Laboratory Care / Research







Kreeger, D.A.; Gatenby, C.M.; Raksany, D. (2002) Variability in condition index and tissue biochemistry of Elliptio complanata held in the field and laboratory. Journal of Shellfish Research 21 (1): 378‑379, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: freshwater ecology, environmental sciences, nutrition, Elliptio complanata, freshwater mussel, adult, microalgae, food, lab cultured, animals, nonvascular plants, tissue, biochemistry, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, continuous flow chambers, laboratory equipment, ash, environmental conditions, field conditions, food quality, laboratory conditions, natural seston, physiological condition index, reproductive cycling, seasonal variation, sediment conditions, water quality.


Piano, A.; Asirelli, C.; Caselli, F.; Fabbri, E. (2002) Hsp70 expression in thermally stressed Ostrea edulis, a commercially important oyster in Europe. Cell Stress and Chaperones 7 (3): 250-257, ISSN: 1355-8145.

Descriptors: Ostrea edulis, animal model, commercial importance, thermal stress, Heat shock protein-70, heat induced thermally stressed oyster gill, expression, heat induced thermally stressed oyster mantle expression, Europe.




Barfield, M.L.; Farris, J.L.; Black, M.C. (2001) Biomarker and bioaccumulation responses of Asian clams exposed to aqueous cadmium. J Toxicol Environ Health A 63(7): 495‑510, ISSN: 1528‑7394.

Abstract: Measured responses of biochemical or physiological indicators have been suggested to reflect thresholds where pollutants exert their initial effect. Responses in cellulolytic enzyme activity and DNA strand breakage of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea exposed to cadmium in the laboratory were measured and metal body burdens were determined concurrently. Clams were exposed to aqueous cadmium concentrations of 3, 6, 12, or 25 ppb for 23 and 28 d. Cadmium concentrations in clam tissue were highest in lower cadmium treatments, and body burdens increased with length of exposure in only the 28‑d experiment. Cellulolytic enzyme activity decreased with increasing cadmium concentrations for clams in the 28‑d experiment. Induced enzyme activities were observed in cadmium treatments for both experiments and are thought to precede declines in activity through the length of exposure. Significant reductions in DNA strand lengths of cadmium exposed clams were observed by wk 3 in the 23‑d exposure and by wk 2 in the 28‑d exposure. Reduced DNA strand lengths in these cadmium treatments for the 28‑d exposure precede significant declines in cellulolytic activity at subsequent sampling events. Combining these data with observations of mortality in higher cadmium treatments suggests that impairment of DNA structural integrity and reduced digestive enzyme activity may indicate metal‑induced stress in clams.

Descriptors: cadmium pharmacokinetics, cellulose metabolism, water pollutants, chemical pharmacokinetics, analysis of variance, biological markers, body burden, cadmium toxicity, clams, DNA, single stranded drug effects, dose response relationship, drug, tissue distribution, water pollutants, chemical toxicity, biological markers, DNA, single stranded, chemical, cadmium.


Borcherding, J.; Wolf, J. (2001) The influence of suspended particles on the acute toxicity of 2‑chloro‑4‑nitro‑aniline, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol on the valve movement response of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 40(4): 497‑504, ISSN: 0090‑4341.

NAL call no: TD172.A7

Abstract: The Dreissena‑Monitor is a biological early warning system for the continuous monitoring of river water quality, based on the valve movements of two groups of 42 zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Laboratory experiments with Cd, PCP, and 2‑chloro‑4‑nitro‑aniline were conducted in combination with suspended particles (a mixture of stinging nettle powder, bentonite, and quartz powder). An increase of suspended particles up to a nominal concentration of 540 mg/L within 5 min did not evoke any reactions by the mussels significantly different from normal. The distribution between water and solids was analyzed for Cd and 2‑chloro‑4‑nitroaniline, with the result that the former quickly adsorbed to the particles, whereas the latter did not bind to the particles at all. The behavior of the zebra mussels revealed that the detection of 2‑chloro‑4‑nitro‑aniline was not affected by the presence of suspended matter. In the cases of Cd and PCP, D. polymorpha was able to detect these substances when they were particle‑associated at least as well or better as when they were dissolved in the water. The results are discussed with respect to the physiology of the organisms and the bioavailability of toxicants, as well as to the consequences these results may have under field conditions.

Descriptors: aniline compounds toxicity, cadmium toxicity, environmental pollutants toxicity, mussels, mutagens toxicity, pentachlorophenol toxicity, adsorption, aniline compounds pharmacokinetics, behavior, animal, biological availability, cadmium pharmacokinetics, environmental monitoring, environmental pollutants, pharmacokinetics, particle size, pentachlorophenol pharmacokinetics, aniline compounds, environmental pollutants, mutagens, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, environmental health, toxicology.


Brichette, I.; M. I. Reyero; C. Garcia. A genetic analysis of intraspecific competition for growth in mussel cultures. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Jan 15, 2001. v. 192 (2/4) p. 155‑169. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: In domestic organisms that are cultured in situations where competition for resources exists, the effect of an individual on the overall yield of the population depends not only on its own growth in the face of competition, but also on its competitive influence on its neighbours' growth. The genetic variability of this influence may be very important and therefore useful in a breeding plan, but is seldom estimated in practice. In this study, we carried out a genetic analysis of the intraspecific competition for growth in cultured mussels, and found that the family genotype had a clear effect on both the competitive influence of each individual on its neighbours, and its response to the competition from them. The limited number of male and female parents available for the experiment prevented a very precise partition of this genetic variability in additive and dominant variances, but in any case the heritability estimates obtained tended to be low (about 10% overall). These low heritabilities could still result in significant responses to artificial selection, given the high selection pressures that can be applied in bivalve molluscs. In addition, and in contrast with what usually happens in plants, the correlation between both kinds of effects in our mussel population was clearly greater than ‑1, which could allow the use of artificial selection to increase the ability to grow at high population densities and simultaneously to reduce the competitive interference between neighbours.

Descriptors: Mytilus galloprovincialis, genetic analysis, intraspecific competition, mussel culture, heritability, yields, competitive ability, growth, genetic variation, animal breeding, breeding programs, genotypes, genetic variance, artificial selection, selection pressure.


Butler, R.A.; Roesijadi, G. (2001) Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of a molluscan metallothionein mRNA. Aquat Toxicol 54(1‑2): 59‑67, ISSN: 0166‑445X.

NAL call no: QH541.5.W3A6      

Abstract: A quantitative assay based on competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) was developed for metallothionein (MT) mRNA of the mollusc Crassostrea virginica and applied to analysis of MT mRNA of hemocytes. The assay was based on titration of a competitive external standard cRNA derived from the coding region of the oyster MT mRNA. Serial dilutions of the cRNA standard were coamplified with a constant amount of total RNA using biotinylated primers common to both target and standard sequences. Amplified products were bound to streptavidin‑coated plates and hybridized to sequence‑specific fluorescein‑labeled probes. Detection was based on single photon counting of chemiluminescence generated by an alkaline phosphatase‑conjugated antifluorescein antibody. For quantification, the target chemiluminescence was normalized to that of the standard, and the amount of target MT mRNA in the sample was derived from the titration. Cadmium‑induced MT mRNA equivalent to that in 180 hemocytes was easily detected, and, for routine quantitative analysis, was sufficiently sensitive to quantify basal and induced MT mRNA. Basal hemocyte MT mRNA of 133+/‑8 (1 S.E.) amol per microgram total RNA was induced 5‑fold to 573+/‑14 amol per microgram total RNA by in vitro exposure to 15 microM CdCl(2) for 20 h.

Descriptors: metallothionein genetics, oysters metabolism, RNA messenger analysis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, cadmium pharmacology, pharmacology, genetics, metabolism, analysis, messenger RNA, cadmium, metallothionein.


Kelley, M.L.; Winge, P.; Heaney, J.D.; Stephens, R.E.; Farell, J.H.; Van Beneden, R.J.; Reinisch, C.L.; Lesser, M.P.; Walker, C.W. (2001) Expression of homologues for p53 and p73 in the softshell clam (Mya arenaria), a naturally-occurring model for human cancer. Oncogene 20 (6): 748-758, ISSN: 0950-9232.

Descriptors: molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, tumor biology, Mollusca, Mya arenaria, animal model, Mollusks, leukemia, blood and lymphatic disease, neoplastic disease, tumor development.


Lares, M.L.; Orians, K.J. (2001) Differences in Cd elimination from Mytilus californianus and Mytilus trossulus soft tissues. Environ Pollut 112(2): 201‑7, ISSN: 0269‑7491.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E52       

Abstract: Field results have shown that Mytilus californianus is able to release its Cd concentrations significantly in just a few days. The existing paradigm states that Cd elimination from Mytilus soft tissues is a very slow process. This discrepancy was investigated in the laboratory, testing the effect of two Cd levels (10 and 1 microgram l‑1) on its release from Mytilus trossulus and M. californianus soft tissues. After exposure to 10 micrograms l‑1, both species showed a significant uptake with no elimination after several days of depuration. After exposure to 1 microgram l‑1, the responses were different. No significant Cd uptake was seen in M. trossulus while in M. californianus uptake was significant but returned to the background level after just 1 day of depuration. This response of M. californianus is consistent with that reported from field studies. These results are important for environmental monitoring programs since M. californianus has been used as equivalent to other Mytilus species in the assessment of Cd pollution.

Descriptors: cadmium pharmacokinetics, environmental pollutants pharmacokinetics, mussels physiology, environmental monitoring, reference values, cadmium, pharmacokinetics, physiology.


Longsha, M.; Feist, S.W.; Matthews, R.A.; Figueras, A. (2001) Ultrastructural characterisation of Marteilia species (Paramyxea) from Ostrea edulis, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis in Europe. Dis Aquat Organ 44(2): 137‑42, ISSN: 0177‑5103.

Abstract: A focused ultrastructural study of Marteilia spp. found in cultured Ostrea edulis, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis from France and Spain was conducted with emphasis placed on haplosporosomes, striated plate‑like inclusions and spore wall morphology. Two types of haplosporosome were identified, sphaeroid and oblate, which were common to the parasite in all 3 host species. A total of 492 haplosporosomes were measured; those from the Marteilia sp. in Mytilus spp. were marginally smaller than those in Ostrea edulis. Spore wall morphology was found to vary depending on the state of maturity of the parasite‑‑the more mature the parasite, the thicker the wall surrounding it. It is suggested that the current criteria used to distinguish M. maurini from M. refringens are invalid and that M. maurini was relegated to a junior synonym of M. refringens.

Descriptors: eukaryotic cells ultrastructure, mussels parasitology, oysters parasitology, parasites ultrastructure, aquaculture, eukaryotic cells classification, France, microscopy, electron veterinary, parasites classification, Spain, classification, ultrastructure, veterinary, parasitology, microbiology, biology.


Mullendore, J.L.; Sobsey, M.D.; Carol Shieh, Y. (2001) Improved method for the recovery of hepatitis A virus from oysters. J Virol Methods 94(1‑2): 25‑35, ISSN: 0166‑0934.

NAL call no: QR355.J6

Abstract: Hepatitis A is one of the major infectious diseases epidemiologically associated with worldwide shellfish consumption. Molecular detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) in contaminated shellfish can be hindered by low virus recoveries during the concentration process and by natural PCR inhibitors in shellfish. This study evaluated and modified two major steps of a processing procedure for virus concentration from oysters: acid adsorption‑elution and solvent extraction. With the addition of second and third elutions, the acid adsorption‑elution step doubled the recovery to 46% of HAV seeded initially. Extraction with chloroform or chloroform‑butanol resulted in lower HAV detection limits by reverse transcription‑PCR (RT‑PCR)‑oligoprobing than extraction with the fluorocarbon, Freon. These results led to the following modified procedure: HAV was acid adsorbed at pH 4.8, eluted first with 0.05 M glycine, second with 0.5 M threonine, PEG‑precipitated twice, chloroform‑extracted twice, RNA‑extracted, and RT‑PCR (single round) amplified. Using the modified procedure, HAV was detected by RT‑PCR in all trials with a seeding density of > or = 1 plaque forming unit (PFU)/g of oyster, and in which the equivalent detection limit was 0.33 PFU of HAV seeded per RT‑PCR reaction (corresponding to 111 PCR units). The method developed is capable of detecting low levels of HAV in oysters environmentally contaminated.

Descriptors: hepatovirus isolation and purification, oysters virology, cell line, DNA probes, hepatovirus genetics, Macaca mulatto, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, solvents, water, genetics, isolation and purification, virology DNA probes, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, solvents, water.


Pfeiffer, T. J.; K. A. Rusch. Comparison of three culture methods for the intensive culture of northern quahog seed, Mercenaria mercenaria. J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La. : World Aquaculture Society, c1987. Mar 2001. v. 32 (1) p. 11‑20. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: Mercenaria mercenaria, mollusc culture, techniques, intensive production, population density, hatcheries, populations, survival, rearing techniques, larvae, evaluation, feed rations, Bacillariophyta, water flow, growth rate, length.


Stuart, K. R.; A. G. Eversole; D. E. Brune. Filtration of green algae and cyanobacteria by freshwater mussels in the partitioned aquaculture system. J World Aquac Soc. Baton Rouge, La. : World Aquaculture Society, c1987. Mar 2001. v. 32 (1) p. 105‑111. ISSN: 0893‑8849.

NAL call no: SH138.W62

Descriptors: freshwater molluscs, algae, cyanobacteria, mollusc culture, filtration, water flow, organic matter, Microcystis, Scenedesmus, Ankistrodesmus, population density, mussels.


Uriarte, I.; A. Farias; J. C. Castilla. Effect of antibiotic treatment during larval development of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus. Aquac Eng. Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Elsevier Science. Oct 2001. v. 25 (3) p. 139‑147. ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Abstract: The requirement for antibiotic use in a culture depends principally on the quality of water available and on the use of strict husbandry of the materials closely related with the culture. The purpose of the present study was to determine the dose of chloramphenicol resulting in better survival and growth rates of Chilean scallops between the early larvae and pediveliger stages cultured in closed systems with manual dosing of food two times per day. Two experiments with antibiotic application during larval development of the Chilean scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) were conducted. The experiments were carried out at the early larval stage (86 micrometer) and at the eyed stage (213 micrometer). The antibiotic concentration ranged between 0 and 8 mg l(‑1) chloramphenicol (CHL) per day. The survival and growth rates of the larvae were monitored for 10 days at each stage. In the experiment with eyed larvae, larval settlement and percent metamorphosis were measured. Use of an antibiotic on the early larvae resulted in significantly better growth and survival. Growth rates were 2.3 +/‑ 0.3 and 2.6 +/‑ 0.2% per day when using 2 and 8 mg l(‑1) CHL per day, respectively, compared with 1.3% +/‑ 0.2 per day for the larvae without antibiotic. Survival was also better with antibiotic treatment reaching 50% compared with 35% without antibiotic. The metamorphosis was highest using of 8 mg l(‑1) CHL day(‑1), compared with treatment without antibiotic. Between 75 and 79% of the metamorphosed larvae were found settled on the nets in the treatments using 2 and 8 mg l(‑1), while only 55.5% were settled in the nets in the treatment without antibiotic. The results of the experiments indicate that concentrations of 2 and 8 mg l(‑1) CHL demonstrated effective control of larval contamination. Moreover, the condition of the postlarvae was improved by the addition of 8 mg l(‑1) CHL from eyed larvae to postlarvae. 

Descriptors: Argopecten, larvae, biological development, water quality, mollusc culture, chloramphenicol, survival, growth rate, application rates.


Uthaiwan, K.; N. Noparatnaraporn; J. Machado. Culture of glochidia of the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis myersiana (Lea, 1856) in artificial media. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Apr 2, 2001. v. 195 (1/2) p. 61‑69. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: The freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis myersiana (Limnoscapha) (Lea, 1856) was cultured in two artificial media at 23 +/‑ 2 degrees C. Each artificial medium contained a mixture of M199, (Life Technologies, No. 71N0262) horse serum or fish (Oreochromis niloticus) artificial medium plasma as a protein source, and antibiotics/antimycotics at a ratio of 2:1:0.5. Glochidia were reared until they became juveniles, i.e. until the mantle and foot could be observed under a light microscope. The duration of glochidia development until the juvenile stage was 9‑10 days in both media. After 1 month of controlled feeding with phytoplankton, the juveniles showed an elongate of shell with several growth lines. The more suitable artificial culture formula for the transformation from glochidia to juvenile stage was the medium containing protein from fish plasma. Survival from glochidia to juvenile stage was up to 85.3 +/‑ 3.9% in fish plasma, while it was equal to 46.2 +/‑ 12.7% in horse serum. The transformation from glochidia to juvenile stage was up to 84.3 +/‑ 2.3% in fish plasma, while it was equal to 44.3 +/‑ 8.9% in horse serum. Percentage survival and transformation from glochidia to juvenile stage were significantly higher in fish plasma than in horse serum (P < 0.01).

Descriptors: Mollusca, mollusc culture, culture media, blood serum, blood plasma, horses, fish, antibiotics, rearing techniques, developmental stages, duration,  phytoplankton, growth, survival.


Wang, Y.P.; Guo, X.M. (2001) Chromosomal mapping of the vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)N in four bivalve molluscs by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Journal of Shellfish Research 20 , N3 ( DEC ) , P. 1187-1190, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: FISH, chromosome, telomeric sequence, mapping, evolution, Mollusca.


Weinstein, J.E. (2001) Characterization of the acute toxicity of photoactivated fluoranthene to glochidia of the freshwater mussel, Utterbackia imbecillis. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(2): 412‑9, ISSN: 0730‑7268.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E58      

Abstract: The acute photoactivated toxicity of fluoranthene to the glochidial larvae of the paper pondshell, Utterbackia imbecillis, was characterized in the laboratory using three sets of experiments. Toxicokinetic studies revealed that glochidia rapidly bioaccumulated fluoranthene, reaching an apparent steady state in 4 h. Based on a two‑compartment model, uptake (Ku) and depuration (Kd) rate constants were 1394 ml/g/h and 0.769/h, respectively. However, experimental data suggested the presence of a fast and slow depuration compartment with a Kd of 0.290 and 0.031/h, respectively. Replicate 24‑h acute toxicity tests designed to determine the overall sensitivity of glochidia to photoactivated fluoranthene were conducted under simulated sunlight (ultraviolet [UV]‑A = 69.0 +/‑ 1.0 microW/cm2) (mean +/‑ standard deviation [SD]). Mean median lethal concentrations (LC50) of fluoranthene at 8, 16, and 24 h were 5.59 +/‑ 0.59, 4.09 +/‑ 0.57, and 2.45 +/‑ 0.45 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean median lethal doses (LD50) at the same time periods were 14.76 +/‑ 2.17, 11.66 +/‑ 2.82, and 6.98 +/‑ 1.31 micrograms/g dry weight, respectively. Acute toxicity tests designed to elucidate the relationship between the rate of mortality and UV intensity were conducted under one of four different UV intensities (UV‑A = 15, 31, 50, and 68 microW/cm2). Regression analysis revealed that the time‑dependent mortality of glochidia was inversely related to the product of initial tissue residue of fluoranthene and UV intensity. These findings suggest that glochidia of freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive organisms tested to date to photoactivated fluoranthene and the time‑dependent mortality of glochidia can accurately be predicted through evaluation of the product of fluoranthene tissue residue and the light intensity to which the glochidia is exposed.

Descriptors: fluorenes toxicity, larva drug effects, ultraviolet rays, water pollutants, chemical toxicity, fluorenes pharmacokinetics, mussels, water pollutants, chemical pharmacokinetics.





Barbariol, V.; Razouls, S. (2000) Experimental studies on the respiratory metabolism of Mytilus galloprovincialis  Mollusca bivalvia) from the Mediterranean sea (Gulf of Lion). Vie et Milieu 50(2) p. 87‑92, ISSN 0240‑8759.

NAL call no: QH91.A1V5

Descriptors: Mytilus galloprovincialis, metabolism, respiration, environmental factors, Languedoc roussillon, Mediterranean Sea, Bivalvia, Europe, France, marine areas, Mollusca, Mytilus, physiological functions, western Europe, animal physiology nutrition.


Boettcher, K.J.; Barber, B.J.; Singer, J.T. (2000) Additional evidence that juvenile oyster disease is caused by a member of the Roseobacter group and colonization of nonaffected animals by Stappia stellulata‑like strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 66(9): 3924‑30, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: Juvenile oyster disease (JOD) causes significant annual mortalities of hatchery‑produced Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, cultured in the Northeast. We have reported that a novel species of the alpha‑proteobacteria Roseobacter group (designated CVSP) was numerically dominant in JOD‑affected animals sampled during the 1997 epizootic on the Damariscotta River, Maine. In this study we report the isolation of CVSP bacteria from JOD‑affected oysters during three separate epizootics in 1998. These bacteria were not detected in nonaffected oysters at the enzootic site, nor in animals raised at a JOD‑free site. Animals raised at the JOD enzootic site that were unaffected by JOD were stably and persistently colonized by Stappia stellulata‑like strains. These isolates (designated M1) inhibited the growth of CVSP bacteria in a disk‑diffusion assay and thus may have prevented colonization of these animals by CVSP bacteria in situ. Laboratory‑maintained C. virginica injected with CVSP bacteria experienced statistically significant elevated mortalities compared to controls, and CVSP bacteria were recovered from these animals during the mortality events. Together, these results provide additional evidence that CVSP bacteria are the etiological agent of JOD. Further, there are no other descriptions of specific marine alpha‑proteobacteria that have been successfully cultivated from a defined animal host. Thus, this system presents an opportunity to investigate both bacterial and host factors involved in the establishment of such associations and the role of the invertebrate host in the ecology of these marine alpha‑proteobacteria.

Descriptors: oysters microbiology, alpha proteobacteria growth and development, alpha proteobacteria pathogenicity, culture media, genes, rRNA, molecular sequence data, phenotype, RNA, ribosomal, 16S genetics, seawater, sequence analysis, DNA, alpha proteobacteria classification, alpha proteobacteria isolation and purification.


Ciarelli, A.; Tiscar, P.G.; Dainese, E.; Montauti, A.E. (2000) In vitro activation of prophenoloxidase system in the hemolymph and hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk ‑ 1819) in consequence of bacteria exposure. Atti della Societa' Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie v. 54 p. 177‑178.

NAL call no: 41.9 SO17

Abstract: In the present study we investigated the response of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis serum and hemocytes to different species and concentrations of bacteria, as far as the functional modification of the prophenoloxidase‑activating system (proPO‑AS) is concerned. The results indicate that the proPO activity, recovered in the serum only, is affected by the type of bacteria species, being more enhanced by Vibrio alginolyticus than by Escherichia coli. Different bacteria concentrations does not yield a dose‑dependent response.

Descriptors: Mytilus galloprovincialis, mussels, haemolymph, immunity, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, oxidoreductases, laboratory diagnosis, immune response, biological contamination, bacteria, Bivalvia, body fluids, body parts, contamination, diagnosis, Enterobacteriaceae, enzymes, immunity, Mollusca, Mytilus, shellfish.


Genthner, F.J.; Fisher, W.S.; Volety, A.K.; Tall, B.D.; Curtis, S.K.; McCarthy, S.A. (2000) Responses of oysters and their hemocytes to clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Journal of Shellfish Research 19 (1): 598‑599, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: molecular genetics aquaculture, infection, Pelecypoda, Vibrionaceae, facultatively anaerobic gram negative rods, Eubacteria, bacteria, microorganisms, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,  clinical isolate 2030, clinical isolate 2062, clinical isolate 2107, isolate 1094, isolate 1163, isolate ATCC 17802, pathogen, oyster, fisheries species, host, animals, hemocyte, blood and lymphatics, immune system, Vibrio parahaemolyticus tdh gene, thermostable direct hemolysin.


Hauton, C.; Hawkins, L.E.; Hutchinson, S. (2000) The effects of salinity on the interaction between a pathogen (Listonella anguillarum) and components of a host (Ostrea edulis) immune system. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 127(2): 203‑12, ISSN: 1096‑4959. 

NAL call no: QP501.C6      

Abstract: Data are presented from a study to determine how salinity may modulate the interactions between an opportunistic bacterial pathogen Listonella anguillarum and the immune system of a bivalve host, the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Oysters were acclimated to three salinity regimes (32, 25 and 16%, at 15 degrees C) for 7 days within the laboratory and were then inoculated with a sub‑lethal dose of live L. anguillarum. Forty‑eight hours after inoculation measurements were made of the changes in haemocyte composition, haemolymph hydrogen peroxide concentration and haemolymph lysozyme activity to provide information on both the cellular and humoral components of the immune system. The data indicated that in the majority of cases the effects on the immune system were dose dependent. At 32%, a salinity which promoted the growth of the bacterial inoculate, there was a significant increase in the number of circulating large granulocytes and a significant decrease in the haemolymph hydrogen peroxide concentration. At lower salinities, which were less favourable to the growth of L. anguillarum, there were no significant immune system effects. The data highlight the potential for environment management as a tool in controlling opportunistic pathogens and subsequently disease in commercially important bivalve species.

Descriptors: Mollusca immunology and microbiology, salts metabolism, gamma Proteobacteria pathogenicity, dose response relationship, drug, hemolymph metabolism, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, immune system drug effects, muramidase metabolism.


Hawkins, A.J.; Magoulas, A.; Heral, M.; Bougrier, S.; Naciri‑Graven, Y.; Day, A.J.; Kotoulas, G. (2000) Separate effects of triploidy, parentage and genomic diversity upon feeding behaviour, metabolic efficiency and net energy balance in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Genet Res 76(3): 273‑84, ISSN: 0016‑6723.

NAL call no: 443.8 G283      

Abstract: Triploid oysters were induced using cytochalasin B upon retention of either the first (meiosis I triploids) or the second (meiosis II triploids) polar body in embryos from a single cohort derived from mixed parentage. Allozyme and microsatellite assays enabled the confirmation of both parentage and triploidy status in each oyster. Comparison of meiosis I triploids, meiosis II triploids and diploid siblings established that improved physiological performance in triploids was associated with increased allelic variation, rather than with the quantitative dosage effects of ploidy status. An unidentified maternal influence also interacted with genotype. Among full sibs, allelic variation measured as multi‑locus enzyme heterozygosity accounted for up to 42% of the variance in physiological performance; significant positive influences were identified upon feeding rate, absorption efficiency, net energy balance and growth efficiency (= net energy balance divided by energy absorbed). Whilst allelic variation was greater in both meiosis I and meiosis II triploids than in diploid siblings, both allelic variation and net energy balance were highest in triploids induced at meiosis I. This suggests that it may be preferable to induce triploidy by blocking meiosis I, rather than meiosis II as has traditionally been undertaken during commercial breeding programmes.

Descriptors: energy metabolism genetics, oysters genetics, oysters physiology, variation genetics, animals laboratory, biopsy, breeding, cytochalasin B administration and dosage, feeding behavior, genotype, heterozygote, image processing, computer assisted, meiosis drug effects, meiosis genetics, metabolism, microsatellite repeats genetics, oxygen consumption physiology, ploidies, quantitative trait.


Kelley, M.L.; Van Beneden, R.J. (2000) Identification of an E3 ubiquitin‑protein ligase in the softshell clam (Mya arenaria). Mar Environ Res 50(1‑5): 289‑93, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Abstract: Softshell clams (Mya arenaria) were exposed to dioxin in controlled laboratory experiments in order to study their molecular response to dioxin exposure. A complementary DNA (cDNA) fragment with sequence similarity to E3 ubiquitin‑protein ligase appeared to be upregulated in dioxin‑exposed clams compared to controls. E3 covalently ligates ubiquitin onto a protein, targeting it for degradation. Our findings suggest that the ubiquitin‑mediated proteolytic pathway in the softshell clam may be activated by dioxin exposure. Because the clam E3‑predicted amino acid sequence is most similar to a specific vertebrate E3 protein (E6‑AP), we hypothesize that dioxin may stimulate ubiquitin‑mediated degradation of cell‑cycle regulatory proteins, such as the tumor suppressor p53, which promotes cell proliferation. This pathway has been observed in human cervical cancer. Partial cDNA sequence of the clam E3 has been identified using the differential display polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) PCR; the full‑length sequence is currently being determined. Discovering the molecular mechanism(s) stimulated by dioxin exposure in this invertebrate model may contribute to a better understanding of the effects of dioxin on marine organisms.

Descriptors: clams enzymology, ligases metabolism, amino acid sequence, clams drug effects, dioxins toxicity, mice, molecular sequence data, random amplified polymorphic DNA technique veterinary, water pollutants, chemical toxicity.


Kono, M.; Hayashi, N.; Samata, T. (2000) Molecular mechanism of the nacreous layer formation in Pinctada maxima. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 269(1): 213‑8, ISSN: 0006‑291X.

NAL call no: 442.8 B5236      

Abstract: We have cloned the cDNAs that encode two kinds of molluscan shell matrix proteins, namely N66 and N14, in the nacreous layer of Pinctada maxima. N66 is composed of carbonic anhydrase‑like and repeat domains, as described for nacrein (1) in the pearls of P. fucata. N14 is homologous to N16, recently found in the nacreous layer of P. fucata (2) and is characterized by high proportions of Gly, Tyr, and Asn together with NG repeat sequences. The molecular weights of these proteins were estimated as 59,814 and 13,734 Da, respectively. Structural differences were clearly indicated in the alignment and length of the repeat sequences of the sets of the homogeneous proteins (N66/nacrein and N14/N16). The longer repeat sequences of N66 and N14 may be responsible for P. maxima's excellent property of calcification. The in vitro crystallization experiments revealed that the mixture of N66 and N14 could induce platy aragonite layers highly similar to the nacreous layer, once adsorbed onto the membrane of the water‑insoluble matrix.

Descriptors: oysters genetics, oysters metabolism, proteins genetics, proteins metabolism, base sequence, carbonic anhydrases chemistry, carbonic anhydrases genetics, carbonic anhydrases metabolism, cloning, molecular, crystallization, DNA, complementary genetics, molecular sequence data, molecular weight, proteins chemistry, repetitive sequences, amino acid, sequence homology, amino acid, chemistry, genetics, metabolism, complementary DNA, proteins, nacrein, carbonic anhydrases.


Lees, D. (2000) Viruses and bivalve shellfish. Int J Food Microbiol 59(1‑2): 81‑116, ISSN: 0168‑1605.

NAL call no: QR115.I57

Abstract: The epidemiological data clearly demonstrates that filter feeding bivalve shellfish can, and do, act as efficient vehicles for the transmission of enteric viruses transmitted by the faecal‑oral route. This identified hazard has been documented as a cause for concern by various international agencies and has a long history. Disease outbreaks can occur on an epidemic scale as graphically illustrated by an outbreak of Hepatitis A in Shanghai, China in 1988 involving about 300,000 cases. Improvement of harvesting area water quality offers the most sustainable route to improvement in the virological quality of bivalve shellfish sold live. However there is growing awareness, and concern, that current regulatory standards based on faecal coliform monitoring do not fully protect the shellfish consumer from viral infection. New viral test methods based on PCR, and the development of alternative more reliable faecal pollution indicators, offer new approaches for the further development of public health controls. However, further work is required to build a scientific consensus and to understand the implications of their introduction into legislation.

Descriptors: food microbiology standards, shellfish virology, viruses isolation and purification, Adenoviridae, Astrovirus, Caliciviridae, Enterovirus, Gastroenteritis epidemiology and virology, Great Britain, Hepatitis A epidemiology, Hepatitis A virology, Rotavirus.


Marin, F.; Corstjens, P.; De Gaulejac, B.; De Vrind De Jong, E.; Westbroek, P. (2000) Mucins and molluscan calcification. Molecular characterization of mucoperlin, a novel mucin‑like protein from the nacreous shell layer of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Bivalvia, pteriomorphia). J Biol Chem 275(27): 20667‑75, ISSN: 0021‑9258.

NAL call no: 381 J824

Abstract: A cDNA expression library constructed from mantle tissue mRNA of the Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis was screened with antibodies raised against the acetic acid‑soluble shell matrix of the same species. This resulted in the isolation of a 2138‑base pair cDNA, containing 13 tandem repeats of 93 base pairs. The deduced protein has a molecular mass of 66.7 kDa and a isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein, which is enriched in serine and proline residues, was overexpressed, purified, and used for producing polyclonal antibodies. Immunological in situ and in vitro tests showed that the protein is localized in the nacreous aragonitic layer of P. nobilis, but not in the calcitic prisms. Because this protein of the nacre of P. nobilis exhibits some mucin‑like characteristics, we propose the name mucoperlin. This is the first paper reporting the cloning of a molluscan mucin and the first molecular evidence for the involvement of a mucin in molluscan calcification. This finding corroborates our previous hypothesis that some of the proteinaceous constituents of the molluscan shell matrix would derive from mucins, common to many metazoan lineages of the late Precambrian (Marin, F., Smith, M., Isa, Y., Muyzer, G. and Westbroek, P. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 1554‑1559). The adaptation of an ancestral mucin to a new function, the regulation of the mineralization process, may be one of the molecular events, among others, that would explain the simultaneous emergence of organized calcification in many metazoan lineages during the Cambrian explosion.

Descriptors: Mollusca genetics, mucins genetics, amino acid sequence, amino acids analysis, calcification, physiologic, calcium metabolism, calcium carbonate metabolism, calcium binding proteins chemistry, cloning, molecular, evolution, glycosylation, immunohistochemistry, Mediterranean Sea, molecular sequence data, Mollusca metabolism, mucins chemistry, recombinant proteins chemistry, sequence alignment, tandem repeat sequences.


Martinez, G.; Olivares, A.Z.; Mettifogo, L. (2000) In vitro effects of monoamines and prostaglandins on meiosis reinitiation and oocyte release in Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, V. 38, N1 (OCT), P. 61-69, ISSN: 0168-8170.

NAL call no: QP251.I628

Descriptors: Argopecten purpuratus, scallops, reproduction, spawning, meiosis, mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, zebra mussel, Patinopecten yessoensis, bivalve mollusks, reproductive process, arachidonic acid, serotonin, maturation, scallop, induction.


McFadzen, I.; Eufemia, N.; Heath, C.; Epel, D.; Moore, M.; Lowe, D. (2000) Multidrug resistance in the embryos and larvae of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar Environ Res 50(1‑5): 319‑23, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Abstract: Cells exhibiting the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype demonstrate a decreased intracellular drug accumulation due to an active outward transport and decreased intracellular flux. This study demonstrates the inhibition of MDR in mussel (Mytilus edulis) embryos and larvae based on a simple bioassay. The development of embryos was assessed and abnormalities identified at key stages of development, including gastrulation, trochophore and prodissoconch stages. The incidence of developmental abnormalities was significantly increased in the presence of vinblastine, MMS, chloroquine, mitomycin‑C, cadmium chloride and colchicine, compared to clean seawater. Consistently, there was a further increase in the number and severity of deformities observed when each toxin was added in the presence of verapamil. Larval growth was also significantly impaired in the presence of verapamil. Increased accumulation of fluorescent MDR dyes, such as rhodamine B, has been measured and shown to be verapamil sensitive. This bioassay encompasses a period of intense cellular activity during which the impairment of a number of critical processes results in abnormal growth and development.

Descriptors: mussels drug effects, mussels embryology, water pollutants, chemical toxicity, biological assay methods, biological assay veterinary, cadmium chloride toxicity, chloroquine toxicity, colchicine toxicity, drug resistance, multiple, drug synergism, larva drug effects, methyl methanesulfonate toxicity, mitomycin toxicity, phenotype, seawater, verapamil toxicity, vinblastine toxicity.


Moura, G.; Vilarinho, L.; Machado, J. (2000) The action of Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb on fluid composition of Anodonta cygnea (L.): organic components. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 127(1): 105‑12, ISSN: 1096‑4959.

NAL call no: QP501.C6

Abstract: The heavy metals, Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb, were used to incubate healthy specimens of the freshwater mussel species, Anodonta cygnea. Afterwards, their biological fluids, either haemolymph or extrapallial fluid were analyzed for the presence of several organic constituents, known to be important for biomineralization, such as proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and glucosamine. Proteins were subjected to further study, namely through the total amino acid determination after acid hydrolysis. The most disturbing pollutants tested seem to be Pb, Zn, and Cr, which caused highly decreased overall compositions, namely with respect to protein, and glucosamine, in comparison to the control group. This suggests that this group contributes to a decrease of the metabolic activity, and thus mineralization, in the exposed animals.

Descriptors: cadmium pharmacology, chromium pharmacology, copper pharmacology, lead pharmacology, mussels metabolism, zinc pharmacology, glucosamine metabolism, glycosaminoglycans metabolism, hemolymph drug effects, hydrolysis, proteins drug effects, time factors.


Pavlica, M.; Klobucar, G.I.; Vetma, N.; Erben, R.; Papes, D. (2000) Detection of micronuclei in haemocytes of zebra mussel and great ramshorn snail exposed to pentachlorophenol. Mutat Res 465(1‑2): 145‑50, ISSN: 0027‑5107.

NAL call no: QH431.M8

Abstract: The frequency of micronuclei (MN) induced by pentachlorophenol (PCP) in haemocytes of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pall. and great ramshorn snail, Planorbarius corneus L. was determined over a 14 days of exposure (sampling after 4, 7 and 14 days) under laboratory conditions. PCP doses for zebra mussel ranged from 10 to 150 microg/l, and for ramshorn snail from 10 to 450 microg/l. Micronuclei were detected after bisbenzimide fluorescent staining. Positive responses were observed in both species. The mean MN frequencies in treated mussels ranged between 0.69 and 7.50 per thousand, and between 2.07 and 13.80 per thousand in treated snails. The spontaneous MN levels in mussels averaged from 0.5 to 2.75 per thousand, and in snails from 1.56 to 2.00 per thousand. Our results suggest that haemolymph of both species represent an appropriate test tissue in environmental genotoxicity assessment.

Descriptors: hemocytes drug effects, micronuclei drug effects, mutagens toxicity, pentachlorophenol toxicity, hemocytes ultrastructure, micronucleus tests methods, mussels, snails, species specificity, drug effects, ultrastructure, methods, toxicity, mutagens, pentachlorophenol, cytogenetics.


Ringwood, A.H.; Conners, D.E. (2000) The effects of glutathione depletion on reproductive success in oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Mar Environ Res 50(1‑5): 207‑11, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous tripeptide that functions as a very important modulator of cellular homeostasis, including detoxification of metals and oxyradicals. Therefore, depletion of GSH may predispose organisms to pollutant stress. Reproductively active oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to buthionine sulfoximine in the laboratory to deplete gonadal GSH. The effects of metal exposures (Cd and Cu) on fertilization and developmental assays were evaluated using gametes from control and GSH‑depleted adults. Fertilization success was not affected by GSH status, i.e. the fertilization rates of gametes derived from GSH‑depleted adults were the same or slightly higher. However, GSH depletion did increase the susceptibility of developing embryos to metal toxicity, i.e. adverse effects on embryonic development were observed at lower metal concentrations with gametes derived from GSH‑depleted adults. These effects may be related to diminished removal of free radicals or increased availability of metals. Whereas sperm penetration of embryonic membranes and fertilization success may be facilitated by free radicals, the persistence of free radicals during subsequent developmental periods may adversely affect differentiation and normal development. GSH probably also plays an important role in scavenging toxic metals and reducing metal interactions with essential developmental processes. These results suggest that parental depletion of GSH may increase the susceptibility of embryos to metal toxicity.

Descriptors: glutathione physiology, oysters physiology, reproduction physiology, cadmium toxicity, copper toxicity, free radicals, oysters embryology, sperm ovum interactions,  water pollution, animal, female, male.


Shepard, J.L.; Olsson, B.; Tedengren, M.; Bradley, B.P. (2000) Protein expression signatures identified in Mytilus edulis exposed to PCBs, copper and salinity stress. Mar Environ Res 50(1‑5): 337‑40, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Abstract: Applied to environmental toxicology, proteome analysis may be used to isolate chemical‑specific protein expression signatures (PES). In this project specific PES were isolated in mussels, Mytilus edulis, from the Baltic Sea subjected in the laboratory to treatment with copper (70 ppb), Aroclor 1248 (1 ppb), and to lowered salinity. Four mussels in each treatment group were acclimated in the laboratory for 24 h before beginning the 7‑day exposure. Whole body tissue was homogenized and separated using two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein gels were scanned to TIFF files and compared using MELANIE II 2D gel analysis software (BioRad). Protein expression signatures including proteins induced and repressed by exposure were isolated for each treatment group. The specificity of PES due to environmental changes shows promise in bioindication, toxicity testing and in helping identify possible toxicity mechanisms.

Descriptors: copper toxicity, mussels drug effects, polychlorinated biphenyls toxicity, proteins biosynthesis, sodium chloride toxicity, toxicology methods, aroclors toxicity, electrophoresis, gel, two dimensional, sodium chloride administration and dosage.


Shieh, Y.; Monroe, S.S.; Fankhauser, R.L.; Langlois, G.W.; Burkhardt, W. 3rd; Baric, R.S.  (2000) Detection of norwalk‑like virus in shellfish implicated in illness. J Infect Dis 181 Suppl 2: S360‑6, ISSN: 0022‑1899.

NAL call no: 448.8 J821

Abstract: In the 1990s, Norwalk‑like viruses (NLVs) were identified in patient specimens as the primary pathogen associated with shellfish‑borne gastroenteritis in the United States. Identification of these viruses from implicated shellfish has been difficult due to inefficient recovery of viruses, natural polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in shellfish, and low virus contamination. Recent improvements to the method of detecting NLVs in shellfish include enhanced processing of virus and shellfish samples, application of nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing, and increased knowledge of NLV genetic diversity. Using a newly developed and sensitive method, an NLV G2 strain was identified in 2 oyster samples implicated in a 1998 California outbreak involving 171 cases. NLV capsid primers demonstrated a greater specificity of PCR detection than did polymerase primers. The 175‑base viral capsid nucleotide sequences derived from oysters were 100% identical to those derived from a patient stool sample. This finding supports the epidemiologic associations indicating that contaminated shellfish serve as the vehicle for NLV transmission.

Descriptors: Norwalk Virus isolation and purification, shellfish virology, disease outbreaks, gastroenteritis epidemiology, gastroenteritis etiology, gastroenteritis prevention and control, oysters virology, polymerase chain reaction, epidemiology, etiology, prevention and control, isolation and purification, virology, communicable diseases.


Teh, S.J.; Werner, I.; Hinton, D.E. (2000) Sublethal effects of chromium‑VI in the Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis). Mar Environ Res 50(1‑5): 295‑300, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Abstract: Previously, we have shown that Asian clams (Potamocorbula amurensis) with highest metallic body burdens have highest prevalence of disease and lowest reproduction. The present study was designed to assess and validate potential sublethal toxicity of hexavalent chromium (Cr‑VI) in clams under controlled laboratory exposure. For 7 days, three replicates of clam (n = 10 per replicate) were exposed to aqueous solution containing 0.00, 0.92, 8.40, or 25.6 mg l‑1 of Cr‑VI at 15 degrees C and 15 g l‑1 salinity. Mortality reached 100% in the 25.6 mg l‑1 group within 7 days. There was no significant difference in mortality among the control, 0.92, and 8.40 mg l‑1 groups. Western blot analyses revealed significantly elevated stress protein hsp70 levels in the 8.40 mg l‑1 treatment group. Histopathologic analyses revealed mild digestive gland (DG) atrophy in the control group. Clams exposed to 0.92 mg l‑1 Cr‑VI showed moderate DG atrophy, moderate granulomatous inflammation and necrosis in DG, ovary and testis. Lesions observed in the 8.40 mg l‑1 treatment group included severe DG atrophy, severe granulomatous inflammation and necrosis in byssal gland, DG, gill, kidney, ovary and testis. In gills and testes of treated groups, apoptotic cells outnumbered mitotic cells. In addition, gills from clams in the 8.40 mg l‑1 group showed enhanced hsp70 staining. Our studies support a cause‑effect relationship between contaminants and reduced health in Asian clams and indicate the DGs, gills, and reproductive organs are principal targets of Cr‑VI toxicity at sublethal concentrations. Results from this study suggest that Cr‑VI may have played a role in the increased incidence of diseased clams seen in previous studies and these adverse effects may be working to decrease clam populations at sites with highest metallic contamination in the San Francisco Bay Estuary.

Descriptors: carcinogens, chromium toxicity, clams drug effects, chemical toxicity, carcinogens, environmental administration and dosage, chromium administration and dosage, dose response relationship, drug, chemical administration and dosage.


Werner, I.; Hinton, D.E. (2000) Spatial profiles of hsp70 proteins in Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis) in northern San Francisco Bay may be linked to natural rather than anthropogenic stressors. Mar Environ Res 50(1‑5): 379‑84, ISSN: 0141‑1136.

NAL call no: QH545.W3M36

Abstract: Multi‑year investigations in northern San Francisco Bay by United States Geological Survey have linked reduced condition indices in populations of Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis) with elevated cadmium tissue concentrations. Our study seeks to determine whether levels of hsp70 proteins in P. amurensis can be correlated with these findings, and/or are related to histopathologic alterations and concentrations of metallothionein‑like proteins. Here we present our results on stress proteins in clams collected monthly from four field stations between July 1996 and January 1998. In addition, animals were exposed in the laboratory to a range of salinities. Stress proteins were analyzed by Western blotting using monoclonal antibodies. Hsp70 protein levels in field‑collected clams were significantly higher at the seaward (high salinity/low cadmium) stations (12.5, 8.1) than at the landward (low salinity/high cadmium) stations (6.1, 4.1). Laboratory studies showed that clams exposed to 0.1 ppt salinity had markedly lower hsp70 levels than clams exposed to higher salinities. In view of our previous laboratory studies showing that cadmium induces hsp70 in P. amurensis, our present results indicate that reduced hsp70 protein levels in field‑collected clams may be linked to salinity effects rather than cadmium tissue concentrations.

Descriptors: clams metabolism, heat shock proteins 70 chemistry, antibodies, monoclonal, blotting, western veterinary, cadmium analysis, geology, San Francisco.


Yamada, A.; Yoshio, M.; Kojima, H.; Oiwa, K. (2000) In vitro reconstruction of 'catch' state of molluscan smooth muscle. Biophysical Journal 78 (1 Part 2): 114A, ISSN: 0006-3495.

NAL call no: 442.8 B5238

Descriptors: muscular system  (movement and support), Pelecypoda, Mytilus byssus, animal model, retractor muscle, in vitro catch state reconstruction, muscular system.





Anderson, R.S. (1999) Perkinsus marinus secretory products modulate superoxide anion production by oyster (Crassostrea virginica) haemocytes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 9(1) p. 51‑60.

NAL call no: QL638.97 F55

Descriptors: sporozoa, Bivalvia, oysters, Crassostrea virginica, blood cells, phagocytes, optical properties, immunosuppression, chemicophysical properties, immunotherapy, Protozoa, shellfish, therapy.


Anderson, R.S.; Patel, K.M.; Roesijadi, G. (1999) Oyster metallothionein as an oxyradical scavenger: implications for hemocyte defense responses. Dev Comp Immunol 23(6): 443‑9, ISSN: 0145‑305X.

NAL call no: QR180.D4

Abstract: In order to better understand the interplay between metallothionein (MT) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oyster hemocytes, studies of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging properties of MT were carried out in a cell‑free system. Mammalian MT is involved in protection against oxidative stress by virtue of its ability to scavenge free radicals; therefore, the H2O2 scavenging potentials of Crassostrea virginica and rabbit MTS were compared. Oyster and rabbit MTs showed similar dose‑dependent suppression of H2O2‑stimulated, luminol‑augmented chemiluminescence (CL); the EC50 for CL (25 microM H2O2) was approximately 1.0 microM MT for both species. The interaction of ROS with MT in hemocytes could play a role in protection of the cells and surrounding tissues from oxidants associated with antimicrobial responses. Mobilization of bound zinc from MT by hemocyte‑derived ROS may produce aberrant regulatory effects on various cellular processes. The data suggest that MT may be involved in immunoregulatory pathways in oyster hemocytes as a result of its ability to scavenge antimicrobial ROS.

Descriptors: free radical scavengers metabolism, hemocytes physiology, metallothionein physiology, oysters metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolism, liver metabolism, rabbits.


Bramble, L.H.; Anderson, R.S. (1999) Lack of involvement of reactive oxygen species in the bactericidal activity of Crassostrea virginica haemocytes in contrast to Morone saxatilis phagocytes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 9(2) p. 109‑123.

NAL call no: QL638.97 F55

Descriptors: oxygen, antimicrobial properties, morone, Crassostrea virginica, Bivalvia, oysters, Percoidei, macrophages, optical properties, blood cells, nonspecific immunostimulation, phagocytes, antibiotic properties, Bivalvia, blood, bony fishes, cells, chemicophysical properties, elements, fishes, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, Mollusca, nonmetals, Percoidei, phagocytes, shellfish, therapy, animal diseases, aquaculture production.


Cadet, P.; Stefano, G.B. (1999) Mytilus edulis pedal ganglia express mu opiate receptor transcripts exhibiting high sequence identity with human neuronal mu1. Molecular Brain Research 74 (1-2): 242-246, ISSN: 0169-328X.

Descriptors: cell biology, nervous system (neural coordination), Pelecypoda, Mytilus edulis, animal model, human neuronal mu 1 receptor, pedal ganglia, nervous system, mu opiate receptor transcripts, expression, high sequence identity.


Canesi, L.; Ciacci, C.; Betti, M.; Malatesta, M.; Gazzanelli, G.; Gallo, G. (1999) Growth factors stimulate the activity of key glycolytic enzymes in isolated digestive gland cells from mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) through tyrosine kinase mediated signal transduction. General and Comparative Endocrinology 116 (2): 241-248, ISSN: 0016-6480. 

NAL call no: 444.8 G28

Descriptors: endocrine system (chemical coordination and homeostasis), digestive system (ingestion and assimilation), Pelecypoda, Mytilus galloprovincialis, animal model, animals, invertebrates, mollusks, digestive gland cells, digestive system, growth factors, key glycolytic enzymes, activity stimulation, signal transduction, tyrosine kinase mediated.


Denardou‑Queneherve, A.; Grzebyk, D.; Pouchus, Y.F.; Sauviat, M.P.; Alliot, E.; Biard, J.F.; Berland, B.; Verbist, J.F. (1999) Toxicity of French strains of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum experimental and natural contaminations of mussels. Toxicon 37(12): 1711‑9, ISSN: 0041‑0101.

NAL call no: 391.8 T66

Abstract: Mediterranean strains of Prorocentrum minimum do not appear to have the same toxic component as Japanese strains since they showed no cytotoxicity for hepatocytes in culture. However, their toxic components, which appear to block calcium channels, were detectable by the immobilisation test on Diptera larvae. A bio‑accumulation experiment in the laboratory showed that the toxins could accumulate in nearly equivalent amounts in the hepatopancreas and meat of cultured mussels. The same toxicity was found in natural samples collected in a period of bloom of P. minimum. These results suggest that P. minimum could be responsible for shellfish toxicity in the natural environment and thus present a risk for human health.

Descriptors: Dinoflagellida, marine toxins toxicity, mussels drug effects, brain drug effects, brain metabolism, cells cultured, digestive system drug effects, digestive system metabolism, Diptera drug effects, heart drug effects, liver drug effects, marine toxins isolation and purification, marine toxins pharmacokinetics, mice, mussels metabolism, neurotoxins toxicity, Rana esculenta, rats, toxicity tests.


De Voogt, P.; Bleeker, E.A.; van Vlaardingen, P.L.; Fernandez, A.; Slobodnik, J.; Wever, H.; Kraak, M.H. (1999) Formation and identification of azaarene transformation products from aquatic invertebrate and algal metabolism. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 724(2): 265‑74, ISSN: 1387‑2273.

NAL call no: QD272.C4J682

Abstract: The metabolism of two azaarenes, viz. acridine and phenanthridine, by aquatic organisms was studied in short‑term and chronic laboratory tests. The identity of metabolites observed in the test waters was investigated with different analytical methods, including HPLC, GC and hyphenated LC‑ or GC‑MS. The Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), one green alga species (Selenastrum capricornutum) and periphyton or bacteria transformed acridine into 9[10H]‑acridinone. Phenanthridine was transformed into 5[6H]‑phenanthridinone by midge (Chironomus riparius) larvae. The findings indicate that closely related isomers may undergo species‑specific biotransformation. It was concluded that keto‑metabolites are major products in the aquatic fate of benzoquinolines, which may be overlooked in the risk assessment of parent compounds. This study illustrates the typical problems with, as well as the potency of, chromatographic methods in the elucidation of metabolic routes of organic contaminants.

Descriptors: acridines pharmacokinetics, algae green metabolism, mussels metabolism, phenanthridines pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, chromatography, high pressure liquid, mass fragmentography, species specificity, spectrophotometry, ultraviolet.


Inoue, T.; Yoshiya, M.; Itani, M.; Douke, A. (1999) Feeding behavior of the starfishes to the manila clam [Ruditapes philippinarum]. Bulletin of the Kyoto Institute of Oceanic and Fishery Science (no.21) p. 8‑13, ISSN 0386‑5290.

Descriptors: Ruditapes philippinarum, predator prey relations, Asteroidea, feeding habits, benthic environment, sand, laboratory experimentation, aquatic environment, behaviour, Bivalvia, Echinodermata, environment, experimentation, Mollusca, predation, rock, ruditapes, aquatic ecology.


Jorquera, M.A.; C. E. Riquelme; L. A. Loyola; L. F. Munoz. Production of bactericidal substances by a marine vibrio isolated from cultures of the scallop Agropecten purpuratus. Aquac Int. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1999. v. 7 (6) p. 433‑448. ISSN: 0967‑6120.

NAL call no: SH1.A627

Descriptors: Vibrio, Argopecten, Listonella anguillarum, growth, inhibition, antibacterial properties, strain differences, sea water, mollusc culture, chemical composition, bioassays, ethers, Vibrio parahaemolyticus.


Sallenave, C.; Pouchus, Y.F.; Bardouil, M.; Lassus, P.; Roquebert, M.F.; Verbist, J.F. (1999) Bioaccumulation of mycotoxins by shellfish: contamination of mussels by metabolites of a Trichoderma koningii strain isolated in the marine environment. Toxicon 37(1): 77‑83, ISSN: 0041‑0101.

NAL call no: 391.8 T66

Abstract: To determine whether toxic metabolites produced by fungi could cause shellfish toxicities, mussels were contaminated in laboratory conditions by sterile filtrates of a liquid culture of a strain of the fungus Trichoderma koningii previously isolated from a shellfish, the cockle (Cerastoderma edule). Mussels were kept in aerated natural seawater and fed with a culture of the microalga Isochrysis galbana, to which a filtrate of liquid fungal culture was added. Mussels were exposed to contamination for 7 days at 16 or 20 degrees C and extractions were then performed and their activity tested on blowfly larvae. The same toxicity was found in the fungal filtrate and the shellfish, indicating bioaccumulation. The digestive gland was the most toxic part of the mussel, confirming contamination by filtration. Treated mussels produced a mucus which appeared to be a means of eliminating toxic metabolites.

Descriptors: food contamination analysis, marine toxins metabolism, mussels metabolism, mycotoxins metabolism, shellfish analysis, Trichoderma metabolism, algae metabolism, Cnidaria, larva, mucus metabolism, temperature.


Shieh, Y.C.; Calci, K.R.; Baric, R.S. (1999) A method to detect low levels of enteric viruses in contaminated oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(11): 4709‑14, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: Direct isolation and identification of pathogenic viruses from oysters implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks are hampered by inefficient methods for recovering viruses, naturally occurring PCR inhibitors, and low levels of virus contamination. In this study we focused on developing rapid and efficient oyster processing procedures that can be used for sensitive PCR detection of viruses in raw oysters. Poliovirus type 3 (PV3) Sabin strain was used to evaluate the efficacy of virus recovery and the removal of PCR inhibitors during oyster processing procedures. These procedures included elution, polyethylene glycol precipitation, solvent extraction, and RNA extraction. Acid adsorption elution in which glycine buffer (pH 7.5) was used was found to retain fewer inhibitors than direct elution in which glycine buffer (pH 9.5) was used. RNA extraction in which a silica gel membrane was used was more effective than single step RNA precipitation for removing additional nonspecific PCR inhibitors. The final 10 microl volume of RNA concentrates obtained from 2 g of oyster tissue (concentration factor, 200 fold) was satisfactory for efficient reverse transcription PCR detection of virus. The overall detection sensitivity of our method was 1 PFU/g of oyster tissue initially seeded with PV3. The method was utilized to investigate a 1998 gastroenteritis outbreak in California in which contaminated oysters were the suspected disease transmission vehicle. A genogroup II Norwalk like virus was found in two of three recalled oyster samples linked by tags to the harvest dates and areas associated with the majority of cases. The method described here improves the response to outbreaks and can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of viral agents in outbreak implicated oysters.

Descriptors: Enterovirus isolation and purification, oysters virology, shellfish virology, Enterovirus genetics, polymerase chain reaction methods, RNA, viral isolation and purification, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods, rhabdomyosarcoma, seasons, sensitivity and specificity, tumor cells, cultured, United States.


Steffen, W.; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Holzbaur, E.L.F.; Langford, G.M.; Weiss, D.G.; Palazzo, R.E.  (1999) The dynein-dynactin complex is required for cytaster assembly but not for centrosome-dependent aster formation in vitro. Molecular Biology of the Cell 10 (SUPPL.): 17a, ISSN: 1059-1524.

NAL call no: QH604.C452

Descriptors: Pelecypoda, Spisula, animal model, female, dynein-dynactin complex, cytaster assembly requirement, in-vitro study, negative centrosome dependent aster formation requirement, oocyte expression.

Walker, C.W. (1999) Apoptosis following treatment of clam leukemia cells with etoposide: A p53-dependent mechanism? Molecular Biology of the Cell 10 (SUPPL.): 431a, ISSN: 1059-1524.

NAL call no: QH604.C452

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, blood and lymphatics (transport and circulation), tumor biology, Pelecypoda, Mya arenaria [soft-shell-clam], animal model, DNA, etoposide, topoisomerase II inhibitor, p53, Mya arenaria p53 gene, acute myelocytic leukemia, blood and lymphatic disease, immune system, disease, neoplastic disease.


Won, S.J.; Flynn, A.; Ammerman, M.; Callard, I. (1999) Putative vitellogenins in the fresh water mussel, Elliptio complanata. Biology of Reproduction 60 (SUPPL. 1): 184, ISSN: 0006-3363.

NAL call no: QL876.B5

Descriptors: reproductive system, Pelecypoda, Elliptio complanata, fresh water mussel, animal model, female, Patinopecten yessoensis, scallop, animals, putative vitellogenins, ovarian yolk proteins, fresh water mussel synthesis.





Bramble, L.H.; Anderson, R.S. (1998) A comparison of the chemiluminescent response of Crassostrea virginica and Morone saxatilis phagocytes to zymosan and viable Listonella anguillarum. Dev Comp Immunol 22(1): 55‑61, ISSN: 0145‑305X.

NAL call no: QR180.D4

Abstract: If reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by hemocytes of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, impart bactericidal activity, exposure of hemocytes to bacteria should result in increased ROS generation. In an earlier study, this hypothesis was tested using luminol‑ and lucigenin‑augmented chemiluminescence (CL) to measure ROS production. The bacterium Listonella anguillarum did not stimulate a net increase in hemocyte‑derived CL, and it was suggested that bacterial antioxidants might suppress hemocyte CL. In the present study a comparison was made, under identical assay conditions, of the zymosan‑ and bacteria‑enhanced luminol CL produced by eastern oyster hemocytes and by striped bass (Morone saxatilis) macrophages, for which L. anguillarum has been shown to be a stimulus in CL reactions. The response to zymosan produced by bass phagocytes was two orders of magnitude greater than that generated by eastern oyster hemocytes. Whereas an increase in net ROS production was not evident when oyster hemocytes were exposed to L. anguillarum, significant stimulation of striped bass macrophage‑derived CL occurred. These data suggest that striped bass macrophages have a greater capacity to generate ROS than oyster hemocytes, enabling them to surpass the antioxidant capability of L. anguillarum and produce a luminol CL response.

Descriptors: bass immunology, oysters immunology, phagocytes immunology, reactive oxygen species metabolism, chemiluminescence, hemocytes immunology, macrophages immunology, vibrio immunology, zymosan immunology.


Donovan, T.J.; Gallacher, S.; Andrews, N.J.; Greenwood, M.H.; Graham, J.; Russell, J.E.; Roberts, D.; Lee, R. (1998) Modification of the standard method used in the United Kingdom for counting Escherichia coli in live bivalve molluscs. Commun Dis Public Health 1(3): 188‑96.

Abstract: The standard method for counting Escherichia coli in live bivalve molluscs is labour intensive and takes three days to obtain a result. Modifications to the standard method were investigated in a collaborative trial conducted in five centres. No significant difference was found between results based on the presence of acid at 24 hours (h) in first stage tests and those based on the presence of acid and gas after 48 h (standard method). The use of the chromogenic medium BCIG (5‑bromo‑4‑chloro‑3‑indolyl‑beta‑D glucuronide) agar incubated at 44 degrees C to confirm first stage tests was also found to give equivalent results to conventional confirmation tests. The preferred, modified method removes the presence of gas as a criterion of detection, uses a chromogenic agar medium to confirm the presence of E. coli, and gives results within 48 h. A distribution of simulated samples and selected strains of E. coli to other laboratories using the PHLS external quality assurance scheme for shellfish found no significant difference between results obtained by the standard and modified methods.

Descriptors: colony count, microbial methods, Escherichia coli isolation and purification, microbiology, shellfish microbiology, bacteriological techniques, Great Britain, reproducibility of results.


Ford, S.E.; Ashton‑Alcox, K.A. (1998) Altered response of oyster hemocytes to Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) plasmodia treated with enzymes or metabolic inhibitors. J Invertebr Pathol 72(2): 160‑6, ISSN: 0022‑2011.

NAL call no: 421 J826

Abstract: To avoid phagocytosis, parasites may mask themselves with host‑like molecules that prevent recognition as nonself or they may produce substances that interfere with host cellular defenses. The protozoan parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni, which causes MSX disease in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is not ingested by host hemocytes. To assess potential avoidance mechanisms, oyster hemocytes were incubated with plasmodial stages of the parasite that had been pretreated with one of a variety of enzymes (proteases and carbohydrases) to alter surface molecules or with metabolic inhibitors to prevent the synthesis or active uptake of "masking" molecules, as well as the production and discharge of inhibitory substances. The maximum increase in phagocytosis resulting from treatment with carbohydrases was 12.5% (beta‑galactosidase) and with proteases was 18% (Proteinase K). Inhibitors of aerobic metabolism resulted in a similar level of enhancement. In contrast, treatment of parasites with the glycolysis inhibitor iodoacetate enhanced phagocytosis by up to 66%. Thus, the process that obstructs phagocytosis involves aerobic and, especially, anaerobic pathways. The greater effect of a metabolic inhibitor compared to enzymes suggests that the mechanism involves more than just surface modification and may include the production of interference molecules.

Descriptors: enzyme inhibitors, hemocytes immunology, hydrolases, iodoacetates, oysters immunology, phagocytosis immunology, Protozoa immunology, hemocytes parasitology.


House, M.L.; Kim, C.H.; Reno, P.W. (1998) Soft shell clams Mya arenaria with disseminated neoplasia demonstrate reverse transcriptase activity. Dis Aquat Organ 34(3): 187‑92, ISSN: 0177‑5103.

Abstract: Disseminated neoplasia (DN), a proliferative cell disorder of the circulatory system of bivalves, was first reported in oysters in 1969. Since that time, the disease has been determined to be transmissible through water‑borne exposure, but the etiological agent has not been unequivocally identified. In order to determine if a viral agent, possibly a retrovirus, could be the causative agent of DN, transmission experiments were performed, using both a cell‑free filtrate and a sucrose gradient‑purified preparation of a cell‑free filtrate of DN positive materials. Additionally, a PCR‑enhanced reverse transcriptase assay was used to determine if reverse transcriptase was present in tissues or hemolymph from DN positive soft shell clams Mya arenaria. DN was transmitted to healthy clams by injection with whole DN cells, but not with cell‑free filtrates prepared from either tissues from DN positive clams, or DN cells. The cell‑free preparations from DN‑positive tissues and hemolymph having high levels of DN cells in circulation exhibited positive reactions in the PCR‑enhanced reverse transcriptase assay. Cell‑free preparations of of hemolymph from clams having low levels of DN (<0.1% of cells abnormal), hemocytes from normal soft shell clams, and normal soft shell clam tissues did not produce a positive reaction in the PCR enhanced reverse transcriptase assay.

Descriptors: clams virology, RNA directed DNA polymerase analysis, Retroviridae isolation and purification, clams enzymology, hemolymph enzymology, neoplasms virology, polymerase chain reaction, Retroviridae enzymology, tumor virus infections transmission, tumor virus infections virology.


Konishi, K.; Kawamura, K.; Furuita, H.; Komaru, A. (1998) Spermatogenesis of the freshwater clam Corbicula aff. fluminea Muller (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). Journal of Shellfish Research V 17 , N1 ( JUN ) p. 185-189, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: spermatogenesis, ultrastructure, flagella, hermaphrodite, Corbicula, ultrastructure, sperm, spermatozoa, Unionidae.


Madon, S.P.; Schneider, D.W.; Stoeckel, J.A. (1998) In situ estimation of zebra mussel metabolic rates using the electron transport system (ETS) assay. Journal of Shellfish Research V. 17, N1 (JUN), P. 195-203, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: zebra mussels, ETS assay, in-situ metabolic rates, Dreissena polymorpha, bioenergetics model, oxygen consumption, marine zooplankton, Great Lakes, impact, respiration, region, river, populations.


Martinez, G.; Mettifogo, L. (1998) Mobilization of energy from adductor muscle for gametogenesis of the scallop, Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck. Journal of Shellfish Research V 17, N1 (JUN), P. 113-116, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: scallops, gametogenesis, Argopecten purpuratus, reproduction, adductor muscle, clyde sea area, biochemical composition, bay scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, Irradians concentricus, seasonal variation, Pecten maximus, cyclic AMP, reproduction, Yessoensis.


OConnor, W.A.; Heasman, M.P. (1998) Ontogenetic changes in salinity and temperature tolerance in the doughboy scallop, Mimachlamys asperrima. Journal of Shellfish Research V. 17, N1 (JUN), P. 89-95, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: salinity, temperature, tolerance, ontogeny, byssogenesis, scallops, commercial scallop, iceland scallop, Pecten fumatus, growth, settlement, pectinidae, bay.


Serrano, F.S.; Alonso, P.S.; Lopez, S.L.; Martin, L.O. (1998) Regulation of Mytilus galloprovincialis glycogen phosphorylase by glucose and glucose-6-phosphate. Journal of Shellfish Research, V. 17, N1 (JUN), P. 159-163, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: Mytilus galloprovincialis, glycogen phosphorylase, regulation glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, inorganic phosphate, liver, site, dephosphorylation, gametogenesis, purification, metabolism, binding, edulis, mantle.


Trotta, P.; Cordisco, C.A. (1998) Gonadal maturation, conditioning, and spawning in the laboratory and maturation cycle in the wild of Cerastoderma glaucum Bruguiere. Journal of Shellfish Research 17 (4) 919‑923, ISSN: 0730‑8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: aquaculture, marine ecology, environmental sciences, reproduction, Pelecypoda, Cerastoderma glaucum, egg, fisheries species, gamete, reproductive system, Europe, Palearctic region, Lesina Lagoon, Italy, Europe, Palearctic region, mariculture industry, adaptability, aquatic conditions, chemical, biomass, coastal embayments, habitat, eutrophic lagoons, gametogenesis, gonadal maturation, latitudinal variation, mariculture, maturation cycle, muddy soft bottom, organic load, population density, reproductive behavior, salinity, temperature, Isochrysis aff. galbana.


Walker, R.L.; Hurley, D.H.; Kupfer, R. (1998) Growth and survival of Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, larvae and juveniles fed various microalga diets. Journal of Shellfish Research, V. 17, N1 (JUN), P. 211-214, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: Spisula, diets, growth, larvae, survival, upweller, Crassostrea virginica gmelin, Mercenaria mercenaria.





Afanasjev, S.A.; Szatochina, A.V.; Zdanowski, B. (1997) Some aspects of thermal tolerance of Anodonta from heated koninskie lakes. Archives of Polish Fisheries  (1997). v. 5(1) p. 5‑11, ISSN 1230‑6428.

NAL call no: SH293.P7A73

Abstract: Thermal tolerance of Anodonta and Unio was studied under experimental conditions. Most tolerant to a gradual and stepwise temperature increase to 35 deg C were Chinese Anodonta, very numerous in Koninskie lakes, and among them ‑ individuals up to 5 cm. Critical water temperature, at a gradual daily increase, was 39 deg C.

Descriptors: freshwater molluscs, invertebrates, temperature resistance, heating, laboratory experimentation, electrical energy, water power, environmental impact, Poland, lakes, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, Eastern Europe, energy, energy sources, environmental control, Europe, experimentation, inland waters, natural resources, nonrenewable resources, physiographic features, renewable energy, renewable resources, resistance to injurious factors, surface water, water resources.


DePaola, A.; McLeroy, S.; McManus, G. (1997) Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus phage in oyster tissues and other estuarine habitats. Appl Environ Microbiol 63(6): 2464‑7, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: Phages lytic to Vibrio vulnificus were found in estuarine waters, sediments, plankton, crustacea, molluscan shellfish, and the intestines of finfish of the U.S. Gulf Coast, but no apparent relationship between densities of V. vulnificus and its phages was observed. Phage diversity and abundance in molluscan shellfish were much greater than in other habitats. V. vulnificus phages isolated from oysters did not lyse other mesophilic bacteria also isolated from oysters. Both V. vulnificus and its phages were found in a variety of oyster tissues and fluids with lowest densities in the hemolymph and mantle fluid. These findings suggest a close ecological relationship between V. vulnificus phages and molluscan shellfish.

Descriptors: bacteriophages isolation and purification, oysters microbiology, oysters virology, shellfish microbiology, shellfish virology, Vibrio virology, water microbiology, ecosystem, fresh water microbiology, fresh water virology, seawater microbiology, seawater virology, United States, Vibrio isolation and purification.


Elston, R. (1997) Special topic review: Bivalve mollusc viruses. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 13 (4) 393‑403, ISSN: 0959‑3993.

NAL call no: QR1.M562

Descriptors: cell biology, infection, marine ecology , methods and techniques, microbiology, Pathology, Physiology, wildlife management (conservation), Birnaviridae, viruses, Herpesviridae, Invertebrata unspecified, Reoviridae animal host only, bivalves, herpesviruses, microorganism, oyster, Pelecypoda, Birnaviridae, Reoviridae.


Fayer, R.; Farley, C.A.; Lewis, E.J.; Trout, J.M.; Graczyk, T.K. (1997) Potential role of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium parvum. Applied and environmental microbiology v. 63(5) p. 2086‑2088, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: Oysters were placed in an aquarium containing artificial seawater, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were added. Oocysts were later found in the gill washings, hemocytes, and gut contents of the oysters. Hemocytes containing oocysts were intubated into four mice. C. parvum stages developed in the ileal epithelia of all of the mice, indicating that the oocysts in the hemocytes remained infective.

Descriptors: Crassostrea virginica, epidemiology, Cryptosporidium parvum, Bivalvia, Coccidia, Crassostrea, Cryptosporidium, Protozoa, Sporozoa.


Gjetvaj, B.; Ball, R.M.; Burbridge, S.; Bird, C.J.; Kenchington, E.; Zouros, E. (1997) Amounts of polymorphism at microsatellite loci in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus. Journal Of Shelllfish Research, V. 16, N2 ( DEC ), P. 547-553, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: microsatellites, scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, stepwise mutation model, mitochondrial DNA, distributions, populations.


Shamseldin, A.A.; Clegg, J.S.; Friedman, C.S.; Cherr, G.N.; Pillai, M.C. (1997) Induced thermotolerance in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Journal Of Shellfish Research V 16 , N2 ( DEC ), P. 487-491, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: oyster, thermotolerance, heat shock protein, summer mortality, heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, Perkinsus marinus, stress proteins.





Mersch, J.; Beauvais, M.N.; Nagel, P. (1996) Induction of micronuclei in haemocytes and gill cells of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, exposed to clastogens. Mutat Res 371(1‑2): 47‑55, ISSN: 0027‑5107.

NAL call no: QH431.M8

Abstract: Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, were exposed to four directly acting reference clastogens (mitomycin C, bleomycin, dimethylarsinic acid and potassium chromate) under laboratory conditions. The aim was to examine the inducibility of micronuclei (MN) in haemocytes and gill cells. Positive responses were observed in both tissues for all four substances used under the given test conditions. The mean MN frequencies in treated mussels ranged between 3.2 and 6.9/1000 in haemocytes and between 5.4 and 6.7/1000 in gill cells. The spontaneous MN levels averaged 1.2 and 2.8/1000 in haemocytes and gill cells, respectively. The MN induction capacity of the different chemicals was equivalent in both tissues, except for the treatment with dimethylarsinic acid which generated a significantly higher MN rate in gill cells than in haemocytes. Several characteristics suggest that haemolymph is the more appropriate test tissue for environmental genotoxicity assessment: (1) a shorter preparation time of slides, (2) a more accurate identification of unambiguous MN, (3) a lower baseline MN frequency and a higher induction factor.

Descriptors: gills drug effects, hemocytes drug effects, micronucleus tests, mutagens toxicity, bleomycin toxicity, cacodylic acid pharmacology, chromates pharmacology, gills cytology, mitomycin toxicity, mussels, potassium compounds pharmacology.


Mortensen, S.H.; Glette, J. (1996) Phagocytic activity of scallop (Pecten maximus) haemocytes maintained in vitro. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 6 (2) 111‑121, ISSN: 1050‑4648.

NAL call no: QL638.97 F55

Descriptors: blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, immune system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, marine ecology, environmental sciences, physiology, Pelecypoda, Pecten maximus, hemocyte, morphology.


Vanderploeg, H.A.; Liebig, J.R.; Gluck, A.A. (1996) Evaluation of different phytoplankton for supporting development of Zebra mussel larvae (Dreissena polymorpha): The importance of size and polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Journal of Great Lakes Research 22 (1) 36‑45, ISSN: 0380‑1330.

NAL call no: GB1627.G8J6

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, development, ecology, environmental sciences, freshwater ecology, metabolism, physiology, algae unspecified, plantae, Pelecypoda, Mollusca, algae, Dreissena polymorpha, microorganisms, mollusks, nonvascular plants.


Wright, D.A.; Setzler, H.E.M.; Magee, J.A.; Harvey, H.R. (1996) Laboratory culture of Zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and Quagga (D. bugensis) Mussel larvae using estuarine algae. Journal of Great Lakes Research 22 (1) 46‑54, ISSN: 0380‑1330.

NAL call no: GB1627.G8J6

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, estuarine ecology, environmental sciences, nutrition, physiology, systematics and taxonomy, wildlife management, conservation, algae unspecified, Plantae, Pelecypoda, Dreissena bugensis, Dreissena polymorpha, microorganisms, mollusks, nonvascular plants.





Greger, E.A.; Drum, A.S.; Elston, R.A. (1995) Measurement of oxidative activity in hemocytes of the Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, and the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, using lucigenin‑ and luminol‑dependent chemiluminescence. Journal of invertebrate pathology 65(1): 48‑60, ISSN: 0022‑2011.

NAL call no: 421 J826

Abstract: In a manner resembling the respiratory burst of activated mammalian polymorphonuclear leukocytes, hemocytes of the Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, produced reactive oxygen intermediates during in vitro phagocytosis of zymosan particles. The acridinium salt lucigenin is oxidized by superoxide anion, creating photon emissions at levels measurable on a liquid scintillation counter calibrated to detect blood cell chemiluminescence (CL). Production of the superoxide anion by activated razor clam hemocytes was indicated by superoxide dismutase‑mediated inhibition of both lucigenin‑dependent CL and the histochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Reduced zymosan‑stimulated myeloperoxidase activity was suggested by minimal luminol‑dependent CL compared to hemocytes of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and enhancement of lucigenin‑dependent CL with exogenous sodium azide and potassium cyanide. CL analysis of individual hemolymph samples revealed a high degree of variability in lucigenin‑enhanced CL, suggesting large variation in hemocyte oxidative activity. Comparison of the lucigenin‑and luminol‑dependent CL of razor clam versus that of oyster hemocytes revealed significant interspecific dissimilarities and indicated that lucigenin offers an alternative to luminol for measurement of the bivalve hemocyte oxidative metabolism.

Descriptors: Siliqua genus, Crassostrea gigas, blood cells, phagocytes, polysaccharides, oxygen, oxidation, anions, optical properties, organic nitrogen compounds, Bivalvia, blood, carbohydrates, cells, chemical reactions, chemicophysical properties, Crassostrea, elements, ions, Mollusca, nonmetals.


Lewis, E.J.; Farley, C.A.; Small, E.B.; Baya, A.M. (1995) A synopsis of juvenile oyster disease (JOD) experimental studies in Crassostrea virginica. Aquatic Living Resources v. 9(2) p. 169‑178, ISSN 0990‑7440.

NAL call no: SH1.A8

Descriptors: Crassostrea virginica, young animals, pathology, mortality, aetiology, New England, America, Bivalvia, Mollusca, North America, North Eastern States, USA.


Makela, T.P.; Oikari, A.O. (1995) Pentachlorophenol accumulation in the freshwater mussels Anodonta anatina and Pseudanodonta complanata, and some physiological consequences of laboratory maintenance. Chemosphere 31(7): 3651‑62, ISSN: 0045‑6535.

NAL call no: TD172.C54

Abstract: Freshwater mussels Anodanta anatina and Pseudanodonta complanata were exposed to (14C)‑pentachlorophenol. The wet weight based bioconcentration factor (BCF = activity in animal per activity in water) at steady state varied from 80 to 120 for A. anatina and from 61 to 85 for P. complanata. The species did not differ significantly in their wet weight or lipid based BCFs but dry weight based values were significantly higher (40‑50%) for A. anatina. The soft tissue dry weight and dry weight based condition index of A. anatina (Cl4 = soft tissue dry weight per shell length) differed significantly between natural mussel populations. In animals kept from 4 to 8 months in laboratory conditions, the soft tissue dry weight and glycogen content decreased more rapidly when mussels were maintained at 15 than at 5 degrees C. However, glycogen content in the digestive gland or adductor muscle did not differ in mussels maintained in the laboratory (5 degrees C) when compared to the natural population. The adductor muscle protein content differed between laboratory maintained animals and the natural population in Lake Hoytianen but there was no difference in the soft tissue lipid content. Trace metal concentrations and calcium in the soft tissue were in general higher in laboratory maintained mussels. In addition, laboratory maintenance affected the reproductive cycle of A. anatina.

Descriptors: animals, laboratory physiology, environmental pollutants metabolism, mussels physiology, pentachlorophenol metabolism, body weight drug effects, calcium analysis, environmental pollutants pharmacology, mussels chemistry, mussels drug effects, pentachlorophenol pharmacology, reproduction drug effects, seasons, trace elements analysis, xenobiotics metabolism, xenobiotics pharmacology.





Alcutt, F.; Pinto, J.T. (1994) Glutathione concentrations in the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, following laboratory exposure to lead (a potential model system for evaluating exposure to carcinogens and toxins). Comp Biochem Physiol Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 1994 Mar; 107(3): 347‑52.

NAL call no: QP901.C6

Abstract: This study determined whether M. mercenaria retain Pb from sea water and whether endogenous GSH acts as an important primary response modulator of heavy metal detoxification. Lead accumulation in M. mercenaria may be related to the rate of endogenous formation of GSH. Glutathione concentrations decrease with increasing early exposure to Pb and increase after continued acute exposure. M. mercenaria do not accumulate Pb but appear to reach an equilibrium with their environment. GSH formation may protect the hard clam from accumulating excess Pb by forming insoluble sulfide adducts with Pb and excreting these complexes.

Descriptors: carcinogens toxicity, clams metabolism, glutathione metabolism, lead toxicity, toxins toxicity, water pollutants, chemical toxicity, environmental monitoring, metabolic detoxication, drug, models biological.


Anderson, R.S. (1994) Hemocyte‑derived reactive oxygen intermediate production in four bivalve mollusks. Dev Comp Immunol 18(2): 89‑96, ISSN: 0145‑305X.

NAL call no: QR180.D4

Abstract: Luminol‑dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays have been used to measure reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production by oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes, as well as ROI modulation caused by disease or exposure to environmental toxicants. However, ROI responses measured by these tests apparently vary considerably among other bivalve species. In all species tested, unstimulated hemocytes produced small quantities of ROIs. In C. virginica and Geukensia demissa phagocytosis or treatment with phorbol myristate acetate triggered significantly augmented, but kinetically dissimilar, ROI responses; however, no induction was recorded in two clam species (Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria). This was supported by both LDCL and NBT assays, measuring activity of the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide system and production of intracellular superoxide anion, respectively. The failure of the clams to respond to standard ROI‑eliciting procedures is possibly indicative of interspecies differences in hemocyte‑mediated antimicrobial defense mechanisms.

Descriptors: hemocytes metabolism, Mollusca metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolism, chemiluminescence, nitroblue tetrazolium metabolism.


Duncan, J.; Ram, J.L.; Fong, P.P.; Snow, V. (1994) Zebra mussel gills: Long term culture and contractile responses. American Zoologist 34 (5) 35A, ISSN: 0003‑1569.

NAL call no: 410 AM3

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, cell biology, freshwater ecology, environmental sciences, membranes, cell biology, metabolism, physiology, Carunculina texasensis, Corbicula fluminea, Pelecypoda.


Juneja, R.; Ito, E.; Koide, S.S. (1994) Effect of Serotonin and Tricyclic Antidepressants on Intracellular Calcium Concentrations in Spisula Oocytes. Cell Calcium  V 15, N1 (JAN), P. 1-6, ISSN: 0143-4160.

NAL call no: QP772.V53C4

Descriptors: affinity binding sites, human platelets, H-3 Imipramine, rat brain, maturation, effects of Imipramine, antidepressants inhibit spontaneous oscillations, cardiac assist devices.


MacMillan, R.J.; Cawthorn, R.J.; Whyte, S.K.; Lyon, P.R. (1994) Design and maintenance of a closed artificial seawater system for long‑term holding of bivalve shellfish. Aquacultural Engineering 13 (4) 241‑250, ISSN: 0144‑8609.

NAL call no: SH1.A66

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, development, marine ecology, environmental sciences, metabolism, nutrition, physiology, wildlife management, conservation, Pelecypoda, Sporozoa, Protozoa, Argopecten irradians, Crassostrea virginica, Mercenaria mercenaria, Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis, Perkinsus karlssoni, Placopecten magellanicus.


Shi, A.J.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, H.Y. (1994) On the nature of nacre secreted by the cultured mantle cells of freshwater mussel. Acta Zoologica Sinica 40 (2) 191‑197, ISSN: 0001‑7302. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: 410 AC87

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, cell biology, marine ecology, environmental sciences, metabolism, methods and techniques, morphology, pharmacognosy, pharmacology, physiology, wildlife management, conservation, Malvaceae, Dicotyledones, Angiospermae, Spermatophyta, Plantae, Pelecypoda.


Tessier, L.; G. Vaillancourt; L. Pazdernik. (1994) Temperature effects on cadmium and mercury kinetics in freshwater molluscs under laboratory conditions. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. New York, Springer‑Verlag. Feb 1994. v. 26 (2) p. 179‑184. ISSN: 0090‑4341.

NAL call no: TD172.A7

Descriptors: freshwater molluscs, exposure, temperature, effects, cadmium, mercury, kinetics, laboratory tests.





Marsh, J.W.; Chipman, J.K.; Livingstone, D.R. (1993) Formation of DNA adducts following laboratory exposure of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, to xenobiotics. Science of the Total Environment Suppl. 1993(part 1) p. 567‑572, ISSN 0048‑9697.

NAL call no: RA565.S365

Descriptors: Mytilus edulis, xenobiotics, DNA, toxicity, tracer techniques, acids, Bivalvia, Mytilus, nucleic acids, nucleic compounds, organic acids, miscellaneous animal disorders.


Tamai, K. (1993) Tolerance of Theora fragilis (Bivalvia: Semelidae) to low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 59(4): 615‑620, ISSN 0021‑5392. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: 414.9 J274

Descriptors: Bivalvia, anoxia, resistance to injurious factors, laboratory experimentation, dissolving, oxygen, environmental temperature, survival, duration, elements, environmental factors, nonmetals, physical phenomena, temperature, time, miscellaneous animal disorders.





Borsa, P.; Jousselin, Y.; Delay, B. (1992) Relationships between Allozymic Heterozygosity, Body Size, and Survival to Natural Anoxic Stress in the Palourde ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia, Veneridae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology V 155, N2, P. 169-181.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: anoxic stress, bivalve, heterozygosity, malaigue, Ruditapes decussates, survival, oyster Crassostrea virginica, mussel Mytilus edulis, growth rate, marine bivalves, Mulinia lateralis, blue mussel, coot clam, populations, energetics, lagoon.


Gosling, E (1992) Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science; The mussel Mytilus: Ecology, physiology, genetics and culture.25: xiii+589p, ISSN: 0167‑9309.

NAL call no: SH1 D43 v.25

Descriptors: infection, marine ecology, environmental sciences, parasitology, physiology,  wildlife management, conservation, animal viruses general, viruses, Pelecypoda, microorganisms, viruses, epizootic diseases, mortality, parasite.


Jones, H.D.; Richards, O.G.; Southern, T.A. (1992) Gill Dimensions, Water Pumping Rate and Body Size in the Mussel Mytilus edulis Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology V 155, N2, P. 213-237.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: filter feeding, filtration rate, gill area, Mytilus, ostial area, size, suspension feeding bivalves, filtration rate, growth, temperature, oyster crassostrea gigas, mussel culture, growth of juvenile bay scallops Argopecten irradians concentricus.


Novelli, A.; Kispert, J.; Fernandezsanchez, M.T.; Torreblanca, A.; Zitko, V. (1992) Domoic Acid-Containing Toxic Mussels Produce Neurotoxicity in Neuronal Cultures through a Synergism between Excitatory Amino Acids. Brain Research V 577, N1 (APR 10), P. 41-48.

Descriptors: domoic acid, toxic mussel, synergism between excitatory amino acids, biotoxin, environmental neurotoxin, cerebellar granule cells, nervous system, receptors, glutamate, metabolism, model.





Beaumont, A.R. (1991) Genetic Studies of Laboratory Reared Mussels, Mytilus-edulis- Heterozygote Deficiencies, Heterozygosity and Growth. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society V 44, N3, P. 273-285.

NAL call no: QH301.B56

Descriptors: Mytilus edulis, culture, genetics, electrophoresis, heterozygosity, growth, enzyme heterozygosity, Mulinia lateralis, marine bivalves, coot clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea virginica, possible explanations, environmental stress, population genetics, blue mussel.


Fujii, T.; Sugiyama, M. (1991) The effect of water pressure change on the scallop appeared in periodic expansion‑contraction movement of its adductor muscle. Bulletin of National Research Institute of Aquaculture (no.19) p. 27‑30, ISSN 0389‑5858. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SH109.Y67

Abstract: Effects of periodical changes of water pressure and light‑dark conditions on the movement of adductor muscle of a scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay), were investigated in the laboratory. The expansion‑contraction movement of adductor muscle was measured (recorded) by straingauge method under the conditions of 12h water‑level cycle with continuous dark and of 16h water‑level cycle with 12h‑12h light‑dark alternation respectively. FFT spectral analysis showed that periodic elements corresponding to each periodic factor of the environmental conditions given to the shell were present in the adductor muscle movement, which suggested that the movement might be affected by tidal change as well as day‑night change in natural environment.

Descriptors: Scallops, muscles, biological rhythms, pressure, sea water, movement, periodicity, light regimes, body parts, chemicophysical properties, environmental factors, lighting, musculoskeletal system, physiological functions, saline water, shellfish, time, water.


Jenner, H.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Marquenie, J.M.; Noppert, F. (1991) Cadmium kinetics in freshwater clams (Unionidae) under field and laboratory conditions. Science of the Total Environment 108(3): 205‑214, ISSN: 0048‑9697.

NAL call no: RA565.S365

Descriptors: clams, cadmium, kidneys, animal morphology, elements, heavy metals, metallic elements, shellfish, urinary tract, urogenital system.





Tanaka, Y. (1984) Morphological and physiological characteristics of the post larval stages in Corbicula japonica Prime, reared in the laboratory. Bulletin of National Research Institute of Aquaculture (Japan) (no.6) p. 23‑27, ISSN: 0389‑5858.

NAL call no: SH109.Y67

Descriptors: clams, animal anatomy, physiology, larvae, life cycle, salinity, brackishwater environment, anatomy, animal developmental stages, aquatic environment, biological rhythms, chemicophysical properties, composition, developmental stages, environment, foods, seafoods, shellfish, time, timing.





Fujii, T.; Mizuno, K.; Ishikawa, K. (1982) The study for periodic behaviour of bivalves, 4: A characteristic of shell movement of mussels [Mytilus edulis]. Bulletin of Tohoku Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.45) p. 69‑75. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SH301.S852

Descriptors: Mytilus, shell, movement, periodicity, environmental conditions, anatomy, animal anatomy, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, bivalves, body parts, environment, integument, physiological functions, time, timing, tissues.





Mackie, G.L.; Zdeba, T.W. (1980) A guide to freshwater mollusks of the Laurentian Great Lakes, with special emphasis on the genus Pisidium  Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. 144 p.

NAL call no: TD1.E2 no. 80-068

Descriptors: auxiliary disciplines, molluscs, North Central States, USA, Ontario, lakes and ponds.


Palmer, R.E. (1980) Behavioural and rhythmic aspects of filtration in the Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say), and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 45(2): 273‑295.

NAL call no: QH91 A1J6

Abstract: Hourly measurements, for periods of 24 to 33 h, were made in the laboratory of filtration rate and cell clearance rate of 39 individual Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Bivalves fed on suspensions of algea (Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher, Ispchrysis galabna Parke, or Thalassiosira pseudonana (Hustedt)) whose concentration was maintained at a nearly constant level throughout each experiment. Neither local tidal sequence nor laboratory day: night cycles exerted a significant influence on scallop or oyster filtration behaviour. In Argopecten irradians filtration activity either remained relatively constant throughout the experimental period or stabilized at a constant level after an initial period of steady decline. There was an inverse relationship between suspended algal concentration (0.94 9.66mg l('1)) and filtration rate of A. irradians, so that the average amount of algae cleared hourly was similar throughout this range of concentrations. Mean filtration rate for all experiments with scallops was 4.7l.h('1)g dry wt ('1), but averaged 5.7l.h ('1) g dry wt ('1) when ambient concentration was <1.5mg.l('1). Filtration behaviour of Crassostrea virginica was generally characterized by alternating periods of high and low activity. Peaks of oyster filtration activity occurred two or three times per day, and the period between peaks did not vary with experimental algal concentration (1.7 6.7mg.l('1)). Oysters filtered actively for 80 per cent of all hourly periods in suspensions of Thalassiosira pseudonana and 91 per cent in suspensions of Isochrysis galbana: mean filtration rate for Crassostrea virginica was 1.5l.h('1)g dry wt ('1) for all measurements and 1.9l.h('1)g dry wt ('1) during hourly periods of active filtration. These results indicate that scallops can collect food continuously, and, in the range of concentrations of suspended matter typical of coastal environments, can respond to environmental variations quickly enough to collect a relatively constant supply of food over time. In similar concentrations filtration of oysters is much more variable. Fluctuations in filtration of oysters in the laboratory could not be related to tidal or diurnal cycles or to food availbility. Although their frequency does suggest a tidal component in filtration, the most probable explanation for variations in cell clearance rate is that they serve to regulate food levels in the stomach to permit a relatively constant level of intracellular digestion.

Descriptors: aquatic ecology, oysters.





Nakanishi, T. (1977) Studies of the effect of the environment on the heart rate of shellfishes, 1: Effect of temperature, salinity and hypoxia on the heart rate of scallop. Bulletin of the Hokkaido Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory. (no.42) p. 65-73, ISSN: 0513‑2541. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: 414.9 H683

Descriptors: aquatic ecology, clam.


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