Laboratory Care / Research







Ikeda, Y.; Okazaki, J.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakamoto, W. (2002) Periodic variation in Sr/Ca ratios in statoliths of the Japanese Common Squid Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup, 1880 (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) maintained under constant water temperature. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 273 (2): 161‑170, ISSN: 0022‑0981.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: marine ecology , Todarodes pacificus, Japanese common squid, animals, Invertebrates, mollusks, strontium/calcium ratio, periodic feeding activity, periodic variation, vertical movements, water temperature.





Domingues, P. M.; A. Sykes; J. P. Andrade. Pilot‑scale culture of the cuttlefish S. Officinalis at the University of the Algarve (South Portugal). World Aquac. Baton Rouge, La. : World Aquaculture Society,. June 2001. v. 32 (2) p. 3‑5. ISSN: 1041‑5602.

NAL call no: SH1.W62                                                          

Descriptors: Sepia, mollusc culture, evaluation, growth rate, life cycle, liveweight, ova, prey, feeding, rearing techniques, larvae, survival, stocking density, handling, Portugal.


Jaffe, H.; Sharma, P.; Grant, P.; Pant, H. (2001) Characterization of the phosphorylation sites of the squid (Loligo pealei) high‑molecular‑weight neurofilament protein from giant axon axoplasm. J Neurochem 76(4): 1022‑31, ISSN: 0022‑3042.

NAL call no: QP351.J6

Abstract: Axonal caliber in vertebrates is attributed, in part, to the extensive phosphorylation of NFM and NFH C‑terminal tail domain KSP repeats by proline‑directed kinases. The squid giant axon, primarily involved in rapid impulse conduction during jet propulsion motility, is enriched in squid‑specific neurofilaments, particularly the highly phosphorylated NF‑220. Of the 228 serine‑threonine candidate phosphate acceptor sites in the NF‑220 tail domain (residues 401‑1220), 82 are found in numerous repeats of three different motifs SAR/K, SEK/R, K/RSP, with 62 of these tightly clustered in the C‑terminal repeat segment (residues 840‑1160). Characterization of the in vivo NF‑220 phosphorylated sites should provide clues as to the relevant kinases. To characterize these sites, proteolytic digests of NF‑220 were analyzed by a combination of HPLC, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and database searching. A total of 53 phosphorylation sites were characterized, with 47 clustered in the C‑terminal repeat segment (residues 840‑1160), representing 76% (47/62) of the total acceptor sites in the region. As in mammalian NFH, approximately 64% of the K/RSP sites (14/22) in this region were found to be phosphorylated implicating proline‑directed kinases. Significantly, 78% of serines (31/40) in the KAES*EK and EKS*ARSP motifs were also phosphorylated suggesting that non proline‑directed kinases such as CKI may also be involved. This is consistent with previous studies showing that CKI is the principal kinase associated with axoplasmic NF preparations. It also suggests that phosphorylation of large macromolecules with multiple phospho‑sites requires sequential phosphorylation by several kinases.

Descriptors: axons chemistry, cytoplasm chemistry, neurofilament proteins chemistry, amino acid sequence, binding sites physiology, chromatography, liquid, molecular sequence data, neurofilament proteins isolation and purification, peptide fragments analysis, peptide hydrolases metabolism, phosphorylation, protein structure, tertiary, sequence analysis, protein, spectrum analysis, squid, peptide fragments, neurofilament protein NF 220.


Mather, J.A. Animal suffering: an invertebrate perspective. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 2001. v.4 (2) p. 151‑156. ISSN: 1088‑8705.

NAL call no: HV4701.J68

Descriptors: laboratory animals, invertebrates, Cephalopoda, pain, animal welfare, octopus, animal behavior,. conditioned reflexes, nervous system, ethics.


Zheng, X.D.; Wang, R.C.; Wang, X.F.; Xiao, S.; Chen, B. (2001) Genetic variation in populations of the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni ( Mollusca : Cephalopoda) using allozymes and mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Journal of Shellfish Research V 20, N3 ( DEC ) , P. 1159-1165, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: genetic variation, Sepiella maindroni, allozyme, cytochrome oxidase I gene, DNA sequencing.





Boutilier, R.G.; West, T.G.; Webber, D.M.; Pogson, G.H.; Mesa, K.A.; Wells, J.; Wells, M.J. (2000) The protective effects of hypoxia‑induced hypometabolism in the Nautilus. J Comp Physiol [B] 170(4): 261‑8, ISSN: 0174‑1578. 

NAL call no: QP33.J681

Abstract: Specimens of Nautilus pompilius were trapped at depths of 225‑300 m off the sunken barrier reef southeast of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Animals transported to the Motupore Island laboratory were acclimated to normal habitat temperatures of 18 degrees C and then cannulated for arterial and venous blood sampling. When animals were forced to undergo a period of progressive hypoxia eventually to encounter ambient partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) levels of approximately 10 mmHg (and corresponding arterial PO2's of approximately 5 mmHg), they responded by lowering their aerobic metabolic rates to 5‑10% of those seen in resting normoxic animals. Coincident with this profound metabolic suppression was an overall decrease in activity, with brief periods of jet propulsion punctuating long periods of rest. Below ambient PO2 levels of 30‑40 mmHg, ventilatory movements became highly periodic and at the lowest PO2 levels encountered, ventilation occasionally ceased altogether. Cardiac output estimated by the Fick equation decreased during progressive hypoxia by as much as 75 80%, and in the deepest hypometabolic states heart rates slowed to one to two cycles of very low amplitude per minute. By the end of 500 min exposure to ambient PO2 levels of 10 mmHg or less, the anaerobic end products octopine and succinate had increased significantly in adductor muscle and heart, respectively. Increased concentrations of octopine in adductor muscle apparently contributed to a small intracellular acidosis and to the development of a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis in the extracellular compartment. On the other hand, increases in succinate in heart muscle occurred in the absence of any change in cardiac pHi. Taken together, we estimate that these anaerobic end products would make up less than 2% of the energy deficit arising from the decrease in aerobic metabolism. Thus, metabolic suppression is combined with a massive downregulation of systemic O2 delivery to match metabolic supply to demand.

Descriptors: adaptation, physiological physiology, anoxia metabolism, arginine analogs and derivatives, basal metabolism physiology, Mollusca metabolism, acid base equilibrium physiology, arginine metabolism, carbon dioxide metabolism, heart rate, hydrogen ion concentration, muscles metabolism, myocardium metabolism, oxygen metabolism, respiration, succinic acid metabolism.


Dickel, L.; Boal, J.G.; Budelmann, B.U. (2000) The effect of early experience on learning and memory in cuttlefish. Developmental Psychobiology 36 (2): 101‑110, ISSN: 0012‑1630.

NAL call no: QP351.D4

Descriptors: behavior, development, Cephalopoda, Mollusca, Invertebrata, Animalia, Sepia officinalis, cuttlefish, juvenile, animals, invertebrates, learning, acquisition, early experience effect, retention, memory, early experience effect, growth, maturation rate, ontogeny, rearing environment, enriched, impoverished.


Nyholm, S.V.; Stabb, E.V.; Ruby, E.G.; McFall‑Ngai, M.J. (2000) Establishment of an animal‑bacterial association: recruiting symbiotic vibrios from the environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97(18): 10231‑5, ISSN: 0027‑8424.

NAL call no: 500 N21P

Abstract: While most animal‑bacterial symbioses are reestablished each successive generation, the mechanisms by which the host and its potential microbial partners ensure tissue colonization remain largely undescribed. We used the model association between the squid Euprymna scolopes and Vibrio fischeri to examine this process. This light organ symbiosis is initiated when V. fischeri cells present in the surrounding seawater enter pores on the surface of the nascent organ and colonize deep epithelia‑lined crypts. We discovered that when newly hatched squid were experimentally exposed to natural seawater, the animals responded by secreting a viscous material from the pores of the organ. Animals maintained in filtered seawater produced no secretions unless Gram‑negative bacteria, either living or dead, were reintroduced. The viscous material bound only lectins that are specific for either N‑acetylneuraminic acid or N‑acetylgalactosamine, suggesting that it was composed of a mucus‑containing matrix. Complex ciliated fields on the surface of the organ produced water currents that focused the matrix into a mass that was tethered to, and suspended above, the light organ pores. When V. fischeri cells were introduced into the seawater surrounding the squid, the bacteria were drawn into its fluid‑filled body cavity during ventilation and were captured in the matrix. After residing as an aggregate for several hours, the symbionts migrated into the pores and colonized the crypt epithelia. This mode of infection may be an example of a widespread strategy by which aquatic hosts increase the likelihood of successful colonization by rarely encountered symbionts.

Descriptors: gram negative bacteria physiology, gram positive bacteria physiology, squid microbiology, squid physiology, symbiosis, Vibrio physiology, cloning, molecular, epithelium microbiology, epithelium physiology, lectins, luminescent proteins analysis, luminescent proteins genetics, recombinant proteins analysis, seawater microbiology.





Grant, P; Diggins, M; Pant, H.C. (1999) Topographic regulation of cytoskeletal protein phosphorylation by multimeric complexes in the squid giant fiber system. J Neurobiol 40(1): 89‑102, ISSN: 0022‑3034.

NAL call no: QP351.J55

Abstract: In mammalian and squid nervous systems, the phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins (NFs) seems to be topographically regulated. Although NFs and relevant kinases are synthesized in cell bodies, phosphorylation of NFs, particularly in the lys‑ser‑pro (KSP) repeats in NF‑M and NF‑H tail domains, seem to be restricted to axons. To explore the factors regulating the cellular compartmentalization of NF phosphorylation, we separated cell bodies (GFL) from axons in the squid stellate ganglion and compared the kinase activity in the respective lysates. Although total kinase activity was similar in each lysate, the profile of endogenous phosphorylated substrates was strikingly different. Neurofilament protein 220 (NF220), high‑molecular‑weight NF protein (HMW), and tubulin were the principal phosphorylated substrates in axoplasm, while tubulin was the principal GFL phosphorylated substrate, in addition to highly phosphorylated low‑molecular‑weight proteins. Western blot analysis showed that whereas both lysates contained similar kinases and cytoskeletal proteins, phosphorylated NF220 and HMW were completely absent from the GFL lysate. These differences were highlighted by P13(suc1) affinity chromatography, which revealed in axoplasm an active multimeric phosphorylation complex(es), enriched in cytoskeletal proteins and kinases; the equivalent P13 GFL complex exhibited six to 20 times less endogenous and exogenous phosphorylation activity, respectively, contained fewer cytoskeletal proteins and kinases, and expressed a qualitatively different cdc2‑like kinase epitope, 34 kDa rather than 49 kDa. Cell bodies and axons share a similar repertoire of molecular consitutents; however, the data suggest that the cytoskeletal/kinase phosphorylation complexes extracted from each cellular compartment by P13 are fundamentally different.

Descriptors: cytoskeletal proteins metabolism, nerve fibers metabolism, nerve fibers ultrastructure, protein kinases metabolism, chromatography, affinity, cytoskeletal proteins chemistry, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, neurofilament proteins chemistry, neurofilament proteins isolation and purification, neurofilament proteins metabolism, phosphorylation, repetitive sequences, amino acid, squid.





Boal, J. G.; S. A. Gonzalez. Social behavior of individual oval squids (Cephalopoda, Teuthoidea, Loliginidae, Sepioteuthis lessoniana) within a captive school. Ethology. Berlin : Paul Parey, 1986. Feb 1998. v. 104 (2) p. 161‑178. ISSN: 0179‑1613.  

NAL call no: QL750.E74

Descriptors: Loliginidae, social behavior, behavior patterns.


Houlihan, D.F.; Kelly, K.; Boyle, P.R. (1998) Correlates of growth and feeding in laboratory‑maintained Eledone cirrhosa (Cephalopoda: Octopoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78 (3) 919‑932, ISSN: 0025‑3154.

NAL call no: 442.9 M331

Descriptors: marine ecology , Cephalopoda, Eledone cirrhosa, body mass, digestive gland index, feeding, growth.


Nishiguchi, M.K.; Ruby, E.G.; McFall‑Ngai, M.J. (1998) Competitive dominance among strains of luminous bacteria provides an unusual form of evidence for parallel evolution in Sepiolid squid‑vibrio symbioses. Appl Environ Microbiol 64(9): 3209‑13, ISSN: 0099‑2240.

NAL call no: 448.3 AP5

Abstract: One of the principal assumptions in symbiosis research is that associated partners have evolved in parallel. We report here experimental evidence for parallel speciation patterns among several partners of the sepiolid squid‑luminous bacterial symbioses. Molecular phylogenies for 14 species of host squids were derived from sequences of both the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I; the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase locus was sequenced for phylogenetic determinations of 7 strains of bacterial symbionts. Comparisons of trees constructed for each of the three loci revealed a parallel phylogeny between the sepiolids and their respective symbionts. Because both the squids and their bacterial partners can be easily cultured independently in the laboratory, we were able to couple these phylogenetic analyses with experiments to examine the ability of the different symbiont strains to compete with each other during the colonization of one of the host species. Our results not only indicate a pronounced dominance of native symbiont strains over nonnative strains, but also reveal a hierarchy of symbiont competency that reflects the phylogenetic relationships of the partners. For the first time, molecular systematics has been coupled with experimental colonization assays to provide evidence for the existence of parallel speciation among a set of animal‑bacterial associations.

Descriptors: phylogeny, squid microbiology, symbiosis, Vibrio genetics, Vibrio growth and development, cytochrome c oxidase genetics, DNA, bacterial, evolution, glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate dehydrogenases genetics, luminescence bacterial, molecular sequence data, sequence analysis, DNA, species specificity, squid genetics.





Hanlon, R.T.; Claes, M.F.; Ashcraft, S.E.; Dunlap, P.V. (1997) Laboratory culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: A model system for bacteria‑animal symbiosis. Biological Bulletin Woods Hole 192 (3) 364‑374, ISSN: 0006‑3185.

NAL call no: 442.8 B52

Descriptors: development, ecology (environmental sciences), physiology, reproductive system (reproduction), systematics and taxonomy, Cephalopoda, Vibrionaceae, Eubacteria, bacteria, Euprymna scolopes, Vibrio fischeri (Vibrionaceae), microorganisms, bacterial animal symbiosis, growth, laboratory culture, model, oviposition, sepiolid squid, settlement, sexual maturity, survival , symbiont.


Oestmann, D. J.; J. M. Scimeca; J. Forsythe; R. Hanlon; P. Lee. Special considerations for keeping cephalopods in laboratory facilities. Contem Top Lab Anim Sci. Cordova, TN : The Association, 1992. Mar 1997. v. 36 (2) p. 89‑93. ISSN: 1060‑0558.

NAL call no: SF405.5.A23

Descriptors: Cephalopoda, culture techniques, laboratory rearing, aquaria, animal models, laboratory animals.





Boutilier, R.G.; West, T.G.; Pogson, G.H.; Mesa, K.A.; Wells, J.; Wells, M.J. (1996) Nautilus and the art of metabolic maintenance. Nature London 382 (6591) 534‑536, ISSN: 0028‑0836.

NAL call no: 472 N21

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, marine ecology, environmental sciences, metabolism, physiology, Nautilus pompilius, Cephalopoda.


Clay, J.R. (1996) Effects of permeant cations on K+ channel gating in nerve axons revisited. J Membr Biol 153(3): 195‑201, ISSN: 0022‑2631.

NAL call no: QH573.J6

Abstract: An increase in extracellular potassium ion concentration, Ko, significantly slows the potassium channel deactivation rate in squid giant axons, as previously shown. Surprisingly, the effect does not occur in all preparations which, coupled with the voltage independence of this result in preparations in which it does occur, suggests that it is mediated at a site outside of the electric field of the channel, and that this site is accessible to potassium ions in some preparations, but not in others. In other words, the effect does not appear to be related to occupancy of the channel by potassium ions. This conclusion is supported by a four‑barrier, three‑binding site model of single file diffusion through the channel in which one site, at most, is unoccupied by a potassium ion (single‑vacancy model). The model is consistent with current‑voltage relations with various levels of Ko, and, by definition, with multiple occupancy by K+. The model predicts that occupancy of any given site is essentially independent of Ko (or Ki). The effects of extracellular Rb+ and Cs+ on gating are strongly voltage dependent, and they were observed in all preparations investigated. Consequently, the mechanism underlying these results would appear to be different from that which underlies the effect of K+ on gating. In particular, the effect of Rb+ on gating is reduced by strong hyperpolarization, which in the context of the occupancy hypothesis, is consistent with the voltage dependence of the current‑voltage relation in the presence of Rb+. The primary, novel, finding in this study is that the effects of Cs+ are counterintuitive in this regard. Specifically, the slowing of channel deactivation rate by Cs+ is also reduced by hyperpolarization, similar to the Rb+ results, whereas blockade is enhanced, which is seemingly inconsistent with the concept that occupancy of the channel by Cs+ underlies the effect of this ion on gating. This result is further elucidated by barrier modeling of the current‑voltage relation in the presence of Cs+.

Descriptors: axons physiology, ion channel gating, potassium channels metabolism, calcium metabolism, electrophysiology.


Robertson, J.D.; Bonaventura, J.; Kohm, A.; Hiscat, M. (1996) Nitric oxide is necessary for visual learning in Octopus vulgaris. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 263(1377): 1739‑43, ISSN: 0962‑8452.

NAL call no: 501 L84B

Abstract: We recently reported that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in Octopus vulgaris by intramuscular injections of an analog of L‑arginine, N‑omega‑nitro‑L‑arginine methyl ester (L‑NAME), blocked touch learning in Octopus vulgaris. The inactive enantiomorph (D‑NAME), which had no effect on learning, was used for control. We now report that essentially the same procedures block visual learning in this animal. We used a visual paradigm in which the octopus was trained to respond positively to a smooth black plastic ball 2.5 cm diameter and negatively to a similar white ball, or vice versa. One set of eight animals was trained to the black ball positive, and another set of six to the white ball positive. Each set was trained at different times by two different trainers. We found that a 1 h pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L‑NAME blocks visual learning in Octopus vulgaris in both sets of animals.

Descriptors: learning physiology, nitric oxide physiology, Octopus physiology, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, learning drug effects, nitroarginine methyl ester pharmacology, nitric oxide synthase antagonists and inhibitors, photic stimulation.


Siriraksophon, S.; Morinaga, T. (1996) Effect of background brightness on the visual contrast threshold of the Japanese common squid [Todarodes pacificus]. Fisheries Science 62(4): 534‑537, ISSN 0919‑9268.

NAL call no: SH1.F8195

Descriptors: Todarodes pacificus, vision, performance testing, behaviour, lighting, light regimes, darkness, laboratory experimentation, laboratory equipment, Cephalopoda, environmental control, environmental factors, equipment, experimentation, lighting, Mollusca, physiological functions, senses, testing, animal physiology and biochemistry.





Clay, J.R. (1995) A simple model of K+ channel activation in nerve membrane. J Theor Biol 175(2): 257‑62, ISSN: 0022‑5193.

NAL call no: 442.8 J8223

Abstract: A model is proposed for activation of potassium ion channel current, IK, in squid giant axons, which consists of two closed states and one open state. The rate parameter in the forward direction between the two closed states depends upon previous history. That is, it relaxes exponentially to its steady‑state value appropriate to the membrane potential of a voltage clamp step rather than change instantaneously as in traditional models of channel gating. The model successfully describes both the enhancement of the delay in activation of IK with relatively negative prepulse potentials, i.e. the Cole‑Moore effect, and the time‑dependent rising phase of "on" gating current, which has been reported recently for several types of potassium channels.

Descriptors: axons metabolism, ion channel gating physiology, potassium channels physiology, models biological, squid.


Rivera, D.T.; Langford, G.M.; Weiss, D.G.; Nelson, D.J. (1995) Calmodulin regulates fast axonal transport of squid axoplasm organelles. Brain Res Bull 37(1): 47‑52, ISSN: 0361‑9230.

Abstract: The role of calmodulin (CaM) in organelle motility (fast axonal transport) in the axoplasm of the squid giant axon was evaluated directly using video‑enhanced microscopy. Addition of 6 microM CaM to extruded squid axoplasm produced a 2.6‑fold increase in the number of organelles moving per minute per unit area of axoplasm. When lower concentrations of CaM, including physiological concentration (2 micrograms/ml), were added to extruded axoplasm, the number of organelles moving was equally increased. CaM had no significant effect on the mean velocity of organelle translocations. The stimulatory effect of CaM was reduced significantly by the CaM inhibitors melittin (36 microM) and trifluoperazine (50 microM). Parvalbumin, a high‑affinity calcium binding protein, did not stimulate motile activity. These results suggest that CaM is a positive regulator of fast axonal transport. At the molecular level, this regulation may involve microtubule‑and/or actin‑based motor proteins. Several possible molecular mechanisms are proposed.

Descriptors: axonal transport physiology, axons metabolism, calmodulin physiology, organelles physiology, axonal transport drug effects, axons drug effects, biological transport drug effects, biological transport physiology, calmodulin antagonists and inhibitors, melitten pharmacology, microscopy, video, organelles drug effects, squid, time factors, trifluoperazine pharmacology.


Segawa, S. (1995) Effect of temperature on oxygen consumption of juvenile oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Fisheries Science 61(5): 743‑746, ISSN 0919‑9268.

NAL call no: SH1.F8195

Descriptors: Sepioteuthis, growth period, oxygen consumption, environmental temperature, weight, laboratory experimentation, Cephalopoda, developmental stages, environmental factors, experimentation, gas exchange, physiological functions, temperature, animal physiology and biochemistry, aquatic ecology.


Siriraksophon, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Matsuike, K. (1995) Visual contrast threshold of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup. Fisheries Science 61(4): 574‑577, ISSN 0919‑9268.

NAL call no: SH1.F8195

Descriptors: Todarodes pacificus, vision, identification, senses, laboratory experimentation, behaviour, testing, darkness, light, Cephalopoda, environmental factors, experimentation, physiological functions, radiation, senses, aquatic ecology, animal physiology and biochemistry.


Villanueva, R. (1995) Experimental rearing and growth of planktonic Octopus vulgaris from hatching to settlement. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52 (12) 2639‑2650, ISSN: 0706‑652X.

NAL call no: 442.9 C16J

Descriptors: behavior, development, ecology, environmental sciences, marine ecology, physiology, Cephalopoda, Octopus vulgaris, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic, Atlantic Ocean, behavior, dispersal, negative phototaxis, survival, temperature, weight gain.


Wada, Y.; Kobayashi, T. (1995) On an iteroparity of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries v. 61(2) p. 151‑158, ISSN 0021‑5392.

NAL call no: 414.9 J274

Descriptors: Sepioteuthis, oviposition, reproductive performance, environmental temperature, laboratory experimentation, aquaculture equipment, copulation, egg hatchability, fertility, animal performance, biological properties, Cephalopoda, environmental factors, equipment, experimentation, fertilization, physiological functions, reproduction, sexual reproduction, temperature, animal physiology, reproduction, aquatic ecology.





Boletzky, S.V. (1994) Embryonic Development of Cephalopods at Low-Temperatures. Antarctic Science V. 6, N2 (JUN), P. 139-142, ISSN: 0954-1020.

Descriptors: environmental sciences, multidisciplinary sciences, Cephalopoda, spawning, development, embryos, hatching, coldwater.


Brierley, A.S.; Thorpe, J.P. (1994) Biochemical-Genetic Evidence Supporting the Taxonomic Separation of Loligo gahi from the genus Loligo. Antarctic Science V. 6, N2 (JUN), P. 143-148, ISSN: 0954-1020.

Descriptors: environmental sciences, multidisciplinary sciences, Loligo gahi, electrophoresis, genetics, systematics.


Ivanovic, M.L.; Brunetti, N.E. (1994) Food and Feeding of Illex argentinus. Antarctic Science V. 6 , N2 (JUN), p. 185-193, ISSN: 0954-1020.

Descriptors: Illex argentinus, food, feeding, crustaceans, fish, cannibalism.


Lee, P.G.; Turk, P.E.; Yang, W.T.; Hanlon, R.T. (1994) Biological characteristics and biomedical applications of the squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana cultured through multiple generations. Biol Bull 186(3): 328‑41, ISSN: 0006‑3185.

NAL call no: 442.8 B52

Abstract: Providing squids‑‑especially their giant axons‑‑for biomedical research has now been achieved in 10 mariculture trials extending through multiple generations. The noteworthy biological characteristics of Sepioteuthis lessoniana are (1) this species is behaviorally and morphologically well suited to the laboratory environment; (2) the life cycle is completed in 4‑6 months; (3) growth is rapid (12% and 5% wet body weight d‑1 for 100 d and for the life span, respectively), with adult size ranging from 0.4‑2.2 kg; (4) feeding rates are high (30% wet body weight d‑1), and a variety of live crustaceans and fishes are eaten; (5) crowding is tolerated (about 4 squids m‑3); (6) the incidence of disease and cannibalism is low; and (7) reproduction in captivity allows culture through three successive generations. Engineering factors contributed to culture success: (1) physical design (i.e., size, shape, and painted pattern) of the culture tanks; (2) patterns of water flow in the culture tanks; (3) water filtration systems; and (4) spawning substrates. Initial production (a few hundred squids per year) suggests that large‑scale culture will be able to supply the needs of the biomedical research community. The size (> 400 microns in diameter) and characteristics of the giant axons of Sepioteuthis are appropriate for experimentation, and other studies indicate that the eye, oculomotor/equilibrium system, olfactory system, blood, and ink are equally suitable for research.

Descriptors: squid growth and development, axons, behavior animal, eating, feeding behavior, light, ovum physiology, reproduction, research, seawater, squid embryology, tissue culture.


Yokawa, K. (1994) Allozyme Differentiation of 16 Species of Ommastrephid Squid (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Antarctic Science V 6, N2 ( JUN ), p. 201-204, ISSN: 0954-1020.

Descriptors: squid, Ommastrephidae, allozyme, electrophoresis.





Dimarco, F.P.; Turk, P.E.; Scimeca, J.M. Jr.; Browning, W.J.; Lee, P.G. (1993) Laboratory survival, growth, and digestive gland histologic features of squids reared on living and non‑living fish diets. Laboratory Animal Science 43 (3) 226‑231, ISSN: 0023‑6764.

NAL call no: 410.9 P94

Descriptors: animal care, cell biology, development, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, estuarine ecology, environmental sciences, methods and techniques, nutrition, pathology, physiology, Cephalopoda.





Boyle, P. R. The UFAW handbook on the care and management of cephalopods in the laboratory. Potters Bar, Herts. [England] : Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, c1991. 63 p. : ill. ISBN: 0900767723.

NAL call no: SF407.M37B68

Descriptors: marine invertebrates as laboratory animals, Cephalopoda.





Gilbert, D. L.; W. J. Adelman; J. M. Arnold. Squid as experimental animals. New York : Plenum Press, c1990. xxxi, 516 p. : ill. ISBN: 0306435136.

NAL call no: QL430.2.S66

Descriptors: squids as laboratory animals, nervous system, mollusks, squids, cytology, animal welfare.





Arnaya, I.N.; Sano, N.; Iida, K. (1989) Studies on acoustic target strength of squid, 2: Effect of behaviour on averaged dorsal aspect target strength [of Todarodes pacificus and Ommastrephes bartrami]. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University 40(2): 83‑99, ISSN 0018‑3458.

NAL call no: 414.9 H682

Descriptors: squids, acoustic properties, echosounding, strength, todarodes, ommastrephes, behaviour, orientation, laboratory experiments, measurement, Cephalopoda, chemicophysical properties, environmental factors, experiments, foods, measurement, mechanical properties.


DeRusha, R.H.; Forsythe, J.W.; DiMarco, F.P.; Hanlon, R.T. (1989) Alternative diets for maintaining and rearing cephalopods in captivity. Lab Anim Sci v. 39 (4) p. 306-312.

NAL call no: 410.9 P94

Abstract: The requirement of live marine prey for cephalopod mariculture has restricted its practicality for inland research laboratories, commerical enterprises and home aquarists. We evaluated acceptability and resultant growth on: (a) frozen marine shrimps, (b) live and frozen marine polychaete worms, (c) live and frozen marine crabs, (d) frozen marine fishes, (e) live adult brine shrimp, (f) live freshwater fish and (g) live freshwater crayfish. The diets were presented for periods of 2 to 11 weeks to octopuses,  cuttlefishes or squids and in most trials the results were compared to animals fed control diets of live marine shrimps, crabs or fish. Overall, frozen marine shrimp proved to be the best alternative diet tested. Adult Octopus maya on frozen marine shrimp diets grew as well as those on control diets at 2.8% body weight per day (%/d) compared to 2.0 %/d on live freshwater crayfish, 1.4%/d on live marine polychaete worms and 0.8 %/d on live freshwater fish (Tilapia sp.). Juvenile Octopus maya and Octopus bimaculoides also grew comparably to controls when fed frozen marine shrimps; growth rates ranged from near 3.0 %/d at 3 months of age to nearly 2.5 %/d at 6 months of age. Thus, these alternatives are acceptable as the octopuses end their exponential growth phase at an age of 3-5 months. Attempts to rear O. maya hatchlings and juveniles (up to 1 month of age) on dead foods resulted in high mortality and slow or negative growth. No live or dead alternative diet has been found yet that will promote good growth and survival in hatchling octopuses. Hatchling F3 generation Sepia officinalis (the European cuttlefish) were reared for 6 weeks exclusively on adult brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Survival, feeding rate and growth were excellent. This experiment marks the first time that brine shrimp have been readily accepted frozen marine shrimp at 3 months of age, and growth over 2 months was 3.3 %/d versus 3.9 %/d on live shrimp. Gross Growth Efficiency (GGE) was 39% and 43%, respectively. Twenty-five slightly older cuttlefish, group-reared for 69 days on a diet of frozen marine fishes, grew at 2.5 %/d with a mean GGE of 38%. These data compare well to published data from live diets. The bay squid Lolligucula brevis was trained over an 8-day period to accept frozen marine shrimps. Over 41 days, growth was 1.3%/d versus 1.8 %/d on live shrimp. These results provide researchers and others some viable alternative foods for maintaining or rearing cephalopods through a substantial portion of their life cycle.

Descriptors: Cephalopoda, laboratory rearing, diet, animal feeding, experimental design.





Balch, N.; O'Dor, R.K.; Helm, P. (1985) Laboratory rearing of rhynchoteuthions of the ommastrephid squid Illex illecebrosus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Vie et Milieu 35 (3‑4): 243‑246, ISSN 0240‑8759.

NAL call no: QH91.A1V5

Descriptors: cephalopods, animal husbandry methods, viability, diet, environmental control, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, dietetics, health, invertebrates, isscaap group b 57, isscaap groups of species, methods, nutrition, zootechny.





Matsumoto, G.; J. Shimada. Further improvement upon maintenance of adult squid (Doryteuthis bleekeri) in a small circular and closed‑system aquarium tank. Bio Bull. Woods Hole, Mass., Marine Biological Laboratory. Oct 1980. v. 159 (2) p. 319‑324. ill. ISSN: 0006‑3185.

NAL call no: 442.8 B52

Descriptors: Doryteuthis bleekeri, adult squid, maintenance, aquarium tanks small circular and closed-system, susceptibility hazards, filtering, zeolite, feeding, short and long-term culture, housing, food sources.





Van Heukelem, W. F. Laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, and biomedical research potential of the Yucatan octopus (Octopus maya). Lab Anim Sci, Oct 1977, 27 (5, pt. 2): 852‑859. Ref.

NAL call no: 410.9 P94

Descriptors: Yucatan octopus, Octopus maya, laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, animal model, neurobiology, behavior, endocrinology, immunology, aging, reproduction, animal husbandry. 




LaRoe, E.T. (1973) Laboratory culture of squid. Fed Proc 32(12): 2212‑4, ISSN: 0014‑9446.

NAL call no: 442.9 F31P

Descriptors: animals laboratory growth and development, squid growth and development, behavior animal, environment controlled, feeding behavior, lighting, ultraviolet rays.

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