Aquaculture Related Resources








Avault, J .W. Jr. Seed production: prerequisite for farming a "new" species. Aquac Mag. [Little Rock, Ark., Briggs Associates, inc.]. July/Aug 2001. v. 27 (4) p. 55‑59. ISSN: 0199‑1388.

NAL call no: SH1.C65

Descriptors: fishes, fry, larvae, embryos, biological development, embryonic development, spawning, shellfish culture, fish culture.


Hamada, T.; N. Yamashita; T. Watanabe; S. Natsume. Drilling position of the ear affects growth and mortality of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis, Jay) in ear‑hanging culture. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Feb 15, 2001. v. 193 (3/4) p. 249‑256. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: We evaluated the effect of where the hole is drilled in the shell when using the ear‑hanging or Nimai‑ake method in scallop aquaculture. We examined its influence on growth and mortality during 8‑month growth trials on the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis at Shikabe, Japan. Our observations showed: (1) no differences in growth and mortality between drilling the hole in the posterior compared to the anterior ear; (2) that drilling at positions next to the ligament causes increased mortality; (3) that the lowest increase in shell height and total weight is obtained when the hole is drilled next to the ligament on the anterior ear; and (4) that growth is greatest when the hole is drilled near the corners of the ears (either on the anterior or posterior ears).

Descriptors: scallops, mortality, mollusc culture, growth, techniques, spatial variation, shells, liveweight gain, height, growth rate, survival.


Lee, C. S.; S. Ellis; K. L. Awaya. Giant clam farming in the U.S. affiliated pacific islands. World Aquac. Baton Rouge, La. : World Aquaculture Society,. Sept 2001. v. 32 (3) p. 21‑22, 25‑27, 62‑63. ISSN: 1041‑5602.

NAL call no: SH1.W62

Descriptors: Bivalvia, mollusc culture, cages, rearing techniques, evaluation, trends, biology, larvae, spawning, sexual reproduction, fecundity, metamorphosis, intensive production, extensive production, stocking density, survival, food marketing, food products, American oceania.


Maguire, J. A.; G. M. Burnell. The effect of stocking density in suspended culture on growth and carbohydrate content of the adductor muscle in two populations of the scallop (Pecten maximus L.) in Bantry Bay, Ireland. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. June 15, 2001. v. 198 (1/2) p. 95‑108. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1 .A6

Abstract: The effect of stocking density of the scallop (Pecten maximus L.) in suspended culture using pearl and lantern nets on growth and carbohydrate content of the adductor muscle was assessed in two populations from Mulroy Bay and Bantry in Bantry Bay for 1 year. The results showed that in all treatments, the growth rate increased significantly from June to September. In general, the carbohydrate content in the striated muscle decreased from maximum levels in September to a minimum in March. The carbohydrate content of the smooth muscle was lower than the striated and gradually increased throughout the experiment. The scallops from Bantry Bay had a significantly higher growth and carbohydrate content than the spat from Mulroy Bay. Spat cultured in lantern nets had a significantly higher growth rate than those cultured in pearl nets. In addition, spat cultured at low densities had a higher growth rate and carbohydrate content during the summer than those cultured at high densities.

Descriptors: Pecten maximus, stocking density, growth, mollusc culture, carbohydrates, chemical composition, populations, nets, seasonal variation, Irish Republic.


Mazzola, A.; G. Sara. The effect of fish farming organic waste on food availability for bivalve molluscs (Gaeta Gulf, Central Tyrrhenian, MED): stable carbon isotopic analysis. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Jan 15, 2001. v. 192 (2/4) p. 361‑379. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1 .A6

Abstract: Stable carbon isotope (delta13C) analysis was used in a fish‑farming impacted Mediterranean area (the Gulf of Gaeta, Central Tyrrhenian) to determine the predominant carbon sources available to bivalve molluscs cultivated around fish cages. Whether the organic matter generated by fish farming was taken up by the bivalve molluscs was also investigated. Stable carbon isotope values were measured in the particulate organic carbon (POC) of samples from potential organic matter sources such as fish‑pelleted feed, mollusc faecal waste and bivalve flesh. The sources of organic matter affecting the study area water column and benthic communities appeared to be terrigenous‑continental, autochthonous (phytoplankton) and anthropogenic inputs due mainly to fish‑farming and bivalve mollusc activities. The POC was dominated by organic waste isotopic signatures, while the bivalve mixed diet was composed of organic matter with different isotopic signatures (phytoplankton, waste material from the bivalves themselves and surplus uneaten pelletted feed). Organic waste appears to be the dominant trophic resource in the deeper‑cultivated clam diet, while phytoplankton organic carbon plays a more important role in the diet of the mussel. We propose that bivalve organic matter uptake may play an effective role in reducing the environmental impact of fish organic waste. The organic matter produced by bivalves (faecal material) under these hydrodynamic conditions (low current velocities) can be recycled through the filtration activities of the bivalves themselves, together with most of the organic matter produced by fish‑farming activities (uneaten feed and faecal material). Bivalve cultivation around cages may reduce the environmental impact of organic waste from fish‑farming activities and increase the profitability of fish culture activities.

Descriptors: fish farming, organic wastes, nutrient availability, Bivalvia, foods, organic matter, cages, mollusc culture, waste treatment, carbon, turbidity, feeds, feces, benthos, phytoplankton, environmental impact, filtration, water flow, latium, Mediterranean sea.


Power, A. J.; R. L. Walker. Growth and survival of the blood ark Anadara ovalis (Bruguiere, 1789) cultured in mesh bags on soft‑bottom sediments in the coastal waters of Georgia.  J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La. : World Aquaculture Society, c1987. 2001. v. 32 (3) p. 269‑277. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: Arcidae, mollusc culture, growth, survival, rearing techniques, evaluation, stocking density, fouling, size, growth rate, Georgia.


Selegean, J.P.; Kusserow, R.; Patel, R.; Heidtke, T.M.; Ram, J.L. (2001) Using zebra mussels to monitor Escherichia coli in environmental waters. J Environ Qual 30(1):171‑9, ISSN: 0047‑2425.

NAL call no: QH540 J6

Abstract: Use of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as an indicator of previously elevated bacteria concentrations in a watershed was examined. The ability of the zebra mussel to accumulate and purge Escherichia coli over several days was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments, periodic enumeration of E. coli in mussels that had been exposed to a dilute solution of raw sewage demonstrated that (i) maximum concentrations of E. coli are reached within a few hours of exposure to sewage, (ii) the tissue concentration attained is higher than the concentration in the ambient water, and (iii) the E. coli concentrations take several days to return to preexposure concentrations when mussels are subsequently placed in sterile water. In field experiments conducted in southeast Michigan in the Clinton River watershed, brief increases in E. coli concentrations in the water were accompanied by increases in mussel concentrations of E. coli that lasted 2 or 3 d. The ability of mussels to retain and to concentrate E. coli made it possible to detect E. coli in the environment under conditions that conventional monitoring may often miss. Sampling caged mussels in a river and its tributaries may enable watershed managers to reduce the sampling frequency normally required to identify critical E. coli sources, thereby providing a more cost‑effective river monitoring strategy for bacterial contamination.

Descriptors: environmental monitoring methods, Escherichia coli, mussels microbiology, water pollutants analysis, specimen handling, tissue distribution, water microbiology, methods, microbiology, analysis.





Arnold, W. S.; M. W. White; H. A. Norris; M. E. Berrigan. Hard clam (Mercenaria spp.) aquaculture in Florida, USA: geographic information system applications to lease site selection. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Sept. 2000. v. 23 (1/3) p. 203‑231. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: Mercenaria, mollusc culture, geographical information systems, site selection, computer techniques, decision making, marketing, information, lagoons, estuaries, development, geographical variation, surveys, management, Florida.


Beaumont, A. Genetic considerations in transfers and introductions of scallops. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (6) p. 493‑512. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: scallops, Argopecten irradians, mollusc culture, introduced species, geographical variation, geographical distribution, gene flow, genetic variation, morphology, alloenzymes, DNA, populations, mitochondrial DNA, risk assessment, literature reviews.


Bourne, N. F. The potential for scallop culture‑‑the next millenium.  Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 113‑122. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: scallops, mollusc culture, yields, government policy, food industry, economic development, literature reviews, China, Japan, Chile, British Columbia.


Cano, J.; M. J. Campos; G. Roman. Growth and mortality of the king scallop grown in suspended culture in Malaga, Southern Spain. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 207‑225. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Pecten maximus, growth, mortality, mollusc culture, rearing techniques, cages, size, developmental stages, seasonal variation, balanus, Spain.


Christophersen, G. Effects of air emersion on survival and growth of hatchery reared great scallop spat. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 159‑168. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Pecten maximus, scallops, rearing techniques, survival, growth, developmental stages, air  exposure, seasonal variation, duration, height, dry matter, growth rate, mollusc culture, hatcheries.


Cigarria, J.; J. M. Fernandez. Management of Manila clam beds. I. Influence of seed size, type of substratum and protection on initial mortality. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Feb 1, 2000. v. 182 (1/2) p. 173‑182. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1 .A6

Descriptors: clams, management, mollusc culture, sediment, mortality, predation, larvae, size, nets, survival, length.


Fisher, G. R.; R. V. Dimock Jr.; R. E. Kuhn. The symbiotic water mite Unionicola formosa (Acari: Unionicolidae) ingests mucus and tissue of its molluscan host. J Parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of Parasitologists, 1914. Dec 2000. v. 86 (6) p. 1254‑1258. ISSN: 0022‑3395.

NAL call no: 448.8 J824

Descriptors: Unionicola, water mites, feeding behavior, Bivalvia, freshwater molluscs, mussels, mucus, gills, hemolymph, ingestion, host parasite relationships, symbionts.


Frechette, M.; M. Gaudet; S. Vigneau. Estimating optimal population density for intermediate culture of scallops in spat collector bags. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Mar 1, 2000. v. 183 (1/2) p. 105‑124. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: scallops, Pectinidae, stocking density, mollusc culture, larvae, growth, nets, depth, biomass, yields, feeds, availability, biological competition, water temperature, Quebec.


Goldberg, R.; J. Pereira; P. Clark. Strategies for enhancement of natural bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians, populations; a case study in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut, USA.  Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 139‑158. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Argopecten irradians, populations, scallops, mollusc culture, fisheries, habitats, estuaries, spawning, spawning season, techniques, density, predation, survival, predators, gametogenesis, Connecticut.


Grecian, L. A.; G. J. Parsons; P. Dabinett; C. Couturier. Influence of season, initial size, depth, gear type and stocking density on the growth rates and recovery of sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, on a farm‑based nursery. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 183‑206. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: scallops, seasonal variation, size, stocking density, growth rate, depth, equipment, monitoring, growth, mortality, fouling, mollusc culture, Newfoundland.


Heasman, M.; J. Diemar; W. O'Connor; T. Sushames; L. Foulkes. Development of extended shelf‑life microalgae concentrate diets harvested by centrifugation for bivalve molluscs‑‑a summary. Aquac Res. Oxford : Blackwell Science, c1995. Aug/Sept 2000. v. 31 (8/9) p. 637‑659. ISSN: 1355‑557X.  

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: On the basis of initial harvesting efficiency trials and screening trials to evaluate apparent cell damage and viability, high‑speed centrifugation was selected as the most appropriate microalgae harvesting method for developing extended shelf‑life concentrates that would collectively meet the requirements of marine hatcheries and nurseries. Bioassay evaluation of stored microalgae concentrates revealed major discrepancies between closely related species of microalgae with regard to the impact of harvesting method on both short‑term nutritional quality and shelf‑life of stored concentrates. At one extreme, very good retention of nutritional quality was exhibited by high‑speed‑centrifuged concentrates of Tetraselmis spp. and Chaetoceros calcitrans beyond 8 weeks storage. In contrast, the naked flagellates Pavlova lutheri and Tahitian Isochrysis and the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri exhibited rapid and profound losses in nutritional quality as a consequence of supercentrifugation. Likewise, the impact of storage conditions and the effects of preservatives and other common food additives on the quality and extended shelf‑life of stored concentrates was found to be unpredictable and highly species specific. Accordingly, optimum combinations of harvesting and storage, including optimum cell densities, presence or absence of food additives, temperature and, in some cases, gaseous atmosphere and light, had to be specifically tailored to individual species of microalgae in order to maximize the effective shelf‑life of their concentrates. Data are presented demonstrating that the best binary concentrate diets developed during the course of this study could sustain growth and survival of larval and juvenile bivalves at rates similar to fresh microalgae culture even after storage periods of 6‑8 weeks.

Descriptors: Bivalvia, feeds, storage life, efficiency, harvesting, mechanical damage, concentrates, species differences, nutritive value, water temperature, density, additives.


Lodeiros, C. J. M.; J. H. Himmelman. Identification of factors affecting growth and survival of the tropical scallop Euvola (Pecten) ziczac in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Feb 1, 2000. v. 182 (1/2) p. 91‑114. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: Pecten, growth, survival, mollusc culture, sexual development, depth, biological development, nets, fouling, colonization, developmental stages, gonads, phytoplankton, water temperature, stress, chlorophyll, prediction, seasonal variation, temporal variation, Venezuela.


Lopez, D. A.; V. A. Riquelme; M. L. Gonzalez. The effects of epibionts and predators on the growth and mortality rates of Argopecten purpuratus cultures in southern Chile. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (5) p. 431‑442. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Argopecten, mollusc culture, mortality, growth, predation, algae, Hydrozoa, size, predators, Decapoda, nets, water temperature, parasites, marine animals, Chile.


Maeda Martinez, A. N.; P. Ormart; L. Mendez; B. Acosta; M. T. Sicard. Scallop growout using a new bottom‑culture system.  Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Sept 25, 2000. v. 189 (1/2) p. 73‑84. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: A new bottom‑culture system was tested at a commercial level to grow catarina scallops (Argopecten ventricosus) in the Rancho Bueno tidal channel in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. The system consisted of a 50 X 1‑m sleeve of 19‑mm mesh polyethylene netting placed on the sea floor of selected growout areas. A total of 448 sleeves were deployed at various times from October 1994 to April 1995 in four zones from the mouth to the head of the tidal channel. Each sleeve contained 10,000 scallops (initially 32 mm shell height) at a density of 200 scallops/m2. Fifty‑four percent of the spat were produced in a hatchery and the rest were collected using onion‑bag collectors. Hatchery and wild spat were deployed separately. Water parameters were measured monthly in each zone: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids. There were better water conditions towards the mouth of the channel. The scallops were harvested from 27 July to 18 August 1995: a total of 2.87 million scallops from the original 4.48 million. Their mean shell height was 56.2 mm and the mean weight of their adductor muscles was 6.8 g. The production was 19.3 t of adductor muscles. Statistically significant differences in mean shell height and mean adductor weight were found between scallops grown in different zones, but no statistically significant differences were found comparing yields from hatchery vs. wild scallops. To find the best culture conditions, a scallop relative value (SRV) was calculated by multiplying survival by adductor muscle weight and relative market price, and dividing by the growout duration. There were higher SRVs for scallops cultured in zones closer to the channel mouth. The highest SRV was found in a group from this zone, with 86% survival, 6.25 g mean adductor weight, and a growout duration of only 3.6 months. A new successful method for growing scallops in shallow areas is, thus presented here. It gave better results than suspension methods tested in the same area.

Descriptors: mollusc culture, evaluation, polyethylene, netting, stocking density, water quality, water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, height, benthos, weight, Mexico.


Mortensen, S.; T. Van der Meeren; A. Fosshagen; I. Hernar; L. Harkestad; L. Torkildsen; O. Bergh. Mortality of scallop spat in cultivation, infested with tube dwelling bristle worms, Polydora sp. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 267‑271. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Pecten maximus, Polychaeta, infestation, mortality, mollusc culture, outbreaks, seasonal variation, fouling, sediment, sexual reproduction, feeds, economic analysis, Norway.


O' Sullivan, G.; Mulcahy, M.F. (2000) Reproductive biology of pacific oysters: Some enigmas. Journal of Shellfish Research 19 (1): 640, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: aquaculture, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, Pelecypoda, Crassostrea gigas, pacific oyster, aquaculture species, female, hermaphrodite, male, spat, shell, integumentary system, tributyltin, pollutant, toxin, chlorophyll A, Dungarvan Bay (Ireland, Europe, Palearctic region).


Pfeiffer, T. J.; K. A. Rusch. An integrated system for microalgal and nursery seed clam culture. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Dec 2000. v. 24 (1) p. 15‑31. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: mollusc culture, clams, phytoplankton, algae culture, Bacillariophyta, foods, volume, water reuse, water flow, velocity, design, wastes, evaluation, stocking density.


Riquelme, C.; R. Araya; R. Escribano. Selective incorporation of bacteria by Argopecten purpuratus larvae: implications for the use of probiotics in culturing systems of the Chilean scallop. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Jan 1, 2000. v. 181 (1/2) p. 25‑36. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Experiments on ingestion rates, colonization and impact of inhibitory producer substances bacteria (IPB) on larvae of Argopecten purpuratus, were carried out to evaluate potential use of bacteria as probiotics in cultures of this Chilean scallop. Three selected strains, named as 11, C33 and 77, obtained from larval cultures of A. purpuratus were tested at different concentrations and incubation times. After 6 h of incubation at a concentration of 10(6) cells ml‑1, A. purpuratus larvae ingested cells of strains 11 and 77, but not those of C33. When comparing bacterial incorporation among these strains, the 77 became the dominant bacteria of the larval microflora, causing no differences in larval survival at different bacterial concentrations. Our results suggest that strain 77 appears as a potential probiotic for scallop larvae and hence, as a promising method to control and prevent infections in hatcheries systems.

Descriptors: Argopecten, larvae, probiotics, bacteria, mollusc culture, ingestion, colonization, inhibition, strains, strain differences, inoculation, microbial flora, survival, disease control.


Robledo, J. A. F.; C. A. Coss; G. R. Vasta. Characterization of the ribosomal rna locus of Perkinsus atlanticus and development of a polymerase chain reaction‑based diagnostic assay. J Parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of Parasitologists, 1914. Oct 2000. v. 86 (5) p. 972‑978. ISSN: 0022‑3395

NAL call no: 448.8 J824

Descriptors: Bivalvia, Venerupis, Perkinsus, protozoal infections, ribosomal RNA, cloning, nucleotide sequences, polymerase chain reaction, assays, diagnostic techniques, mollusc culture, Spain, Atlantic ocean.


Sakurai, I.; M. Seto. Movement and orientation of the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay) in response to water flow. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Jan 15, 2000. v. 181 (3/4) p. 269‑279. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: Bivalvia, water flow, orientation, movement, animal behavior, Mollusc culture.


Stotz, W. When aquaculture restores and replaces an overfished stock: is the conservation of the Species assured? The case of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Northern Chile. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. v. 8 (2/3) p. 237‑247. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Argopecten, endangered species, nature conservation, mollusc culture, wild animals,

domestication, biodiversity, genetic diversity, artificial selection, Chile.





Barbeau, M. A.; H. Caswell. A matrix model for short‑term dynamics of seeded populations of sea scallops. Ecol Appl. Washington, D.C. : Ecological Society of America. Feb 1999. v. 9 (1) p. 266‑287. ISSN: 1051‑0761.

NAL call no: QH540.E23

Descriptors: Pectinidae, mollusc culture, population dynamics, mathematical models.


Ford, S.; Powell, E.; Klinck, J.; Hofmann, E. (1999) Modeling the MSX parasite in eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations. I. Model development, implementation, and verification. Journal of Shellfish Research 18 (2): 475‑500, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: models and simulations, computational biology, parasitology, Pelecypoda, Sporozoa, Protozoa, Crassostrea virginica, eastern oyster, fisheries species, parasite host, Haplosporidium nelsoni,  Sporozoa, parasite, pathogen, microorganisms, Protozoans, hemocyte, blood and lymphatics, immune system, MSX disease, parasitic disease, host parasite environment interactions, mathematical model, proliferation, salinity, survival, temperature, transmission rate.


Gonzalez, M. L.; D. A. Lopez; M. C. Perez; V. A. Riquelme; J. M. Uribe; M. Le Pennec. Growth and the scallop, Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819), in southern Chile. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. May 15, 1999. v. 175 (3/4) p. 307‑316. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The northern scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, has a high economic value. Its natural geographical distribution occurs only in the north of Chile. However, this species has been introduced to the south of Chile for mass culture. This area has advantages for suspended cultures, such as the existence of many sheltered, wave‑protected bays and lower levels of fouling and boring species. Low temperatures in this area, however, may hinder growth rates. The growth of A. purpuratus was studied in cultures carried out in southern Chile. The cultures were undertaken in two locations: Metri Bay (41 degrees 36'S, 72 degrees 43'W) and Quihua Channel (41 degrees 50'S, 73 degrees 05'W). Seasonal variations, density effects and culture location were evaluated. In addition, in Chidhuapi Channel (41 degrees 48'S, 73 degrees 7'W), growth was evaluated in two different culture systems: lantern nets and pockets. Growth varied according to area, season and culture system. The growth was higher and density‑dependent in Metri Bay and lower and density‑independent in Quihua Channel. The growth rate was higher in spring than in winter in both areas. Individual growth in the pocket system was higher than that of the lantern system at densities of 25 individuals/tray. Results show that the northern scallop introduced to the south of Chile, reaches a commercial size in slightly longer periods than those in natural distribution areas. However, the successful culture in the south of Chile depends on the season, culture area and the culture system. Factors such as temperature, water flow and maximum food levels may also influence cultures. The existence of sheltered bays protected from waves low levels of fouling and boring species and suitable growth levels indicate that the introduction of scallops to the south of Chile, make mass culture of this species feasible.

Descriptors: Argopecten, growth, mollusc culture, geographical distribution, water temperature, seasonal variation, geographical variation, stocking density, nets, water flow, feeds, growth rate, Chile.


Grice, A. M.; J. D. Bell. Application of ammonium to enhance the growth of giant clams (Tridacna maxima) in the land‑based nursery: effects of size class, stocking density and nutrient concentration. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Jan 1, 1999. v. 170 (1) p. 17‑28. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of ammonium (NH4+) enrichment and stocking density on the growth of juvenile Tridacna maxima throughout the land‑based nursery stage. In four sequential experiments, clams of 5, 11, 16 and 18 mm shell length (SL) were maintained at low and high stocking densities in 60‑1 tanks with unfiltered seawater (8 l h‑1) for 25 days. Throughout this period, clams received daily spikes of dissolved ammonium sulfate at concentrations of < 1 (control), 20, 35 and 50 micromolar NH4+ for the three smallest size classes of clams, and < 1, 35, 50 and 80 micromolar NH4+ for the largest size class. Our experiments simulated the conditions used to mass‑produce clams of this species during the nursery phase. All individuals used in the four experiments were from the same cohort. The growth responses of T. maxima to ammonium enrichment were dependent on the size of the clams. For clams of 5 mm SL, both increase in mean wet weight and SL were significantly lower at 35 and 50 micromolar NH4+ competed to control and 20 micromolar NH4+ spikes. In contrast, increases in mean wet weight and SL of giant clams of 11, 16 and 18 mm SL were all significantly greater when ammonium was added, with the greatest increases in mean weight and SL occurring at the highest ammonium levels for the two largest size classes. The abundance of zooxanthellae per clam increased in response to addition of ammonium for clams of 11, 16 and 18 mm SL, but not for individuals of 5 mm SL. Stocking density had a variable effect on changes in mean weight, shell length and abundance of zoaxanthellae. Values of all variables were significantly greater at low stocking densities for clams of 11 mm SL, but only marginally significant for most variables for clams of 16 and 18 mm SL. This study shows that addition of ammonium does not enhance growth of T. maxima during the early stages of rearing clams in the land‑based nursery, but that relatively high levels of  ammonium should be applied in the latter part of the nursery phase. This highlights the importance of identifying changes in nutrient requirements as juvenile giant clams grow.  

Descriptors: clams, Bivalvia, ammonium sulfate, growth, size, stocking density, nutrient availability, concentration, enrichment, length, application rates, liveweight, Mollusc culture.


Hart, A. M.; J. D. Bell; T. P. Foyle. Improving culture techniques for village‑based farming of giant clams (Tridacnidae). Aquac Res. Oxford : Blackwell Science, c1995. Mar 1999. v. 30 (3) p. 175‑190. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: Eight experiments aimed at improving methods for the village‑based farming of giant clams were conducted in the Solomon Islands. The experiments focused on either improving the fitness of seed clams delivered to village farmers, assessing whether differential growth rates of seed clams in nursery tanks persisted during grow‑out at farms, or testing the effects of alterations to the design of grow‑out cages on the growth and survival of clams. We found that Tridacna squamosa (Lamarck) 'seed' transferred from land‑based nursery tanks to a floating ocean nursery (FON) for approximately equal to 3 months at the end of the nursery phase were significantly larger than seed reared only in land‑based nursery tanks. Similarly, T. maxima (Roding) placed in a FON for 2 to 5 months generally grew at a significantly greater rate than tank‑reared 'seed'. However, the use of FONs did not improve survival. There were no consistent differences in the growth and survival of fast‑ and slow‑growing seed of T. derasa (Roding) at village sites when slow‑growing seed were retained in the nursery until reaching a larger size. The survival of T. maxima was enhanced significantly by placing an insert of smaller mesh (a 'settlement ring') in grow‑out cages for the first 2 months after delivery of seed to farmers. The settlement ring retained clams in cages until they found a suitable place to attach their byssal threads. Attempts to remove the sediment which impedes the attachment of T. maxima to the base of grow‑out cages by perforating the substrate did not improve survival: the perforated substrate resulted in poor attachment of clams and harbored predators (Cymatium spp.). The survival of T. crocea (Lamarck) was not improved by 'softening' the concrete base of grow‑out cages to simulate dead coral rock and to encourage the clams to burrow in the substrate. The survival of T. crocea in grow‑out cages was enhanced significantly by enclosing the cages in fine mesh after the delivery of the seed clams to prevent predation and disturbance by juvenile wrasse, Thalassoma spp. The experiments indicate that the critical stage for village farming of giant clams is during the initial weeks following distribution of seed. Further research is needed to improve the survival of T. crocea and T. maxima during this phase.

Descriptors: clams, mollusc culture, techniques, growth rate, growth, survival, equipment, sea water, tanks, marine areas, sediment, substrates, predation, Cardiidae, Solomon Islands.


Karaan, A.S.M. (1999) Bridging the small-big divide: A transaction cost approach to enterprise modelling for mussel mariculture in Saldanha Bay [South Africa]. Agrekon 38(4) p. 680-692, ISSN: 0303-1853.

NAL call no: 281.8 AG835

Descriptors: South Africa, small farms, commercial farming, mussels, aquaculture, costs, marketing, models, Africa, southern Sahara, enterprises, farming systems, farms, shellfish.


Mazzola, A.; E. Favaloro; G. Sara. Experiences of integrated mariculture in a southern Tyrrhenian area (Mediterranean Sea). Aquac Res. Oxford : Blackwell Science, c1995. Oct 1999. v. 30 (10) p. 773‑780. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: To ascertain the potential for exploiting marine areas for mariculture, data on the cultivation of molluscs and fish in the open sea of the southern Tyrrhenian were collected from May 1994 to June 1995. The aims of this integrated study were to test simple breeding methods for molluscs and fish, to apply these to the practices employed by local fishermen and to experiment with the use of a cage system requiring a low level of investment. Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Mytilus gallo‑provincialis (Lamarck) were cultivated on submerged long lines around cages used for cultivating Seriola dumerili (Risso) and Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti). S. dumerili specimens were placed in two cages and fed with either fish scraps or pellets, while in a third cage, D. puntazzo were fed with pellets only. After a period of 12 months, the following results were obtained: the oysters measured 47.50 +/‑ 12.30 mm and weighed 0.13 +/‑ 0.09 g; the mussels placed in culture as juveniles reached a length of approximately equal to 40 mm, while the mussels placed in culture as subadults reached the commercial size of about 60 mm. The mean length and weight measurements of the two fish species were as follows: Diplodus 228 +/‑ 14.4 mm and 228 +/‑ 40.48 g; Seriola (lot A) 438.1 +/‑ 25.28 mm and 1149 +/‑ 172.2 g; Seriola (lot B) 347 +/‑ 25.6 mm and 576 +/‑ 139 g.

Descriptors: fish culture, mollusc culture, breeding methods, sexual reproduction, cages, fish feeding, pelleted feeds, liveweight, length, integrated systems, sicily, Mediterranean Sea.


Muroga, K.; Inui, Y.; Matsusato, T. (1999) Workshop "Emerging diseases of cultured marine molluscs in Japan". Gyobyo‑Kenkyu‑=‑Fish‑Pathology 34: 4, 219‑231; 6 ref., ISSN: 0388‑788X. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SH171.G86

Descriptors: mortality, diagnosis, risk factors, environmental temperature, aetiology, pathology, oysters, Japan, amyotrophia, Bivalvia, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, East Asia, Asia, developed countries, OECD countries, prion viral bacterial and fungal pathogens of animals, diagnosis of animal diseases, aquaculture animals.


O'Connor, S. J.; M. P. Heasman; W. A. O'Connor. Evaluation of alternative suspended culture methods for the commercial scallop, Pecten fumatus Reeve. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Feb 15, 1999. v. 171 (3/4) p. 237‑250. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Commercial scallops, Pecten fumatus, glued to plastic mesh disks showed growth and survival equal to or greater than similar sized scallops in conventional earhung and cage culture. In two experiments of 13 and 25 weeks duration, some aspects of disk culture, such as spacing between disks, scallop orientation and the choice of valve by which the scallops were glued, were examined to determine their effects on shell growth, somatic tissue weight increase, predation and survival. As disk spacing was increased through 40, 60, 80 to 100 mm, predation increased at disk spacing greater than 60 mm and total soft tissue mass peaked at 60 mm and above. There were no significant differences in soft body weight or shell height between scallops glued by either valve in either normal (flat left valve uppermost) or inverted (cupped right valve uppermost) orientation. However, scallops glued by the left valve had higher percentage survival and larger muscle weights regardless of orientation. By contrast, those glued by the right valve had heavier gonads. Orientation and the scallop culture technique employed significantly affected spionid polychaete infestation of the shell. Scallops glued by the left valve, with left or right valve uppermost, and glued by the right valve with this valve uppermost had significantly lower polychaete prevalence than scallops contained in cages, earhung or glued by the right valve with left valve uppermost.

Descriptors: Pecten, mollusc culture, evaluation, techniques, growth, survival, orientation, stocking density, liveweight gain, predation, adhesion, infestation, height, gonads.


Pfeiffer, T. J.; T. B. Lawson; K. A. Rusch. Northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, seed clam waste characterization study: precursor to a recirculating culture system design. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Aug 1999. v. 20 (3) p. 149‑161. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Abstract: The high demand and price of the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, enable this species to be an excellent commercial aquaculture candidate for coastal Georgia. The most economical method to grow clams is in the natural environment at controlled densities. Commercial nurseries grow small seed from the hatchery (1‑2 mm) to a size suitable for planting in the field (8‑10 mm). The pivotal role of the nursery phase to the success of bivalve mariculture has prompted research into improving nursery culture systems. Utilizing recirculation technology can contribute to the development and success of land‑based nursery systems that offer higher survival and faster growth than field‑based systems. This paper presents baseline excretion data that can be useful in the design of a recirculating system for culturing bivalve Mercenaria seed clams in a land‑based system. The total ammonia nitrogen excretion rate based on a 24‑h isolation period ranged from 20.0 to 89.4 microgram NH(4)‑N g clam(‑1) day(‑1) for Mercenaria seed clams with a shell length ranging from 3.0 to 12.6 mm. The low ammonia production rate combined with the high ammonia tolerance limits of bivalves minimizes the need for a biofilter unit. The BOD(5) loading rate was highly variable and ranged from 0.05 to 0.32 mg l(‑1)‑O(2) g clam(‑1) day(‑1). For the seed clams that were less than 8 mm in shell length, the effluent total suspended solids concentration was three times greater than the larger size clams (10‑12 mm shell length). Results indicated the importance of a solids removal mechanism to decrease the BOD(5) loading rate and reduce potential psuedofaeces production.

Descriptors: Mercenaria mercenaria, mollusc culture, water reuse, animal wastes, population density, rearing techniques, survival, growth, excretion, ammonium nitrogen, ammonia, biological filtration, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, size, filtration, water purification, Georgia.


Racuyal, J.T.; Albina, M.B.; Masbad, M.; Severo, R.T.; Mabonga, D.A.; Doncillo, L.D.; Delima, E.A.; Maiso, B.P. (1999) Establishment of red tide monitoring center in Region 8 [Eastern Visayas, Philippines]. Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development ‑ Department of Science and Technology, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). Research and development highlights of the NARRDS (National Aquatic Resources Research and Development System) 1993‑1997. Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). 1999. 416 p. Received Feb 2000, ISBN 971‑8624‑33‑3.

Abstract: The recurrence of red tide and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a major concern among the government institutions in the country. Inrecent years, however, Maqueda Bay and Villareal Bay face the problem of the periodic occurrence of the harmful algal bloom where the mariculture of green mussels (Perna viridis) are located. Cognizant of the need of information by the government to draw‑up contingencies and minimize the effects of the harmful algal bloom on fisheries and public health, a red tide monitoring center was established in Region 8. The red tide monitoring center has mainly focused its activities on upgrading of existing laboratory facilities, environmental monitoring of hydrographic parameters and cell density of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and other marine microalgae. The results of the monitoring cruises indicated that there was an isolated presence of toxic dinoflagellates in April (5,000 cells/l) and Nov (24 cells/l). The presence of the species was considered insignificant. Among the dinoflagellates identified, it was observed that Noctiluca sp. was the most abundant. However, 32 diatom species were also identified and comprised 85 percent, the largest concentrations of the total plankton samples. It was observed that Thalassiosira sp. (2,032,400 cells.l) was the most dominant. Rhizosolenia sp. (1,792,000 cells/l) was recorded next in rank, followed by Thalassionema sp. and Chaeloceros sp. with a total concentration of 633,634 cells/l. The distribution and abundance of diatoms showed that the Thalassiosira sp. was found abundant in station 1 in Nov. The Rhizosolenia sp. dominated the samples in station 2 in Dec while the Chaetoceros sp. was found abundant in April. Hydrographic parameters were also monitored and results (temperature: 26.6 deg C ‑ 31.5 deg C and salinity: 24.5‑34 ppt) showed within the ranged of the observed values for Pyrodicium bloom, (i.e. 24.4‑31.9 deg C and 24.7‑36.8 ppt) in Papua New Guinea.

Descriptors: Perna, plankton blooms, geographical distribution, foodborne diseases, shellfish, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Asia, biogeography, Bivalvia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, aquatic ecology.


Ramirez, J. L.; S. Avila; A. M. Ibarra. Optimization of forage in two food‑filtering organisms with the use of a continuous, low‑food concentration, agricultural drip system. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Aug 1999. v. 20 (3) p. 175‑189. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Abstract: An alternative feeding system for food‑filtering organisms in hatcheries is presented. The system consists of a modified agricultural irrigation drip system. The use of this system allows for a continuous water flow and a permanent supply of food in multiple rearing tanks. The system was evaluated using two experimental subjects; white shrimp larvae (Penaeus vannamei) and catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus) broodstock. Shrimp larvae under this system grew larger and had a higher survival than those grown under a no‑flow, batch‑feeding system. Also, this rearing system resulted in a reduction of differences between shrimp larvae derived from spawns of different quality, evidenced by a reduction in the between‑family variance component when using it versus a batch, no‑flow system. For scallop broodstock, the use of this system optimized forage, inasmuch as it provided a constant supply of food that resulted in a steady removal rate of microalgae by the scallops. That result contrasted with the batch, no‑flow system for conditioning scallop broodstock, for which the large amounts of food required during maturation conditioning, added in intervals, resulted in pseudofeces produced and in a large variation in food availability and therefore also of the microalgae removal rate.

Descriptors: Argopecten, Penaeus vannamei, forage, feeding, trickle irrigation, equipment, water flow, rearing techniques, tanks, larvae, developmental stages, survival, growth, feces, nutrient availability, phytoplankton, feeds, shrimp culture, Mollusc culture.


Roman, G.; M. J. Campos; C. P. Acosta; J. Cano. Growth of the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) in suspended culture: influence of density and depth. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. July 15, 1999. v. 178 (1/2) p. 43‑62. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The effects of density and depth on the growth of juveniles of Aequipecten opercularis held in suspended culture for 11 months in the Ria de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied. The densities were 25, 50 and 100 spat per tray (200 to 800 spat m(‑2)), and depths were 2, 7 and 12 m. Density and depth were found to affect growth. Although maximum growth occurred at 25 scallops tray(‑1), the growth recorded at densities of 50 and 100 scallops tray(‑1) was only slightly lower. Therefore, on a commercial scale, culture using the higher densities is recommended. There was less growth at 2 m than at 7 and 12 m, due to the surface layers having lower salinities during winter, higher temperatures during summer and lower concentrations of chlorophyll a throughout most of the year. Most growth took place between late autumn and early winter. After 11 months of culture, scallops of initial size 22 mm (shell height) and mean weight of 1.14 g reached a mean size of approximately equal to 58 mm and a mean weight of approximately equal to 26 g with mortality of less than 5%. The performance of A. opercularis in suspended culture makes it possible to consider this species as a good candidate for aquaculture in the Galician rias, NW Spain.

Descriptors: scallops, growth, mollusc culture, stocking density, depth, developmental stages, salinity, water temperature, chlorophyll, nutrient availability, algae, seasonal variation, liveweight, size, mortality, biological competition, Pectinidae, Spain.


Zhu, S. M.; B. Saucier; J. Durfey; S. L. Chen; B. Dewey. Waste excretion characteristics of Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) under different temperature conditions. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Sept 1999. v. 20 (4) p. 231‑244. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: tapes, animal wastes, excretion, water temperature, water reuse, ammonium nitrogen, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, mollusc culture, water quality, feces.





Adams, C. M.; P. J. Van Blokland. Economic and financial considerations regarding the small‑scale commercial culture of hard clams in Florida. J Appl Aquac. Binghamton, NY : Food Products Press, 1991. 1998. v. 8 (1) p. 19‑37. ISSN: 1045‑4438.

NAL call no: SH135.J69

Descriptors: Mercenaria mercenaria, mollusc culture, economic analysis, income, stocking density, prices, survival, Florida.


Buchal, M. A.; C. J. Langdon. Evaluation of lipid spray beads for the delivery of water‑soluble materials to a marine suspension‑feeder, the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum (Deshaes 1853). Aquac Nutr. Oxford, [England] : Blackwell Science, 1995. Dec 1998. v. 4 (4) p. 263‑274. ISSN: 1353‑5773.

NAL call no: SH156.A658

Abstract: We describe the development and evaluation of a new microparticle for delivering low‑molecular weight, water‑soluble materials to suspension feeders. Spray beads successfully incorporated materials dissolved in an aqueous phase or as dry particulate, within a triacylglyceride bead composed of tripalmitin, 600 mg g‑1  tripalmitin/400 mg g‑1 triolein, or 600 mg g‑1 tripalmitin/400 mg g‑1 fish oil. Riboflavin was successfully incorporated (up to 44 mg g‑1 lipid) and retained (up to 98% over 24 h in seawater) as dry particles in all three mixtures of lipid. Aqueous oxytetracycline hydrochloride or polymeric dye were incorporated (45.6 mg g‑1 lipid and 18.1 mg g‑1 lipid, respectively) and retained best (99% and 94%, respectively) in spray beads composed of tripalmitin. The addition of triolein or fish oil to the lipid bead reduced incorporation and retention efficiencies for aqueous core materials by up to 75%. Manila clam seed readily ingested and digested lipid micro‑particles, spray beads and lipid‑walled microcapsules. Microparticies composed of tripalmitin were excreted with their payloads intact. Intact microparticles composed of 600 mg g‑1  tripalmitin/400 mg g‑1 fish oil were largely absent in faecal strands suggesting successful release and delivery of microparticle contents to clams. Spray beads composed of tripalmitin softened with 400 mg g‑1 fish oil represent an effective microparticle type for delivering low‑molecular weight, water‑soluble materials to aquatic suspension feeders.

Descriptors: tapes, mollusc culture, feeding, feeds, lipids, evaluation, molecular weight, solubility, fish oils, riboflavin, dyes, feed intake, digestion, feces, encapsulation.


Child, A.R.; Laing, I. (1998) Comparative low temperature tolerance of small juvenile European, Ostrea edulis L., and Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg. Aquaculture Research v. 29(2) p. 103‑113.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Descriptors: feed intake, aquaculture, oysters, Ostrea edulis, Ostrea, Crassostrea gigas, water temperature, temperature, body weight, winter, survival, mortality, behaviour, Bivalvia, feeding habits, seasons, shellfish, temperature.


Dore, W.J.; Henshilwood, K.; Lees, D.N. (1998) The development of management strategies for control of virological quality in oysters. Water Science and Technology v. 38(12) p. 29‑35.

NAL call no: TD420.A1P7

Descriptors: oysters, Bivalvia, viruses, food hygiene, shellfish, hygiene, infectious diseases, shellfish.


Green, J.; Henshilwood, K.; Gallimore, C.I.; Brown, D.W.G.; Lees, D.N. (1998) A nested reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of small round‑structured viruses in environmentally contaminated molluscan shellfish. Applied and environmental microbiology  v. 64(3) p. 858‑863, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: We describe the evaluation of a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT‑PCR) procedure for the detection of small round‑structured viruses (SRSVs) in molluscan shellfish and the application of this assay for the detection of SRSVs in commercially produced shellfish and in shellfish implicated in outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The range of virus strains detected and the sensitivity of detection were evaluated by using a representative panel of 21 well‑characterized SRSV strains. The nested RT‑PCR detected 15 or 21 SRSVs, demonstrating that the assay detects a broad range of SRSVs including strains from both genogroup I and genogroup II. Seeding experiments showed the nested RT‑PCR assay to be 10 to 1,000 times more sensitive than the single‑round RT‑PCR assay for the detection of SRSV in shellfish. SRSV‑contaminated samples were identified by nested RT‑PCR for shellfish grown in polluted harvesting areas and for shellfish associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis which were negative by a previously described single‑round RT‑PCR. The assay was shown to be effective for investigation of virus elimination during commercial shellfish processing procedures such as depuration and relaying and has potential applications for monitoring at‑risk shellfish harvesting areas, for investigation of SRSV contamination in shellfish from producers linked to gastroenteritis outbreaks, and for the direct detection of virus in shellfish implicated in outbreaks.

Descriptors: Crassostrea gigas, oysters, biological contamination, polymerase chain reaction, microbial contamination.


Hart, A. M.; J. D. Bell; T. P. Foyle. Growth and survival of the giant clams, Tridacna derasa, T. maxima and T. crocea, at village farms in the Solomon Islands. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. June 15, 1998. v. 165 (3/4) p. 203‑220. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: A series of large‑scale grow‑out trials for giant clams (Tridacna derasa, T. maxima, T. crocea) were undertaken at 11 village farms in Solomon Islands. Eight hundred juveniles of each species, measuring 20‑30 mm shell length (SL), were distributed equally between four replicate cages at each site. Growth and survival of the clams were then monitored for up to 24 months. Environmental and husbandry variables were measured throughout these experiments. T. derasa had the best growth and survival, attaining a mean SL of 150 mm +/‑ 19.8 s.d., and mean weight of 710 g +/‑ 26 s.d., after 24 months grow‑out. Mean survival of T. maxima was 38.9% +/‑ 16.6 s.d., and survival of T. crocea after 17 months was 39% +/‑ 22.6 s.d. Factors influencing growth of all species included water temperature, exposure to wave action, water clarity and water flow. Together, these factors explained between 66% and 79% of variation in growth, depending on the species. Regressions of environmental factors against survival were a poorer fit, they explained 15% (T. derasa), 53% (T. maxima), and 52% (T. crocea) of variability among sites. Estimated net revenue for village farmers growing giant clams for the aquarium market was greatest for T. derasa, due to high survival. Although T. crocea is in great demand by the aquarium trade, it was the least suitable species for village farming because it has slow growth and low survival. Unless survival rates at village farms can be enhanced considerably, T. crocea can probably be reared more successfully in a land‑based system.

Descriptors: clams, growth, survival, mollusc culture, length, animal husbandry, water flow, species, water quality, species differences, economic analysis, income, growth rate, Solomon Islands.


Laing, I.; Earl, N.H. (1998) The lipid content, spatfall and subsequent growth of early and late settling hatchery‑reared Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, larvae. Aquaculture Research v. 29(1) p. 19‑25.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Descriptors: aquaculture, shellfish, Crassostrea gigas, lipids, growth, larvae, animal developmental stages, biological development, Bivalvia.


Laing, I.; A. Psimopoulous. Hatchery cultivation of king scallop (Pecten maximus) spat with cultured and bloomed algal diets.  aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Nov 1, 1998. v. 169 (1/2) p. 55‑68. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Growth rates of small (2‑15 mm shell length) hatchery‑reared king scallop (Pecten maximus L.) spat were estimated by computer analysis of video images taken of the scallops held in petri dishes containing seawater. This technique reduced the amount of handling and minimised any effect stress due to handling might have had on growth. Experimental diets consisting of algae from both intensive hatchery cultures and from outdoor bloom tanks were fed to the scallop spat. For all diets, growth rate (as increase in shell length) increased linearly with a logarithmic increase in initial shell length. Scallops thus characteristically showed a growth pattern whereby dry weight‑specific growth rate increased rapidly with increasing shell size to a maximum at 4‑5 mm shell length (2.6‑5.0 mg dry weight). This weight‑specific growth rate then showed a gradual decrease with a further increase in shell size. For the algal diets consisting of single species that had been cultured intensively, nutritional value was in the order Pavlova lutheri (Droop) Green > Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano > Rhinomonas reticulata var. reticulata Novarino > T‑ISO (Isochrysis sp.) > Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin) Butcher. A mixture of the first two of these species gave significantly faster growth rates than any other combination of species tested. Growth rates of scallop spat fed bloomed seawater at rations of 0.33‑1.0 g (organic weight of algae) g‑1 (live weight of spat) week‑1 were similar to those fed an intensively cultured algal diet of high nutritional value. There was some evidence that the spat were less efficient at filtering smaller (2‑5 micrometers) algae cells.

Descriptors: Pecten maximus, mollusc culture, feeds, growth rate, size, image processing, sea water, stress, algae, dry matter, nutritive value, mixtures, filtration.


Lodeiros, C. J.; J. J. Rengel; L. Freites; F. Morales; J. H. Himmelman. Growth and survival of the tropical scallop Lyropecten (Nodipecten) nodosus maintained in suspended culture at three depths. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. June 1, 1998. v. 165 (1/2) p. 41‑50. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: We examined growth and survival of juvenile Lyropecten (Nodipecten) nodosus, measuring 9.4 mm in shell height, which were placed in mid‑December 1993 in pearl nets at 8, 21 and 34 m in depth at Turpialito in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. The mean growth rate in shell height during the first 5 months varied inversely with depth (10.0, 8.5 and 5.0 mm mon‑1 at 8, 21 and 34 m in depth, respectively). Somatic tissues also showed a progressively slower growth rate with increasing depth. The decreased growth rate with depth was not associated with the mass of total seston or its organic content but were proportional to the decrease in phytoplankton biomass with depth (chlorophyll a decreased from 4.8 to 0.7 micrograms l‑1 between 8 and 34 m). Temperature also decreased with depth but the differences were likely too slight to account for differences in growth. Mortality varied markedly with depth. There was a sharp increase in mortality in July at 34 m and a total mortality in August at 8 m. In contrast, at 21 m survival was high throughout the study. After 5 months (in May), wet muscle mass of the scallops at 8 m attained the commercial size (5‑6 g). A possible culture strategy for L. nodosus is to initially grow the scallops at 8 m in depth, where growth is greatest, and then transfer them to 21 m, where survival is greatest and where growth will continue at a moderate rate to a larger size.

Descriptors: scallops, growth, survival, mortality, mollusc culture, shells, depth, growth rate, mass, phytoplankton, biomass, chlorophyll, water temperature, seasonal variation, Pectinidae, Venezuela, Caribbean Sea.


Marques, H. L. de A.; R. T. L. Pereira; B. C. Correa. Seasonal variation in growth and yield of the brown mussel Perna perna (L.) cultured in Ubatuba, Brazil. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Dec 1, 1998. v. 169 (3/4) p. 263‑273. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Seasonal variation in growth and yield of cultured brown mussels Perna perna was studied in Ubatuba, south‑east Brazilian coastline. Young mussels were transplanted (seeded) into four groups of 16 polyethylene net tubes 2 m long, suspended from a wooden raft (18 m2). The first group was set out in April (autumn), the next in July (winter), the next in October (spring) 1984 and the final group in January (summer) 1985. One net tube of each group was sampled monthly and biometric data were collected. Growth was initially faster for the spring group, but at the end of the culture period length and weight were not statistically different between groups. L(oo) and W(oo) were 73.9. 71.3, 72.7 and 73.8 mm and 26.3, 23.9, 25.7 and 25.7 g for the autumn, winter, spring and summer groups, respectively. Maximum yield was attained 9 months after seeding for groups of autumn, winter and spring (7.2, 5.2 and 6.3 kg X m‑1, respectively) and after 10 months for the summer group (6.9 kg X m‑1). The conclusion of this study is that, growth and yield were unaffected by the season of seeding at the study site and that it is not commercially worthwhile to farm mussels more than 9 months, due to yield decrease.

Descriptors: mussels, Mytilidae, seasonal variation, growth, yields, mollusc culture, growth rate, length, weight, Sao Paulo.


Mitchelmore, C.L.; Chipman, J.K. (1998) DNA strand breakage in aquatic organisms and the potential value of the comet assay in environmental monitoring. Mutat Res 399(2): 135‑47, ISSN: 0027‑5107.

NAL call no: QH431.M8

Abstract: This review considers the potential for DNA strand breaks, particularly as measured by the comet assay, to act as a biomarker of genetic toxicity in fish and other aquatic species. The background need for such biomarkers is introduced in relation to carcinogenicity, reproductive effects and other adverse effects of pollution. Sensitive measurements of DNA strand breakage can be achieved, e.g., by alkaline elution, alkaline unwinding or by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) techniques. The DNA damage can be a reflection, not only of direct strand breakage, but also of alkali‑labile sites and of repair enzyme‑mediated breakage (i.e., is non‑specific). A range of genotoxic chemicals (both with and without the requirement for metabolic activation) give positive effects in various cell types of vertebrate and invertebrate aquatic species, following in vitro and in vivo exposures under laboratory conditions. A limited number of analyses of organisms exposed to polluted waters or sediments in the field have implicated DNA strand breakage as a relatively sensitive, rapid and broad specificity indicator of genotoxic pollutant exposure. The comet assay deserves further exploitation to assess inter‑individual and inter‑cell variability in response to pollutants and naturally occurring genotoxic stimuli, and to assess the persistence of these effects.

Descriptors: DNA damage, fishes genetics, cells cultured, chromosome breakage, environmental exposure, liver ultrastructure, mussels genetics, mutagens toxicity, water pollution.


Navarro, J. M.; C. M. Gonzalez. Physiological responses of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus to decreasing salinities. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Sept 1, 1998. v. 167 (3/4) p. 315‑327. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Argopecten purpuratus (Chilean scallop) is a filter‑feeding bivalve which inhabits sheltered areas of the north and central Chile. Considering that culture of this species has started in the south of Chile, it is of great interest to know the tolerance of this bivalve to conditions of decreasing salinity, which can occur in these locations. For this purpose, different physiological processes related to the acquisition and utilisation of energy (clearance rate, absorption, oxygen uptake and excretion) were measured at different salinities (30, 27, 24, 21 and 18 per thousand) on a wide range of body size after the scallops had been acclimatised to the experimental salinities for a week at 12 degree C. Clearance rate showed higher and similar values at 30 and 27 per thousand, decreasing significantly at the lower salinities. Oxygen uptake increased with decreasing salinity from 30 to 24 per thousand, showing the lowest value at the extreme condition of 18 per thousand. A similar pattern was presented by the excretion rate, which also increased within the range 30‑24 per thousand, to show a reduction with decreasing salinities. The O/N ratio also decreased with reduction in salinity in the 5 and 10 g size classes. A negative relationship was observed between the size of A. purpuratus and the O/N ratio. Scope for growth was highly affected by low salinities, with positive values only between 27 and 30 per thousand. Negative scope for growth was observed at all the other experimental salinities. The data obtained suggest that the selection of sites to cultivate this species must take into consideration the tolerance of this species to the salinity, and positive growth rates can be expected at salinities over 27 per thousand.

Descriptors: Pectinidae, salinity, saline water, physiology, mollusc culture, energy intake, oxygen, uptake, excretion, acclimatization, nitrogen, ratios, nitrogen content, growth rate, site factors.


Rajagopal, S.; V. P. Venugopalan; K. V. K. Nair; G. van der Velde; H. A. Jenner; C. den Hartog. Reproduction, growth rate and culture potential of the green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) in Edaiyur backwaters, east coast of India. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Mar 15, 1998. v. 162 (3/4) p. 187‑202. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The green mussel Perna viridis is an edible mollusc with enormous culture potential. This paper presents data on the reproduction, spat settlement and growth rate of P. viridis in Edaiyur backwaters on the east coast of India. The mussels exhibit two spawning periods and temperature appears to regulate the onset of reproductive events. Spat settlement densities are greater in the adjacent coastal waters as compared to the backwaters. Growth rate data show that the mussels reach an average shell length of 83 mm in 1 year. The results also show that shell and meat weight exhibit different seasonal patterns of growth in Edaiyur backwaters. In rope culture, marketable size (50‑60 mm shell length) was achieved in about 6 months with an annual production of 47 kg m(‑1) and biomass (wet meat weight) of 22 kg m(‑1). The annual production values in Edaiyur backwaters are relatively higher than those reported from other parts of India. The present study suggests that Edaiyur backwaters represent a potential site for successful cultivation of P. viridis considering the availability of sustainable wild stocks of P. viridis and abundance of seed along with favourable environmental conditions.

Descriptors: mussels, sexual reproduction, growth rate, spawning, water temperature, population density, length, seasonal variation, biomass, economic analysis, Mytilidae, mussel culture, India, Indian Ocean.


Sabaliunas, D.; Lazutka, J.; Sabaliuniene, I.; Sodergren, A. (1998) Use of semipermeable membrane devices for studying effects of organic pollutants: comparison of pesticide uptake by semipermeable membrane devices and mussels. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 17(9): 1815‑1824, ISSN: 0730‑7268.

NAL call no: QH545 A1E58

Abstract: Uptake of four pesticides‑the organochlorines chlordane and endosulfan and the synthetic pyrethroids fenvalerate and allethrin‑by triolein‑containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by the lake mussel Anodonta piscinalis was studied in a laboratory continuous‑flow system. Uptake of the analytes by the SPMDs and mussels was linear during the exposure period of 20 d. These kinetic data were used to calculate the first‑order uptake rate constants. On a SPMD‑whole body basis, the uptake rates were 3.5 to 5.5 times higher in the membrane devices than in the organisms. The synthetic pyrethroids were sampled at lower rates than the organochlorines, and this difference may be attributed to the larger molecular dimensions of the pyrethroids rather than analyte molecular weight and lipophilicity, which were similar for all test compounds. Because of the disparate sampling rates, concentration factors of analytes differed between SPMDs and mussels. However, the percent composition (ratios) of analytes in SPMDs and in mussels was similar, which indicates that SPMDs may serve as good surrogates for aquatic organisms with respect to the discriminatory uptake of hydrophobic chemicals. Semipermeable membrane device dialysate, mussel extract, as well as two artificial mixtures of the four pesticides were tested with standard toxicity and genotoxicity tests, including Microtox (inhibition of bacterial luminescence), Daphtoxkit, and Rotoxkit (toxicity tests with freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Brachionus calyciflorus, respectively), and sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes in in vitro assay. Results of these tests suggest that integration of the SPMD technique and bioassays may be a valuable approach for the assessment of levels and effects of bioavailable hydrophobic pollutants.

Descriptors: sampling, chlordane, endosulfan, fenvalerate, allethrin, aquatic animals, bioassays, agricultural chemicals, aquatic organisms, biological analysis, methods, synthetic pyrethrins, pollution, fisheries and aquaculture general aspects.


Shafee, M. S.; A. Berraho; M. Rafik. Culture of carpet‑shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus (L.) on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. J Aquac Trop. Calcutta : Oxford IBH, 1986. Feb 1998. v. 13 (1) p. 17‑36. ISSN: 0970‑0846.

NAL call no: SH135.J68

Descriptors: clams, mollusc culture, growth, survival, growth rate, seasonal variation, body condition, mortality, geographical variation, veneridae, morocco, eastern central Atlantic.


Smith, B. C.; G. H. Wikfors. An automated rearing chamber system for studies of shellfish feeding. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Feb 1998. v. 17 (1) p. 69‑77. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Abstract: Producing large volumes of high quality microalgae to feed shellfish and other organisms is a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture industry. Feeding regimes yielding the highest conversion efficiencies of algal feed to molluscan growth are required to maximize the return on algal‑culture investments. In the past we have used 12 specialized, manually‑controlled molluscan rearing chambers to study nutritional requirements and growth of oysters, clams, and scallops. A computer‑controlled, solenoid‑valve system was added to automate seawater flow, volume of microalgal food delivered, and feeding duration independently for each chamber. Labor was reduced from 7 h per week to 3 h, while adding flexibility. Each chamber represents a model for a programmed nursery system. Evidence that superior growth of bivalves can be achieved by feeding regimes made possible by this apparatus are provided by an experiment with juvenile bay scallops (Argopecten irradians).

Descriptors: clams, scallops, oysters, feeding, phytoplankton, mollusc culture, algae culture, feed conversion, feed conversion efficiency, nutrient requirements, growth, duration, volume, sea water, labor, feed dispensers, automation.


Soudant, P.; J. R. Le Coz; Y. Marty; J. Moal; R. Robert; J. F. Samain. Incorporation of microalgae sterols by scallop Pecten maximus (l.) larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol, Part A Mol integr physiol. New York : Elsevier Science, c1998. Feb 1998. v. 119A (2) p. 451‑457. ISSN: 1095‑6433. 

NAL call no: QP1.C6

Abstract: Changes in sterol composition of Pecten maximus larvae during the larval development stage with standard algal mixtures and unialgal diets were analysed. The sterol composition of four microalgae currently used in mollusc hatchery were also examined. Under standard algal conditions, the larvae quickly use the steryl ester from larvae reserves during the endotrophic and the mixotrophe phases. The preferential incorporation of Pavlova lutheri and T‑Isochrysis sterols, rather than Skeletonema costatum sterols, during the larval development stage would indicate that S. costatum cells were poorly ingested and digested by larvae. Among the ingested sterols, cholesterol and stigmasterol were preferentially incorporated by the larvae. Conversely, the larvae appeared able to limit the incorporation of methylpavlovol, ethylpavlovol, and 4 alpha‑methylporiferasterol. In the unialgal experiment, the best growths were obtained with the diet richest in cholesterol (Chaetoceros calcitrans) and the best compromise of good growth and settlement rate was observed with the diet richest in C24 ethyl sterol. The selective incorporation of the cholesterol was confirmed by the larval rearing with C. calcitrans. The strong sterol dietary imprint in larvae corroborated the absence of an important capacity in P. maximus larvae to convert or biosynthesise sterol.

Descriptors: Pecten maximus, scallop, microalgae sterols, algal mixtures, unialgal diets, larval rearing/ development, Chaetoceros calcitrans, sterol biosynthesis/ uptake/ conversion, nutrition, lipids, incorporation, metabolism.


Southgate, P. C.; P. S. Lee. Hatchery rearing of the tropical blacklip oyster Saccostrea echinata (Quoy and Gaimard).  aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Dec 1, 1998. v. 169 (3/4) p. 275‑281. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: This paper reports on two growth trials in which larvae of the tropical black‑lip oyster, Saccostrea echinata (Quoy and Gaimard), were reared to settlement, and on early spat growth to 2 weeks post‑settlement. Broodstock oysters were induced to spawn by increasing water temperature to 33 degrees C followed by rapid reduction in salinity and water temperature. Female oysters spawned a mean of 8.0 X 10(6) and 9.4 X 10(6) eggs in the first and second spawning, respectively. The maximum number of eggs spawned per individual was 18 X 10(6). Mean egg diameter was 52.9 +/‑ 3.2 micrometer (+/‑ s.d. n = 30) and 55.2 +/‑ 2.8 micrometer (n = 50) in the first and second spawning, respectively. Larvae reared at 28‑31.2 degrees C and fed an algal diet consisting of Isochrysis sp. (clone T‑ISO), Paulova salina and Chaetoceros muelleri reached settlement 20 days after‑fertilisation. However, larvae reared at 27‑30 degrees C and fed only T‑ISO and P. salina developed more slowly and did not reach settlement until 25 days after fertilisation. Survival from D‑stage to competent pediveliger stage was low and ranged from 4.2‑5.2%. At 2 weeks post‑settlement, spat had a mean shell length of 2.3 +/‑ 0.4 mm and a mean dry weight of 1.7 +/‑ 0.2 mg. Although S. echinata seed can successfully be reared in the hatchery, poor larval survival may limit the potential of this species to support a hatchery‑based aquaculture industry.

Descriptors: oysters, Ostreidae, larvae, growth rate, developmental stages, spawning, water temperature, salinity, ova, diameter, fecundity, mollusc culture, algae, length, dry matter, survival.


Spencer, B. E.; M. J. Kaiser; D. B. Edwards. Intertidal clam harvesting: benthic community change and recovery. Aquac Res. Oxford : Blackwell Science, c1995. June 1998. v. 29 (6) p. 429‑437. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: Mechanical harvesting of intertidal bivalve molluscs inevitably leads to the physical disturbance of the substratum and its associated fauna. Hence, it is necessary to consider the consequences of such activities for the requirements of other species (e.g. fish and birds) which utilize these areas. The present study reports a long‑term experiment that studied the effects of Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, cultivation on an estuarine benthic habitat and its fauna. The study began with the initial seeding of the clams, and continued through ongrowing, and finally, harvesting 30 months later. Earlier observations revealed that plots covered with netting elevated sedimentation rate, and hence, encouraged the proliferation of certain deposit‑feeding worm species which persisted throughout the cultivation cycle until harvesting took place. The immediate effects of harvesting by suction dredging caused a reduction of infaunal species and their abundance by approximately 80%. Recovery of the sediment structure and the invertebrate infaunal communities, judged by similarity to the control plots on both the harvested and unharvested but originally netted plots, had occurred 12 months after harvesting. Comparisons with other similar studies demonstrate that, in general, suction harvesting causes large short‑term changes to the intertidal habitat. The rate at which recolonization occurs and sediment structure is restored varies according to local hydrography, exposure to natural physical disturbance and sediment stability. The management of clam farming procedures and other forms of mechanical harvesting should incorporate a consideration of site selection rotational seeding, cultivation and harvesting to create fallow areas, and seasonal harvesting to ameliorate the recovery of sites. 

Descriptors: tapes, coastal areas, collection, communities, ecosystems, long term experiments, estuaries, mollusc culture, benthos, habitats, species diversity, colonization, community ecology, sediment.


Utting, S. D.; P. F. Millican. The role of diet in hatchery conditioning of Pecten maximus L.: a review. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. June 15, 1998. v. 165 (3/4) p. 167‑178. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Techniques to bring adult scallops Pecten maximus L. into spawning condition in a hatchery environment, known as broodstock conditioning, are reviewed. Previously unpublished data from experiments carried out at the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) Conwy Laboratory on food quantity and quality are also included. Factors shown to be important for the production and viability of scallop eggs and embryos (in terms of numbers developing into D‑larvae) are identified. In particular, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n‑3), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n‑3) and arachadonic acid (20:4n‑6) are named as essential fatty acids that must be supplied in microalgae diets during broodstock conditioning. Other factors that are considered include the uptake and assimilation of microalgae species as well as the optimisation of seawater temperature and photoperiod. Techniques for the hatchery conditioning of P. maximus are discussed in relation to those for other pectinid species.

Descriptors: eicosapentaenoic acid, Pecten maximus, mollusc culture, feeding, feeds, spawning, feed rations, quality, ova, embryos, larvae, biological development, docosahexaenoic acid, algae, water temperature, photoperiod, literature reviews.


Walker, R. L. Comparative gametogenesis of Spisula solidissima solidissima and Spisula solidissima similis cultured in coastal Georgia. J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La. : World Aquaculture Society, c1987. 1998. v. 29 (3) p. 304‑312. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: Spisula solidissima, genetic variation, gametogenesis, reproductive physiology, seasonal variation, mollusc culture, gonads, spawning, sex ratio, developmental stages, Georgia.





Barber, B. J.; C. V. Davis. Growth and mortality of cultured bay scallops in the Damariscotta River, Maine (USA). Aquac Int. London : Chapman & Hall, 1993. Sept 1997. v. 5 (5) p. 451‑460. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Argopecten irradians, mollusc culture, growth, seasonal variation, water temperature, shells, height, nets, survival, mortality, evaluation, life cycle, growth rate, rivers, Maine.


Cliche, G.; S. Vigneau; M. Giguere. Status of a commercial sea scallop enhancement project in Iles‑de‑la‑Madeleine (Quebec, Canada). Aquac Int. London : Chapman & Hall, 1993. May 1997. v. 5 (3) p. 259‑266. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: research, Pectinidae, population density, mollusc culture, fisheries, animal breeding, nets, growth, height, growth rate, Quebec.


Felix Pico, E. F.; A. Tripp Quezada; J. L. Castro Ortiz; G. Serrano Casillas; P. G. Gonzalez Ramirez; M. Villalejo Fuerte; R. Palomares Garcia; F. A. Garcia Dominguez; M. Mazon Suastegui; G. Bojorquez Verastica. Repopulation and culture of the Pacific Calico scallops in Bahia Concepcion, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Aquac Int. London : Chapman & Hall, 1993. Nov 1997. v. 5 (6) p. 551‑563. ISSN: 0967‑6120. 

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Argopecten, mollusc culture, biomass production, growth, mortality, water temperature, sexual reproduction, collection, weight, seasonal variation, geographical variation, population density, survival, Mexico.


Harvey, J.S.; Lyons, B.P.; Waldock, M.; Parry, J.M. (1997) The application of the 32P‑postlabelling assay to aquatic biomonitoring. Mutat Res 378(1‑2): 77‑88, ISSN: 0027‑5107.

NAL call no: QH431.M8

Abstract: The aquatic environment is known to contain a variety of natural and anthropogenic compounds that are capable of interacting with the genetic material of aquatic organisms. The increases in the levels of these anthropogenic contaminants, associated with widespread industrialisation, has led to the requirement for reliable methodologies to monitor their potential impact upon exposed aquatic organisms. Of the molecular techniques currently available, the 32P‑postlabelling assay for the detection of DNA adducts offers considerable potential for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of genotoxin exposure. Here we describe several studies in which the technique was adapted for evaluation in two marine bioindicator species the common mussel Mytilus edulis and the flatfish Limanda limanda. Laboratory studies in which M. edulis specimens were exposed to 2‑aminofluorene and 4‑nitroquinoline 1‑oxide confirmed the species' capacity to form genotoxin‑related adducts. However, in further studies, no exposure‑related adducts could be detected in M. edulis specimens placed in mesocosms containing environmentally realistic levels of anthropogenic contaminants. Biologically significant levels of adducts were detected in L. limanda specimens exposed to sediment bound contaminants under controlled conditions, although the levels did not appear to be statistically significant. An in situ study in which adduct levels were determined in L. limanda specimens from two sites of contrasting contamination levels proved to be more conclusive. The results were both biologically and statistically significant, suggesting that adduct levels could well be related to the levels of sediment‑bound contaminants. Together the studies confirmed that the determination of the levels of DNA adducts could be used as indicators of the exposure of aquatic organisms to environmental genotoxins.

Descriptors: DNA adducts analysis, environmental monitoring, flatfishes metabolism, mussels chemistry, mutagens analysis, water pollutants, chemical analysis, Aspergillus nuclease S1 metabolism, autoradiography, chromatography thin layer, DNA metabolism, DNA adducts metabolism, England, gills chemistry, liver chemistry, marine biology, mutagens metabolism, mutagens toxicity, pancreas chemistry, phosphorus radioisotopes metabolism, polychlorinated biphenyls analysis, polychlorinated biphenyls metabolism, polychlorinated biphenyls toxicity, polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic analysis, polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic metabolism, polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic toxicity, seawater, water pollutants, chemical metabolism, water pollutants, chemical toxicity.


Hawkins, A.J.S.; Smith, R.F.M.; Bougrier, S.; Bayne, B.L.; Heral, M. (1997) Manipulation of dietary conditions for maximal growth in mussels, Mytilus edulis, from the Marennes‑Oleron Bay, France [maximum growth rate]. Aquatic Living Resources v. 10(1) p. 13‑22, ISSN 0990‑7440.

NAL call no: SH1.A8

Descriptors: mussels, Mytilus edulis, feeding habits, growth, fish feeding, diet, rations, experimentation, France, animal feeding, aquaculture, behaviour, biological development, Bivalvia, Europe, fish culture, Mediterranean countries, Mytilus, shellfish, Western Europe.


Lu, Y.; N. J. Blake. The culture of the southern bay scallop in Tampa Bay, an urban Florida estuary. Aquac Int. London : Chapman & Hall, 1993. Sept 1997. v. 5 (5) p. 439‑450. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Argopecten irradians, mollusc culture, sea water, feeding, feeds, algae, spawning, ova, fecundity, larvae, metamorphosis, shells, height, nets, survival, mortality, evaluation, growth, life cycle, estuaries, Florida.


Pozdnyakova, L. A.; A. V. Silina; G. A. Evseev. Age, size distribution and growth of native and cultured Japanese scallops in Possjet Bay, Sea of Japan, Russia. Aquac Int. London : Chapman & Hall, 1993. Jan 1997. v. 5 (1) p. 79‑88. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Bivalvia, age differences, size, growth, mollusc culture, population dynamics, geographical distribution, height, geographical variation, shells, liveweight, Pectinidae, Russia, Sea of Japan.





Atmar, R.L.; Neill, F.H.; Woodley, C.M.; Manger, R.; Fout, G.S.; Burkhardt, W.; Leja, L.; McGovern, E.R.; Le‑Guyader, F.; Metcalf, T.G.; Estes, M.K. (1996) Collaborative evaluation of a method for the detection of Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62(1): 254‑8, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: A multicenter, collaborative trial was performed to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of a previously described method for the detection of Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues with the PCR (R.L. Atmar, F. H. Neill, J. L. Romalde, F. Le Guyader, C. M. Woodley, T. G. Metcalf, and M. K. Estes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3014‑3018, 1995). Virus was added to the stomachs and hepatopancreatic tissues of oysters or hard‑shell clams in the control laboratory, the samples were shipped to the participating laboratories, and viral nucleic acids were extracted and then detected by reverse transcription‑PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 85 and 91%, respectively, when results were determined by visual inspection of ethidium bromide‑stained agarose gels; the test sensitivity and specificity improved to 87 and 100%, respectively, after confirmation by hybridization with a digoxigenin‑labeled, virus‑specific probe. We have demonstrated that this method can be implemented successfully by several laboratories to detect Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues.

Descriptors: Norwalk virus isolation and purification, polymerase chain reaction methods, shellfish virology, base sequence, clams virology, evaluation studies, molecular sequence data, oysters virology, RNA, viral analysis, reproducibility of results, sensitivity and specificity.


Brooke, S.; Mann, R. (1996) Use of mesocosms for 'in situ' culture of marine invertebrate larvae. Journal of Shellfish Research 15 (2) 491‑492, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: development, ecology, environmental sciences, general life studies, physiology, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda, Crassostrea virginica.


Gatenby, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Parker, B.C. (1996) Influence of sediment and algal food on cultured juvenile freshwater mussels. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15 (4) 597‑609, ISSN: 0887‑3593.

NAL call no: QL141.F7

Descriptors: freshwater ecology, environmental sciences, nutrition, physiology, soil science, wildlife management, conservation, Chlorophyta, Algae, Plantae, Flagellata, Protozoa, Lepidoptera, Insecta, Arthropoda, Pelecypoda.





Araya, N.O.; Ganning, B.; Bucke, R.F. (1995) Embryonic development, larval culture, and settling of American pearl‑oyster (Pteria sterna, Gould) spat. California Fish and Game 81 (1) 10‑21, ISSN: 0008‑1078.

NAL call no: 410 C12

Descriptors: development, estuarine ecology, environmental sciences, physiology, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda, Pteria sterna.


Belda, C.A.; Yellowlees, D. (1995) Phosphate acquisition in the giant clam‑zooxanthellae symbiosis. Marine Biology Berlin 124 (2) 261‑266, ISSN: 0025‑3162.

NAL call no: QH91.A1M35

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, cell biology, ecology, environmental sciences, marine ecology, nutrition, physiology, Flagellata, Protozoa, Pelecypoda, Pyrrophyta, Algae, Plantae, Flagellata, Symbiodinium sp., Tridacna gigas, algae, microorganisms, nonvascular plants, protozoans.


Dore, W. J.; D. N. Lees. Behavior of Escherichia coli and male‑specific bacteriophage in environmentally contaminated bivalve molluscs before and after depuration.  Appl Environ Microbiol. Washington : American Society for Microbiology. Aug 1995. v. 61 (8) p. 2830‑2834.  ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 Ap5

Abstract: We monitored the differential reduction rates and elimination patterns of Escherichia coli and male‑specific (F+) bacteriophage during UV depuration for 48 h in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated by short‑term (1 to 3 weeks) and long‑term (more than 6 months) exposure to sewage in the marine environment. The time taken to reduce levels of E. coli by 90% was 6.5 h or less in all cases. In contrast, the amounts of time needed to reduce levels of F+ bacteriophage by 90% were considerably longer: 47.3 and 41.3 h (after short‑ and long‑term exposures, respectively) in mussels and 54.6 and 60.8 h (after short‑ and long‑term exposures, respectively) in oysters. No differences in the rates of reduction of indicators of viral pollution following exposure of the shellfish to either short‑ or long‑term sewage contamination were observed. Further experiments were conducted with mussels to determine the relative distributions of E. coli and F+ bacteriophage in tissue before and during depuration. Prior to depuration the majority of E. coli organisms (90.1%) and F+ bacteriophage (87.3%) were detected in the digestive tract (i.e., the digestive gland and intestine). E. coli and F+ bacteriophage were reduced in all tissues except the digestive gland to undetectable levels following depuration for 48 h. Within the digestive gland, levels of F+ bacteriophage were reduced to 30% of initial levels, whereas E. coli was reduced to undetectable levels. These results confirm previous laboratory studies showing the differential reductions of levels of E. coli and F+ bacteriophage during depuration. They also demonstrate that these differential elimination patterns are not affected by the duration of sewage contamination and that F+ bacteriophage are retained only in the digestive gland and are not sequestered into other internal tissues.

Descriptors: Escherichia coli, bacteriophages, microbial contamination, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, sewage, decontamination, ultraviolet radiation, indicator species, digestive tract, intestines.


Le Bris, H.; Pouliquen, H.; Debernardi, J.M.; Buchet, V.; Pinault, L. (1995) Preliminary study on the kinetics of oxytetracycline in shellfish exposed to an effluent of a land‑based fish farm: Experimental approach. Marine Environmental Research 40 (2) 171‑180, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, marine ecology, environmental sciences, physiology, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda.


Numaguchi, K. (1995) Effects of water temperature on catabolic losses of meat and condition index of unfed pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii. Fisheries Science v. 61(5) p. 735‑738, ISSN 0919‑9268.

NAL call no: SH1.F8195

Descriptors: Pinctada fucata, starvation, environmental temperature, body condition, evaluation, catabolism, meat, dry matter content, weight losses, laboratory experimentation, animal products, Bivalvia, environmental factors, experimentation, feeding, losses, metabolism, Pinctada, proximate composition, temperature.


Pipe, R.K.; Coles, J.A. (1995) Environmental contaminants influencing immune function in marine bivalve molluscs. Fish and Shellfish Immunology v. 5(8) p. 581‑595.

NAL call no: QL638.97 F55

Descriptors: pollutants, water pollution, contamination, immunity, phagocytes, immune response, heavy metals, blood, pollution, Bivalvia, cadmium, copper, phenolic compounds, aromatic compounds, cells, elements, heavy metals, immunity, metallic elements, pollution, transition elements.


Ruiz, A.P.; Rodriguez, S.R.; Martin, J.B. (1995) Culture of coquina clam, Donax trunculus, larvae. Aquaculture 139: 1‑2, 151‑155; 13 ref., ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: aquaculture, larvae, culture, chloramphenicol, growth, survival, sources, environmental temperature, antibiotics, Donax, algae, clams, Isochrysis, Chaetoceros, Tetraselmis, Rhodomonas, Donacidae, Bivalvia, plants, aquaculture animals, microbiology of feed processing, feed additives, animal nutrition production responses, animal toxicology, poisoning and pharmacology.


Shi, A.J.; Chen, S.N. (1995) Polarization microscopic observation on the secretion of the in vitro cultured mantle of Critaria plicata. Acta Zoologica Sinica 41 (1) 35‑40, ISSN: 0001‑7302. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: 410 AC87

Descriptors: freshwater ecology, environmental sciences, methods and techniques, morphology, physiology, Pelecypoda, Critaria plicata.


Ver, L.M.; Wang, J.K. (1995) Design criteria of a fluidized bed oyster nursery. Aquacultural Engineering 14 (3) 229‑249, ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: development, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, marine ecology, environmental sciences, nutrition, physiology, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda.


Zaroogian, G.; Anderson, S. (1995) Comparison of cadmium, nickel and benzo(alpha)pyrene uptake into cultured brown cells of the hard shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C Pharmacology Toxicology and Endocrinology 111(1): 109‑116.

NAL call no: QP901.C6

Descriptors: Bivalvia,  cell culture, Mercenaria, cadmium, nickel, benzopyrene, hydrocarbons, pollutants, heavy metals, clams, aromatic compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, culture techniques, elements, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, in vitro culture, metallic elements, shellfish, transition elements, miscellaneous animal disorders, aquaculture production, animal physiology nutrition.





Dimock, R.V. Jr.; Wright, A.H. (1994) Sensitivity of juvenile freshwater mussels to hypoxic, thermal and acid stress. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 109 (4) 183‑192, ISSN: 0013‑6220.

NAL call no: 500 EL4

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, development, freshwater ecology, environmental sciences, pathology, physiology, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda.


Harewood, P.; Rippey, S.; Montesalvo, M. (1994) Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard‑shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). Appl Environ Microbiol 60(7): 2666‑70, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: The feasibility of using 60Co gamma irradiation to inactivate total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F‑coliphage in hard‑shelled clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, was investigated. The results of three trials indicated average D10 values of 1.32 kGy for total coliforms, 1.39 kGy for fecal coliforms, 1.54 kGy for E. coli, 2.71 kGy for C. perfringens, and 13.50 kGy for F‑coliphage. Irradiation doses of > 0.5 kGy were significantly lethal to the shellfish.

Descriptors: bacteria isolation and purification, bacteria radiation effects, clams microbiology, clams radiation effects, coliphages isolation and purification, coliphages radiation effects, food irradiation, Clostridium perfringens isolation and purification, Clostridium perfringens radiation effects, dose response relationship radiation, Enterobacteriaceae isolation and purification, Enterobacteriaceae radiation effects, Escherichia coli isolation and purification, Escherichia coli radiation effects, feces microbiology, food microbiology, gamma rays.


Lees, D.N.; Henshilwood, K.; Dore, W.J. (1994) Development of a method for detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by PCR with poliovirus as a model. Appl Environ Microbiol 60(8): 2999‑3005, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: The application of the PCR to complex samples is hindered by amplification inhibitors. We describe a reverse transcription‑PCR‑based method capable of inhibitor removal for the detection of enteroviruses in shellfish. Initial virus extraction stages based on a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation technique (G.D. Lewis and T.G. Metcalf, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983‑1988, 1988) were followed by virus purification with 1,1,2‑trichloro,2,2,1‑trifluoroethane and concentration by ultrafiltration. A guanidine isothiocyanate‑glass powder extraction system was utilized for sample lysis, RNase protection, and nucleic acid purification. Removal of PCR inhibitors and method sensitivity were quantified in shellfish (oysters and mussels) seeded with poliovirus. PCR sample tolerance exceeded 4 g for depurated shellfish; however, polluted field samples were more inhibitory. Virus recoveries of 31% for oyster extracts and 17% for mussel extracts and nucleic acid extraction reverse transcription‑PCR detection limits down to 1 PFU yielded an overall sensitivity limit of < 10 PFU of poliovirus in up to 5 g of shellfish. PCR‑positive results were obtained from a variety of polluted field samples naturally contaminated with human enteroviruses. The methods developed for virus recovery and PCR inhibitor removal should be equally applicable to detection of other RNA viruses such as hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus, and other small round‑structured viruses in shellfish.

Descriptors: Enterovirus isolation and purification, Polioviruses isolation and purification, polymerase chain reaction methods, shellfish microbiology, base sequence, Enterovirus genetics, food microbiology, molecular sequence data, Polioviruses genetics, RNA, viral isolation and purification, RNA directed DNA polymerase, sensitivity and specificity, sewage.


Norton, J. H.; A. D. Thomas; J. R. Barker. Fungal infection in the cultured juvenile boring clam Tridacna crocea.  J Invertebr Pathol. Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press. Nov 1994. v. 64 (3) p. 273‑275. ISSN: 0022‑2011.

NAL call no: 421‑J826

Descriptors: Bivalvia, mycoses, body parts, histopathology, mollusc culture.


Peterson, C.H.; Skilleter, G.A. (1994) Control of foraging behavior of individuals within an ecosystem context: the clam Macoma balthica, flow environment, and siphon‑cropping fishes. Oecologia 100(3): 256‑267, ISSN: 0029‑8549.

NAL call no: QL750 O3

Abstract: Macoma balthica (L.), an abundant clam, ubiquitous in temperate estuaries across the North Atlantic, is known to practice both alternative basic modes of feeding available to seafloor invertebrates. It either holds its feeding organ, the siphon, at a fixed position just above the sediment surface to filter out food particles suspended in the overlying water or else extends and moves its siphon around to vacuum up deposited food particles on the sediment surface. Previous laboratory experiments have established an understanding of the role of current flow in dictating the choice of whether suspension or deposit feeding will be used by marine invertebrates with the facultative flexibility to choose. Faster flows imply greater fluxes of suspended particles so that the energetic rewards of suspension feeding are enhanced. Slower flows imply reduced renewal rates of suspended foods in the bottom boundary layers and enhanced deposition of food particles on the seafloor so that a switch to deposit feeding is favored. Like early optimal foraging theory, this understanding is based on energetic considerations alone without incorporation of broader implications of how population interactions such as predation and competition influence individual foraging behavior. Feeding behavior of Macoma balthica is influenced in the Neuse River estuary by both hydrodynamics and siphon‑cropping by juvenile demersal fishes. Under conditions of identical concentrations of suspended particulates in the water column and organic contents of surface sediments, Macoma exhibited much higher levels of deposit feeding where currents were slower. 

Descriptors: clams, foraging, hydrodynamics, behaviour, saltwater fishes, fishes, physics, shellfish, aquatic ecology.


Van Beneden, R.J. (1994) Molecular analysis of bivalve tumors: models for environmental/genetic interactions. Environ Health Perspect 102 Suppl 12: 81‑3, ISSN: 0091‑6765.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E54

Abstract: An increase in both the numbers and types of tumors found in finfish and shellfish has been noted in the past several decades. In many cases, while the increase in tumor incidence can be correlated with increases in aquatic toxicant levels, causality cannot be definitively proven. One recent epidemiologic investigation identified the prevalence of gonadal cancers as high as 40% in softshell clams (Mya arenaria) in Maine and 60% in hardshell clams (Mercenaria spp.) from Florida. A second study of these same geographic areas identified human mortality rates due to ovarian cancer as significantly greater than the national average. The rise in mortality rates in humans correlated with the increased use of herbicides in these areas as well as with the appearance of significant numbers of gonadal tumors in the clams. Studies were initiated in our laboratory to examine the molecular basis of these neoplasms in bivalves. NIH3T3 transfection assays were used to examine DNA isolated from these molluscan tumors for the presence of activated oncogenes. DNAs isolated from advanced tumors in both species were able to transform NIH3T3 cells and induce tumors in athymic mice. Studies are now underway to identify the gene(s) detected by these assays and also to examine the molecular mechanisms of toxic response of herbicide‑exposed clams.

Descriptors: cell transformation, neoplastic genetics, clams genetics, cell transformation, neoplastic drug effects, DNA neoplasm, DNA viral, gonads pathology, gonads virology, herbicides adverse effects, mice, mice mude, neoplasms, experimental pathology, neoplasms experimental virology, receptors aryl hydrocarbon drug effects, water pollutants, chemical adverse effects.


Victor, A.C.C.; Chellam, A.; Dharmaraj, S.; Velayudhan, T.S. (1994) Recent developments in pearl oyster research in India. Journal of Shellfish Research 13 (1) 353, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: climatology, environmental sciences, development, nutrition, physiology, reproductive system, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda, gonadal development, juvenile, larva, oyster breeding, pearl seeding, rearing, seasonality, spat setting.





Denton, G.R.W.; Heitz, L.F. (1993) Heavy metal uptake and loss in the burrowing clam, Tridacna crocea: implications from a public health and mariculture viewpoint. [Conference paper]. Fitt,‑W.K. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA)) (ed.). Biology and mariculture of giant clams. Canberra, A.C.T. (Australia). Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. p. 119‑132, ISBN 1‑86320‑095‑9.

NAL call no: S542.A8M34 no. 47

Abstract: Field transplant and laboratory exposure studies demonstrate that Tridacna crocea clams possess a marked capacity to confine zinc, copper and lead levels to a remarkably narrow range that is unlikely to exceed health standards even in substantially enriched waters. Prolonged exposure to cadmium, however, may require clams to be purged in clean water before marketing. In contrast, the clam has a high affinity for mercury, and even relatively short and minor episodes of Hg enrichment could have commercially disastrous effects.

Descriptors: clams, heavy metals, pollutants, water pollution, contamination, foods, elements, metallic elements, pollution, shellfish.


Douillet, P.; Langdon, C.J. (1993) Effects of marine bacteria on the culture of axenic oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) larvae. Biological Bulletin Woods Hole 184 (1) 36‑51, ISSN: 0006‑3185.

NAL call no: 442.8 B52

Descriptors: development, marine ecology, environmental sciences, morphology, nutrition, physiology, systematics and taxonomy, wildlife management, conservation, bacteria general unspecified, Eubacteria, bacteria, Chrysophyta, algae, Plantae, Flagellata, Protozoa, Pelecypoda.


Kraak, M.H.; Schoon, H.; Peeters, W.H.; Van Straalen, N.M. (1993) Chronic ecotoxicity of mixtures of Cu, Zn, and Cd to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 25(3): 315‑27, ISSN: 0147‑6513.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E29

Abstract: Organisms in contaminated freshwater ecosystems are often exposed to a variety of toxicants for their entire lifetime. To evaluate the ecological consequences of these long‑term contaminations, the effects of mixtures of heavy metals on the filtration rate and survival of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha were studied during chronic exposure. In laboratory experiments, mussels were exposed to equitoxic mixtures of Cu + Zn, Cu + Cd, Zn + Cd, and Cu + Zn + Cd in concentrations causing a 50% decrease in filtration rate in short‑term (48 hr) experiments. The filtration rate was measured once a week, during a 9‑ to 10‑week exposure period. For all metal combinations effects on mortality increased when exposure time was prolonged from 48 hr to 9‑10 weeks. In contrast, the effects on filtration rate did not increase, indicating that the filtration rate was related to the metal mixture concentration in the water, but not related to the metal concentrations in the mussels. Consequently, the effects on mortality and filtration rate were not related. In short‑term experiments Cu + Cd were more than concentrations additive, whereas in chronic experiments Cu + Cd were strongly less than additive, indicating a loss of potential for additivity during prolonged exposure. In general, Cu, Zn, and Cd did not affect each others uptake. It was concluded that the chronic effects of mixtures could not be predicted from their short‑term effects nor from the chronic effects of the metals tested individually.

Descriptors: cadmium toxicity, copper toxicity, mussels drug effects, water pollutants, chemical toxicity, zinc toxicity, cadmium analysis, copper analysis, zinc analysis.





Wildish, D.J.; Kristmanson, D.D.; Saulnier, A.M. (1992) Interactive Effect of Velocity And Seston Concentration On Giant Scallop Feeding Inhibition. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, V 155, N2, P. 161-168.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: bivalve mollusk, filtration feeding, velocity seston, filtration rate, growth, flow, fluxes, flow velocity, marine bivalve, particle capture, mussel pump, ciliated larvae, microbial filter feeding.





Martinez Manzanares, E.; F. Egea; D. Castro; M. A. Morinigo; P. Romero; J. J. Borrego. Accumulation and depuration of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms by the bivalve mollusc, Chamelea gallina L, under laboratory conditions. J Food Prot. Ames, Iowa : International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians. Aug 1991. v. 54 (8) p. 612‑618. ISSN: 0362‑028X.

NAL call no: 44.8‑J824

Abstract: The comparative accumulation and depuration processes for several microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and MS‑2 coliphage) by the striped venus, Chamelea gallina, under controlled laboratory conditions were studied. Microorganisms accumulated rapidly in bivalves during the first 6 h, with accumulation rates between 3.2 to 360.5 organisms/h depending on the type of microorganism. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the microorganisms suggest that they are eliminated from shellfish in two different ways. One is of a mechanical nature that results in microbial elimination during the first 12 h. The other elimination mechanism depends upon the microbial species and their accumulated number. All microorganisms tested were eliminated completely by the molluscs after 3 d of depuration, except MS‑2 bacteriophages. Results indicate that MS‑2 coliphages may be a more reliable indicator of the microbial depuration efficiency by the shellfish under laboratory conditions than E. coli.

Descriptors: Bivalvia, microbial flora, purification, growth, bacteriophages, bacterial count, indicators.





Adams C.; B. Pomeroy. Preliminary financial feasibility analysis for hard clam mariculture systems. Staff Pap Univ Fla Food Resour Econ Dep Inst Food Agric Sci. Gainesville, Fla. : The Department. Feb 1990. (381) 69 p. ISSN: 0886‑7615

NAL call no: HD1751.A1S73

Descriptors: Mercenaria, mollusc culture, marine fisheries, financial planning, feasibility studies, southeastern states of USA.





Della‑Seta, G. (1989) Aspects of the Italian production of aquaculture and of problems related with trout and mussel culture. Organisation de Cooperation et de Developpement Economique, Paris (France). Aquaculture. A review of recent experience. Aquaculture. Examen des donnees d' experiences recentes. Paris (France). OCDE. p. 279‑290. ISBN 92‑64‑23218‑4. Note: In French.

NAL call no: SH135.A49

Descriptors: Italy, aquaculture, trout, mussels, production data, fish ponds, brackishwater environment, production location, aquatic environment, diadromous fishes, environments, Europe, fishes, freshwater fishes, Mediterranean countries, shellfish, western Europe, production economics, aquaculture production.


Fabregas, J.; Otero, A.; Romaris, M.; Cancelo, M.; Munoz, A. (1989) Computer prediction of the evolution of mollusc cultures: application to Ostrea edulis culture. Aquacultural Engineering 8: 3, 165‑176; 7 ref., ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: environmental factors, aquaculture, prediction, automatic control, temperature, oxygen, salinity, pH, mollusc culture, control, algae, Ostrea edulis.





Fisher, W. S. Disease processes in marine bivalve molluscs. Special publication (American Fisheries Society) ; 18. Bethesda, Md. : 1988. viii, 315 p. : ill., maps. ISBN: 0913235520.   

NAL call no: QL430.6.D48

Descriptors: Bivalvia diseases, Bivalvia parasites.


McCoy, E. W.; T. Chongpeepien. Bivalve mollusc culture research in Thailand. ICLARM technical reports, 0115‑5547 ; 19. ICLARM contribution ; no. 455. Bangkok, Thailand : Dept. of Fisheries ; Manila, Philippines : International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management; Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany : Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Ausammenarbeit (GTZ), 1988. xiii, 170 p. : ill., maps. ISBN: 9711022435.

NAL call no: SH367.T5B58

Descriptors: shellfish fisheries research Thailand, shellfish culture Thailand.





Siri Tookwinas (1986) Coastal aquaculture ground survey method and survey report at Ban Tanyong Pao, Pattani province [Thailand]. Kasetsart Univ. Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhon Pathom (Thailand). Kasetsart Univ. Research and Development Inst. Central Laboratory and Greenhouse Complex Center. Fourth annual conference on methodological techniques in biological sciences. Kan prachum thang wichakan khrang thi 4 technique khong withikan thang witthayasat chiwaphap. Nakhon Pathom (Thailand). 1986. 78 p.  p. 33‑34.

Abstract: Thailand has a total coast line, both on the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman sea, of approximately 2,600 kms. The mangrove area has been estimated to be 1,099,150 rai and the mud flats to be over one million rai. From the report in 1982, the coastal aquaculture has expanded up to 208,245 rai and production of 89,906 tons/yr. The types of culture are shrimp farm, cage culture of fish, shellfish culture, eg. blood cockle, green mussel and oyster. Coastal ecosystem, or estuarine ecosystem, represents a meeting place between freshwater, as run‑off from the land, and sea water. Consequently, the estuarine environment is more extreme, and undergoes more violent fluctuations than the open sea or freshwater habitats. Therefore, coastal aquatic organisms have to tolerate variations in the physico‑chemical properties of the habitat. The main purpose of this report is to state some ecological aspects of coastal aquatic organisms which have been cultured in Thailand. Certain bio‑physicochemical parameters of the estuarine ecosystem which have influence on cultured species are summarized. Suitable habitats are shown. The coastal aquaculture ground survey method at Ban Tanyong Pao, Pattani province, are also reported in detail.

Descriptors: aquaculture, coastal fisheries, surveying, yields, water quality, environment, Thailand, Asia, fisheries, quality, Southeast Asia.





Broom, M. J. The biology and culture of marine bivalve molluscs of the genus Anadara. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. ICLARM studies and reviews ; 12. Manila, Philippines : ICLARM, 1985. vi, 37 p. : ill. ISBN: 9711022214.

NAL call no: QL408.B7

Descriptors: Bivalvia, marine fauna, aquaculture.





Buroker, N. E. Gene flow in mainland and insular populations of Crassotrea (mollusca). Biol Bull. Woods Hole, Mass. : Marine Biological Laboratory. June 1984. v. 166 (3) p. 550‑557. ill. ISSN: 0006‑3185.

NAL call no: 442.8 B52


Fitt, W. K.; C. R. Fisher; R. K. Trench. Larval biology of tridacnid clams. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishing. June 15, 1984. v. 39 (1/4) p. 181‑195. ill. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: Tridacna gigas, Hippopus hippous.


Hershberger, W. K.; J. A. Perdue; J. H. Beattie. Genetic selection and systematic breeding in Pacific oyster culture. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishing. June 15, 1984. v. 39 (1/4) p. 237‑245. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: USA, Crassostrea gigas.


Heslinga, G. A.; F. E. Perron; O. Orak. Mass culture of giant clams (F. Tridacnidae) in Palau. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishing. June 15, 1984. v. 39 (1/4) p. 197‑215. ill. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: Caroline Islands.


Umezawa, S.; Nogami, K.; Fukuhara, O. (1984) Relation between high mortality and some environmental conditions for ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii (Schrenck) in cage culture. Bulletin of the Nansei Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.16) p. 231‑244. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SH19.N35

Descriptors: bivalves, arkshells, mollusc culture, mortality, environmental conditions, cages, animal housing, aquaculture, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, buildings, environment, foods, health, housing, isscaap group b 56, isscaap groups of species, seafoods, shellfish, shellfish culture, vital statistics, zootechny.


Zhang, F. Mussel culture in China. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Scientific Publishing. June 15, 1984. v. 39 (1/4) p. 1‑10. ill., maps. ISSN: 0044‑8486.  

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: China, Mytilus edulis.





Claus, C.; H. Maeckelberghe; N. de Pauw. Onshore nursery rearing of bivalve molluscs in Belgium Ostrea edulis, Crassostrea gigas and Venerupis semidecussata. Aquacultural Eng. London : Applied Science Publishers. Mar 1983. v. 2 (1) p 13‑26. ill. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: Belgium.


Shaw, W. N. The culture of molluscs in Japan. 4. Pearl culture in Japan Pinctada. Aquaculture Mag. Little Rock : Briggs Associates, Inc. Mar/Apr 1983. v. 9 (3) p. 41‑42. ill. ISSN: 0199‑1388.

NAL call no: SH1.C65

Descriptors: Japan.


Watling, H. R.; R. J. Watling. Sandy beach molluscs as possible bioindicators of metal pollution. 2. Laboratory studies Donax serra, Bullia rhodostoma. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. New York : Springer‑Verlag. Sept 1983. v. 31 (3) p. 339‑343. ISSN: 0007‑4861.

NAL call no: RA1270.P35A1

Descriptors: metals metabolism, Mollusca metabolism, water pollutants metabolism, water pollutants, chemical metabolism, cadmium metabolism, copper metabolism, zinc metabolism.





Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M. (1982) Detoxification of accumulated trace metals by the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica: laboratory vs. environment [Pollutants]. Physiological mechanisms of marine pollutant toxicity. New York, Academic Press. p. 89‑107.

NAL call no: QL121 S9 1981

Descriptors: pollution, animal physiology and biochemistry, oysters.


Garland, C.D.; Nash, G.V.; McMeekin, T.A. (1982) Absence of surface‑associated microorganisms in adult oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Appl Environ Microbiol. 44(5): 1205‑11, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: Healthy, actively feeding intertidal oysters were removed from an estuarine environment (Pipeclay Lagoon, Tasmania). The epithelial surfaces of various organs of the mantle cavity and alimentary tract were explored by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. All epithelial tissues examined were ciliated, and nearly all were partly covered with secreted mucus. However, microorganisms were seen rarely in the adhesive mucus and never attached to the epithelium. Electron microscopy also failed to demonstrate a surface microflora in emersed oysters which had been incubated at 5 to 25 degrees C for 6 or 24 h. The absence of an internal surface microflora did not vary on a seasonal basis. In laboratory experiments, oysters were allowed to filter feed from seawater containing diverse types of marine bacteria at concentrations of 10(3) to 10(7)/mL. However, no surface microflora could be found within actively feeding oysters or in emersed animals incubated at 20 degrees C for 6 or 24 h. In contrast, surface‑associated microorganisms were detected readily by scanning electron microscopy on the external shell of healthy oysters and on various internal tissues in spoiled oysters. It is suggested that the major mechanisms restricting microbial growth within oysters are ciliary movement and mucus secretion.

Descriptors: bacteria isolation and purification, oysters microbiology, epithelium microbiology, microscopy, electron, mucus microbiology.


Kikuchi, S.; Fujii, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kikuchi, Y. (1982) Evaluation of environmental conditions for the surf‑clam by the growth of mark‑recaptured individuals. Bulletin of Tohoku Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.44) p. 79‑82. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SH301.S852

Descriptors: surf clams, spisula growth, fishing grounds, benthic environment, evaluation, coasts, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic environment, aquatic organisms, biological development, bivalves, clams, environment, fishing areas, foods, isscaap group b 56, isscaap groups of species, methods, physiographic features, physiological functions, physiology, seafoods, shellfish.





Claus, C.; N. De Pauw; E. Jaspers. Nursery culturing of bivalve molluscs : proceedings of the International Workshop on Culturing of Bivalve molluscs, Ghent, Belgium, 24‑26 February, 1981. Special publication / European Mariculture Society ; no. 7, 1981. Bredene, Belgium : 1981. xiii, 394 p. : ill.

NAL call no: SH138.S64 no.7 1981

Descriptors: shellfish culture congresses, oyster culture congresses, mollusks congresses.


MacKenzie, C.L. (1981) Biotic potential and environmental resistance in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in Long Island Sound. Aquaculture v. 22(3) p. 229‑268.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in Long Island Sound was studied throughout its life span on commercial beds by conducting SCUBA surveys and supporting laboratory tests from 1966‑1972. The oyster had a biotic potential of a magnitude large enough to cover the entire bottom of the Sound within a few years, given optimum environmental conditions. The limiting factors were mainly: low temperatures, a lack of clean shell substratum on which oyster larvae could set, and about 20 causes of mortality in sedentary oysters, the most substantial of which were: (1) predation by starfish (Asterias forbesi), oyster drills (Eupleura caudata and Urosalpinx cinerea) and crabs (Cancer irroratus and Neopanope sayi); (2) competition by slipper‑shells (Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula plana) and other animals on shells; (3) suffocation by silt and (4) shell fracture during transplating by oyster growers. Oyster mortalities occurred mostly from spring to fall and were negligible during winter. The mortalities were area‑specific within beds, bed‑Specific and much higher in spat than in 1, 2 and 3‑year‑old oysters. The survival of oysters from setting of spat throughout their life span on cultured beds was estimated to be 2‑5%. Few oysters could survive in the Sound without bed culture. During 1966 and continuing afterwards, the growers applied improved cultural methods and new technologies to remove a number of limiting factors from the beds and this resulted in an oyster "abundance and production takeoff".

Descriptors: aquatic ecology, oysters, USA.


Mowdy, D.E. (1981) Elimination of laboratory‑acquired cadmium by the oyster Crassostrea virginica in the natural environment. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology v. 26(3) p. 345‑351. ISSN: 0007‑4861.

NAL call no: RA1270.P35A1

Descriptors: pollution, oysters.


Shaw, W. N. Nursery culture of bivalve molluscs. Aquaculture Mag. Little Rock, Ark., Briggs Associates, Inc. Nov/Dec 1981. v. 8 (1) p. 36‑37. ill. ISSN: 0199‑1388.

NAL call no: SH1.C65

Descriptors: Bivalves, culture, workshop preceedings/ conclusions, housing, grow-out systems, nursery phase/ stage, growth, land-based and natural facilities.





Bayne, B.L.; Moore, M.N.; Widdows, J.; Livingstone, D.R.; Salkeld, P. (1979) Measurement of the responses of individuals to environmental stress and pollution: studies with bivalve molluscs. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 286(1015): 563‑81, ISSN: 0962‑8436.

NAL call no: 501 L84Pb

Abstract: Certain physiological differences between individuals in different populations of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are described. In particular, the scope for growth differs in space and time and may be used to assess the animals' physiological condition. When the required measurements are made in the field, the rates of growth predicted from the physiological data agree well with observed rates of growth. An alternative approach utilizes mussels transplanted to various waters, with indices of condition then measured in then measured in the laboratory under standard conditions; an example of this approach is illustrated. Laboratory experiments are used to equate various levels of physiological condition with fecundity, in an attempt to equate physiological effects on the individual with likely population damage. A cytochemical index of stress is described, based on the latency of lysosomal enzymes; spatial variability in this index, and its relation with the scope for growth, are discussed. Finally, the results of some experiments on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on mussels are described and the presence of inducible activity of NADPH‑dependent tetrazolium reductase in the blood cells is demonstrated. Certain considerations that apply in adopting similar measurements of biological effects of pollution in environmental monitoring programmes are discussed.

Descriptors: hydrocarbons adverse effects, mussels growth and development, seawater, water pollution, England, hemocytes enzymology, hydrolases metabolism, mussels enzymology, NADH-NADPH oxidoreductases metabolism, Rhode Island, Wales.


Frazier, J.M. (1979) Bioaccumulation of cadmium in marine organisms. Environ Health Perspect 28: 75‑9, ISSN: 0091‑6765.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E54

Abstract: A general review of cadmium concentrations in marine organisms and studies of cadmium bioaccumulation is presented. Factors which influence cadmium concentrations, such as regional differences, seasonal fluctuations and salinity, are discussed and species which are likely to accumulate cadmium identified. Experimental studies designed to investigate the influence of some of these factors on cadmium bioaccumulation in a filter feeding bivalve mollusk, the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), are presented. Field studies of seasonal dynamics of cadmium in oysters indicate patterns which may be correlated with seasonal physiological activity. The bioaccumulation of cadmium following input to estuarine systems by natural phenomena is observed. Cadmium concentrations in oysters collected from regions of different salinity suggest an inverse relationship between cadmium concentration and salinity. Laboratory experiments designed to investigate mechanisms of cadmium accumulation demonstrate that an inducible cadmium binding protein, similar to metallothiomein, is present in the American oyster.

Descriptors: cadmium metabolism, Mollusca metabolism, cadmium analysis, calcium analysis, environmental exposure, magnesium analysis, metalloproteins biosynthesis, oysters analysis, oysters metabolism, seasons, seawater, sodium chloride, temperature, zinc analysis, animal, comparative study.


Fujii, T. (1979). The study for periodic behaviour of bivalves, 1: Periodicity observed in short‑necked clam Tapes japonica Deshyes put in natural environment. Bulletin of Tohoku Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (Japan). (Jan 1979). (no.40) p. 37‑46, ISSN 0049‑402X. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SH301.S852

Descriptors: aquatic ecology, clam.


Walne, P. R. Culture of bivalve molluscs : 50 years' experience at Conwy. 2d ed. Farnham : Fishing News for the Buckland Foundation, 1979. 189 p. : ill. ISBN: 0852380631.

NAL call no: SH367.W3W3 1979

Descriptors: oyster culture Wales, fisheries Wales.





Ito, K. (1978) Nutritional environment for pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Gould) in pearl cultured ground, Ago Bay [Japan]. Bulletin of the National Pearl Research Laboratory (no.22) p. 2363‑2381, Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: fisheries production, aquatic ecology, oysters, Japan, littoral zone.


Sobsey, M.D.; Carrick, R.J.; Jensen, H.R. (1978) Improved methods for detecting enteric viruses in oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 36(1): 121‑8, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: New and improved methods for concentrating enteroviruses, reoviruses, and adenoviruses from oysters have been developed and evaluated. Viruses are efficiently adsorbed to homogenized oyster meat by adjusting the homogenate to pH 5.0 and a conductivity of less than or equal to 2,000 mg of NaCl per liter. After low‑speed centrifugation, the virus‑free supernatant is discarded and the viruses are eluted from the sedimented oyster solids with pH 7.5 glycine‑NaCl having a conductivity of 8,000 mg of NaCl per liter. The oyster solids are removed by low‑speed centrifugation and filtration, and the viruses in the filtered supernatant are concentrated to a small volume by either ultrafiltration or acid precipitation at pH 4.5. The concentrate is treated with antibiotics and inoculated into cell cultures for virus isolation and quantitation. When these methods were tested with oysters experimentally contaminated with polioviruses, reoviruses, and adenoviruses, recovery efficiencies averaged about 46%. With the exception of virus assay and quantitation, these methods are simple and inexpensive enough to be done in typical shellfish microbiology laboratories.

Descriptors: Adenoviridae isolation and purification, Adenoviruses Simian isolation and purification, food microbiology, microbiological techniques, oysters, Polioviruses isolation and purification, Reoviridae isolation and purification,  Reovirus 3 isolation and purification, hydrogen ion concentration, micropore filters, precipitation.





Yamaguchi, K.; Hasuo, M. (1977) Relation between activity of pearl oyster and seasonal changes of environmental factors in culture ground. Bulletin of the National Pearl Research Laboratory (no.21) p. 2315‑2324. Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: aquatic ecology, oysters.





Walne, P. R. Culture of bivalve molluscs : 50 years experience at Conwy / P. r. walne. Buckland Foundation book. Surrey, Eng. : Fishing News (Books), 1974. 173 p. : ill.

NAL call no: SH367.W3W3

Descriptors: Bivalves, oyster structure/ physiology/ reproduction, Ostrea edulis, larval observations, oyster larvae hatchery rearing techniques, oyster spats, Tal-y-foel oysterage.

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