillard, R.  Il controllo della paratubercolosi bovina.  [Monitoring of bovine paratuberculosis.] Summa. 2005; 22(6): 45-48, 2.  Note:  In Italian with an English summary.  
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR,  monitoring programs, disease surveys, control programs, disease prevention and control, vaccination, paratuberculosis, Italy.

Dufour, B.; Durand, B.; Pouillot, R. Utilisation des modeles pour une etude cout/benefice de la paratuberculose en France. [Use of models for a cost/benefit study of paratuberculosis in France.] Epidemiologie et Sante Animale. 2005; (47): 83-92. ISSN: 0754-2186. Note: In French with an English summary.
URL: http://aeema.vet-alfort.fr/public/php/sommaire.php?lang=1
Descriptors: livestock, cost benefit analysis of paratuberculosis certification, Association for Certification in Animal Health (ACERSA), Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, two models, herd dynamics infection model, economic model, stochastic model, deterministic model, hypotheses and results, France.

Dunn, J.R.; Kaneene, J.B.; Grooms, D.L.; Bolin, S.R.; Bolin, C.A.; Bruning-Fann, C.S.  Effects of positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces or antibody ELISA on results of caudal fold tuberculin test and interferon-gamma assay for tuberculosis in cattle.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 226(3): 429-435.  ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  cattle, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture, antibody ELISA, caudal fold TB test, interferon-gamma assay.

Dupont, Chris; Thompson, Keith; Heuer, Cord; Gicquel, Brigitte; Murray, Alan. Identification and characterization of an immunogenic 22 kDa exported protein of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Journal of Medical Microbiology.  2005; 54(11): 1083-1092.  ISSN:  0022-2615.  
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, exported 22 kDa putative lipoprotein, alkaline phosphatase gene fusion library, LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins, antibody to p22, detected in vaccinated sheep, clinical and subclinical infected cows.

Durham, S.  ARS collaborates in regional dairy quality management alliance.  Agricultural Research.  2005; 53(4): 20.  ISSN: 0002-161X.
URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/
NAL Call No.:  1.98 AG84
Descriptors:  USDA, Agricultural Research Service, dairy industry, quality control, best management practices, dairy products, dairy cows, food safety, animal health, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, food pathogens, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, genetic techniques and protocols, milk analysis, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont.

Eastern States Veterinary Association. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. Large Animal. Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. By the Association, Gainsville, FL. 2005. 530 pp. Note: A proceedings with a focus on large animal veterinary care. 38 papers on bovines, 91 papers on horses, 16 papers on small ruminants, 10 papers on pigs, 78 papers on veterinary practice management and legal issues.
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: cattle, alpacas, llamas, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, zoonotic diseases, bacterial diseases Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Streptococcus equi, viral diseases, eye diseases, tooth diseases, urinary tract diseases, skin diseases, foot diseases, heart diseases, joint diseases, reproductive disorders, metabolic disorders, colic, colitis, myositis, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, reproductive disorders, wounds, acupuncture, anesthesia, anesthetics, animal behavior, animal nutrition, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, emergencies, euthanasia, fluid therapy, healing, lameness, law, management, marketing, personnel management, pregnancy diagnosis, prognosis, dermatology, surgery, vaccination, veterinary practice.

Elad, D.  The 3rd Annual Symposium of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology. Bet-Dagan, Israel. December 2004.  Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 60(1): 33-38, He 28-29.  ISSN:  0334-9152.
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, monkeys, cats, dogs, mice, pigs, fish, various animal diseases, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, ELISA, epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomes, immunology, macrophages, immune responses, paratuberculosis, gastroenteritis, relapsing fever, West Nile fever, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Borrelia, Streptococcus iniae, Israel.

Ellingson, J.L.E.; Stabel, J.R.; Radcliff, R.P.; Whitlock, R.H.; Miller, J.M.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free-ranging bison (Bison bison) by PCR.  Molecular and Cellular Probes.  2005; 19(3): 219-225.  ISSN:  0890-8508.  
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6959&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=a1d954773ca83f03ff7b5c0d870580ef
NAL Call No.:  RB43.7.M63
Descriptors:  North American Bison, free ranging animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection with PCR, 25 animals with clinical signs of Johne’s disease, frozen and paraffin-embedded ileum, jejuniun, ileocecal lymph nodes, post slaughter, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found.

Elzo, M.A.; Rae, D.O.; Lanhart, S.; Wasdin, J.; Dixon, P.; Jones, J. Factors associated with ELISA sample/positive ratio scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle. R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. 2005; 213. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 213. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: beef cattle breeds,Aberdeen Angus, Brahman, zebu, multibreed beef cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, body weight, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, environmental factors, genetic factors, paratuberculosis.

Eppleston, J.; Reddacliff, L.; Windsor, P.; Links, I.; Whittington, R.  Preliminary observations on the prevalence of sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after 3 years of a vaccination program for ovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(10): 637-638.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, sheep, vaccination, shedding, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Gudair, immunologic drug, immunostimulant drug, immunology, disease prevention and control, Australia.

Ezanno, P.; Van Schaik, G.; Weber, M.F.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.  A modeling study on the sustainability of a certification-and-monitoring program for paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Research.  2005; 36(5/6): 811-826.  ISSN:  0928-4249.  
NAL Call No.:  SF602.A5
Descriptors:  cattle, cattle herd health, disease monitoring, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Dutch disease control programs, certification disease control, Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, computer model.

Fischer, O.A.; Matlova, L.; Dvorska, L.; Svastova, P.; Bartos, M; Weston, R.T.; Kopecna, M.; Trcka, I.; Pavlik, I. Potential risk of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis spread by syrphid flies in infected cattle farms. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2005 Dec; 19(4): 360-366. ISSN: 0269-283X
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0269-283X&site=1
NAL Call No.: SF639.M44
Abstract: The syrphid Eristalis tenax Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae) may be found in and around dung storage pits at cattle farms at various developmental stages of their life cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in 1044 E. tenax samples at various developmental stages, as well as fresh and stored dung originating from nine cattle farms. Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from one (1.5%) larva from the vicinity of three paratuberculosis-free herds of cattle. Mycobacterium a. paratuberculosis was isolated from 111 (21.4%) of E. tenax larvae collected from two of seven farms known to be infected with the causal agent of paratuberculosis. Mycobacteria were not isolated from any of the 340 pupae, 41 adults of 78 samples of exoskeletal exuviae. Mycobacterium a. paratuberculosis isolates from E. tenax larvae were of the IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type B-C1, identical to that detected in faecal samples from cattle herds infected with paratuberculosis. Larvae artificially infected with mycobacteria of IS900 RFLP type B-C9 did not contain statistically more CFU of identical IS900 RFLP type B-C9 in the intestinal tract and internal organs than on the body surface. These results show that M. a. paratuberculosis can survive in the intestinal tract and internal organs of E. tenax.
Descriptors: cattle,Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, insect vectors of disease, Eristalis tenax, disease prevalence, developmental stages, disease transmission, paratuberculosis, fecal contamination, pathogen identification, restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP. pathogen survival, epidemiology, disease risks, Czech Republic. Slovakia.

Gao Anli; Odumeru, J.; Raymond, M.; Mutharia, L. Development of improved method for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bulk tank milk: effect of age of milk, centrifugation, and decontamination. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2005; 69(2): 81-87. ISSN: 0830-9000. Note: In English with a French summary.
NAL Call No.: SF601. C24
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, microbial contamination, bulk milk, raw milk, milk hygiene, centrifugation, pathogen partitions into cream and pellet fraction. decontamination, food additives, food contamination, hexadecylpyridinium chloride.

Georgiadis, M.P.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A.  Sample size determination for estimation of the accuracy of two conditionally independent tests in the absence of a gold standard.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine.  2005; 71(1/2): 1-10.  ISSN:  0167-5877.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5145&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=c5bc3d9e1bb66468352ae1f5475d522f NAL Call No.:  SF601.P7
Descriptors:  cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, screening, testing accuracy, calculation, estimation, sample size, statistical analysis, techniques, Excel spreadsheet template http://www.epi.ucdavis.edu/diagnostictests/

Godfroid, J.; Delcorps, C.; Irenge, L.M.; Walravens, K.; Marche, S.; Gala, J.L.  Definitive differentiation between single and mixed mycobacterial infections in red deer (Cervus elaphus) by a combination of duplex amplification of p34 and f57 sequences and Hpy188I enzymatic restriction of duplex amplicons.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(9): 4640-4648.  
Descriptors:  wild red deer, diagnose molecular methods for species specific identification of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, DNA banding patterns, before and after treatment with Hpy188I restriction of f57-upstream (us)-p34 duplex amplicons, duplex us-p34-f57 PCR and Hpy188I restriction excluded Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Belgium.

Goldova, M.; Pilipcinec, E. 48th year of Student Scientific Conference (SSC). Folia Veterinaria. 2005; 49(2): 112-116. ISSN: 0015-5748
URL: www.uvm.sk/dept/journals/ folia.html
Descriptors: wild birds, pheasants, cattle, dogs, Przewalski's horses, pigs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal ecology, diagnosis, food hygiene, meat quality, poultry meat, tooth diseases, medetomidine, butorphanol, Slovakia.

Gonzalez, J.; Geijo, M.V.; Garcia-Pariente, C.; Verna, A.; Corpa, J.M.; Reyes, L.E.; Ferreras, M.C.; Juste, R.A.; Marin, J.F. Garcia; Perez, V.  Histopathological classification of lesions associated with natural paratuberculosis infection in cattle.  Journal of Comparative Pathology.  2005; 133(2-3): 184-196.  ISSN:  0021-9975.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6861&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=6091bef4d15aae1adbceffba708c6eb8 NAL Call No.:  41.8 J82
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle lesions, adult cows, with and without clinical signs, gut lymphoid tissue, 5 categories of lesions, ileum, jejunum, intestinal villi, thickening of intestinal wall.

Grant, I.R. Zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: the current position. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2005; 98(6): 1282-1293. ISSN: 1364-5072. Note: In the symposium issue: Adams M., G.F. Fitzgerald; Gilmour A.; Godfree, A.F.; Hill C.; Ross R.P. [Editors]. Dairy and Food Microbiology: Challenges and Opportunities, Held July 2004, Cork, Republic of Ireland. Note: Includes references. Literature review.
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1364-5072&site=1
Descriptors: paratuberculosis, disease transmission, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, zoonoses, Crohn’s disease, cattle diseases, human health.

Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald.  Efficacy of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions in combination with homogenization on inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(6): 2853-2861.  ISSN:  0099-2240.  
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk contamination, homogenization, pathogen inactivation, time/temperature conditions, HTST pasteurization.

Grant, I.R.; Williams, A.G.; Rowe, M.T.; Muir, D.D.  Investigation of the impact of simulated commercial centrifugation and microfiltration conditions on levels of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk. International Journal of Dairy Technology.  2005; 58(3): 138-142.  ISSN:  1364-727X.
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=idt
NAL Call No.:  SF221.I58
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, microbial contaminate of raw milk, milk processing, decontamination process, centrifugation, microfiltration.

Griffin, J. Frank T.; Spittle, Evelyn; Rodgers, Christie R.; Liggett, Simon; Cooper, Marc; Bakker, Douwe; Bannantine, John P.  Immunoglobulin G1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease in red deer (Cervus elaphus).  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology.  2005; 12(12): 1401-1409.  ISSN:  1071-412X.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=84
Descriptors:  farmed red deer, serodiagnosis, Johne’s disease, denatured purified protein derivative (PPDj), undenatured protoplasmic antigen (PpAg), ELISA, antigen reactivity of IgG1, compared non pathological and those with pathological diseases.

Groenendaal, H.  Control programs for Johne's disease.  Advances in Dairy Technology Proceedings of the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar.  2005; 17: 81-94.  ISSN: 1184-0684. Note:  Seminar held March 8-11, 2005, Red Deer, Alberta.
URL:  http://www.wcds.afns.ualberta.ca/
NAL Call No.:  SF223.W478
Descriptors:  dairy herds, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease surveillance, disease control, simulation models, culling animals, dairy herd management, United States, The Netherlands.

Groenendaal, H. Epidemiologic and Economic Risk Analysis of Johne's Disease Control. Published by Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Universiteit. 2005; 160 pp. ISBN: 9085042135. Note: A thesis. In English with a Dutch summary.
NAL Call No.:  DISS F2005041
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, risk analysis, decision making, economics, epidemiological models, disease control, Netherlands.

Harris, N.B.; Robbe-Austerman, .S; Payeur, J.B. Effect of egg yolk on the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the ESP II liquid culture system. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2005 Nov; 17(6): 554-560. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Rapid diagnosis of paratuberculosis in infected cattle is important for the successful control of Johne disease within herds. Thus, improving culture methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) will aid in the identification of asymptomatic animals. Egg yolk is a component of the media used for growing M. paratuberculosis, but its requirement as a supplement has not been reported. Using the ESP II liquid culture system, 2 different sources and 5 concentrations (3.3%, 1.6%, 0.8%, 0.4%, and 0%) of egg yolk were analyzed. Egg yolk source did not affect either recovery rate or time to detection, but both parameters were significantly improved when the 3.3% egg yolk concentrations (final volume) were used over media containing no egg yolk. This study also assessed the recovery of M. paratuberculosis from fecal samples that were cultured multiple times using Herrold egg yolk agar (HEY). Specimens containing greater than 70 cfu/g feces could routinely be identified as positive for M. paratuberculosis after only 1 culture attempt, whereas specimens with fewer bacteria were only intermittently positive, even after 5 replicate cultures. Therefore, this study indicates that the sensitivity of the Trek Diagnostic ESP II liquid culture system for M. paratuberculosis is affected by egg yolk concentration and that single culture attempts using HEY solid media may not identify specimens containing low numbers of bacteria.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle diseases, egg yolk, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, rapid methods, paratuberculosis, disease detection, culture media, ESP II liquid culture system.

Harwood, D.  My goat's got diarrhoea: common causes and disease management.  Veterinary Times.  2005; 35(41): 20-21.  ISSN:  1352-9374.
Descriptors:  goats, kids, diarrhea, cause, disease management and control, fluids, acidosis, mineral deficiencies and therapy, poisonings, common pathogens, etiology, diagnosis, fascioliasis, parasitoses, salmonellosis, sulfonamides, Clostridium perfringens, Cryptosporidium parvum, Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Escherichia coli, Fasciola, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, Trichostrongylus, Secernentea, Strongylida, treatments, anthelmintics, antibiotics, sulfonamides, United Kingdom.

Hendrick, S.; Duffield, T.; Leslie, K.; Lissemore, K.; Archambault, M.; Kelton, D. The prevalence of milk and serum antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy herds in Ontario. Canadian Veterinary Journal-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2005 Dec; 46(12): 1126-1129. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: Summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: This study randomly surveyed 50 dairy herds in Ontario; 18% and 30% of herds had 2 or more milk or serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive cows, respectively. The apparent cow level prevalence was 1.7% and 2.6% on the milk and serum ELISA, respectively. The serum and milk assays agreed moderately.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, cattle diseases, disease prevalence, antibodies, antibody detection, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy herd, paratuberculosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, milk analysis, hematologic tests, Ontario, Canada.

Hendrick, S.H.; Duffield, T.F.; Kelton, D.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of paratuberculosis in lactating dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005 Feb 1; 226(3): 424-428. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: dairy cows, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, disease detection, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, milk, blood serum, disease diagnosis, feces, cell culture, validity, Ontario, Canada.

Hendrick, Steven H.; Kelton, David F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Archambault, Marie; Duffield, Todd F.  Effect of paratuberculosis on culling, milk production, and milk quality in dairy herds.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 227(8): 1302-1308.  ISSN:  0003-1488.  
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, 9 infected dairy herds, disease effects, culling, milk production, milk quality, fecal sampling, mycobacterial culture, serum sampling, ELISA testing, mixed effect and proportional hazards models, disease effects on: 305-day milk levels, fat, protein production, somatic cell count linear score, potential cow longevity. 

Hendrick, S.H.; Kelton, D.F.; Leslie, K.E.; Lissemore, K.D.; Archambault, M.; Bagg, R.; Dick, P.; Duffield, T.F. Efficacy of monensin sodium for the reduction of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in infected dairy cattle. In: R.A. Smith [Editor] Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005; 167. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control programs, monensin treatment, efficacy.

Hendrick, Steven H.; Kelton, David F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Archambault, Marie; Duffield, Todd F.  Effect of paratuberculosis on culling, milk production, and milk quality in dairy herds.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 227(8): 1302-1308.  ISSN:  0003-1488.  
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, 9 infected dairy herds, disease effects, culling, milk production, milk quality, fecal sampling, mycobacterial culture, serum sampling, ELISA testing, mixed effect and proportional hazards models, disease effects on: 305-day milk levels, fat, protein production, somatic cell count linear score, potential cow longevity. 

Holstad, G.; Sigurdardottir, O.G.; Storset, A.K.; Tharaldsen, J.; Nyberg, O.; Schonheit, J.; Djonne, B.  Description of the infection status in a Norwegian cattle herd naturally infected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica.  2005; 46(1/2): 45-56.  ISSN:  0044-605X.  Note:  In English with a Danish summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AC87
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, goats, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, age differences, serological survey, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, antibodies, antibody testing, histopathology, immunoassay, immunodiagnosis, interferon, paratuberculosis, RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology seroprevalence, surveillance and control program, Norway.

Hostetter,J.; Huffman, E.; Byl, K.; Steadham, E.  Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the granulomatous intestinal lesions of naturally occurring bovine Johne's disease.  Veterinary Pathology.  2005; 42(3): 241-249.  ISSN: 0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Abstract:  Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is important in the control of a number of intracellular pathogens, including mycobacteria, and is a marker of classic macrophage activation.  In human granulomatous diseases such as leprosy, a spectrum of granulomatous lesions is described, ranging from the tuberculoid to lepromatous types.  Tuberculoid granulomas are associated with enhanced iNOS production and improved clinical outcomes over the lepromatous types.  The aim of this study is to determine whether an association exists between morphology of bovine Johne's disease granulomas and lesion macrophage effector functions.  To accomplish this, we retrospectively evaluated 24 cases of bovine Johne's disease.  In each case, we recorded the predominant granuloma morphology and evaluated iNOS immunoreactivity and bacterial burden by acid-fast stains and mycobacterial immunolabeling.  The results of this study demonstrate that all cases had granulomas with features most similar to the lepromatous type. This morphology correlated with heavy bacterial burdens demonstrated by acid-fast staining and mycobacterial immunoreactivity.  None of the cases had high expression of iNOS in mycobacterial-positive granulomas.  When iNOS immunoreactivity was identified, it was usually located near the crypts and was distinct from the granulomatous foci.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, iNOS, morphology of bovine Johne's disease granulomas, lesion macrophage effector functions, granuloma morphology, acid-fast stains, mycobacterial immunolabeling, crypts.

Hostetter, Jesse Michael; Steadham, Edward.  Immune scrum opsonization effects on non-tuberculous mycobacterial interaction with macrophages.  FASEB Journal.  2005; 19(5, Suppl. S, Pt. 2): A1515. ISSN:  0892-6638.  Note:  Experimental Biology 2005 Meeting, 35th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, San Diego, CA, USA; March 31 -April 06, 2005.
URL:  http://www.fasebj.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  QH301.F3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antibody is opsonizing, may promote killing, independent of nitric oxide and phagosome acidification.

Hostetter, J.; Kagan, R.; Steadham, E.  Opsonization effects on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-macrophage interactions.  Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12(6): 793-796.  ISSN:  1071-412X.
URL:  http://www.fasebj.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  RB46.5
Descriptors:  macrophages, ability to limit proliferation of bacteria, opsonized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Hovingh, E. Map in the environment. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 13
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: dairy cattle, paratuberculosis, disease transmission, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal contamination of environment, pastures, soil, water, microbial contamination of the environment.

Hovingh, E. Risk assessment-based Johne's Disease programs. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 14-17
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: dairy cattle, heifers, bulls, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, risk assessment, risk factors, disease control, disease transmission factors, parptuberculosis, bacterial pathogen.

Hughes, M.S.; Ball, N.W.; McCarroll, J.; Erskine, M.; Taylor, M.J.; Pollock, J.M.; Skuce, R.A.; Neill, S.D.  Molecular analyses of mycobacteria other than the M-tuberculosis complex isolated from Northern Ireland cattle.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 108(1-2): 101-112.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  cattle, antigens, genes, bovine tuberculosis, Johne’s disease, diagnostic techniques, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium bohemicum, Mycobacterium holsaticum, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, Mycobacterium palustre, Mycobacterium sp. IWGMT-90210, Mycobacterium sp. LIV-2129, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Huntley, J.F.J.; Whitlock, R.H.; Bannantine, J.P.; Stabel, J.R.  Comparison of diagnostic detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in North American Bison.  Veterinary Pathology.  2005; 42(1): 42-51.  ISSN: 0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Abstract:  Tissues and fecal material were collected from 14 North American Bison (Bison bison) that were suspected of having Johne's disease and analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis).  Sections of ileum, ileal-cecal lymph node, and three sequential sections of jejunum with their associated mesenteric lymph nodes were taken from each animal.  Fecal culture indicated that 5 of 14 (35.7%) animals were infected, whereas cultures from tissues detected 12 of 14 (85.7%) animals as infected and 59 of 111 (53.2%) of the tissues as positive for M. paratuberculosis.  Polymerase chain reaction analysis identified infection in 14 of 14 (100%) animals and in 91 of 112 (81.2%) tissues.  In addition, tissues were processed for Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining, auramine O/acridine orange fluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining. Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine O staining identified 7 of 14 (50%) and 5 of 14 (35.7%) animals as infected and 24 of 112 (21.4%) and 28 of 112 (25%) tissues as positive, respectively.  Immunohistochemical analyses of bison tissues, using antisera collected from rabbits immunized with four different preparations of M. paratuberculosis, identified a greater percentage of infected animals (ranging from 57 to 93%) and positive tissues (ranging from 28 to 46%).  Collectively, these data indicate that DNA-based detection of M. paratuberculosis was more sensitive than bacterial culture or staining, identified infection in all the bison, and detected the greatest number of positive tissues within each animal.
Descriptors:  North American Bison, possible Johne’s disease, tissue and fecal sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ileum, ileal-cecal lymph node, and three sequential sections of jejunum & associated mesenteric lymph nodes, fecal culture, PCR analysis, Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining, auramine O/acridine orange fluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining, sensitivity of various detection methods.

Huntley, J.F.; Stabel, J.R.; Paustian, M.L.; Reinhardt, T.A.; Bannantine, J.P.  Expression library immunization confers protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infectionInfection and Immunity.  2005; 73(10): 6877-6884.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  expression library immunization, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, DNA vaccines, mice immunization, gene gun delivery, live virulent strain challenge, 26 antigens seem to generate protection.

Huntley, Jason F.J.; Stabel, Judith R.; Bannantine, John P.  Immunoreactivity of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein.  BMC Microbiology.  2005; 5(January 21).  ISSN:  1471-2180.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=44
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, gene encoding 19-kDa lipoprotein, immunomodulator, Johne’s disease, MAP0261, IFN gamma production measured in infected cows, sera testing, not sensitive enough for an assay.

Ikiz, Serkan; Bagcigil, A. Funda; Ak, Seyyal; Ozgur, N. Yakut; Lgaz, Atilla.  Paratuberculosis in cattle in Turkey detected by PCR.  Medycyna Weterynaryjna.  2005; 61(8): 881-883.  ISSN:  0025-8628.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 M463
Descriptors:  cattle, adult animals, fecal sampling, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, PCR, IS900 gene, results negative, recommended further studies, Trakya, Turkey.

Jansen, J.; Godkin, A.  Raising Johne's-free calves.  Advances in Dairy Technology.  Proceedings of the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar.  2005; 17: 217-225.  ISSN: 1184-0684.  Note:  Seminar held March 8-11, 2005, Red Deer, Alberta.
URL:  http://www.wcds.afns.ualberta.ca/
NAL Call No.:  SF223.W478
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease prevention, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease transmission, dairy herd management, cattle manure management.  

Jin, Hai Lin; Zahang, Yuan; Zhao, Li Feng; Huang, Hai Long; Cui, Huan Zhong; Zhang, Yi. Study of the deer paratuberculosis case report. Journal of Economic Animal. 2005; 9(4): 209-210. ISSN: 1007-7448. Note: In Chinese. With an English summary.
URL: http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/vol7/iss1/art35/
Descriptors: deer, Cervus Nippon, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, pathology, mortality rate, China.

Jovanovic, M.; Knezevic, Milijana. Paratuberkuloza (Johnova Bolest) - Osnovne Karakteristike I Stanje U Nasoj Zemlji. [Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) - Basic characteristics and current situation locally.] Veterinarski Glasnik. 2005; 59(5-6): 507-519. ISSN: 0350-2457. Note: In Czech.
NAL Call No.: 41.8 J93
Descriptors: sheep, the II de France breed, cattle, young animals, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, sources of pathogen, fecal material, colostrum of disease animals, intro-uterine infection, complement binding reaction (CBR), the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), immunioenzyme test (ELISA), testing of tissue samples, patho-anatomical or patho-histological findings, disease severity.

Juan, L. de ; Mateos, A.; Dominguez, L.; Sharp, J.M.; Stevenson, K.  Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from goats detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 106(3-4): 249-257.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  goats, sheep, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 44 clinical isolates characterized, epidemiology, diagnostic techniques, genetic diversity, genotypes, PCR, pulsed field electrophoresis, RFLP.

Jubb, T.F.  The effect of interpreting an ELISA at a lower cut-off on detection of clinical cases of bovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(5): 305-307.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis, ELISA testing, positive results interpretation.

Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Allcroft, David J.; Hutchings, Michael R. Clustering of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits and the environment: How hot is a hot spot.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(10): 6033-6038.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  Clustering of pathogens in the environment leads to hot spots of diseases at local, regional, national, and international levels.  Scotland contains regional hot spots of Johne's disease (caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in rabbits, and there is increasing evidence of a link between paratuberculosis infections in rabbits and cattle.  The spatial and temporal dynamics of paratuberculosis in rabbits within a hot spot region were studied with the overall aim of determining environmental patterns of infection and thus the risk of interspecies transmission to livestock.  The specific aims were to determine if prevalence of paratuberculosis in rabbits varies temporally between seasons and whether the heterogeneous spatial environmental distribution of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a large scale (i.e., regional hot spots) is replicated at finer resolutions within a hot spot.  The overall prevalence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits was 39.7%; the temporal distribution of infection in rabbits followed a cyclical pattern, with a peak in spring of 55.4% and a low in summer of 19.4%.  Spatially, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected rabbits and, thus, the risk of interspecies transmission were highly clustered in the environment.  However, this is mostly due to the clustered distribution of rabbits.  The patterns of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in rabbits are discussed in relation to the host's socioecology and risk to livestock.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, epidemiology, rabbits are a reservoirs, spatial and temporal dynamics, environmental patterns of infection, seasonal effects, spatial distribution of pathogen, Johne’s disease, disease transmission, disease prevalence, seasonal variation, risk to livestock, Scotland.  

Judge, J.; Greig, A.; Kyriazakis, I.; Hutchings, M.R.  Ingestion of faeces by grazing herbivores - risk of inter-species disease transmission.  Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.  2005; 107(2/3): 267-274.  ISSN:  0167-8809.
URL:   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01678809
NAL Call No.:  S601.A34
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, rabbits, contaminated rabbit droppings, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, contaminated pastures, disease transmission via ingestion of feces while grazing, risks to herbivores, grazing study, no avoidance of droppings, plant-height affects levels of ingestion of rabbit droppings, United Kingdom.

Juste, R.A.; Garrido, J.M.; Geijo, M.; Elguezabal, N.; Aduriz, G.; Atxaerandio, R.; Sevilla, IComparison of blood polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and sheep.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17(4): 354-359.  ISSN:  1040-6387.
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.:
  SF774.J68
Abstract: A study was carried out to compare the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep. For cattle, a set of 278 samples from 1 paratuberculosis-affected Friesian farm was used; it included 80 ELISA-positive samples and 198 ELISA-negative samples from an age-matched group. Ninety-four samples were from heifers and 184 were from 2-5-year-old cows. The overall analysis showed a clear association (Fisher exact test FET P = 0.0049) but a weak negative agreement (45.3%, kappa = -0.1665 +/- 0.0994) between the 2 tests. It reflected a moderate agreement among heifers (87.7%, kappa = 0.4471 +/- 0.2435) and a moderate disagreement among cows (62.7%, kappa = -0.3670 +/- 0.1057). For sheep, 496 blood samples from 53 Latxa dairy flocks were used; 180 of the blood samples were from dam/offspring pairs. The overall association between the 2 tests on ovine samples was strong (FET, P = 0.0005), whereas the agreement was low (kappa = 0.1622 +/- 0.1188). There was slightly better agreement for ewes (kappa = 0.2135 +/- 0.1992) than for lambs (kappa = 0.1193 +/- 0.1301). There was also a highly unlikely proportion of dam/offspring positive results (FET, P < 0.0001, kappa = 0.6269 +/- 0.1854). Four of 6 lambs that were necropsied 1 year after testing had paratuberculosis microscopic lesions in the ileocecal valve (3 lambs) or a PCR-positive result (4 lambs). These results suggest that blood PCR testing might be a potentially useful new approach in paratuberculosis diagnosis, especially in young animals.
Descriptors:
  cattle, cows, heifers, sheep, ewes, lambs, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, Johne’s disease, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA assay, PCR, blood test comparison, test accuracy.

Katayama, Nobuya. Studies on the physical and chemical influence to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis on roughage. Bulletin of the Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University. 2005; (54): 99-102. ISSN: 0373-8361
URL: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/journal/B/S0144B/2000.php
NAL Call No.: SF604.N6
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, various treatments, inactivation of pathogen, effects on dietary roughage in intestine.

Kiehnbaum, L.A.; Amonsin, A.; Wells, S.J.; Kapur, V.  Amplified fragment length polymorphism to detect clonal diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in selected Minnesota dairy cattle.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  July 2005; 17(4): 311-315.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Abstract: The molecular ecology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is not well understood in the United States. In this study, a DNA fingerprinting method, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), was used to subtype the pathogen and assess the clonal diversity of MAP in Minnesota dairy herds. Fifty-six fecal culture test-positive isolates from various Minnesota counties and culture dates were analyzed in this study. The AFLP identified 11 profiles with 50% of isolates representing 1 major profile. The major profile was distributed across the state. The genetic diversity of bovine MAP clones in Minnesota based on AFLP analysis of this data appears to be relatively low.
Descriptors:
  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial clones, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length, polymorphism, methods, Minnesota.

Koo, HyeCheong; Park,YongHo; Ahn, JongSam; Waters, W.R.; Palmer, M.V.; Hamilton, M.J.; Barrington, G; Mosaad, A.A.; Park, KunTaek; Jung,WooKyung; Hwang, InYeong; Cho, SangNae; Shin, S.J.; Davis, W.C.  Use of rMPB70 protein and ESAT-6 peptide as antigens for comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent, immunochromatographic, and latex bead agglutination assays for serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(9): 4498-4506.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
Descriptors:  cattle, deer, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT6-p) and a recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rMPB70), recombinant major secreted immunogenic protein (rMPB70) of Mycobacterium bovis, assays, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiagnosis, mycobacterial diseases, tuberculosis.

Kudahl, A.B.  Economic consequences of paratuberculosis control in dairy cattle herds.  DIAS Report, Animal Husbandry.  2005; (63): 127 p.  ISSN:  1397-9892.  Note:  A thesis from the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Tjele, Denmark
URL:  www.digisource.dk
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, dairy herds, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, economics impact of disease, different control strategies, simulation model, herd specific decision support for dairy farmers.

Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cullor, J.S.; Zeng, N.X.; Truong, T.D.; Essert, T.K.; Smith, W.L.; Pina, C. Disinfection of dairy and animal farm wastewater with radiofrequency power. Journal of Dairy Science. 2005 Nov; 88(11): 4120-4131. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Radiofrequency (RF) power was investigated as a new, physical (nonchemical), thermal process to disinfect wastewater from dairy and animal facilities. Samples (n = 38) from 8 dairy, 2 calf, and 3 swine facilities in California were collected over a 3-yr period and characterized for their dielectric properties, chemical composition, and suitability for thermal processing using RF power. To establish efficacy for disinfection, selected samples were inoculated with high levels (10 superscript 6 to 10 superscript 9 cfu/mL) of bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and processed with an RF prototype system. The capabilities of RF power as a method for thermal disinfection of wastewater were demonstrated when bacteria pathogens were completely and rapidly (<1 min) inactivated when temperatures of 60 to 65degrees C were achieved. Furthermore, RF technology can be used for large-scale, batch or continuous and portable applications, allowing significant improvements in energy-use efficiencies compared with conventional thermal (surface heating) technologies. Therefore, RF power has potential as an alternative to disinfect dairy/animal farm wastewater before recycling.
Descriptors: dairy farms, animal facilities, calf facilities, swine operations, disinfection of waste water, wastewater treatment, heat inactivation, heat treatment, energy conservation, animal pathogenic bacteria, California, USA.

Langelaar, Merel F.M.; Weber, Corinna N.; Overdijk, Marije B.; Mueller, Kerstin E.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.  Cytokine gene expression profiles of bovine dendritic cells after interaction with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (M.a.p.), Escherichia coli (E coli) or recombinant M.a.p. heat shock protein 70.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005; 107(1-2): 153-161.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776
NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, recombinant heat shock protein 70 (M.a.p.) cytokine gene expression, bovine dendritic cells, bovine IL-12 gene, bovine interleukin-12 gene, expression, bovine IL-1 beta gene, interleukin-1 beta gene, expression, bovine IL-6 gene expression.

Langelaar, M.F.M.; Hope, J.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Van Eden, W.; Koets, A.P.  Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis recombinant heat shock protein 70 interaction with different bovine antigen-presenting cells.  Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.  2005; 61(3): 242-250.  ISSN:  0300-9475.  
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=sji
NAL Call No.:  QR180.53
Descriptors:  recombinant Hsp 70, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CD14 (+), characterized monocyte-derived macrophages, monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC), BoMac, an immortalized bovine macrophage cell line.

Lei, Liying; Hostetter, Jesse M.  Effects of Mycobacteria avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection on bovine dendritic cell surface marker expression.  FASEB Journal.  2005; 19(4, Suppl. S, Pt. 1): A965.  ISSN:  0892-6638.  Note:  Experimental Biology 2005 Meeting, 35th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, San Diego, CA, USA; March 31 -April 06, 2005.
URL:  http://www.fasebj.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  QH301.F3
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, infected bovine CD14(+) monocytes, cultured for dendritic cell differentiation in vivo, host immune response, down-regulation of MHCII expression on DCs.

Leine, N.  Smittesaneringsprosjektet "Friskere geiter".  [Disease eradication project "Healthier goats.”]  Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift.  2005; 117(5): 360-362.  ISSN:  0332-5741.  Note:  In Norweigian.
Descriptors:  goats, goat diseases, preventive medicine, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis, Norway.

Li, Lingling; Bannantine, John P.; Zhang, Qing; Amonsin, Alongkorn; May, Barbara J.; Alt, David; Banerji, Nilanjana; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek.  The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  2005; 102(35): 12344-12349.  ISSN:  0027-8424.  
URL:  http://www.pnas.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  500 N21P
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, strain K-10, pathogenic strain of Johne’s, cattle, ruminants, sequence data, description of the genome, comparison with Mtb.

Lindstedt, Bjorn Arne.  Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis for genetic fingerprinting of pathogenic bacteria.  Electrophoresis.  2005; 26(13): 2567-2582.  ISSN:  0173-0835. 
Descriptors:  DNA fingerprinting, identifying, tracing, preventing dissemination, pathogenic bacteria, review article, VNTRs, MLVA, advantages and disadvantages, many species listed including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

Lombard , J.E.; Smith, R.L.; Wagner, B.A.; McCluskey, B.J. Evaluation of environmental sampling to determine distribution and dairy herd infection status for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 190. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy herd, cattle, infection rates, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental factors contributing to disease spread, feces, pens, floors, manure spreaders, milking parlors, blood serum testing, risk factors for disease spread, USA.

Lombard , J.E.; Wagner, B.A.; McCluskey, B.J.; Garry, F.B. Production effects of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection based on diagnostic test results. R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 189. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: cows, dairy cattle, production systems, impacts on infection rates, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, milk production, milk yield, paratuberculosis.

Lombard, Jason E.; Garry, Franklyn B.; McCluskey, Brian J.; Wagner, Bruce A. Risk of removal and effects on milk production associated with paratuberculosis status in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005; 227(12): 1975-1981. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective-To determine effects on production and risk of removal related to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) infection at the individual animal level in dairy cattle. Design-Longitudinal study.Animals-7,879 dairy cows from 38 herds in 16 states. Procedure-A subset of dairy cattle operations that participated in the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2002 study was evaluated via a serum ELISA for antibodies against MAP and categorized according to ELISA score. Dairy Herd Improvement Association records were obtained to collect current and historical lactation data and removal (ie, culling) information. Production variables were evaluated on the basis of serum ELISA category. Results-Cows with strong positive results had mature equivalent (ME) 305-day milk production, ME 305-day maximum milk production, and total lifetime milk production that were significantly lower than cows in other categories. No differences were observed for ME 305-day fat and protein percentages, age, lactation, and lactation mean linear somatic cell count score between cows with strong positive results and those with negative results. After accounting for lactation number and relative herd-level milk production, cows with strong positive results were significantly more likely to have been removed by 1 year after testing. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Without management changes designed to reduce the farm-level prevalence of MAP infection, paratuberculosis will continue to reduce farm income by decreasing milk production and potentially increasing premature removal from the herd.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, economic losses, Johne’s disease, culling infected animals, premature removal, milk production, serum testing, ELISA, USA.

Losinger, W.C.  Economic impact of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA.  Journal of Dairy Research.  2005; 72(4): 425-432.  ISSN:  0022-0299.
URL:  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=DAR&bVolume=y
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J823
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, dairy cattle, reduced milk production, economic impact, United States

Lutze-Wallace, C.; Turcotte, C. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Canada for calendar year 2004. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 46(9): 797-799. ISSN: 0008-5286.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=202&action=archive
NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: bison, cattle, red deer, Cervus elaphus, elephants, equines, cats, livestock, wild animals, domestic animals, zoo animals, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium triviale, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Machackova-Kopecna, M.; Bartos, M.; Straka, M.; Ludvik, V.; Svastova, P.; Alvarez, J.; Lamka, J.; Trcka, I.; Treml, F.; Parmova, I.; Pavlik, I.  Paratuberculosis and avian tuberculosis infections in one red deer farm studied by IS900 and IS901 RFLP analysis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 105(3-4): 261-268.  ISSN:  0378-1135.  
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  red deer farm herd, Cervus elaphus, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, animal slaughter, levels of infection of different Mycobacterium species, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, tuberculosis, Johne’s disease, mixed infections, paratuberculosis, RFLP,  restriction fragment length polymorphism.

Mackintosh, C.G.; Labes, R.E.; Griffin, J.F.T. The effect of Johne's vaccination on tuberculin testing in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).  New Zealand Veterinary Journal.  2005; 53(4): 216-222.  ISSN:  0048-0169.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 N483
Descriptors:  farmed red deer, Cervus elaphus, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, vaccination, oil adjuvanted versus aqueous formulation, live attenuated Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strain 316F, possible cross reaction with tuberculin testing, antibodies, cell mediated-immunity, humoral immunity, immune response, lymphocyte transformation.

Marassi, Carla Dray; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Ristow, Paula; Ferreira, Rachel; Lilenbaum, Walter; Oelemann, Walter M.R. Improvement of an in-house ELISA for bovine paratuberculosis serology in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2005; 36(2): 118-122. ISSN: 1517-8382
URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1517-8382&lng=en&nrm=iso
Descriptors : cattle, Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis, PPA-ELISA protocol improvement, testing for sensitivity and specificity, sera sampling, low cost method, diagnostic tool, Brazil.

Marsh, I.B.; Whittington, R.J.  Deletion of an mmpL gene and multiple associated genes from the genome of the S strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis identified by representational difference analysis and in silico analysis.  Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2005; 19(6): 371-384.  ISSN:  0890-8508.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=6959&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=a1d954773ca83f03ff7b5c0d870580ef
NAL Call No.:  RB43.7.M63
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains, strain differences, unique genetic differences, DNA deletions, loss of mmpL5 and mrnpS5 genes, homologues of M. tuberculosis genes, Rv2002 (fabG3), Rv2017c (lipW), Rv3132c (devS), Rv2032 (acg), conserved hypothetical genes Rv2005c and Rv2026c.

Martini, A.; Marconi, P.; Ponzetta, M.P.; Giorgetti, A.; Viliani, M. Sanitary monitoring models for wild ungulate stock farms in Tuscany. Veterinary Research Communications. 2005; 29(Supp. 2): 77-82. ISSN: 0165-7380. Note: Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Italian Society for Veterinary Sciences (SISVET), Grado, Italy, 2004.
URL: www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0165-7380
NAL Call No.: SF601.V38
Descriptors: wild boar, Sus scrofa, red deer, Cervus elaphus and fallow deer, Dama dama, captive animals/game farms, Sanitary Monitoring Project for Wild Fauna in Stock Farms, farm management procedures and protocols, animal health survey, disease prevalence, tissue sampling, blood sampling, fecal and rectal sampling, various organs sampled, molds in stored feeds, many parasites and pathogens found, coccidiosis, ascaridiosis, strongylosis, acanthocephalids, encephalomyocarditis virus, pseudorabies, antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava, pleuropericarditis, hemorrhagic myocarditis and catarrhal enteritis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, trichuriasis, Yersinia enterocolitica, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Tuscany Region, Italy.

McDonald, Wendy L.; O'Riley, Kimberly J.; Schroen, Christopher J; Condron, Robin J.  Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(4): 1785-1789.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, raw milk, heat treatment, effective pasteurization, 3 temperature levels, 3 time levels, industrial pasteurizer, equipment size and flow rates, spiked raw milk, all experimental time and temperature levels were effective.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Keefe, G.P.; McClure, J.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Barkema, H.W. Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2005 Sept; 17(5): 463-466. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL Call No.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are used in Johne's disease (JD) control programs as a first screening for presence of the disease in a herd. A high sensitivity of the ELISA is therefore important, yet the commonly used ELISAs have relatively low sensitivity. The inclusion of an absorption phase, although improving specificity, potentially decreases sensitivity. Sera and feces of 383 adult dairy cows in 8 herds were used to compare the test characteristics of an absorbed and a nonabsorbed indirect ELISA for the detection of JD. The absorbed ELISA is based on a protoplasmic antigen, whereas the nonabsorbed uses a lipoarabinomannan-based antigen. The potential advantage of the nonabsorbed ELISA is that it may be less specific and more sensitive. Two herds certified free of JD were used to compare the specificity of the ELISAs. The other herds used to compare sensitivity were either infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis or had unknown status. Using fecal culture as a gold standard, the diagnostic specificity for the absorbed and nonabsorbed ELISAs were 98.4% and 87.9%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity was 72.4% and 65.5% for the absorbed and the nonabsorbed ELISA, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison using a fecal DNA probe as the comparison standard resulted in both ELISAs having a sensitivity of 61.9%. Agreement between the 2 ELISAs was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.58. The nonabsorbed ELISA did not have a higher sensitivity and had a lower specificity than the absorbed ELISA. Therefore, in this population, there was no advantage gained with using the nonabsorbed ELISA.
Descriptors: adult cows, sera and fecal testing, comparison study, diagnostic tests, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, disease diagnosis, serodiagnosis, diagnostic techniques, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, disease control, dairy cows, accuracy, herd health.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Keefe, G.P.; Barkema, H.W.; Sockett, D.C.  Evaluation of three ELISAs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using tissue and fecal culture as comparison standards.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 110(1-2): 105-111.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ELISA, antibody detection sensitivity, post mortem tissue and fecal sampling, dairy cattle, non-absorbed indirect assay, absorbed indirect assays, comparison study.

McKenna, S.L.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Keefe, G.P.; McClure, J.; Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Barkema, H.W.  Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17(5): 463-466. ISSN:  1040-6387
URL:  http://jvdi.org/cgi/reprint/17/5/463?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=McKenna%2C+S&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Descriptors:  383 dairy cows, 8 herds, Johne’s disease, sera and fecal testing, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial antigens, protoplasmic antigen, lipoarabinomannan-based antigen, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, absorbed ELISA was best, non-absorbed ELISA, specificity, sensitivity, immunodiagnosis, paratuberculosis, Wisconsin, United States.

McMartin, S.; Godden, S.; Feirtag, J.; Metzger, L.; Bey, R.; Goyal, S. Effect of pasteurization temperature on immunoglobulin G, viscosity and pathogen viability in bovine colostrum. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 158. Note: In English and French.
Descriptors: calves, feeding of colostrum, effect of pasteurization termperatures on IgG, colostral immunity, bacterial diseases, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovis, Salmonella.

Mitchell, R.M.; Stehman, S.M.; Whitlock, R.H.; Benedictus, A.; Schukken, Y.H. A deterministic mathematical model of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) transmission on commercial US dairy farms. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. 2005: 165.
Descriptors: dairy farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, deterministic mathematical models, USA.

Monincova, M.; Jesenska, A.; Pavlova, M.; Strouhal, M.; Tisinska, I.; Chaloupkova, R.; Prokop, Z.; Bartos, M.; Pavlik, I.; Rychlik, I.; Mobius, P.; Nagata, Y.; Damborsky, J. Mycobacterial haloalkane dehalogenases. FEBS Journal. 2005; 272(Suppl. 1): 514-515. ISSN: 1742-464X, 1742-4658. Note: 30th Congress of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS)/9th IUBMB Conference, Budapest, Hungary; July 02 -07, 2005
URL: http://www.febsjournal.org/
Descriptors: Escherichia coli , expression system; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC2-155, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis strain K10, Mycobacterium bovis strain 5032-66, molecular genetics, genomics, enzymes.

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Strother, Megan; Theus, Natalie E.; Stich, Roger W.; Byrum, Beverly; Shulaw, William P.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand.  Rapid detection and typing of strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from broth cultures.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(5): 2111-2117.  ISSN: 0095-1137.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=81
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Abstract:  A liquid culture followed by molecular confirmation was evaluated for potential to improve sensitivity and reduce time to diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.  Fecal samples from 240 animals from Ohio farms were assessed for presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using four different protocols: (i) sedimentation processing followed by inoculation on Herrold's Egg Yolk media (HEYM) slants (monitored biweekly up to 16 weeks), (ii) double centrifugation processing followed by inoculation on HEYM slants (monitored biweekly up to 16 weeks), (iii) liquid-solid double culture method using modified 7H9 broth (8 weeks) followed by subculture on HEYM slants (monitored up to 8 weeks), and (iv) liquid culture using modified 7H9 broth (8 weeks) followed by molecular assays for the presence of two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific targets.  The number of positive samples detected by each protocol was 37, 53, 65, and 76, respectively.  Twenty-seven samples were positive by all four methods. Based on samples positive by at least one method (n = 81), the sensitivities for sedimentation processing, double centrifugation processing, liquid-solid double culture, and liquid culture followed by molecular confirmation were 46%, 65%, 80%, and 94%, respectively.  Fingerprinting of the positive samples using two polymorphic (G and GGT) short sequence repeat regions identified varying levels of within-farm and between-farm diversity.  Our data indicate that liquid culture followed by molecular confirmation can significantly improve sensitivity and reduce time-to-diagnosis (from 16 to 8 weeks) of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and can also be efficiently employed for the systematic differentiation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains to understand the epidemiology of Johne's disease.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnostic methods, strain typing, fingerprinting, polymorphic G and GGT short sequence repeat regions, fecal samples, liquid cultures, molecular confirmation, sensitivity of diagnostic testing, 4 testing protocols, potential in epidemiological studies, Ohio, United States.

Mukherjee, F. Comparison of semen characteristics of non-reactors and tuberculin and Johnin reactor buffaloes from a semen station. Buffalo Journal. 2005; 21(1): 39-51. ISSN: 0857-1554
Descriptors: buffalo, Murrah and Surti breeds, bulls, tuberculin and Johnin reactors, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ejaculate volume, mass activity, sperm concentration, post thaw motility, live sperm percentages, increased abnormal sperms, Surti bulls most affected.

Munjal, S.K.; Tripathi, B.N.; Paliwal, O.P.  Progressive immunopathological changes during early stages of experimental infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Pathology.  2005; 42(4):427-436.  ISSN: 0300-9858.
URL:  http://vet.sagepub.com/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27
Abstract:  A dose of 1010 Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was administered orally on seven occasions to produce experimental paratuberculosis infection in 10 5-8-week-old goat kids.  Bacteriological, immunological, and histopathological changes, their relationships, and the efficacy of the commonly used diagnostic methods were studied during the progressive disease up to 270 days postinfection (DPI).  Significant lymphocyte proliferative responses in the peripheral blood of five goats were detected as early as 60 DPI.  A lymphoproliferative test was also performed on lymphocytes purified from different compartments of the guts of five infected and five control goats.  Significant proliferative responses were observed in lymphocytes of jejunal compartments of all five goats, of which four had also significant lymphocyte proliferation in the blood.  The ileal lymphocytes from two goats, one each at 120 and 270 DPI, had significant proliferation.  The histological lesions were mainly observed in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues of the ileocecal valve, the ileum, and the terminal jejunum.  Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the lesions of two goats at 60 and 210 DPI.  Bacterial culture showed poor sensitivity, detecting positive results for only one goat in the fecal and tissue samples at 210 DPI, whereas polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected one goat in fecal sample at 210 DPI and two goats in tissue samples at 60 and 210 DPIs, respectively.  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agar gel immunodiffusion test were found to be 100% sensitive from 180 and 210 DPI onwards, respectively.
Descriptors:  young goat kids, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, oral administration, experimental infection, bacteriological, immunological, and histopathological changes, lymphocyte proliferative testing, gut, blood, fecal and tissue sampling, ELISA assay, agar gel immunodiffusion test.

Nagata, Reiko; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Yoshihara, Kazuhiro; Yokomizo, Yuichi; Mori, Yasuyuki.  Expression cloning of gamma interferon-inducing antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(6): 3778-3782.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infected cattle, recombinant proteins, Map10, Map39, and Map41, gamma interferon production, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infected cattle.

Naser , S.A. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease: is there a link? Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 20-22
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: humans, animals, zoonotic bacterial diseases, etiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Crohn's disease, immunological deficiency, predisposition.

National Animal Health Monitoring System (U.S.).  Dairy 2002: Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations, 2002.  U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Animal Health Monitoring System.  Fort Collins, Colorado.  [2005]; vi, 170 p., ill.  Note:  Other title:  Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations, 2002.
NAL Call No.:  SF967.P33 D35 2005
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, dairy cattle, disease incidence, survey, cattle diseases, United States.

Olsen, Ingrid; Boysen, Preben; Kulberg, Siri; Hope, Jayne C.; Jungersen, Gregers; Storset, Anne K.  Bovine NK cells can produce gamma interferon in response to the secreted mycobacterial proteins ESAT-6 and MPP14 but not in response to MPB70.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(9): 5628-5635.  ISSN:  0019-9567.  
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  IFN-gamma of NK cells, antigen presenting cell, secreted mycobacterial proteins, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ESAT-6, MPP14, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, PPD, interleukin 12, young cattle response.

Orpin, P.; Duthie, S.; Grove-White, D.H. The use of targeted sampling and risk factor analysis to investigate the presence of Johne's disease in dairy herds. Cattle Practice. 2005; 13(3): 219-225. ISSN: 0969-1251
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, ELISA, risk factors, sub-clinical infection, policy for replacement stock, and milk and serum sampling, targeted sampling.

Osterstock, J.B.; Mansell, J.L.; Roussel, A.J., Jr. Protothecal enteritis as a cause of protein-losing enteropathy in a bull. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005; 227(9): 1476-1479. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI: doi:10.2460/javma.2005.227.1476
NAL Call No.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: A 5-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated at the Texas Veterinary Medical Centre, Texas, USA [date not given], because of a history of diarrhoea and weight loss. The history and physical examination and clinicopathological findings were similar to those associated with granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which is the most common protein-losing enteropathy of cattle. However, diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis yielded negative results. Biopsy specimens from the ileum, jejunum and ileocaecal lymph node were collected for histological examination and preparation of tissue impression smears and Prototheca-like organisms were identified. Because of the lack of safe and economical therapeutic agents for cattle, the owner decided to have the bull euthanized. Infection with Prototheca organisms was confirmed postmortem. As this case illustrates, protothecosis may be a cause of granulomatous enteritis in cattle.
Descriptors: Brahman crossbull, case report, clinical aspects, enteritis, intestinal diseases, diagnosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, histopathology, protothecosis, Texas, USA.

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Stoffregen, William C.; Carpenter, Jeremy G.; Stabel, Judith R.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with MAP-infected cattle.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases.  2005; 41(3): 629-635.  ISSN:  0090-3558.  
URL:  http://www.jwildlifedis.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 W64B
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, possible non-cattle disease reservoirs, feral cats, mice, opossums, mesenteric lymph node, ileum sampling, interspecies transmission, ingestion of infected feces, infected prey, Mid Western dairy farm, United States.

Paustian, Michael L.; Kapur, Vivek; Bannantine, John P.  Comparative genomic hybridizations reveal genetic regions within the Mycobacterium avium complex that are divergent from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates.  Journal of Bacteriology.  2005; 187(7): 2406-2415.  ISSN:  0021-9193.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=88
NAL Call No.:  448.3 J82
Descriptors:  comparative genomic study, coding sequence, genomic DNA, open reading frame, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, whole genome microarray, Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium smegmatis, differentiation with multiple clusters of divergent ORFs.

Pavlas, M.  New findings of pathogenesis, diagnostics and control of paratuberculosis in cattle.  Acta Veterinaria Brno.  2005; 74(1): 73-79.  ISSN:  0001-7213.  
NAL Call No.:  SF604.B7
Descriptors:  3620 cattle, 18 farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacteriology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis, pathogenesis, separation bacterioscopic method, fecal sampling, young animals, PCR IS900.

Peddie, S.; Stott, A.; Oglethorpe, D.; Gunn, G.  Communicating food-safety risks to key stakeholders.  Eurochoices.  2005; 4(2): 42-49.  ISSN:  1478-0917.  Note:  In English with summaries in German and French.  
Descriptors:  cattle, cattle disease, Johne’s disease as a case studies, communication about food safety, information regarding risk and uncertainty, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, risk management, Codex Alimentarius.

Perez, O.A. Mycobacterium avium implicated in zoonoses. Revista de Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires. 2005; 86(6): 263-264. ISSN: Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: zoonotic diseases, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, avian tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, taxonomy and sub species identification, animal diseases, immunological testing, seroagglutination testing, disease prevelance.

Pickup, R.W.; Rhodes, G.; Arnott, S; Sidi Boumedine, K.; Bull, T.J.; Weightman, A.; Hurley, M.; Hermon-Taylor, J.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the catchment area and water of the river Taff in South Wales, United Kingdom, an its potential relationship to clustering of Crohn's disease cases in the city of Cardiff.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(4): 2130-2139.  ISSN:  0099-2240.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Descriptors:  pastures, livestock grazing, pasture runoff, bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bovine strains, water pollution, Taff River, river water sampling, 32% of samples IS900 PCR positive, river aerosols, reservoirs, zoonotic potential, Crohn's disease levels in local humans, epidemiology, human diseases, Cardiff, Wales.

Pillars, R.; Kaneene, J.B.; Grooms, D. Using ELISA adjusted optical density (OD) measures to predict Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis shedding status of individual dairy cattle. In: R.A.Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 166. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, ELISA, diagnostic testing, absorbance, optical density, fecal shedding.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Godden, S. M. Clinical and subclinical diseases predisposing to Johne's disease in dairy cattle. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association. Stillwater, USA. 2005; 164. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, asymptomatic infections, clinical aspects, subclinical disease transmission; risk factors.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J. Environmental sampling for Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 58
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: dairy cattle, disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, microbiology.

Raizman, E.A.; Wells, S.J.; Jordan, P.A.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Bey, R.R.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging deer and rabbits surrounding Minnesota dairy herds.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 69(1): 32-38.  ISSN:  0830-9000.  Note:  In English with a French summary.  
URL:   http://canadianveterinarians.net/publications-journal-issue.aspx
NAL Call No.:  SF601.C24
Descriptors:  dairy cows, 108 dairy herds surveyed, fecal sampling and culture, dairy farm management practices, wild animals, disease reservoir for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, estimates of disease prevalence in deer and rabbits, production practices effecting disease transmission, pasture, dry lot use, manure spreading on crop fields, disease vectors, Minnesota, United States.

Rajeev, Sreekumari; Zhang, Yan; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Motiwala, Alifiya S; Byrum, Beverly.  Evaluation of multiple genomic targets for identification and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates using real-time PCR.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 105(3-4): 215-221.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  multiple genomic targets, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolates, diagnostic techniques, DNA, genomes, identification, nucleotide sequences, real time PCR.

Rast, L.; Whittington, R.J.  Longitudinal study of the spread of ovine Johne's disease in a sheep flock in southeastern New South Wales.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(4) 227-232.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, epidemiology, disease spread, longitudinal study, New South Wales, Australia.

Ravva, Subbarao V.; Stanker, Larry H.  Real-time quantitative PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and differentiation from other mycobacteria using SYBR Green and TaqMan assays.  Journal of Microbiological Methods.  2005; 63(3): 305-317.  ISSN:  0167-7012.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=4932&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=541315e5c987176039c95a3602129114
NAL Call No.:  QR65.J68
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 2 detection methods, diagnostic methods, SYBR Green bound to PCR products, cleavage of a fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe, level of sensitivity, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain ATCC 19698, direct cell detection, other mycobacterium species not detected.

Reddacliff, L.A.; Beh, K.; McGregor, H.; Whittington, R.J.  A preliminary study of possible genetic influences on the susceptibility of sheep to Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 83(7): 435-441.  ISSN: 0005-0423.  
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, susceptibility to Johne’s disease, genetic aspects.

Ridge, S.E.; Baker, I.M.; Hannah, M.  Effect of compliance with recommended calf-rearing practices on control of bovine Johne's disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  Jan/Feb 2005; 83(1-2): 85-90.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
URL:  http://www.ava.com.au/avjpast.php?journalid=9&plink=avj03.htm
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control practices for calves, on the farm prevention, effects of compliance, Australia.

Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; D'Agostino, Martin; Herrewegh, Arnold; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel; Ikonomopoulos, John.  Real-time PCR-based methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water and milk.  International Journal of Food Microbiology.  2005; 101(1): 93-104.  ISSN:  0168-1605.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5061&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=b5ac5281dbf42fb6f6dba9a0316091c5
NAL Call No.:  QR115.I57
Descriptors:  PCR assay, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 18 isolates, 17 other Mycobacteria strains, pathogen detection, milk contamination, drinking water contamination, drinking water, food contamination, methodology, detection levels of less than 3 genomic DNA copies, 12 cell detection.

Romano, M.I.; Amadio, A.; Bigi, F.; Klepp, L.; Etchechoury, I.; Noto-Llana, M.; Morsella, C.; Paolicchi, F.; Pavlik, I.; Bartos, M.  Further analysis of VNTR and MIRU in the genome of Mycobacterium avium complex, and application to molecular epidemiology of isolates from South America.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 110 (3-4): 221-237.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium complex, animal pathogenic bacteria, loci, genes, genome, epidemiology, minisatellite repeats, tandem repeat sequences, genetic markers, codons, nucleotide sequences, genetic variation, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bioinformatics, molecular epidemiology, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominisuis, South America.

Roussel, A.J.; Libal, M.C.; Whitlock, R.L.; Hairgrove, T.B.; Barling, K.S.; Thompson, J.A.  Prevalence of and risk factors for paratuberculosis in purebred beef cattle.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2005; 226(5): 773-778.  ISSN:  0003-1488.  
URL:  http://www.avma.org/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3
Descriptors:  4,579 purebred beef cattle, 115 beef ranches, testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, serum antibody testing, commercial ELISA, culturing of feces from seropositive animals, disease prevalence, antibodies, risk factors, water source, dairy type nurse cows, previous clinical signs of Johne’s, species of cattle (Bos taurus vs Bos indicus), location, possible unexpected serologic results in herds, Texas, United States.

Salem, M.; Zeid, A.A.; Hassan, D.; El Sayed, A.; Zschoeck, M.  Studies on Johne's disease in Egyptian cattle.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B.  2005; 52(3): 134-137.  ISSN:  0931-1793.  
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jvb
NAL Call No.:  41.8 Z52
Descriptors:  160 Egyptian cows tested, 40 German cows tested, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, diagnosis, various diagnostic methods, microscopic examination, fecal culture, PCR, disease distribution, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, Egypt, Germany.

Salgado, M.; Manning, E.J.B.; Collins, M.T.  Performance of a Johne's disease enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay adapted for milk samples from goats.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2005; 17(4): 350-354.  ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call No.:  SF774.J68
Abstract: Antibody detection-based tests for paratuberculosis offer speed and economy, 2 diagnostic test attributes important to animal industries with narrow profit margins. Application of such tests to individual milk samples instead of serum samples can further improve testing efficiency and decrease testing cost. Accuracy of a commercial bovine paratuberculosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) adapted for use on goat serum and milk samples was determined. Fecal, blood, and milk samples were collected from 159 goats belonging to 2 Wisconsin goat herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis and 1 herd of 50 goats from a paratuberculosis-free Wisconsin herd. Fecal samples were cultured using the modified BACTEC 12B media. Sera were tested according to the manufacturer's instructions for bovine samples. Milk samples were centrifuged and mixed with the ELISA kit's Mycobacterium phlei-containing diluent at a ratio of 1:2. Using fecal culture as the "gold standard," the sensitivity of the ELISA on goat serum was 64% and the sensitivity of the ELISA on goat milk was 48%. The milk ELISA had higher agreement with fecal culture results (kappa = 0.525) than the serum ELISA (kappa = 0.425). ELISA specificity was 100% on both serum and milk. Regression analysis also showed good correlation between serum and milk S/P values (r2 = 0.67). Although less sensitive, the ELISA on goat milk samples appears to offer a useful, low-cost alternative for detection of goats with paratuberculosis that have progressed to the stage of shedding M. paratuberculosis in their feces.
Descriptors:  Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, ELISA, goat’s milk samples.

Santos Acypreste, Cleverson; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Riveira, Fred Emil Brautingan; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Franco; Clorinda, Maria; Fioravanti, Soares; de Carvalho Dias Filho, Francisco. Uso da tecnica do elisa indireto na deteccao de anticorpos anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis em vacas em lactacao. [ELISA indirect technique for identification of imunoglobulin anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cows in Goias, Brazil] Ciencia Animal Brasileira. 2005; 6(1): 55-59. ISSN: 1518-2797. Note: In Portuguese.
URL: http://www.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/vet
Descriptors: 17 farms, lactating cows, nursing cows, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, serum sampling, indirect ELISA, Johne’s disease prevalence, bovine brucellosis, Goias, Brazil.

Schaik, G. van; Stehman, S.M.; Jacobson, R.H.; Schukken, Y.H.; Shin, S.J.; Lein, D.H. Cow level evaluation of a kinetics ELISA with multiple cutoff values to detect fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in New York State dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 72(3/4): 221-236. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL call no.: SF601.P7
Descriptors: cattle, dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control programs, unabsorbed kinetics ELISA (KELA) testing, potential for fecal testing for sensitivity and specificity, comparing results form serum and feces testing, similar for moderate to heavy fecal shedding, New York State, USA.

Schleig, P.M.; Buergelt, C.D.; Davis, J.K.; Williams, E.; Monif, G.R.G.; Davidson, M.K.  Attachment of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis to bovine intestinal organ cultures: Method development and strain differences.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005 July; 108(3-4): 271-279.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  bovine intestinal epithelial cells, organ cultures, bacterial attachment, bacterial strain differences, methods, attachment process method, radiolabelled Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, mucosal epithelium, goblet cells, effects of coating with fibronectin.

Seaman, J.T. Buying sheep can be a health hazard. Agfact NSW Agriculture. 2005; (A3.9.42(1st edition)): 6 pp. ISSN: 0725-7759
Descriptors: sheep, disease transmission, introduction of new sick animals, sheep diseases, brucellosis, fascioliasis, foot rot, helminthoses, hydatids, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Clostridium, Dichelobacter nodosus, paratuberculosis, fluke infections, poisoning, poisonous plants, toxicity, disease prevention, drug residues, recommended strategies to reduce risks for each disease, Australia.

Semret, M.; Alexander, D.C.; Turenne, C.Y.; de Haas, P.; Overduin, P.;  Van Soolingen, D.; Cousins, D.; Behr, M.A.  Genomic polymorphisms for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis diagnostics.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2005; 43(8): 3704-3712.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=81
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, animal pathogen, potential zoonotic disease, differential diagnostic assays, comparative genomic approach, genomic differences, DNA microarray based assay, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strain 104, MAP K10, absence of LSPA8 was specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Sevilla, I.; Singh, S.V.; Garrido, J.M.; Aduriz, G.; Rodriguez, S.; Geijo, M.V.; Whittington, R.J.; Saunders, V.; Whitlock, R.H.; Juste, R.A. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains from different hosts and regions. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2005; 24(3): 1061-1066. ISSN: 0253-1933
NAL call No.: SF781.R4
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goat, bison, 38 Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates, IS1311 PCR endonuclease analysis, genetic difference, types, C-type, S-type, geographic and hosts lead to genetic differences, India, Spain, North America.

Seitzinger, A.H.; Paarlberg, P.L.; Lee, J.G. Economic impacts of eradicating scrapie, ovine progressive pneumonia and Johne's disease on US sheep, lamb, sheep meat and lamb meat markets. In: S.R Koontz; D.L. Hoag; D.D Thilmany; J.W. Green; J.L Grannis [Editors]. The Economics of Livestock Disease Insurance: Concepts, Issues and International Case Studies. CABI Publishing. 2005; 193-206. ISBN: 0851990770; 9780851990774
NAL Call No.: HG9968.6.F25 2005
Descriptors: sheep flocks, sheep diseases, scrapie, ovine progressive pneumonia, ovine Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, model of US lamb, lamb meat, sheep and sheep meat markets, simulation, consequences of disease eradication on prices, domestic output, domestic use, and trace; welfare economics, USA.

Sharma, S.K.; Soodan, J.S. John's disease: an update. North East Veterinarian. 2005; 5(2): 27-28. ISSN: 0973-2004
Descriptors: cattle, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease transmission, control programs, epidemiology, immunodiagnosis, pathogenesis, disease control, vaccination, vaccines.

Shin, Sung Jae; Chang, Chao Fu; Chang, Ching Dong; McDonough, Sean P.; Thompson, Belinda; Yoo, Han Sang; Chang, Yung FuIn vitro cellular immune responses to recombinant antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  Infection and Immunity.  2005; 73(8): 5074-5085.  ISSN:  0019-9567.
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=87
NAL Call No.:  QR1.I57
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, in vitro, recombinant antigens, Ags, 85A, 85B, 85C, superoxide dismutase [SOD], 35-kDa protein, ability to stimulate peripheral mononuclear ear cells, fecal culture, bacterial shedding cows, gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-12, TNF alpha, possibly important for vaccine production.

Sigurdardottir, Olof G.; Bakke-McKellep, Anne Marie; Djonne, Berit; Evensen, Oystein.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis enters the small intestinal mucosa of goat kids in areas with and without Peyer's patches as demonstrated with the everted sleeve method.  Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.  2005; 28(3): 223-230.  ISSN:  0147-9571.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5003&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=d84c7d4df471489f36fcab6d30fb7920
NAL Call No.:  QR180.C62
Descriptors:  goats, young animals, kids, entry point, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, small intestine, in vitro absorption, everted sleeve method, with and without Peyer’s patchers, M cells, enterocytes, jejunium.

Simutis, F.J.; Cheville, N.F.; Jones, D.E.  Investigation of antigen-specific T-cell responses and subcutaneous granuloma development during experimental sensitization of calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 66(3): 474-482.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL:  http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr?cookieSet=1
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  calves, experimental infection and sensitization, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, antigen specific T cell responses, granulomas.

Sivakumar, P.; Nem Singh; Tripathi,.B.N.; Kumar, A.A.; Singh, U.M.; Saravanan, D. Comparison of faecal culture, faecal PCR and Serological Tests for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 2005; 29(1): 13-15. ISSN: 0250-4758
URL: http://indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijvp&type=home
Descriptors: buffalo, cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic tests, for paratuberculosis, efficacy of fecal culture, fecal PCR, serological methods ELISA and AGID, comparison study, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion tests, antibody-based diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity.

Sivakumar, P.; Tripathi, B.N.; Singh, Nem.  Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestinal and lymph node tissues of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by PCR and bacterial culture.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 108(3-4): 263-270.  ISSN:  0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  water buffalo, animal pathogen, intestines, differential diagnosis, genes, histopathology, lymph nodes, nucleotide sequences, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, PCR, polymerase chain reaction.

Smith, D.R.; Schomer, T.J.; Hinkley, S.; Clowser, S.; Galeota, J.A.; Weiss, J.C.; Akin, K.J. An estimate of the proportion of beef cattle herds with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-infected cattle and associated risk factors. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005; 214. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: beef cattle, calving herds levels of disease, clinical aspects, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, risk assessment, risk factors, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Nebraska, USA.

Smith, M.C. Recognizing common infectious diseases of small ruminants. In: Smith, R.A. [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005; 128-132. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: small ruminants, infectious diseases, ruminants, caseous lymphadenitis, paratuberculosis, ovine progressive pneumonia, caprine arthritis encephalitis, soremouth, infectious kerato conjunctivitis, diagnosis, detection of subclinical infection for culling.

Spraker, T.R. Diseases of free-ranging and captive North American cervids. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 326-330.
URL: http://www.narc.org
Descriptors: Cervidae, deer, free ranging, captive animals, animal diseases, etiology, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Elaeophora schneideri, Bacillus anthracis, Brucella, Secernentea,Spirurida, anthrax, brucellosis, malignant catarrhal fever virus, blue tongue virus, tuberculosis, bovine diarrhea virus, clinical aspects, lesions, diarrhea, histopathology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease distribution, disease prevention, disease transmission, treatments, epidemiology, geographical distribution, host range, North America.

St Amand, A.L.; Frank, D.N.; Groote, M.A. de; Pace, N.R. Use of specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes for microscopic detection of Mycobacterium avium complex organisms in tissue. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2005; 43(4): 1505-1514. ISSN: 0095-1137
URL: http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/4/1505
NAL Call no.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: cattle, humans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, culture independent, insitu hubridization assays, diagnosis test of culture, sputum and tissue, animals tissues, lungs, oligonucleotides, ribosomal RNA, RNA probes.

Stanley , J.R. Inspection and enforcement issues on commercial goats milking units. Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2005; 21: 11-13. ISSN: 0961-2548
Descriptors: goats, teats, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, animal health, dairy goat farms, dairy goat hygiene, dairy goat industry, food safety, goat milk, inspection, livestock numbers; microbial contamination, milk, milk hygiene, milk production, milking.

Stewart, W.C.; Pollock, K.G.J.; Browning, L.M.; Young, D.; Smith-Palmer, A.; Reilly, W.J. Survey of zoonoses recorded in Scotland between 1993 and 2002. Veterinary Record. 2005; 157(22): 697-702. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/cgi/content/abstract/157/22/697
NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: humans; animals; zoonotic disease reports; veterinary reports; medical laboratories; animal pathogens reported: Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Chlamydia and Campylobacter species and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; locations within Scotland; new and emerging diseases: Rhodococcus species, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Leishmania species, Pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy/variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; Health Protection Scotland.

Stokka, G.L.; Lardy, G.P.  Health management programs: integrating biological and management principles in analysis, design, and implementation of programs for two-year-old beef cows.  Professional Animal Scientist.  2005; 21(3): 159-163.  ISSN:  1080-7446.
NAL Call No.:  SF51.P76
Descriptors:  beef cows, beef production, cattle diseases, productions costs, vaccination, disease control programs, immunity, leptospirosis, bovine diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora, Trichomonas, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.

Storset, A.K.; Berg, I.; Djonne, B.  Evaluation of the gamma interferon test for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in goats.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.  2005; 107(1/2): 87-94.  ISSN:  0165-2427.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5189&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f5f60e05fe0e447c7311059c14754776
NAL Call No.:  SF757.2.V38
Descriptors:  goats, goat herd testing, vaccinated and unvaccinated herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, gamma interferon test, age differences, clinical aspects, immune response, paratuberculosis, vaccination. 

Stott, A.W.; Jones, G.M.; Humphry, R.W.; Gunn, G.J.  Financial incentive to control paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) on dairy farms in the United Kingdom.  Veterinary Record. 2005 June 25; 156(26): 825-831.  ISSN: 0042-4900.
URL:  http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL Call No.:  41.8 V641
Descriptors:  dairy cows, paratuberculosis, dairy farm management, disease control, costs and returns, dynamic programming, estimates of financial incentive for disease control, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk prices, United Kingdom.

Stratmann, J.; Homuth, M.; Gerlach, G.F.  Uberlegungen zur Kontrolle und Bekampfung der Paratuberkulose in Milchviehbestanden.  [Considerations with respect to control and eradication of Johne's disease in dairy herds.]  DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift). 2005; 112(8): 304-306.  ISSN:  0341-6593.  Note:  In German.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 D482
Descrptors:  dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 5-15% infected, environmental reservoirs, non-ruminant animals, isolation of heavy shedding herds, potential disease control strategy, Germany.

Strickland, S.J.; Scott, H.M.; Libal, M.C.; Roussel, A.J.; Jordan, E.R.  Effects of seasonal climatic conditions on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2005; 88(7): 2432-2440.  ISSN: 0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Abstract:  Validity of Johne's disease programs and control protocols that rely on established cut points [e.g., specified sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios] for ELISA serological tests depends on interpreted results that are not susceptible to variable test accuracy.  It was hypothesized that seasonal variability exists in serological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection.  Further, a reciprocal response may occur, resulting in greater risk of fecal shedding in subclinically infected animals.  A testing regimen was invoked that included multiple testing of individual adult cows during the 4 seasons.  Serum was collected on a cyclic, monthly basis from 3 randomly selected cohorts of dairy cows, and fecal samples were collected from the 20% of cows with the greatest ELISA test S/P ratios.  Staggered, quarterly sampling was continued for 1 yr, and at the conclusion, serum was analyzed en masse.  The ELISA outcome values (i.e., S/P ratio) were treated both as categorical and continuous variables.  The potential lagged effects of temperature-related seasonality on S/P ratio, as well as the potential for a change in test result caused by temperature were assessed.  Results for fecal culture were analyzed on a categorical scale and compared with the ELISA results to explore the possibility of reciprocal fecal shedding. No significant seasonal effects on either S/P ratios or the proportion of cows seropositive to MAP were observed.  Furthermore, no evidence was found linking temperature-related seasonality to a reciprocal increase in the risk of fecal culture positivity for MAP.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, control protocols, diagnostic variations, no seasonal variations, multiple testing during all 4 seasons, serum testing, fecal testing, ELISA test S/P ratios, temperature effects.

Suanes, A.; Nunez, A.; Piaggio, J.; de Freitas, J.; Zaffaroni, R.; Gil, A.  Evaluation of diagnostic tests for the early detection of Johne's disease in a dairy herd in Uruguay.  Krynski, A.; Wrzesien, R. [Editors].  Animals and Environment.  Volume 1: Proceedings of the XIIth ISAH Congress on Animal Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland, 4-8 September 2005.  BEL Studio sp. z.o.o. of Warsaw, Poland.  2005; 205-208.  ISBN:  8389968312.  
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, interferon, antibodies, antigens, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, paratuberculosis, skin tests, tuberculin.

Szteyn, J.; Wiszniewska, A.; Fus-Szewczyk, M.M.  Przeciwciaa swoiste dla Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis u byda mlecznego ponocno-wschodniej Polski.  [Antibodies specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows in northeast Poland.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna.  2005; 61(8): 884-886.  ISSN:  0025-8628.  Note:  In Polish with an English summary.  
NAL Call No.:  41.8 M463
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, 495 samples, 20 preselected herds, seroprevalence, antibody testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, IDEXX and ELISA kit, recommend a control program, Poland.

Tanaka, S.; Sato, M.; Onitsuka, T.; Kamata, H.; Yokomizo, Y. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in different types of granulomatous lesions during asymptomatic stages of bovine paratuberculosis. Veterinary Pathology. 2005; 42(5): 579-588
DOI: doi:10.1354/vp.42-5-579
Descriptors: cattle, cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, disease course, genes, granuloma, tumor necrosis factor, histopathology, immunopathology, interferon, interleukin 1, interleukin 10, interleukin 2, interleukin 4.

Tasara, T.; Hoelzle, L.E.; Stephan, R.  Development and evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) specific multiplex PCR assayInternational Journal of Food Microbiology.  2005; 104(3): 279-287.  ISSN:  0168-1605.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681605
NAL Call No .: QR115.I57
Abstract: There are specificity questions inherent in most of the current PCR systems that amplify the MAP IS900 sequence as an indicator for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) presence due to false positives associated with IS900-like sequences that exists in other Mycobacterium species besides MAP. We developed a multiplex PCR system designed to enhance specificity for MAP detection in a single PCR reaction. This PCR assay co-amplifies the mycobacterium species 16S rRNA gene, MAP IS900 and f57 sequences. The assay incorporates an internal PCR amplification control (IC) template system enabling PCR amplification conditions to be assessed in each reaction. The assay's specificity was confirmed by testing 10 isolates of MAP and 59 isolates of other bacterial species. In parallel we also applied on the same samples, one of the established nested PCR systems that targets only the IS900 sequence. The multiplex PCR assay was highly specific for MAP, the nested PCR system was also positive with several other Mycobacterium species. In this context, we report for the first time false positive IS900 PCR signals in Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium terrae and Mycobacterium xenopi strains associated with one of the established PCR systems widely used for MAP detection. Finally, the potential application of this multiplex PCR system in milk analysis is demonstrated through analysis of raw milk samples artificially contaminated with MAP.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,16S-rRNA gene; detection assays, PCR, co-amplifies 16S rRNA gene, MAP IS900 and f57 sequences, specificity, false positive IS900 PCR signals in Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium terrae, Mvcobacterium xenopi.

Tasara, T.; Stephan, R.  Development of an F57 sequence-based real-time PCR assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(10):5957-5968.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed.  This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction.  The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species.  The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and 33 other bacterial strains.  The LC-PCR assay has a broad linear range (2 x 101 to 2 x106 copies) for quantitative estimation of the number of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis F57 target copies in positive samples.  To maximize the assay's detection sensitivity, an efficient strategy for isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA from spiked milk samples was also developed.  The integrated procedure combining optimal M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA isolation and real-time PCR detection had a reproducible detection limit of about 10 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells per ml when a starting sample volume of 10 ml of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked milk was analyzed.  The entire process can be completed within a single working day and is suitable for routine monitoring of milk samples for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination.  The applicability of this protocol for naturally contaminated milk was also demonstrated using milk samples from symptomatic M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cows, as well as pooled samples from a dairy herd with a confirmed history of paratuberculosis.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, individual dairy cows, dairy herds pooled milk samples, microbial detection assay for milk, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, F57 sequence element amplification, evaluation, assay specificity, animal pathogenic bacteria, disease diagnosis, Johne’s disease, cattle diseases.

Tiwari, A.; VanLeeuwen, J.A.; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.; Keefe, G.P.; Haddad, J.P.  Effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum on culling in dairy cattle in four Canadian provinces.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005.  109(3-4): 147-158.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, bovine diarrhea virus, blood sampling, seropositivity, culling of infected cattle, Canada.

Toft, N.; Nielsen, S.S.; Jorgensen, E.  Continuous-data diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis as a multistage disease.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2005; 88(11): 3923-3931. ISSN:  0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal culture testing scheme, linked to indirect ELISA, adjustments for covariates, optical density, Bayesian network.

Tuboly, S.; Kovacs, A.; Lami, E.; Nagy, G.  Az ember Crohn-es a szarvasmarha Johne-betegsege (paratuberculosisa) kozotti osszefuggesek.  [Connections between Crohn’s disease in humans and Johne’s disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle.]  Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja.  2005; 127(2): 106-112.  ISSN:  0025-004X.  Note:  In Hungarian with an English summary.
Descriptors:  cattle, sheep, goats, wild and captive ruminants, deer, mouflon, antelope, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, serological screening, fecal culture, etiology, animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology, pathogenesis, Crohn’s disease, immunodiagnosis, zoonotic potential, Hungary.

U.S Department of Agriculture, Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations, 2002 - Annual Report. Published by the Department. Washington D.C. 2005: 170 p.
NAL Call No.: SF967.P33 D35 2005
Abstract: This annual report is divided into three sections. The first section presents the population estimates of Johne's disease and herd-level management factors. The second section is a risk assessment in the calving area, preweaned and postweaned heifer calves, bred heifers and cows. The third section is about Johne's disease testing and disease prevalence. This report was prepared from materials received and analysed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Veterinary Services (VS) during a study of animal health and health management on U.S. dairy operations.
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy farms, dairy herds, cows, calving, risk assessment in calving ares, preweaning and post weaning of heifer calves, disease surveys, epidemiology, paratuberculosis, USA.

Underwood, S.C.; Carfagnini, J.C. Comparacion de dos criterios para la interpretacion de la prueba tuberculinica cervical comparativa en caprinos.[Comparison between two criterions to interpret the tuberculin cervical comparative test in caprines.]Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2005; 25(3/4): 199-205. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.aapa.org.ar/revistas/2005.html
Abstract: The cervical comparative test (CCT) with PPD tuberculins is a method used to diagnose tuberculosis and Johne's diseases in veterinary medicine. In Argentina, there are no specific criterion to interpret the caprine test. Because of this, the bovine criterion is being used. The aim of this work was to compare the results obtained using the interpretation rules established by the OIE for bovines and the results obtained using the caprine specific criterion proposed by Garcia Marin and Gutierrez Cancela. A total of 279 CCT were evaluated. The OIE criterion classified 94% of the CCT as negative and 6% as inconclusive tuberculosis reaction, while 63% of the CCT were negative and 37% were inconclusive reaction to Johne's disease. The Garcia Marin and Gutierrez Cancela criterion classified 14% as positive and 86% as negative tuberculosis reactions and 50% as positive and negative reaction for Johne's disease. The bovine criterion from OIE and the specific caprine criterion produced different results, with positive results for tuberculosis and Johne's diseases observed in the latter criterion. Both diseases are different in bovines and caprines and more studies are needed to determine which on is a more suitable criterion to interpret CCT in caprines.
Descriptors: sheep, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, paratuberculosis, tuberculin, tuberculosis.

University of Minnesota . Veterinary Continuing Education. Minnesota Dairy Health Conference (2005: University of Minnesota). Johne's Disease Control Update. 2005. Note: Cover title. With: Control of Johne's Disease with Focus on Herd Management / SJ Wells and SM Godden.
Descriptors: cattle, herd management, control measures, new research, Minnesota, USA.

Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lansink, A.G.J.M.O.; Huirne, R.B.M.  Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.  Journal of Dairy Science.  2005; 88(4): 1601-1612.  ISSN:  0022-0302.
URL:  http://jds.fass.org/cgi/content/abstract/88/4/1601
NAL Call No.:  44.8 J822
Descriptors:  milk, production of pasteurized milk, food safety, residues, quality control, diary farms, antibiotics, dioxins, consumer preferences, dairy farms, dioxins, feeds, bacterial contaminants, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus.

Van Leeuwen, J.A.; Forsythe, L.A.; Tiwari, A.; Chartier, R.  Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan.  Canadian Veterinary Journal.  2005; 46(1): 56-58.  ISSN: 0008-5286. Note:  In English with a French summary. 
URL:  http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL Call No.:  41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  dairy cattle, immune response, seroprevalence of antibodies, animal pathogens, bovine leukemia virus, bovine diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Neospora canium, Saskatchewan, Canada.

van Schaik, Gerdien; Stehman, Susan M.; Jacobson, Richard H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Shin, Sang J.; Lein, Donald H. Cow-level evaluation of a kinetics ELISA with multiple cutoff values to detect fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in New York State dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 72(3-4): 221-236. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
NAL Call No.: SF601.P7
Abstract: In control programs for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the infection status of the cows in a herd is often obtained by testing (a sample of) the herd with an ELISA that may lack some sensitivity and specificity but that is fast and inexpensive. In New York State (NYS), an unabsorbed kinetics ELISA (KELA) has been used extensively for Map control. The objective of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of the KELA for detection of fecal shedding of Map for the NYS dairy cow population, taking into account possible confounders such as different antigen batches and Map prevalence in a herd.different antigen batches and Map prevalence in a herd. The data for the study consisted of all serum samples from NYS dairy cows with concur-rent fecal culture results submitted to the NY Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (NYAHDL) between 1991 and 1996 (n = 10,562). The data represented cows with different levels of fecal shedding from herds with different within-herd Map prevalence, including herds that were whole herd fecal culture negative on repeated testing. The cutoff values were based on the predictive value for fecal shedding obtained with a multiple logistic regression model that included variables for the three antigen batches and the Map prevalence in the herd. The KELA could not distinguish between non-shedders and low shedders (<= 30 total colony forming units (TCFU)) and thus the predictive value of the KELA to detect moderate to heavy fecal shedders (> 30 TCFU) was modeled. The three cutoff values of 65, 135 and 170 were based on low (< 0.2), moderate (< 0.80) and high (> 0.95) probabilities for moderate to heavy fecal shedding. The sensitivity and specificity values relative to culture were 67% and 95.2%, 31% and 99.7%, and 11% and 99.9% for the three cutoff values, respectively. Cutoff values for the KELA decreased for herds with increasing within-herd Map prevalence. For the best positive predictive value of a KELA for moderate to heavy fecal shedding, the cutoff values should be determined based on the apparent within-herd prevalence in a herd. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: dairy cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, fecal shedding, prevention and control programs, unabsorbed kinetics ELISA (KELA) test, specificity and sensitivity levels, multiple logistic regression model, test not good for low level shedders, New York State, USA.

Vansnick, E.; Vercammen, F.; Bauwens, L.; D'Haese, E.; Nelis, H.; Geysen, D.  A survey for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.  Veterinary Journal.  2005; 170(2):  249-256.  ISSN: 1090-0233.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=7163&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=f68d9c40dd58509407a11a133122c879
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V484
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, survey, European zoo survey, ruminant survey, fecal and post mortem sampling, IS900 PCR, serum tested with ELISA kit, some level of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.

Vaughan, J.A.; Lenghaus, C.; Stewart, D.J.; Tizard, M.L.; Michalski, W.P.  Development of a Johne's disease infection model in laboratory rabbits following oral administration of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology.  2005; 105(3-4): 207-213.  ISSN: 0378-1135.
URL:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5190&_auth=y&_acct=C000052423&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4250348&md5=7e99acb030d8f79b52d4e03a1c31a5f8
NAL Call No.:  SF601.V44
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, laboratory animal model, oral dosing model.

Waldner, C.L. Serological status for N. caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus at pregnancy testing and reproductive performance in beef herds. Animal Reproduction Science. 2005 Dec; 90(3-4): 219-242. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Descriptors: beef cows, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, cattle diseases, seroprevalence, serodiagnosis, pregnancy diagnosis, animal reproduction, calving rate, herds, pregnancy, abortion-(animals), fetal death, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Walker, B. Bovine Johne's disease (BJD): current situation and new policy directions. Moving from Research to Industry Adoption NSW Department of Primary Industries and CRC for Cattle and Beef Quality Conference, Quality Resort Nautilus, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, 3-5 May 2005. Published by NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange Australia. 2005: 107-109
Descriptors: beef cattle, cattle farming, dairy cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevention, herds, paratuberculosis, policy, risk, Australia.

Walker, Belinda; Yunamu, Yuni and NSW Agriculture.  Division of Animal Industries. NSW Department of Primary Industries.  Bovine Johne's disease: Australian Johne's disease market assurance program for cattle (CattleMAP). 1st ed.  Agnote NSW Agriculture; 330.  [2005].  Note:  Other title:  Australian Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for Cattle (CattleMAP).  This Agnote is based on an earlier Agnote (DAI-96) written by Tim Jessep, former Technical Specialist BJD, Goulburn.
URL:  http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/health/specific/cattle/bjd/market/cattlemap.  Title from web site (viewed June 3, 2005).
NAL Call No.:  SF55.A8 A36 no. 330
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, cattle diseases, prevention, marketing impacts, beef herds, dairy herds, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease control, disease prevention, quality assurance program, CattleMAP, an Australian Market Assurance Programme, participants have herds free of Johne’s disease, Australia.

Walker, B.; Jessep, T. Keeping bovine Johne's disease off your property. Agnote NSW Agriculture. 2005; (DAI-50(Fourth Edition)): 3 pp.
URL: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/health/specific/cattle/bjd/control/keeping-bjd-off-property
Descriptors: cattle, herd health, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, strategies for protecting uninfected herds, Australian Johne's Disease Market Assurance Program for Cattle, disease surveys, epidemiology, Australia.

Wells, S.J. The economics of Johne's disease. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 57.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy farms, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, mortality, epidemiology, clinical aspects, farm management, control programs, costs, disease control, disease prevalence, economic losses.

Wells, S.J. Is milk or feces more important in transmission of map?Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 55-56.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, disease transmission risks, milk, feces, control programs, bioscecurity.

Wells, S.J. Selecting a rational testing strategy for Johne's disease. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 59-60.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: dairy cattle, dairy farms, diseases, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnostic testing, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, epidemiology, seroprevalence, disease control and eradication.

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O.A.; Souza, C. de; Abrahamsen, M.S.  A critical role of interleukin-10 in the response of bovine macrophages to infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2005; 66(4): 721-726.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  immune response, in vitro cell cultures, bovine macrophages, infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Weiss, D.J.; Evanson, O.A.; Souza, C.D.  Expression of interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 associated with susceptibility of cattle to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research.  July 2005; 66(7): 1114-1120.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 AM3A
Descriptors:  cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, disease susceptibility, interleukin 10 expression, suppression of cytokine signaling-3, Johne’s disease, disease resistance, immune response, cytokines, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, monocytes from cows with subclinical infection, phagocytes, phagocytosis, phagosomes, tumor necrosis factor, zoonotic diseases.

Wernery, U.  The most important infectious diseases in camelids.  In:  Faye, B; Esenov, P. [Editors].  Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashkabad, Turkmenistan, April 19-21, 2004.  2005; 67-69.  ISBN:  1586034731.
Descriptors:  dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, list of many diseases, bacterial, viral, and various ecto and endo parasites, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Western Australia.  Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: management options.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture,  2001; 4631. [2005?], [4] p., col. ill. 
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4631
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, disease management possibilities, disease control strategies, Australia.

Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: minimise the risk.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture,  2001; 4634.  [2005?], 1 sheet (2 p.), col. ill.
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4634
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, management strategies to reduce risk of infection, Australia.

Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: SheepMAP.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001; 4633.  [2005?], 1 sheet (2 p.), col. ill.
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4633
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, pathogen strains in sheep, Australia.

Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: the disease.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001; 4630.  [2005?], [4] p., col. ill. 
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4630
Descriptors:  paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, sheep, description of the disease, pathology, Australia.

Western Australia.  Dept. of Agriculture.  Ovine Johne's disease: vaccination.  Bulletin Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001; 4632.  [2005?], [4] p., col. ill. 
NAL Call No.:  S478.A82 W47 no. 4632
Descriptors:  sheep, paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, control, vaccination, Australia.

Whan, L.; Ball, H.J.; Grant, I.R.; Rowe, M.T.  Development of an IMS-PCR assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis in water.  Letters in Applied Microbiology.  2005; 40(4): 269-273.  ISSN:  0266-8254.  
URL:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=lam
NAL Call No.:  QR1.L47
Descriptors: human diseases, animal diseases, polluted water, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, detection, centrifugation, methodology, immunomagnetic separation polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR), IS900 PCR, Tween 80 concentration, sensitive method.

Whan, Lynne; Ball, Hywel J.; Grant, Irene R.; Rowe, Michael T.  Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water in Northern Ireland.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  2005; 71(11): 7107-7112.  ISSN: 0099-2240.
URL:  http://aem.asm.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml
NAL Call No.:  448.3 AP5
Abstract:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the known cause of Johne's disease of both domestic and wild ruminants and has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans.  The organism is shed in the feces of infected animals and can survive for protracted periods in the environment and hence could be present in catchment areas receiving agricultural runoff.  A limited survey was undertaken in Northern Ireland to test for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water entering nine water treatment works (WTWs) over a 1-year period.  Three detection methods were employed, viz., immunomagnetic separation-PCR and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and BACTEC 12B medium, the latter both supplemented with mycobactins.  Of the 192 untreated water samples tested, 15 (8%) tested M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis positive by one or more of the three detection methods.  M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was successfully isolated from eight untreated water samples, three by BACTEC culture and five by culture on HEYM.  Although the highest incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in spring, overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the seasons.  No significant correlation was found between numbers of coliforms or fecal coliforms and the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  In general, a higher incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in untreated water entering those WTWs that had a high mean water pH value over the sampling period.  This work indicates the need to determine the efficacy of water treatment processes to either kill or remove M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from untreated water and the possible risks posed by contact with recreational water sources.
Descriptors:  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, bacterial agent of Johne’s disease of ruminants, possible cause of Crohn’s disease in humans, survey testing of untreated water, 3 detection methods, immunomagnetic separation-PCR, culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM), BACTEC 12B medium, 15% positive, efficacy of water treatment, possible contamination of recreational water sources, seasonal differences, Northern Ireland. 

Whitaker, K. Diagnosis of Johne's disease in goats. Goat Veterinary Society Journal. 2005; 21: 16-20. ISSN: 0961-2548
Descriptors: goats, Johne’s disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, control measures for herd health, improved hygiene, vaccination, clinical and subclinical infections, pathogen shedding, rapid culture method, PCR, diagnostic techniques.

Whitlock, R.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Fyock, T.; McAdams, S.; Gardner, I.A.; McClary, D.G. Johne's disease: the effect of feeding monensin to reduce the bioburden of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in neonatal calves. In: Smith, R.A. [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005: 191-192. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: neonatal calves, feed intake, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, monensin feed supplement, rumensin, attempt to control paratuberculosis pathogen levels, monitoring liveweight gain.

Whitlock, R.H.; Sweeney, R.W.; Fyock, T. MAP super-shedders: another factor in the control of Johne's disease. R.A.Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. Published by the Association, Stillwater, USA. 2005: 193-194. Note: In French and English.
Descriptors: cattle, cattle manure, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, paratuberculosis, clinical picture, fecal shedding of pathogens, bacterial count, clinical aspects.

Whitlock, R.H. Can Johne's disease be treated?Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005:73.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial shedding, disease transmission, disease control programs, drug therapy, drug combinations, treatment, aminoglycoside antibiotics, clofazimine, isoniazid, rifampicin.

Whitlock, R.H. Serologic testing for Johne's disease. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 81-82.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, cows, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, immunodiffusion, serology, Pennsylvania, USA.

Whitlock, R.H. Johne's disease organism detection testing. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 77-78.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, feces, bacterial shedding, cell culture, diagnostic techniques, PCR, Pennsylvania, USA.

Whitlock, R.H. JD in a dairy herd - case #1. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 74
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: dairy cattle, calves, dairy cows, heifers, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, bacterial shedding, bacterial, diseases, disease control programs, culling infected disease control, disease prevalence, epidemiology, Pennsylvania, USA.

Whitlock, R.H. Johne's disease in small ruminants and other species. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 75-76.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors: deer, goats, sheep, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control.

Whitlock, R.H. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis/Johne's disease: review & update. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal. Volume 19. Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005: 79-80.
URL: http://www.narc.org
NAL Call No.: SF601.N67
Descriptors
: cattle, calves, heifers, zoonotic bacterial disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, carrier state, disease control, disease prevention, disease, transmission,vaccines, vaccination, immune response, immunity, immunization, review article.

Whittington, R.J.; Marsh, I.B.; Reddacliff, L.A. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dam water and sediment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2005; 71(9): 5304-5308. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://aem.asm.org
NAL Call no.: 448.3 Ap5
Abstract: In a previous longitudinal study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis survived for 55 weeks in fecal material in the shade, but for much shorter periods in exposed locations. In this experiment, the survival of the organism was studied in 250 liters of dam water and sediment in large water troughs that were placed in either a semiexposed location or in a shaded location and compared to survival in fecal material and soil in the shaded location. Survival in water and/or sediment in the shade was for up to 48 weeks compared to 36 weeks in the semiexposed location. Survival in sediment was 12 to 26 weeks longer than survival in the water column. Survival in soil and fecal material in the terrestrial environment in the shaded location was only 12 weeks. Although disturbance to sediment could not be ruled out as a factor, there was evidence of dormancy in both the water column and the sediment, since the organism could not be recovered for several months before again becoming detectable. The results suggest that water may be a significant reservoir of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Further research on the biology of the organism in aquatic environments is warranted. Animal health authorities will need to provide appropriate advice to farmers to minimize exposure of livestock to potentially infected water sources. Survival of the organism in water destined for human consumption will need to be addressed if the organism is found to be involved in the etiology of Crohn's disease..
Descriptors: sheep, sheep dung,microbial contamination, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, environmental features, sediment, soil, water, pathogen survival, Australia.

Winden, S. van; Stevens, K.; Guitian, J.; McGowan, M. Preliminary findings of a systematic review and expert opinion workshop on biosecurity on cattle farms in the UK. Cattle Practice. 2005; 13(2): 135-140. ISSN: 0969-1251
NAL Call No.: SF961.C37
Descriptors: animal health, cattle diseases, salmonellosis, bovine diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, pestivirus, risk factors.

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2004



Ali Vehmas, T.; Moisander, A.M.; Soini, H.  Yleiskatsaus mykobakterioosien esiintymisesta ja Suomen tilanteesta.  [Mycobacteriosis - a review and survey in Finland.]  Suomen Elainlaakarilehti.  2004; 110(2): 79-84.  ISSN:  0039-5501.  Note:  In Finnish with an English summary.
NAL Call No.:  41.8 F49
Descriptors:  pigs, humans, bacterial diseases, disease surveys, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, epidemiology, diagnosis, drug therapy, isoniazid, rifampicin, zoonoses, Finland.

Amemori, T.; Matlova, L.; Fischer, O.A.; Ayele, W.Y.; Machackova, M.; Gopfert, E.; Pavlik, I.  Distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract of shedding cows and its application to laparoscopic biopsy.  Veterinarni Medicina.  2004; 49(7): 225-236.  ISSN:  0375-8427.
URL:  http://vetmed.vri.cz/
NAL Call No.:  41.9 C333
Descriptors:  cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, sampling of 10 areas of gastrointestinal tract, distribution of bacteria, jejunum mucosa, to the ileocecal valve, in the lymph nodes from jejunum to the cecum, laproscopy for sampling unsuccessful.

Amonsin, A.; Li, L.L.; Zhang, Q.; Bannantine, J.P.; Motiwala, A.S.; Sreevatsan, S.; Kapur, V.  Multilocus short sequence repeat sequencing approach for differentiating among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(4): 1694-1702.  ISSN:  0095-1137.
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/4/1694
NAL Call No.:  QR46.J6
Descriptors:  cattle and sheep isolates, 33 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, bacterial cattle disease, Johne’s disease, genotyping, 20 multilocus short sequence repeat (MLSSR) types, 11 polymorphic short sequence repeats (SSRs), genome analysis, genomes, genotypes, loci, molecular biology, molecular genetics, MLSSR results in easy, reproducible and high resolution subtyping.

Anderton, Matthew C.; Bhakta, Sanjib; Patrick, Anna L.; Sim, Edith.  Characterisation of the putative operon containing arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in mycobacteria.  Drug Metabolism Reviews.  2004; 36(Suppl. 1): 161.  ISSN:  0360-2532.  Note:  7th International Meeting of the Internatio