Aquaculture Related Resources








Gallardo, C. S.; K. A. Sanchez. Induction of metamorphosis and its effect on the growth and survival of postmetamorphic juveniles of Chorus giganteus (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Oct 1, 2001. v. 201 (3/4) p. 241‑250. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: One of the most critical steps in the life cycle of a mollusc is marked by its abandonment of planktonic life and passage through metamorphosis to assume a benthonic existence. The present study evaluated the usefulness of potassium ion (as KCl) to determine competence for settlement and effectiveness in induction of metamorphosis in free‑swimming larvae of the commercially valuable snail Chorus giganteus. Two groups of larvae were compared, the first of natural origin, and the second from egg capsules produced under culture conditions. In both cases, concentrations of 20 and 30 mM K(+) ion effectively induced metamorphosis of recently hatched larvae of this species, indicating that they were competent at the moment of release from their egg capsules. Concentrations of 40 and 50 mM of this ion proved toxic to the larvae. Observations were made on the relative effects of artificial induction of metamorphosis on survival and growth in both groups of juvenile snails during their first 5 months in out‑culture. The results showed comparatively higher survival of individuals from egg capsules produced in the culture system. Among the artificially induced subgroups of juvenile snails, those obtained from culture and induced with 30 mM KCl had the highest growth rate. Among the non‑induced subgroups, juveniles from culture had higher growth rates than those from the field. The results suggested differences between cohorts of this species with respect to the origin of the egg capsules, which are interacting with the response of the juveniles to the different treatments, a factor of some significance to future research and development of this culture.

Descriptors: Gastropoda, metamorphosis, developmental stages, biological development, growth, survival, life cycle, potassium, cations, larvae, ova, rearing techniques, toxicity, growth rate.





Evans, F.; C. J. Langdon. Co‑culture of dulse Palmaria mollis and red abalone Haliotis rufescens under limited flow conditions.  Aquaculture. Amsterdam: Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. May 2, 2000. v. 185 (1/2) p. 137‑158. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: Haliotis rufescens. Rhodophyta, seaweeds, algae culture, mollusc culture, mixtures, stocking density, growth rate, photoperiod, illumination, light intensity, water quality, ammonia, uptake, excretion, feed intake, liveweight.


Green, B. J.; W. Y. Li; J. R. Manhart; T. C. Fox; E. J. Summer; R. A. Kennedy; S. K. Pierce; M. E. Rumpho.  Mollusc‑algal chloroplast endosymbiosis. Photosynthesis, thylakoid protein maintenance, and chloroplast gene expression continue for may months in the absence of the algal nucleus. Plant Physiol. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists, 1926. Sept 2000. v. 124 (1) p. 331‑342. 1ISSN: 0032‑0889.

NAL call no: 450 P692

Abstract: Early in its life cycle, the marine mollusc Elysia chlorotica Gould forms an intracellular endosymbiotic association with chloroplasts of the chromophytic alga Vaucheria litorea C. Agardh. As a result, the dark green sea slug can be sustained in culture solely by photoautotrophic CO2 fixation for at least 9 months if provided with only light and a source of CO2. Here we demonstrate that the sea slug symbiont chloroplasts maintain photosynthetic oxygen evolution and electron transport activity

through photosystems I and II for several months in the absence of any external algal food supply. This activity is correlated to the maintenance of functional levels of chloroplast‑encoded photosystem proteins, due in part at least to de novo protein synthesis of chloroplast proteins in the sea slug. Levels of at least one putative algal nuclear encoded protein, a light‑harvesting complex protein homolog, were also maintained throughout the 9‑month culture period. The chloroplast genome of V. litorea was found to be 119.1 kb, similar to that of other chromophytic algae. Southern analysis and polymerase chain reaction did not detect an algal nuclear genome in the slug, in agreement with earlier microscopic observations. Therefore, the maintenance of photosynthetic activity in the captured chloroplasts is regulated solely by the algal chloroplast and animal nuclear genomes.

Descriptors: Vaucheria, chloroplasts, symbiosis, photosynthesis, thylakoids, protein metabolism, chloroplast DNA, gene expression, nuclei, life cycle, carbon dioxide, light, duration, oxygen, gas production, electron transfer, photosystem i, photosystem ii, light harvesting complexes, Gastropoda.


Neori, A.; M. Shpigel; D. Ben Ezra. A sustainable integrated system for culture of fish, seaweed and abalone. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. June 15, 2000. v. 186 (3/4) p. 279‑291. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: A 3.3 m(2) experimental system for the intensive land‑based culture of abalone, seaweed and fish was established using an integrated design. The goals were to achieve nutrient recycling, reduced water use, reduced nutrient discharge and high yields. Effluents from Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) culture tanks trained into a pellet‑fed fish (Sparus aurata) culture tank. The fish effluent drained into macroalgal (Ulva lactuca or Gracilaria conferta) culture, and biofilter tanks. Algal production fed the abalone. The system was monitored to assess productivity and nitrogen partitioning over a year. The fish grew at 0.67% day(‑1), yielding 28‑kg m(‑2) year(‑1).The nutrients excreted by the fish supported high yields of U. lactuca (78‑kg m(‑2) year(‑1)) and efficient (80%) ammonia filtration. Gracilaria functioned poorly. Ulva supported an abalone growth rate of 0.9% day(‑1) and a length increase of 40‑66 micrometers day(‑1) in juveniles, and 0.34% day(‑1) and 59 micrometers day(‑1) in young adults. Total abalone yield was 9.4 kg year(‑1). A surplus of seaweed was created in the system. Ammonia‑N, as a fraction of total feed‑N was reduced from 45% in the fish effluents to 10% in the post‑seaweed discharge. Based on the results, a doubling of the abalone: fish yield ratio from 0.3 to 0.6 is feasible.

Descriptors: Haliotis discus, Pagrus aurata, algae, algae culture, effluents, waste treatment, water reuse, sustainability, integrated systems, mollusc culture, fish culture, intensive production, nutrient balance, biological filtration, biomass production, growth rate, excretion, ammonia, yields.


Sales, J.; P. J. Britz. South African abalone culture succeeds through collaboration. World Aquac.  Baton Rouge, La.: World Aquaculture Society,. Sept 2000. v. 31 (3) p. 44‑45, 49‑50, 61. ISSN: 1041‑5602.

NAL call no: SH1.W62

Descriptors: abalones, mollusc culture, economic development, feeds, history, technology transfer, research institutes, cages, water temperature, feeding, larvae, transport of animals, handling, developmental stages, health, seafoods, food processing, Haliotis, South Africa.


Siqueiros Beltrones, D. A.; D. Voltolina. Grazing selectivity of red abalone Haliotis rufescens postlarvae on benthic diatom films under culture conditions. J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La.: World Aquaculture Society, c1987. June 2000. v. 31 (2) p. 239‑246. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: Haliotis rufescens, feeding preferences, benthos, Bacillariophyta, developmental stages, mollusc culture, digesta, species diversity, frequency, microbial flora.


Viana, M. T.; P. Jarayabhand; P. Menasveta. Evaluation of an artificial diet for use in the culture of the tropical abalone Haliotis ovina. J Aquac Trop. Calcutta: Oxford IBH, 1986. Feb 2000. v. 15 (1) p. 71‑79. ISSN: 0970‑0846. 

NAL call no: SH135.J68

Descriptors: Haliotis, feeds, mollusc culture, evaluation, agar, rearing techniques, feed intake, food restriction, growth rate, analysis of variance, length, growth.





Capinpin, E.C. Jr.; J. D. Toledo; V. C. Encena II.; M. Doi. Density dependent growth of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina in cage culture. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Feb 15, 1999. v. 171 (3/4) p. 227‑235. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The effects of different stocking densities on the growth, feed conversion ratio and survival of two size groups of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina were determined. Three culture trials were conducted in net cages installed in a sheltered cove, Guimaras Province, Philippines. Trials 1 and 2 were conducted using 15‑20 mm abalone juveniles for 150 days, while trial 3 was conducted using 35‑40 mm abalone for 180 days. The animals were fed sufficient amounts of the red alga, Gracilariopsis bailinae (= G. heteroclada), throughout the experiment. There was an inverse relationship between growth (length and weight) and stocking density. Feed conversion ratio was not influenced by density, but was observed to be higher for larger animals. Survival was not significantly affected by density. Net cages are appropriate for culture of H. asinina. This study showed that H. asinina can reach commercial size of about 60 mm in one year. It also showed that growth of H. asinina can be sustained on a single‑species diet. An economic analysis will be important in choosing the best stocking density for commercial production.

Descriptors: Haliotis, growth, population density, mollusc culture, stocking density, feed conversion, feed conversion efficiency, survival, size, length, weight, Rhodophyta, feeding, Philippines.


Chaitanawisuti, N.; A. Kritsanapuntu.  Effects of different feeding regimes on growth, survival and feed conversion of hatchery‑reared juveniles of the gastropod mollusc spotted babylon Babylonia areolata (Link 1807) in flowthrough culture systems. Aquac‑res. Oxford: Blackwell Science, c1995. Aug 1999. v. 30 (8) p. 589‑593. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: The effects of feeding regimes on the growth, survival and feed conversion of hatchery‑reared juvenile spotted babylon Babylonia areolata (Link) were assessed. Six continuous and discontinuous feeding regimes were fed at satiation to triplicate groups of snails in 200‑L flowthrough (3.0 L h(‑1)) indoor rectangular tanks for 180 days. Shell length growth rates of juvenile B. areolata did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the various feeding treatments. Body weight gain and feed conversion of snails were not significantly different between various feeding treatments, nor were there significant differences in mean survival between any of the feeding treatments.

Descriptors: Gastropoda, marine animals, feeding, growth, rearing techniques, survival, feed conversion efficiency, mollusc culture, growth rate, shells, length, feed rations, feed intake, frequency.


Preece, M. A.; P. V. Mladenov. Growth and mortality of the New Zealand abalone Haliotis iris Martyn 1784 cultured in offshore structures and fed artificial diets. Aquac Res. Oxford: Blackwell Science, c1995. Nov/Dec 1999. v. 30 (11/12) p. 865‑877. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Descriptors: Haliotis, growth, mortality, mollusc culture, feeds, feeding, equipment, growth rate, feed intake, infestation, water quality, silt, feed conversion efficiency.


Viana, M. T.; J. M. Guzman; R. Escobar. Effect of heated and unheated fish silage as a protein source in diets for abalone Haliotis fulgens. J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La.: World Aquaculture Society, c1987. Dec 1999. v.30 (4) p. 481‑489. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: Haliotis, fish silage, heat treatment, protein sources, feeds, evaluation, mollusc culture, nutrient availability, growth rate, leaching, fish meal, stability, dry matter.





Aldana Aranda, D.; V. Patino Suarez. Overview of diets used in larviculture of three Caribbean conchs: Queen conch Strombus gigas, Milk conch Strombus costatus and Fighting conch Strombus pugilis. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Sept 1, 1998. v. 167 (3/4) p. 163‑178. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The genus Strombus is widely distributed in the Caribbean. Six species are of commercial importance: S. gigas, S. raninus, S. costatus, S. alatus, S. gallus and S. pugilis. Economically, the Queen conch, S. gigas is the most important and consequently the most widely studied. However, since 1970 a decline of S. gigas populations due to over‑fishing has been observed. Many authors have studied S. gigas hatchery rearing techniques in order to address this problem; however, for these hatchery techniques to be successful, an adequate diet must be provided for the larvae. Some information of the nutritional requirements of S. gigas larvae have been reported since nutritionally complete diet is still not available. In this work we summarize the different algae have been used for S. gigas, S. costatus and S. pugilis larvae rearing. Twenty one different algae species have been used: Amphidinium carteri, Chaetoceros gracilis, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Emillania huxleyi, Heterocapsa pygmacea, Isochrysis (Caicos), Isochrysis (Tahiti), Isochryus sp., Monochrysis sp., Nannochloris, Nitzchia, Platymonas sp., P. tetraselmis, Prorocentrum minimun, Rhodomonas sp., Skeletonema costatus, Tetraselmis chuii, Tetraselmis sp., T. suecica, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and T. weissflogii. There are other diets that have seldom been studied with Strombus veliger larvae, that could be a potential food source for these gastropods. The type concentration of algae, larval rearing conditions are summarized along with the results attained in larval growth, metamorphosis, survival, ingestion and digestion rates.

Descriptors: Gastropoda, mollusc culture, feeds, larvae, species differences, feeding, nutrient requirements, algae, feed rations, digestion, survival, feed intake, literature reviews.


Encena II, V.C.; E. C. Capinpin Jr.; N. C. Bayona. Optimal sperm concentration and time for fertilization of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linne 1758. aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. June 15, 1998. v. 165 (3/4) p. 347‑352. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Current interest in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina has generated research into seed production and culture techniques. However, there has been no report regarding the optimal sperm concentration for fertilization and development and gamete viability for this species. Spawned eggs of H. asinina were artificially fertilized using eleven final sperm concentrations ranging from 1 X 10(2) to 1 X 10(7) sperm ml‑1. In another experiment eggs were fertilized using sperm spawned at the same time at a final sperm concentration of 1 X 10(5) sperm ml‑1 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after spawning. Sperm concentrations of 5 X 10(3) to 1 X 10(5) sperm ml‑1 gave both maximal fertilization rate and normal trochophore development. The sperm to oocyte ratio of this range is 1 x 10(3) to 2 x 10(4). Gametes were still viable 2 h after spawning; both fertilization and normal development rates decreased when fertilized later. It is recommended to use 1 X 10(5) sperm ml‑1 for artificial fertilization of H. asinina eggs within 2 h after spawning.

Descriptors: Haliotis, spermatozoa, fertilization, viability, mollusc culture, oocytes, spawning, concentration, biological development, time.


Fukami, K.; Kawai, A.; Asada, M.; Okabe, M.; Hotta, T.; Moriyama, T.; Doi, S.; Nishijima, T. Yamaguchi, M.; Taniguchi, M. (1998) Continuous and simultaneous cultivation of benthic food diatom Nitzschia sp. and abalone Haliotis sieboldii by using deep seawater. Journal of Marine Biotechnology 6 (4) 237‑240, ISSN: 0941‑2905.

NAL call no: TP248.27 M37J68

Descriptors: cell biology, marine ecology, ecology, environmental sciences, methods and techniques, Chrysophyta, Algae, Plantae, Gastropoda, Haliotis sieboldii, abalone, Nitzschia, benthic food diatom, Microorganisms, Nonvascular Plants, benthic food diatom cultivation, cell culture method, deep seawater.


Jess, S.; R. J. Marks. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth and reproduction of Helix aspersa var. maxima. J Agric Sci. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. May 1998. v. 130 (pt.3) p. 367‑372. ISSN: 0021‑8596.

NAL call no: 10 J822

Descriptors: Helix aspersa, snail, growth, sexual reproduction, regulation, temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, dark, mollusc culture, methodology, Gastropoda.


Matthiessen, P.; P. E. Gibbs. Critical appraisal of the evidence for tributyltin‑mediated endocrine disruption in mollusks. Environ Toxicol Chem. Pensacola, Fla.: SETAC Press. Jan 1998. v. 17 (1) p. 37‑43. ISSN: 0730‑7268.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E58

Abstract: This article reviews the field and laboratory evidence for endocrine disruption in gastropod mollusks caused by tributyltin (TBT). Abundant and undisputed field data link TBT with an irreversible sexual abnormality of female neogastropod snails known as "imposex." This phenomenon is a masculinization process involving the development of male sex organs, notably a penis and a vas deferens; in certain species the imposition of a vas deferens disrupts oviducal structure and function, preventing normal breeding activity and causing population disappearance. In some species, oogenesis is supplanted by spermatogenesis. A related condition referred to as "intersex" has been reported in littorinid mesogastropods, and these too become unable to lay eggs. Field evidence clearly associates these syndromes with the use of TBT as an antifoulant, chiefly on boat hulls, and dose‑related effects can be replicated in laboratory exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT compounds. It has now been established that imposex and intersex are forms of endocrine disruption caused by elevated testosterone titers that masculinize TBT‑exposed females. The precise mechanism by which increased levels of testosterone are produced has not been fully described, but the weight of evidence suggests that TBT acts as a competitive inhibitor of cytochrome P450‑mediated aromatase. Some recent data suggest that TBT may also inhibit the formation of sulfur conjugates of testosterone and its active metabolites, thus interfering with its excretion. In summary, TBT‑induced masculinization in gastropods, imposex and intersex, is the clearest example of endocrine disruption described in invertebrates to date that is unequivocally linked to a specific environmental pollutant.

Descriptors: organotin compounds, pollutants, toxicity, adverse effects, nontarget organisms.


Searcy Bernal, R.; C. Anguiano Beltran. Optimizing the concentration of gamma‑aminobutyric acid (GABA) for inducing larval metamorphosis in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La.: World Aquaculture Society, c1987. 1998. v. 29 (4) p. 463‑470. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: Haliotis rufescens, gamma aminobutyric acid, larvae, metamorphosis, application rates, mollusc culture, efficiency, bacteria, degradation, toxicity, evaluation, survival, growth.


Shields, J.D.; Buchal, M.A.; Friedman, C.S. (1998) Microencapsulation as a potential control technique against sabellid worms in abalone culture. Journal of Shellfish Research V. 17, N1 (JUN), P. 79-83, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: microcapsules, Abalone, parasite, pest, Sabellid, liposomes, microcapsules, Polychaete, diets, delivery, protein, larvae, growth.


Wiedemeyer, W. L. Contributions to the larval biology of the red‑lipped conch, Strombus luhuanus L. 1758, with respect to seed production for mariculture. Aquac Res. Oxford: Blackwell Science, c1995. Jan 1998. v. 29 (1) p. 1‑7. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: Spawning behavior and embryology of the red‑lipped conch, Strombus luhuanus L. 1758 (Strombidae, Gastropoda), was investigated from 4 April to 19 May 1991, at Okinawa, southern Japan. At the laboratory and at a water temperature of 22.5‑23.5 degree C, veliger larvae developed 92 h after spawning. In all, 2140 larvae were examined for morphometric data. Growth and development was monitored at different water temperatures (23, 28 and 33 degree C), in natural sea water filtered through 150‑micrometer, 60‑micrometer and 1‑micrometer screens and when fed various combinations of food organisms, namely Chaetoceros sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. The minimum duration of the pelagic period of the larvae was 14.5 days. Infestation by parasites was the main cause of high larval mortality before the age of 10‑12 days if the water was not filtered at a minimum of 60 micrometer. Inappropriate food diversity was the most significant source of mortality beyond this age. The maximum age reached during all rearing experiments was 16 days. Under optimized feeding conditions and in natural sea water filtered at 1‑60 micrometer, the pelagic period of S. luhuanus larvae lasted 16.5 to 17.4 days (95% confidence limits). Optimum water temperature was 23‑28 degree C. A stepwise increment of filter sizes and a contemporary provision of a combination of specific supplementary food organisms is advised through grow‑out of the larvae.

Descriptors: morphology, Gastropoda, larvae, mollusc culture, sexual reproduction, spawning, embryonic development, growth, water temperature, filtration, feeding, foods, algae, mortality, infestation, nutrient requirements, feed supplements, ova, Ryukyu Archipelago.





Gimin, R.; C. L. Lee. Effects of different substrata on the growth rate of early juvenile Trochus niloticus (Mollusca: Gastropoda). ACIAR Proceedings ; No. 79. Trochus  status, hatchery practice and nutrition  proceedings of a workshop held at Northern Territory University, 6‑7 June 1996. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 1997. p. 76‑80. ISBN: 186320203X.

NAL call no: S542.A8A34‑no.79

Descriptors: shellfish culture, substrates, nitzschia, food, unrestricted feeding, survival, growth rate.


Gomot, A.; Pihan, F. (1997) Comparison of the bioaccumulation capacities of copper and zinc in two snail subspecies (Helix). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 38(2): 85‑94, ISSN: 0147‑6513.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E29

Abstract: Bioaccumulation analyses of copper and zinc were carried out in two snail subspecies (Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima) after 3 months of controlled farming (out of ground) with foods of different formulations. The results reveal some clear interspecific differences in affinity toward copper and zinc. For the two metals considered, H. aspersa aspersa has a bioaccumulation capacity much greater than that of H. aspersa maxima, mainly in the foot for copper and in the viscera for zinc. After 3 months, the concentrations of copper in feet and viscera are much higher than those presented in the literature on field animals. The farming and the analysis methodologies permitted obtaining snails under standard condition and open the way to the development of rational protocols for ecotoxicological studies in a laboratory as well as in the field.

Descriptors: copper pharmacokinetics, helix snails chemistry, zinc pharmacokinetics, copper metabolism, helix snails drug effects, tissue distribution, toxicity tests, zinc metabolism.


Rebhung, F.; S. M. Renaud; D. L. Parry; C. L. Lee. Fatty acid composition characteristic of Trochus niloticus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) fed on naturally growing microalgae in an aquaculture system. ACIAR Proceedings ; No. 79. Trochus  status, hatchery practice and nutrition  proceedings of a workshop held at Northern Territory University, 6‑7 June 1996. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 1997. p. 114‑117. ISBN: 186320203X.

NAL call no: S542.A8A34‑no.79

Descriptors: shellfish culture, diet, shellfish, chemical composition, fatty acids, age, size, Gastropoda.


Renaud, S. M.; M. Djafar; D. L. Parry. Preliminary investigation of an artificial diet for the marine topshell, Trochus niloticus (Mollusca: Gastropoda). ACIAR Proceedings ; No. 79. Trochus  status, hatchery practice and nutrition  proceedings of a workshop held at Northern Territory University, 6‑7 June 1996. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 1997. p. 109‑113. ISBN: 186320203X.

NAL call no: S542.A8A34‑no.79

Descriptors: feeding preferences, feeds, attractants, formulations, water, stability, shellfish culture, Gastropoda.





Baturo, W.; L. Lagadic. Benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and glutathione S‑transferase activities as biomarkers in Lymnaea palustris (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to atrazine and hexachlorobenzene in freshwater mesocosms.  Environ Toxicol Chem. Pensacola, Fla.: SETAC Press. May 1996. v. 15 (5) p. 771‑781. ISSN: 0730‑7268.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E58

Abstract: Freshwater pond mesocosms were used to validate xenobiotic‑metabolizing enzymes as biomarkers of contamination by atrazine and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in a basommatophoran gastropod, Lymnaea palustris (Muller). Over long‑term (21‑d) exposure to 5, 25, and 125 microgram/L atrazine and to 0.5, 1.25, and 5 microgram/L HCB, the uptake and internal concentration of both pesticides were followed, and the activities of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BaPH) and glutathione S‑transferases (GSTs) of pesticide‑exposed snails were compared with those of control animals maintained in untreated mesocosms. Internally recovered HCB concentrations were much higher than internal atrazine concentrations, but the uptake of atrazine was faster than that of HCB. Although it affected the integrity of microsomal membranes, HCB had no relevant effects on BaPH and GST activities at concentrations which affected growth and fecundity, thus confirming the low inducibility of mollusc xenobiotic‑metabolizing enzymes by chlorinated compounds. In contrast, atrazine markedly inhibited BaPH and both postmitochondrial and cytosolic GSTs at the same concentrations, which had no effects on growth or reproduction. Enzyme inhibition was negatively correlated with the maximal internal amount of atrazine and positively correlated with the bioconcentration factor, suggesting that effects on xenobiotic‑metabolizing enzymes may affect pharmacokinetics of atrazine within the snail body. Correlation between the bioconcentration factor and enzyme inhibition may serve as a descriptor of the physiological status of animals and can also be used to indirectly estimate the pesticide concentration in the environment. Laboratory data were considered for the interpretation of results obtained in the mesocosms. In the biomarker context, BaPH and GST activities are proposed, along with other biochemical markers already identified in atrazine‑ and HCB‑exposed L.

palustris, as elements of a multiparametric approach of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticides on freshwater ecosystems. 

Descriptors: atrazine, hexachlorobenzene, concentration, exposure, uptake, lymnaea, oxygenases, glutathione transferase, enzyme activity, inhibition, biological indicators, water pollution.




McQuaid, C.D.; Froneman, P.W. (1993) Mutualism between the territorial intertidal limpet Patella longicosta and the crustose alga Ralfsia verrucosa. Oecologia v. 96(1) p. 128‑133, ISSN 0029‑8549.

NAL call no: QL750.O3

Abstract: Mutualistic relations between plants and animals are well documented on land but have received less attention in marine systems. This study examined the relationship between the territorial intertidal limpet Patella longicosta and the crustose brown alga Ralfsia verrucosa. Adult Patella are found exclusively in association with Ralfsia, on which they feed, while Ralfsia occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in Patella territories. Ralfsia benefits directly from both the presence and the territorial behaviour of Patella. Algal productivity was assessed by measuring oxygen evolution and utilization in situ and deriving photosynthesis/irradiance curves. Productivity was increased by about 30% by the presence of Patella in both summer (P(max) of grazed algae 0.0098; ungrazed algae 0.0063 mg C pro square cm pro h) and winter (P(max) grazed algae 0.0081; ungrazed algae 0.0053 mg**‑2 pro C pro h). Algal growth rates were not significantly increased by the application of limpet mucus in the laboratory. Nutrient regeneration by the limpet was not examined, but the increase in photosynthetic rate may depend on the limpet's grazing pattern which creates secondary sites for growth. Ralfsia also benefited from the territorial behaviour of Patella. The effects of different grazing regimes were investigated in different seasons by removing territorial limpets and either excluding all limpets using copper‑based antifouling paint, or allowing access to non‑territorial limpets (mostly P. oculus) using partial paint barriers.

Descriptors: snails, algae, symbiosis, plant animal relations, biomass, intertidal environment, aquatic environment, environments, marine environment.


Okino, T.; Hatsushika, R. (1993) An experimental study of the embryonation and hatching of Parafossarulus manchouricus eggs: Influence of chlorinity on the culture solution. Japanese Journal of Parasitology 42 (1) 18‑23, ISSN: 0021‑5171. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: 436.8 J27

Descriptors: development, ecology, environmental sciences, physiology, Gastropoda, Biomphalaria glabrata.


Viana, M.T.; Lopez, L.M.; Salas, A. (1993) Diet Development for Juvenile Abalone Haliotis fulgens Evaluation of 2 Artificial Diets and Macroalgae. Aquaculture V 117, N1-2 (NOV 1), P. 149-156, ISSN: 0044-8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: agriculture, biology and environmental sciences, fisheries, marine and freshwater biology.





Castellanos, Z. J. A. de. Gastropoda mollusks. Fundacion para la Educacion, la Ciencia y la Cultura. Buenos Aires: FECIC, 1991, v.: ill. Fauna de agua dulce de la Republica Argentina;  v. 15, no. 1, etc. Note: In Spanish.

NAL call no: QL141.F3 v.15, No.1, etc.

Descriptors: Argentina, pulmonates, freshwater snails, native animals, biology, ecology, distribution, morphology, Biomphalaria species, Schistosoma mansoni.





Winger, P.V.; Imlay, M.J.; McMillan, W.E.; Martin, T.W.; Takekawa, J.; Johnson, W.W. (1984) Field and laboratory evaluation of the influence of copper‑diquat on apple snails in southern Florida. Environmental toxicology and chemistry (USA) 3(3) p. 409‑424, ISSN: 0730‑7268.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: Florida, herbicides, toxicity, aquatic organisms, Helobiae, America, Monocotyledons, North America, pesticides, southeastern states USA.





Charrier, M.; Daguzan, J. (1983) Study of food consumption and production of the edible brown snail. The snail and heliciculture. Paris (France). Ministere de l' Agriculture. Informations Techniques des Services Veterinaires, p. 37‑51.

NAL call no: 41.9 F843I

Descriptors: snails, feed consumption, food preferences, kales, compound feeds, laboratory experiments, snail culture, environmental conditions, growth period, agriculture, animal production, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, behaviour, consumption, crops, developmental stages, economic plants, environment, experiments, feed crops, feed crucifers, feeding habits, feeds, green vegetables, plants, production, research, vegetable crops.





Burch, J. B. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of North America. Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio: Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1982. vi., 294 p.: ill. EPA 600/3‑82‑026.

NAL call no: QL430.4.B8

Descriptors: Gastropoda North America identification, mollusks North America identification.





Nagai, T.; Suda, A. (1976) Gastropodous and bivalvate (Mollusca) faunas in the trawl fishing ground of the eastern Bering Sea in summer with reference to their environment. Bulletin Far Seas Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.14) p. 163‑179. Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: aquatic ecology, Bering Sea.

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