Laboratory Care / Research







Montgomery, M.; Messner, M.C.; Kirk, M.D. (2002) Arterial cells and CNS sheath cells from Aplysia californica produce factors that enhance neurite outgrowth in co‑cultured neurons. Invertebrate Neuroscience 4 (3): 141‑155, ISSN: 1354‑2516.

Descriptors: nervous system, neural coordination, Aplysia californica (Gastropoda), amoebocyte, aorta, circulatory system, central nervous system sheath cells, fibrocyte, hemolymph, blood and lymphatics, myocyte, neuron, growth, neural plasticity, neurite outgrowth, synapse formation.





Hickman, C.S. (2001) Evolution and development of gastropod larval shell morphology: experimental evidence for mechanical defense and repair. Evol Dev 3(1): 18‑23, ISSN: 1520‑541X.

Abstract: The structural diversity of gastropod veliger larvae offers an instructive counterpoint to the view of larval forms as conservative archetypes. Larval structure, function, and development are fine‑tuned for survival in the plankton. Accordingly, the study of larval adaptation provides an important perspective for evolutionary‑developmental biology as an integrated science. Patterns of breakage and repair in the field, as well as patterns of breakage in arranged encounters with zooplankton under laboratory conditions, are two powerful sources of data on the adaptive significance of morphological and microsculptural features of the gastropod larval shell. Shells of the planktonic veliger larvae of the caenogastropod Nassarius paupertus [GOULD] preserve multiple repaired breaks, attributed to unsuccessful zooplankton predators. In culture, larvae isolated from concentrated zooplankton samples rapidly repaired broken apertural margins and restored the "ideal" apertural form, in which an elaborate projection or "beak" covers the head of the swimming veliger. When individuals with repaired apertures were reintroduced to a concentrated mixture of potential zooplankton predators, the repaired margins were rapidly chipped and broken back. The projecting beak of the larval shell is the first line of mechanical defense, covering the larval head and mouth and potentially the most vulnerable part of the shell to breakage. Patterns of mechanical failure show that spiral ridges do reinforce the beak and retard breakage. The capacity for rapid shell repair and regeneration, and the evolution of features that resist or retard mechanical damage, may play a more prominent role than previously thought in enhancing the ability of larvae to survive in the plankton.

Descriptors: evolution, larva growth and development, snails growth and development, wound healing/repair, biomechanics, food chain, marine biology, predatory behavior, snails anatomy and histology, developmental biology.


Inoue, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kirino, Y. (2001) Serotonin and NO complementarily regulate generation of oscillatory activity in the olfactory CNS of a terrestrial mollusk. J Neurophysiol 85(6): 2634‑8, ISSN: 0022‑3077.

Abstract: Synchronous oscillation of membrane potentials, generated by assemblies of neurons, is a prominent feature in the olfactory systems of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. However, its generation mechanism is still controversial. Biogenic amines play important roles for mammalian olfactory learning and are also implicated in molluscan olfactory learning. Here, we investigated the role of serotonin, a biogenic amine, in the oscillatory dynamics in the procerebrum (PC), the molluscan olfactory center. Serotonin receptor blockers inhibited the spontaneous synchronous oscillatory activity of low frequency (approximately 0.5 Hz) in the PC. This was due to diminishing the periodic slow oscillation of membrane potential in bursting (B) neurons, which are essential neuronal elements for the synchronous oscillation in the PC. On the other hand, serotonin enhanced the amplitude of the slow oscillation in B neurons and subsequently increased the number of spikes in each oscillatory cycle. These results show that the extracellular serotonin level regulates the oscillation amplitude in B neurons and thus serotonin may be called an oscillation generator in the PC. Although nitric oxide (NO) is known to also be a crucial factor for generating the PC oscillatory activity and setting the PC oscillation frequency, the present study showed that NO only regulates the oscillation frequency in B neurons but could not increase the spikes in each oscillatory cycle. These results suggest complementary regulation of the PC oscillatory activity: NO determines the probability of occurrence of slow potentials in B neurons, whereas serotonin regulates the amplitude in each cycle of the oscillatory activity in B neurons.

Descriptors: nitric oxide metabolism, olfactory receptor neurons metabolism, periodicity, serotonin metabolism, action potentials drug effects, action potentials physiology, cinanserin pharmacology, electrophysiology, invertebrate cytology, ganglia, invertebrate physiology, Mollusca, serotonin antagonists pharmacology, tropanes pharmacology, serotonin antagonists, tropanes, nitric oxide, cinanserin, bemesetron, serotonin, physiology, neurosciences.


Murphy, A.D. (2001) The neuronal basis of feeding in the snail, Helisoma, with comparisons to selected gastropods. Prog Neurobiol 63(4): 383‑408.

Abstract: Research on identified neurons during the last quarter century was forecast at a conference in 1973 that discussed "neuronal mechanisms of coordination in simple systems." The focus of the conference was on the neuronal control of simple stereotyped behavioral acts. Participants discussing the future of such research called for a comparative approach; emphasis on structure‑function interactions; attention to environmental and behavioral context; and the development of new techniques. Significantly, in some cases amazing progress has been made in these areas. Major conclusions of the last quarter century are that so‑called simple behaviors and the neural circuitry underlying them tend to be less simple, more flexible, and more highly modulated than originally imagined. However, the comparative approach has, as yet, failed to reach its potential. Molluscan preparations, along with arthropods and annelids, have always been at the forefront of neuroethological studies. Circuitry underlying feeding has been studied in a handful of species of gastropod molluscs. These studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of sensorimotor organization, the hierarchical control of behavior and coordination of multiple behaviors, and the organization and modulation of central pattern generators. However, direct interspecific comparisons of feeding circuitry and potentially homologous neurons have been lacking. This is unfortunate because much of the vast radiation of the class Gastropoda is associated with variations in feeding behaviors and feeding apparatuses, providing ample substrates for comparative studies including the evolution of defined circuitry. Here, the neural organization of feeding in the snail, Helisoma, is examined critically. Possible direct interspecific comparisons of neural circuitry and potentially homologous neurons are made. A universal model for central pattern generators underlying rasping feeding is proposed. Future comparative studies can be expected to combine behavioral, morphological, electrophysiological, molecular and genetic techniques to identify neurons and define neural circuitry. Digital resources will undoubtedly be exploited to organize and interface databases allowing illumination of the evolution of homologous identified neurons and defined neural circuitry in the context of behavioral change.

Descriptors: central nervous system cytology, feeding behavior physiology, interneurons cytology, motor neurons cytology, snails cytology, action potentials physiology, central nervous system physiology, ganglia, invertebrate cytology, ganglia, invertebrate physiology, interneurons physiology, motor neurons physiology, nerve net cytology, nerve net physiology, snails physiology.


Schofield, J.C.; Grindley, R.M.; Keogh, J.A. (2001) The use of diagnostic radiology to detect shell irregularities in the New Zealand paua (abalone) Haliotis iris. Laboratory Animals 35 (2): 167‑171, ISSN: 0023‑6772.

NAL call no: QL55.A1L3

Descriptors: animal care, aquaculture, marine ecology , radiology (medical sciences), Gastropoda, Mollusca, Invertebrata, Animalia, Haliotis iris, [abalone, paua], animals, invertebrates, mollusks, New Zealand (Australasian region), shell lesions, integumentary system disease, diagnostic radiology, detection method, diagnostic method, imaging method, non-destructive, non‑invasive, radiologic method, video display unit equipment, aquaculture, fisheries, laboratory animal science, laboratory animal welfare.





Aquilina, B.; R. Roberts. A method for inducing muscle relaxation in the abalone, Haliotis iris. Aquaculture. Amsterdam : Elsevier Pub. Co., c1972. Nov 1, 2000. v. 190 (3/4) p. 403‑408. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1 .A6

Descriptors: muscles, Haliotis, techniques, mollusc culture, stress, mortality, dosage, benzocaine, muscle contraction, water temperature, air, survival.


Chang, D.J.; Li, X.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, H.K.; Kim, U.S.; Cho, N.J.; Lo, X.; Weiss, K.R.; Kandel, E.R.; Kaang, B.K. (2000) Activation of a heterologously expressed octopamine receptor coupled only to adenylyl cyclase produces all the features of presynaptic facilitation in aplysia sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97(4): 1829‑34, ISSN: 0027‑8424.

NAL call no: 500 N21P      

Abstract: Short‑term behavioral sensitization of the gill‑withdrawal reflex after tail stimuli in Aplysia leads to an enhancement of the connections between sensory and motor neurons of this reflex. Both behavioral sensitization and enhancement of the connection between sensory and motor neurons are importantly mediated by serotonin. Serotonin activates two types of receptors in the sensory neurons, one of which is coupled to the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and the other to the inositol triphosphate/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Here we describe a genetic approach to assessing the isolated contribution of the PKA pathway to short‑term facilitation. We have cloned from Aplysia an octopamine receptor gene, Ap oa(1), that couples selectively to the cAMP/PKA pathway. We have ectopically expressed this receptor in Aplysia sensory neurons of the pleural ganglia, where it is not normally expressed. Activation of this receptor by octopamine stimulates all four presynaptic events involved in short‑term synaptic facilitation that are normally produced by serotonin: (i) membrane depolarization; (ii) increased membrane excitability; (iii) increased spike duration; and (iv) presynaptic facilitation. These results indicate that the cAMP/PKA pathway alone is sufficient to produce all the features of presynaptic facilitation.

Descriptors: adenylate cyclase metabolism, Aplysia metabolism, neurons, afferent metabolism, receptors, biogenic amine genetics, synaptic transmission drug effects, action potentials drug effects, amino acid sequence, cell line, cell membrane metabolism, cloning, molecular, cyclic AMP metabolism, gene expression, molecular sequence data, octopamine pharmacology, oocytes, patch clamp techniques, psychomotor performance, receptors, biogenic amine chemistry, sequence homology, amino acid, serotonin pharmacology, transfection, Xenopus, drug effects, metabolism, pharmacology, chemistry, genetics, receptors, biogenic amine, norsynephrine receptor, octopamine, serotonin, cyclic‑AMP, adenylate cyclase.


Chitwood, R.A.; Li, Q.; Glanzman, D.L. (2000) Serotonin enhances the glutamate response in isolated Aplysia motor neurons in culture. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 26 (1‑2): Abstract No.‑568.19, ISSN: 0190‑5295.

NAL call no: QP351.S56716

Descriptors: nervous system (neural coordination), Gastropoda, motor neuron, cultured, sensory neuron, nervous system, BAPTA, calcium, glutamate, serotonin, 5‑HT, 5‑hydroxytryptamine, hht, bathing medium, equipment, glutamate stimulated potential, learning, postsynaptic AMPA type response.


Gandhi, C.C.; Matzel, L.D. (2000) Modulation of presynaptic action potential kinetics underlies synaptic facilitation of type B photoreceptors after associative conditioning in Hermissenda. J Neurosci 20(5): 2022‑35, ISSN: 1529‑2401.

Abstract: Descriptions of conditioned response generation in Hermissenda stipulate that the synaptic interaction between type B and A photoreceptors should be enhanced after associative pairings of light and rotation. Although evidence from several laboratories has confirmed this assumption, the mechanism underlying this synaptic facilitation has not been elucidated. Here we report that in vitro conditioning (i.e., light paired with stimulation of vestibular hair cells) modifies the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials in the B photoreceptor in a manner sufficient to account for this synaptic facilitation. After paired training, we observed an increase in the duration of evoked action potentials and a decrease in the amplitude of the spike afterhyperpolarization in the B‑cell. As previously reported, paired training also enhanced the excitability (i.e., input resistance and evoked spike rate) of the B photoreceptor. In a second experiment, simultaneous recordings were made in type B and A photoreceptors, and paired training was found to produce an increase in the amplitude of the IPSP in the A photoreceptor in response to an evoked spike in the B‑cell. Importantly, there was no change in the initial slope of the postsynaptic IPSP in the A photoreceptor, suggesting that spike duration‑independent mechanisms of neurotransmitter exocytosis or postsynaptic receptor sensitivity did not contribute to the observed synaptic facilitation. Perfusion of 4‑aminopyridine (4‑AP) mimicked a known effect of behavioral conditioning in that it specifically reduced the amplitude of the transient voltage‑dependent K(+) current (I(A)) in the B‑cell, but in addition, produced action potential broadening and synaptic facilitation that was analogous to that observed after in vitro conditioning. Finally, the effect of 4‑AP on B‑cell action potentials and on the postsynaptic IPSP in the A‑cell was occluded by previous paired (but not unpaired) training, suggesting that the prolongation of the B‑cell action potential by a reduction of I(A) was sufficient to account for the observed synaptic facilitation. The occlusion of the effects of 4‑AP by paired training was not attributable to a saturation of the capacity of the B‑cell for transmitter exocytosis, because it was observed that tetraethylammonium (TEA)‑induced inhibition of the delayed voltage‑dependent K(+) current induced both spike broadening and synaptic facilitation regardless of training history. Collectively, these results demonstrate that training‑induced facilitation at B‑cell synapses is attributable to the effects of a reduction of a presynaptic K(+) conductance on action potential kinetics and suggest another critical similarity between the cellular basis for learning in Hermissenda and other invertebrate systems.

Descriptors: action potentials physiology, association learning physiology, photoreceptors, invertebrate physiology, presynaptic terminals physiology, 4-aminopyridine pharmacology, action potentials drug effects, conditioning psychology physiology, dose response relationship, drug, exocytosis physiology, kinetics, Mollusca, neural inhibition physiology, patch clamp techniques, photic stimulation, photoreceptors, invertebrate chemistry, potassium channels physiology, presynaptic terminals chemistry, synaptic transmission drug effects, synaptic transmission physiology, pharmacology, drug effects, physiology, chemistry, potassium channels, 4‑Aminopyridine.


Green, B.J.; Li, W.Y.; Manhart, J.R.; Fox, T.C.; Summer, E.J.; Kennedy, R.A.; Pierce, S.K.; Rumpho, M.E. (2000) Mollusc‑algal chloroplast endosymbiosis. Photosynthesis, thylakoid protein maintenance, and chloroplast gene expression continue for many months in the absence of the algal nucleus. Plant Physiology 124 (1): 331‑342, ISSN: 0032‑0889.

NAL call no: 450 P692

Descriptors: bioenergetics aquaculture, molecular genetics aquaculture, marine ecology, infection, Chrysophyta, Algae, Plantae, Gastropoda, Elysia chlorotica, marine species, Vaucheria litorea, microorganisms, nonvascular plants, algal nucleus, absence effect, chloroplast, Vaucheria chloroplast gene, expression, animal nuclear genome, animal algal symbiosis, Mollusc algal chloroplast endosymbiosis, photosynthesis.


Kirby, R.R. (2000) An ancient transpecific polymorphism shows extreme divergence in a multitrait cline in an intertidal snail (Nucella lapillus (L.)). Mol Biol Evol 17(12): 1816‑25, ISSN: 0737‑4038.

NAL call no: QH506.M642

Abstract: Clines in intraspecific genetic variation are frequently associated with an environmental transition. Here, divergence among nucleotide sequences of two nuclear loci, cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (cMDH and mMDH, respectively), is described, in a multitrait cline over a distance of ca. 3 km where shell phenotype, allozyme, mitochondrial DNA haplotype, and centric fusion (Robertsonian translocations) frequencies covary with temperature and humidity and change abruptly in a continuous population of the dog‑whelk (Nucella lapillus), a common intertidal snail of the north temperate Atlantic. Protein electrophoresis has already shown two alleles of mMDH varying from fixation of one allele to near fixation of the other, whereas cMDH appears to be monomorphic. The results of this study show a striking disparity in nucleotide sequence divergence among alleles at the two loci, with extreme molecular differentiation in one of them. Four alleles of cMDH were found to have nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergences of 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. In contrast, the two mMDH cDNA alleles differed by 23% and 20% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Analysis of a 91‑bp partial nucleotide sequence of mMDH from Nucella freycineti, the closest relative of N. lapillus, revealed two similar alleles and indicated that the divergence in mMDH in N. lapillus represents an ancient transpecific polymorphism in these Nucella. Together with earlier studies on variation in N. lapillus, it is argued that the polymorphism in mMDH and the clines in N. lapillus represent the presence of two persistent coadapted gene complexes, multitrait coevolving genetic solutions to environmental variation, which may presently enable this snail to exploit a diverse environment successfully.

Descriptors: environment, evolution molecular,  malate dehydrogenase genetics, polymorphism genetics, snails genetics, alleles, amino acid sequence, cell nucleus genetics, DNA, mitochondrial genetics, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, seawater, sequence homology, snails enzymology, variation genetics.


Lee, Y.S.; Lee, J.A.; Jung, J.; Oh, U.; Kaang, B.K. (2000) The cAMP‑dependent kinase pathway does not sensitize the cloned vanilloid receptor type 1 expressed in xenopus oocytes or Aplysia neurons. Neurosci Lett 288(1): 57‑60, ISSN: 0304‑3940.

NAL call no: QP351.N3

Abstract: Capsaicin‑activated channels present in sensory neurons are ligand‑gated cation channels that largely account for mediating some types of pain. The cAMP‑dependent protein kinase (PKA) signal pathway was suggested to mediate the prostaglandin‑induced enhancement of capsaicin‑evoked inward current (I(CAP)) in rat sensory neurons. It is not clear, however, whether PKA acts directly on the capsaicin‑sensitive channel that is responsible for I(CAP). To address this issue, we overexpressed the cloned capsaicin receptor, VR1, in heterologous expression systems such as Xenopus oocytes or Aplysia R2 neuron and stimulated PKA pathways. As a result, activation of PKA by applying either 8‑bromo‑cAMP or forskolin with 3‑isobutyl‑1‑methylxanthine or through activation of beta(2) adrenergic receptors failed to enhance I(CAP) in oocytes or R2 neurons expressing VR1. Our results raise two possibilities. (1) Direct phosphorylation of VR1 by PKA may not be responsible for the sensitization; instead, phosphorylation of regulatory proteins associated with VR1 would account for the sensitization of I(CAP) evoked by prostaglandin E(2) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. (2) DRG neurons may have a different PKA signaling mechanism that is not replicable in Xenopus oocytes or Aplysia R2 neurons.

Descriptors: cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases metabolism, neurons enzymology, receptors, drug genetics, signal transduction physiology, 1‑methyl‑3-isobutylxanthine pharmacology, 8‑bromo cyclic adenosine monophosphate pharmacology, Aplysia, capsaicin pharmacology, cloning, molecular, forskolin pharmacology, gene expression physiology, membrane potentials drug effects, membrane potentials physiology, neurons chemistry, oocytes cytology, patch clamp techniques, phosphodiesterase inhibitors pharmacology, receptors, adrenergic, beta 2 physiology, signal transduction drug effects, transfection, Xenopus.


Oehlmann, J.; Schulte‑Oehlmann, U.; Tillmann, M.; Markert, B. (2000) Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part I: Bisphenol A and octylphenol as xeno‑estrogens. Ecotoxicology 9(6): 383‑97, ISSN: 0963‑9292.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E27

Abstract: The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this first publication, the responses of the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis and of the marine prosobranch Nucella lapillus to the xeno‑estrogenic model compounds bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) are presented at nominal concentration ranges between 1 and 100 micrograms/L. Marisa was exposed during 5 months using adult specimens and in a complete life‑cycle test for 12 months. In both experiments, the xeno‑estrogens induced a complex syndrome of alterations in female Marisa referred to as "superfemales" at the lowest concentrations. Affected specimens were characterised by the formation of additional female organs, an enlargement of the accessory pallial sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct section resulting in an increased female mortality, and a massive stimulation of oocyte and spawning mass production. The effects of BPA and OP were comparable at the same nominal concentrations. An exposure to OP resulted in inverted U‑type concentration response relationships for egg and spawning mass production. Adult Nucella from the field were tested for three months in the laboratory. As in Marisa, superfemales with enlarged accessory pallial sex glands and an enhancement of oocyte production were observed. No oviduct malformations were found probably due to species differences in the gross anatomical structure of the pallial oviduct. A lower percentage of exposed specimens had ripe sperm stored in their vesicula seminalis and additionally male Nucella exhibited a reduced length of penis and prostate gland when compared to the control. Because statistically significant effects were observed at the lowest nominal test concentrations (1 microgram BPA or OP/L), it can be assumed that even lower concentrations may have a negative impact on the snails. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations and that especially M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate model to identify endocrine‑mimetic test compounds.

Descriptors: estrogens, non steroidal pharmacology, phenols pharmacology, snails drug effects, water pollutants, chemical pharmacology, fresh water, seawater.


Rogers, C. N.; R. De Nys; T. S. Charlton; P. D. Steinberg. Dynamics of algal secondary metabolites in two species of sea hare. J Chem Ecol. New York, N.Y. : Plenum Publishing Corporation. Mar 2000. v. 26 (3) p. 721‑744. ISSN: 0098‑0331.

NAL call no: QD415.A1J6

Abstract: The function of acquired algal secondary metabolites in sea hares is the subject of debate, in part because the dynamics/processing of metabolites by sea hares is poorly understood. This study investigates the dynamics of red algal secondary metabolites in two sea hares, Aplysia parvula and Aplysia dactylomela. Secondary metabolite levels were quantified for the dietary red algae Laurencia obtusa and Delisea pulchra and for sea hares collected from these seaweeds in the field. The patterns and dynamics of algal secondary metabolites were further investigated in the laboratory by quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites in sea hares grown on diets of L. obtusa, D. pulchra, or the green alga Ulva sp. Sea hares accumulated the most abundant metabolites from each red alga, the terpene palisadin A from L. obtusa, and the halogenated furanone 3 from D. pulchra, and stored a greater proportion of these metabolites than other algal metabolites. A. parvula accumulated D. pulchra metabolites at much higher levels than L. obtusa metabolites. A. dactylomela accumulated similar concentrations of L. obtusa metabolites to A. parvula. The loss of L. obtusa metabolites by A. dactylomela matched that expected for dilution of metabolites via growth of the sea hares. However, the loss of L. obtusa metabolites by A. parvula was faster than predicted for growth alone, suggesting that metabolites were actively metabolized or excreted. Data for the loss of D. pulchra metabolites by A. parvula was equivocal. The secretions of A. parvula fed D. pulchra or L. obtusa were analyzed for the presence of algal secondary metabolites to investigate one possible path of excretion. L. obtusa secondary metabolites were detected in the mucous and opaline secretions of A. parvula, but D. pulchra metabolites were not detected in any secretions. The deployment of L. obtusa secondary metabolites in secretions by A. parvula may explain the more rapid rate of loss of these compounds and is consistent with a possible defensive role for acquired metabolites.             

Descriptors: algae, secondary metabolites, defense mechanisms, excretion.


Schulte‑Oehlmann, U.; Tillmann, M.; Markert, B.; Oehlmann, J.; Watermann, B.; Scherf, S. (2000) Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a xeno‑androgen. Ecotoxicology 9(6): 399‑412, ISSN: 0963‑9292.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E27

Abstract: In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno‑androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella were exposed via water (nominal concentrations 5‑500 ng TPT‑Sn/L) and Hinia via sediments (nominal concentrations 50‑500 micrograms TPT‑Sn/kg dry wt.) for up to 4 months. Female ramshorn snails but not the two marine species developed imposex in a time and concentration dependent manner (EC10 4 months: 12.3 ng TPT‑Sn/L) with a comparable intensity as described for tributyltin. TPT reduced furthermore the fecundity of Marisa at lower concentrations (EC10 4 months: 5.59 ng TPT‑Sn/L) with a complete inhibition of spawning at nominal concentrations > or = 250 ng TPT‑Sn/L (mean measured +/‑ SD: > or = 163 +/‑ 97.0 ng TPT‑Sn/L). The extension of the pallial sex organs (penis with accessory structures and prostate gland) of male ramshorn snails and dogwhelks were reduced by up to 25% compared to the control but not in netted whelks. Histopathological analyses for M. cornuarietis and H. reticulata provide evidence for a marked impairment of spermatogenesis (both species) and oogenesis (only netted whelks). The test compound induced a highly significant and concentration independent increase in the incidence of hyperplasia on gills, osphradia and other organs in the mantle cavity of N. lapillus indicating a carcinogenic potential of TPT. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT. Also, M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate system to identify endocrine‑mimetic test compounds.

Descriptors: androgens pharmacology, organotin compounds pharmacology, pesticides pharmacology, snails drug effects, water pollutants, chemical pharmacology, fresh water, seawater.


Tomsic, D.; Alkon, D.L. (2000) Background illumination effects upon in vitro conditioning in Hermissenda. Neurobiol Learn Mem 74(1): 56‑64, ISSN: 1074‑7427.

NAL call no: QH301.C63

Abstract: In the marine snail Hermissenda, associative learning can be accomplished by paired presentations of light and vestibular stimulation. It is generally assumed that associative learning depends upon the intensity or salience of the conditioned or unconditioned stimulus (CS and US, respectively). Accordingly, during Hermissenda conditioning a stronger dark adaptation is expected to render the CS (the light) more salient and hence facilitate association. We studied the influence of background illumination level using an in vitro pairing procedure in Hermissenda. This procedure allows one to assess the effect of conditioning upon a single cell, the B photoreceptor, which is implicated in this learning process. After 15 min of adaptation to a dim background light, B photoreceptors maintained a basal rate of firing, while after adaptation to complete darkness, they stopped firing. Paired and unpaired groups received 10 training trials in either a completely dark or a dim light environment. Although a trial to trial cumulative increase in excitability was found in the paired group trained in darkness, only the paired group trained under dim background light showed a higher input resistance and cell excitability 10 min after training. These results suggest that the background dim illumination was not needed for the induction but played a role in the maintenance of the pairing effect. Possible mechanisms for such a modulatory effect are discussed.

Descriptors: association learning, conditioning, classical physiology, light, adaptation, physiological physiology, photoreceptors physiology, snails, vestibule physiology.





Adriaens, E.; Remon, J.P. (1999) Gastropods as an evaluation tool for screening the irritating potency of absorption enhancers and drugs. Pharm Res 16(8): 1240‑4, ISSN: 0724‑8741.

Abstract: PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to develop a simple alternative test using naked snails (slugs) for screening the irritating potency of chemicals on mucosal surfaces. METHODS: The effect of various absorption enhancers and two beta‑blocking agents on the mucosal tissue was determined from the total protein and lactate dehydrogenase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs caused by the treatment were measured. RESULTS: According to the effects on the mucosal epithelium of the slugs the following rank order of increasing toxicity was established: PBS, HP‑beta‑CD (5%), beta‑CD (1.8%) and oxprenolol hydrochloride (1%) < DDPC (1%) < STDHF (1%) < BAC (1%), SDC (1%) and propranolol hydrochloride (1%). The results of the present study are in agreement with other studies using the same compounds on other models. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated the mucosa of slugs can serve as a primary screening tool for the evaluation of chemicals on mucosal surfaces. By simply measuring mucus production and weight loss reliable toxicity information can be obtained. This demonstrates rapid screening tests can be carried out using simple toxicity endpoints.

Descriptors: adrenergic beta antagonists toxicity, drug evaluation, preclinical methods, irritants toxicity, mucous membrane drug effects, absorption drug effects, adrenergic beta antagonists pharmacology, lactate dehydrogenase metabolism, mucous membrane metabolism, mucus metabolism, oxprenolol pharmacology, oxprenolol toxicity, propranolol pharmacology, propranolol toxicity, proteins metabolism, snails.


Albrecht, E.A.; Carreno, N.B.; Castro‑Vazquez, A. (1999) A quantitative study of environmental factors influencing the seasonal onset of reproductive behaviour in the South American apple‑snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies v. 65(2) p. 241‑250.

Descriptors: Pomacea canaliculata, water temperature, temperature, photoperiodicity, copulation, oviposition, reproduction, biology, environmental factors, feeding, fertilization, Gastropoda, periodicity, physiological functions, reproduction, sexual reproduction, temperature.


Leung, K.M.; Furness, R.W. (1999) Induction of metallothionein in dogwhelk Nucella lapillus during and after exposure to cadmium. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 43(2): 156‑64, ISSN: 0147‑6513.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E29

Abstract: Induction of metallothionein (MT) was investigated in a common biomonitor, the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (shell length: 27.7+/‑1.4 mm; wet tissue weight: 667+/‑196 mg), during and after exposure to cadmium (Cd) under controlled laboratory conditions (10+/‑1 degrees C and 34+/‑1 per thousand salinity). The dogwhelks were exposed to 500 microg Cd l‑1 (2.2% of 96 h LC50) for 60 days and then placed into clean seawater for 110 days. MT concentration in whole animal increased during the exposure period, peaked at Day 70, and then declined gradually. Half‑life of MT was ca. 40 days. MT concentration increased very significantly with increasing Cd concentration (r=0.74, n=24, P<0.001). Nevertheless, Cd concentration increased throughout the period of exposure and while in clean seawater, leveling off only after Day 120, indicating that Cd concentration could not be regulated by N. lapillus. Throughout the study, MT and Cd concentrations in gills, Leiblein gland, kidney, digestive gland, and gonad tissues increased gradually. Highest concentrations of MT and Cd were found in the Leiblein gland. Measurement of MT induction in the Leiblein gland of N. lapillus may therefore prove useful as a sublethal biological response to Cd contamination.

Descriptors: cadmium toxicity, metallothionein biosynthesis, snails drug effects, copper metabolism, iron metabolism, lethal dose 50, snails metabolism, tissue distribution, zinc metabolism.


Lin, M. C.; C. M. Liao. 65Zn(II) accumulation in the soft tissue and shell of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta via the alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui and the ambient water. Aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. July 15, 1999. v. 178 (1/2) p. 89‑101. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: This investigation analyzed the Zn‑bioaccumulation kinetics in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and in the red alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui for assessing bioconcentration and biomagnification in an aquacultural system. Laboratory exposure experiments estimated uptake and depuration rate constants (i.e., k(1) and k(2), respectively) of H. diversicolor supertexta via nondietary and dietary processes. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and biomagnification factor (BMF) of H. diversicolor supertexta as well as BCF of G. tenuistipitata var. liui were determined. A simple first‑order one‑compartment model fitted the uptake and depuration characteristics of Zn‑bioaccumulation and successfully determined k(1) and k(2). The resulting values of k(1) and k(2) of H. diversicolor supertexta were 101.4 ml g(‑1) d(‑1) and 0.611 d(‑1), respectively, when the abalone were exposed to 1 microgram ml(‑1) Zn seawater without the presence of G. tenuistipitata var. liui. When the abalone were fed with the algae, k(1) and k(2) values were estimated to be 114.5 g g(‑1) d(‑1) and 0.636 d(‑1), respectively. BCF values for the alga and abalone were determined to be 170 and 180, respectively; and the BMF value was 1.06 for the abalone. Both field and laboratory data show that BMF values for Zn were about 1. Further more, the abalone in the tank without algae absorbed the same quantity of Zn as the abalone in the tank with alga. From these two findings we conclude that Zn in the abalone comes from the ambient water and not from the algae.

Descriptors: Haliotis, Rhodophyta, zinc, cations, water pollution, water quality, mollusc culture, tanks.


Minchin, A.; Davies, I.M. (1999) Effect of freezing on the length of the penis in Nucella lapillus (L.). J Environ Monit 1(2): 203‑5, ISSN: 1464‑0325.

Abstract: When quantifying imposex in Nucella lapillus, two indices are used: the Vas Deferens Sequence Index (VDSI) and the Relative Penis Size Index (RPSI). Freezing and thawing increase the length of the penis in both male and female Nucella lapillus. In the population studied, this had no significant effect on the RPSI, but was potentially an important source of additional variance in the estimation of the mean penis length.

Descriptors: hermaphroditism veterinary, penis anatomy and histology, snails anatomy and histology, biometry, cryopreservation, hermaphroditism etiology, reproducibility of results, specimen handling, animal, male.


Santini, G.; De‑Pirro, M.; Chelazzi, G. (1999) In situ and laboratory assessment of heart rate in a Mediterranean limpet using a noninvasive technique. Physiol Biochem Zool 72(2): 198‑204, ISSN: 1522‑2152.

NAL call no: QL1.P52

Abstract: Heart rate of the Mediterranean limpet Patella caerulea L. was investigated on the natural shore and in the laboratory by using a technique based on infrared phototransducers. Field recording occurred in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic) during March and June 1997. A consistent dependence of heart rate on temperature was observed in limpets both when submerged and when exposed to air in the two periods, but thermal acclimation was evident. During spontaneous activity at high tide, heart rate increased 1.5‑1.7 times the values observed during resting in water at corresponding temperatures. The dependence of heart rate on temperature (10 degrees, 16 degrees, and 22 degrees C) and size (wet weight <1.25 and >1.30 g) in submerged limpets from different populations (northern Adriatic and Tyrrhenian) was tested in the laboratory by adopting a factorial design. The results showed a marked effect of temperature, body weight, and their interaction, independent from the site of origin. Smaller limpets showed a linear increase of heart rate in the whole range of temperature tests, while in the larger ones the increase between 10 degrees and 16 degrees C was greater than between 16 degrees and 22 degrees C. Heart rate decreased with increasing body size at control (16 degrees C) and high (22 degrees C) temperature, while at lower temperature (10 degrees C) no effect of body size was evident. When removed from their home scar, limpets increased heart rate to about 1.5 times the reference value. Finally, correlation of oxygen consumption with heart rate of submerged limpets maintained at a different temperature (10 degrees ‑22 degrees C) was statistically significant.

Descriptors: heart rate, Mollusca physiology, spectrophotometry, infrared veterinary, body weight, energy metabolism, environment, temperature.


Shpigel, M.; Ragg, N.L.; Lupatsch, I.; Neori, A. (1999) Protein content determines the nutritional value of the seaweed Ulva lactuca L for the abalone Haliotis tuberculata L. and H. discus hannai Ino. Journal of Shellfish Research  vol. 18 (1): p.227-233, ISSN: 0730-8000.

NAL call no: SH365.A1J6

Descriptors: aquaculture, nutritive value, seaweeds, ammonia, crude protein, cultures, diet, diets, dry matter, enrichment, feed intake, feed, conversion efficiency, feeding, growth, intake, protein content, ratios, Ulva, abalones, Haliotis, algae, Haliotidae, Gastropoda, animals, plants, aquatic plants, aquatic organisms, feed composition and quality, animal nutrition, production responses.


Toledo, R.; Munoz‑Antoli, C.; Perez, M.; Esteban, J.G. (1999) Miracidial infectivity of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae): differential susceptibility of two lymnaeid species. Parasitol Res 85(3): 212‑5, ISSN: 0932‑0113.

NAL call no: QL757.P377

Abstract: A study was made of the infectivity of Hypoderaeum conoideum miracidia to a range of laboratory‑reared specimens of freshwater snail species (Lymnaea peregra, L. corvus, Physella acuta, and Gyraulus chinensis) that coexist with the parasite in the same natural habitat. L. peregra and L. corvus were found to be equally susceptible to the parasite when specimens of each snail species were singly exposed to miracidia. However, when miracidia could choose either lymnaeid species, they showed a high degree of specificity toward L. peregra. The results obtained suggest that H. conoideum miracidia are capable of distinguishing among these lymnaeids in their orientation to the host. This indicates that miracidia might achieve specificity before actually contacting the snail host and suggests that during the host‑snail orientation process they respond to signals different from those generated upon snail contact and invasion. The specificity toward L. peregra observed in H. conoideum miracidia seems to indicate adaptation to the snail community in their natural habitat, resulting in enhancement of their transmission.

Descriptors: Echinostomatidae physiology, Lymnaea parasitology, snails parasitology, fresh water, host parasite relations, signal transduction, species specificity.





Ategbo, J.M.; Zongo, D.; Aidara, D. (1998) Behavioral states and mobility of the giant snail Achatina achatina. Cahiers d'Etudes et de Recherches Francophones Agricultures 7(1): 72‑74, ISSN 1166‑7699.

NAL call no: S5.C34

Abstract: Mobility and bebavioral states of the African giant snail Achatina achatina L. were studied both in the laboratory and the open field. Behavioral state scores (BSS), derived from animal stereotypic postures, provided a suitable scale of increasing activity. To test whether BSS was correlated with activity, 30 randomly chosen sexually mature snails were removed from a colony and placed on a large bare surface. BSS scores were obtained 5 min later, and the distance each snail moved over the next 5 min was recorded by measuring the length of a thread laid along the mucous trail. BSS can be used to measure Achatina achatina mobility . In the open field, without any stimulus, humidity was the most important factor affecting snail mobility.

Descriptors: Achatina, snails, behaviour, locomotion, field experimentation, laboratory experimentation, environmental factors, humidity, Cote d' Ivoire, Africa, Africa South of Sahara, experimentation, Gastropoda, movement, physiological functions, West Africa.


Chambers, R.J.; McQuaid, C.D.; Kirby, R. (1998) The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA to analyze the genetic diversity, the systematic relationships and the evolution of intertidal limpets, Siphonaria spp. (Pulmonata: Gastropoda), with different reproductive modes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology  V. 227, N1 (SEP 1), P. 49-66, ISSN: 0022-0981.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: marine and freshwater biology, ecology, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, total cellular proteins, Littorina saxatilis, larval development, arbitrary primers, family Littorinidae, markers, PCR, identification.


DeWitt, T.J. (1998) Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity: Tests with predator-induced morphology and life history in a freshwater snail. Journal of Evolutionary Biology V 11, N4 (JUL), P. 465-480, ISSN: 1010-061X.

NAL call no: QH359.J68

Descriptors: costs of plasticity, evolution of plasticity, reaction norm, predator induced defense, genetics of plasticity, adaptive plasticity, water snail, body size, evolution, maintenance, environment, generalists, specialists, defenses, genetics.


Foster, G. G.; A. N. Hodgson. Consumption and apparent dry matter digestibility of six intertidal macroalgae by Turbo sarmaticus (Mollusca: Vetigastropoda: Turbinidae). Aquaculture. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Sept 1, 1998. v. 167 (3/4) p. 211‑227. ISSN: 0044‑8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Abstract: Laboratory experiments on feeding of Turbo sarmaticus have shown that this gastropod mollusc is capable of consuming and digesting algae from the Rhodophyta (Gelidium pristoides and Corallina spp.), Chlorophyta (Ulva rigida and Codium extricatum) and Phaeophyta (Ecklonia radiata and Iyengaria stellata). The consumption rates of animals feeding on these different algae at 20 degree C ranged from 1.45 to 9.5% body weight per day (juveniles) and 1.06 to 6.08% body weight per day (adults). Juvenile T. sarmaticus had significantly (P < 0.05) higher consumption rates (1.6‑2.8 times higher) for each algal species (except E. radiata) than adults. In both juveniles and adults, consumption rates of three species of algae (G. pristoides, U. rigida and Corallina spp.) were 1.5 to 5.8 times higher at 20 degree C and 25 degree C than at 15 degree C. The apparent dry matter digestibility for the different algae at 20 degree C ranged from 9.1 to 74.8% (juveniles) and 7.3 to 77.1% (adults). Juvenile T. sarmaticus had significantly (P < 0.01) higher apparent dry matter digestibility values (12‑24% higher) for each algal species, except G. pristoides where there was no significant difference (P=0.444). In both juvenile and adult T. sarmaticus, algal digestibility was not affected by temperature. Monthly comparisons of the energetic value and nutritional content (protein, soluble carbohydrate and lipid) of the algae indicated that, with the exception of U. rigida and C. extricatum, there was little seasonal variation.

Descriptors: Gastropoda, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, feeding, feed intake, dry matter, digestibility, liveweight, age, water temperature, species differences, energy content, nutrient content, protein content, dietary carbohydrate, lipids, seasonal variation.


Gilroy, A.; S. J. Edwards. Optimum temperature for growth of Australian abalone: preferred temperature and critical thermal maximum for blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra (Leach), and greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata (Leach). Aquac Res. Oxford : Blackwell Science, c1995. July 1998. v. 29 (7) p. 481‑485. ISSN: 1355‑557X.

NAL call no: SH1.F8

Abstract: The preferred temperature and critical thermal maximum of Australian blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra (Leach), and greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata (Leach), were found to differ only slightly; the blacklip abalone exhibited lower temperature tolerance and preference, as expected from its habitat distribution. Preferred temperatures were 16.9 and 18.9 degrees C, and 50% critical thermal maxima were 26.9 and 27.5 degrees C for blacklip and greenlip abalone, respectively. The optimum temperatures for growth calculated from each of these indices and averaged were 17.0 and 18.3 degrees C, respectively.

Descriptors: Haliotis, water temperature, growth, mollusc culture, habitats, cold tolerance, Gastropoda.


Thomas, J.D.; Eaton, P. (1998) The origins, fate, and ecological significance of free amino compounds released by freshwater pulmonate snails. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 119(1): 341‑9, ISSN: 1095‑6433.

NAL call no: QP1.C6

Abstract: The mass‑specific accumulation rates (MSAR) of both total (TFAC) and individual free amino compounds (FAC) in conditioned media were measured by HPLC, using the orthophthaldialdehyde (OPA) methods, in the following cases: (a) laboratory‑reared freshwater snails (B. glabrata) with chemosterilized shells; (b) Biomphalaria glabrata with non‑chemosterilized shells; (c) B. glabrata faeces; (d) isolated shells of B. glabrata; and (e) 10 other species of freshwater gastropods from the Lewes Brooks, East Sussex, U.K. The MSAR values for B. glabrata show that 95% of the TFAC's (predominantly ethanolamine, phosphoserine, and the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, aspartic acid, and glycine/threonine) originated from the snails themselves as the faeces and shells contributed only 5.0 and 0%, respectively. In contrast, epizootic organisms on the shells of all 10 snail species from the Lewes Brooks released significant amounts of FAC with the two smallest species (Planorbis vortex and Planorbis contortus) having the highest MSAR values. The MSAR for isolated B. glabrata mucus was 42.45 micromol x g(‑1)h(‑1). As 500 mg snails can release 16.67 mg of mucus daily, this could potentially result in the daily loss of 707.5 micromol of FAC. The cost/benefits of mucus secretion and the various anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and ecological mechanisms which allow freshwater snails to recover FAC's lost as a result of a high rate of urine production in their hypotonic environment, are discussed.

Descriptors: amines metabolism, Biomphalaria metabolism, fresh water, chromatography high pressure liquid, culture media, conditioned metabolism, ecology, mucus metabolism, tissueculture.





Gomot, A. (1997) Effets des metaux lourds sur le developpement des escargots. Utilisation des escargots comme bio‑indicateurs de pollution par les metaux lourds pour la preservation de la sante de l'homme [Effects of heavy metals on snail development. Use of snails as bio‑indicators of heavy metal pollution for the preservation of human health.] Bull Acad Natl Med 181(1): 59‑74; discussion 74‑5, ISSN: 0001‑4079. Note: In French.

Abstract: The use of snails as biological indicators is particularly appropriate for metals, which they accumulate in their organs. The aim of the present experiment was to carry out a rigorous experimentation in the laboratory and in the wild in order to develop a methodology for the use of snails at a known stage of growth that would give precise information on the toxicity of heavy metals for different concentrations and durations of exposure. We have developed a test of toxicity based on the effects of a noxious and carcinogenic element, cadmium, on the land‑snail Helix aspersa aspersa (H.a.a) of one month of age. Five concentrations (50 to 800 micrograms/g), were selected to estimate the concentrations causing 50% inhibition of growth (EC 50) at 14 days: 190 micrograms/g and at 28 days: 180 micrograms/g. A soil matrix contaminated with metals (soil including 800 micrograms/g Cr, 20 micrograms/g Cd, 800 micrograms/g Pb and 2000 micrograms/g Zn) was incorporated into the food at 50 and 75%, it too inhibited the growth of juvenile snails compared to incorporation of control soil. An accurate and rapid (2 to 4 weeks) method is therefore available for the evaluation of the toxicity of pollutants by ingestion. The first trials of this method in the wild consisted of placing batches of 2‑month‑old snails, identical to those used in the first lab tests, in locations that were either polluted or not. Differences in growth were observed depending on the locations; analysis of the levels of metal in the organs of the snails should enable us to check if there is a correlation between these levels and the growth rates. The results obtained with cadmium compared to those of other authors working with earthworms and soil arthropods show that snails give responses to concentrations comparable to those of earthworms and much more rapidly and with more sensitivity than those of collembolla for example. The ease of handling snails and the perfect control of their breeding are essential factors in carrying out reliable bioassays in toxicology and in ecotoxicology.

Descriptors: environmental health, environmental monitoring, helix snails drug effects, metals, heavy toxicity, soil pollutants toxicity.


Lim, C.S.; Chung, D.Y.; Kaang, B.K. (1997) Partial anatomical and physiological characterization and dissociated cell culture of the nervous system of the marine mollusc Aplysia kurodai. Mol Cells 7(3): 399‑407, ISSN: 1016‑8478.

Abstract: Snail nervous systems are powerful tools for neurobiological studies as the biophysical properties of the giant neurons and their neural circuits can be examined in relation to specific behaviors of animals. The marine mollusc Aplysia californica is particularly useful for analyzing the components of learning and memory at the molecular and cellular levels. Here we partially examined the nervous systems of two species (A. kurodai and A. juliana) commonly found along the Korean coast in comparison with that of A. californica, one of the American marine snails. A. kurodai appeared to be identical to A. californica in both anatomical and physiological properties of the nervous system. A. juliana could be distinguished from A. californica in certain morphological aspects of the nervous system. The hemolymph either from A. kurodai or from A. juliana was required for effectively elongating neurite outgrowth of A. kurodai neurons in dissociated cell culture. The cultured cells retained neuronal properties such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation, and generation of action potentials. The sensory cells of A. kurodai in dissociated cultures showed a response to serotonin (5‑HT) of spike broadening and enhanced membrane excitability as in intact ganglia. Therefore, the nervous system and dissociated neuronal culture of A. kurodai may be useful for studying learning and memory in the context‑of well‑defined neural circuits of A. californica.

Descriptors: Aplysia anatomy and histology, Aplysia physiology, nervous system anatomy and histology, nervous system physiology, action potentials, Aplysia cytology, cells cultured, culture media, electrophysiology, ganglia, invertebrate anatomy and histology, ganglia, invertebrate cytology, ganglia, invertebrate physiology, hemolymph, nervous system cytology, neurites ultrastructure, neurons, afferent drug effects, afferent physiology, serotonin pharmacology, species specificity, synapses ultrastructure.


Nakamura, K.; Soh, T. (1997) Mechanical memory hypothesized in the homing abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under experimental conditions. Fisheries Science 63(6): 854‑861, ISSN 0919‑9268.

NAL call no: SH1.F8195

Descriptors: Haliotis, behaviour, habitats, locomotion, mental ability, laboratory experimentation, darkness, taxis, physiological functions, orientation, ecosystems, environmental factors, experimentation, Gastropoda, movement, physiological functions, animal physiology and biochemistry.





Fleming, A.E. (1995) Digestive efficiency of the australian abalone haliotis-rubra in relation to growth and feed preference. Aquaculture v 134 , n3-4 ( jul 15 ), p. 279-293, ISSN: 0044-8486.

NAL call no: SH1.A6

Descriptors: Haliotis rubra, feeding and nutrition, mollusks, algae, marine, herbivore, nitrogen, ecology, food, behavior, defenses, plants.


Nakano, D. (1995) Availability of the embryo of Semisulcospira libertina (Prosobranchia: Pleuroceridae) as a laboratory animal. Japanese Journal of Malacology 54(1): 77‑82, ISSN 0042‑3580. Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: Gastropoda, animal embryos, laboratory animals, feasibility studies, summer, autumn, animal developmental stages, animal developmental stages, developmental stages, Mollusca, seasons, useful animals.


Plaut, I.; Borut, A.; Spira, M.E. (1995) Growth and metamorphosis of Aplysia oculifera larvae in laboratory culture. Marine Biology Berlin 122 (3) 425‑430, ISSN: 0025‑3162.

NAL call no: QH91.A1M35

Descriptors: development, ecology, environmental sciences, marine ecology, morphology, nutrition, physiology, reproductive system, Chlorophyta, Algae, Plantae, Gastropoda, Aplysia oculifera, Codium dichotomum, Colpomenia sinuosa (Phaeophyta), Cystoseira sp., Dasia sp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Hydroclathrus clathratus, Hypnea sp., Jania sp., Liagora sp., Padina pavonia,  microorganisms.


Takami, A. (1995) Growth and number of newborns in Semisulcospira kurodai (Prosobranchia: Pleuroceridae) reared in the laboratory. Japanese Journal of Malacology 54(2): 123‑132, ISSN: 0042‑3580.

Descriptors: Gastropoda, snail culture, growth rate, environmental temperature, shell, diameter, parturition, birth rate, laboratory experimentation, animal production, biological development, body parts, dimensions, environmental factors, experimentation, growth, integument, physiological functions, production, reproduction, sexual reproduction, temperature, vital statistics, aquatic ecology.


Wildering, W.C.; Lodder, J.C.; Kits, K.S.; Bulloch, A.G. (1995) Nerve growth factor acutely enhances high‑voltage activated Ca‑2+ currents in adult molluscan neurons. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 21 (1‑3) 1048, ISSN: 0190‑5295.

NAL call no: QP351.S56716

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, cell biology, development, endocrine system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, membranes, cell biology, metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, physiology, Gastropoda, Lymnaea.





Abe, N. (1994) Growth and prey preference of the two forms in Thais clavigera (Kuster) under rearing. Venus the Japanese Journal of Malacology 53 (2) 113‑118.

Descriptors: behavior, ecology, environmental sciences, genetics, nutrition, physiology, population genetics, population studies, Gastropoda, Thais clavigera.


Baur, B. (1994) Parental care in terrestrial gastropods. Experientia Basel 50 (1) 5‑14, ISSN: 0014‑4754.

NAL call no: 475 EX7

Descriptors: behavior, ecology, environmental sciences, physiology, reproductive system, reproduction, Gastropoda.


Fejtl, M.; Gyori, J.; Carpenter, D.O. (1994) Mercuric(II) chloride modulates single‑channel properties of carbachol‑activated Cl‑ channels in cultured neurons of Aplysia californica. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 14 (6) 665‑674, ISSN: 0272‑4340.

NAL call no: QP351.C4

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, cell biology, ecology, environmental sciences, endocrine system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, membranes, cell biology, metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, pharmacology, physiology, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, Gastropoda, Aplysia californica.


Mcshane, P.E.; Gorfine, H.K.; Knuckey, I.A. (1994) Factors influencing food selection in the abalone haliotis-rubra (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v 176, n1 ( mar 15 ), p. 27-37, ISSN: 0022-0981.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: Abalone, Haliotis rubra, macroalgal diet, marine invertebrate herbivores, phenolic compounds, temperate Australasia, brown algae, defenses, growth, precipitation, surfactants, resistance, evolution.


Wang R.; Pang, P.K.T.; Wu, L.; Karpinski, E.; Harvey, S.; Berdan, R.C. (1994) Enhanced Calcium Influx by Parathyroid-Hormone in Identified Helisoma-Trivolvis Snail Neurons. Cell Calcium, V 15, N1 (JAN), p. 89-98, ISSN: 0143-4160.

NAL call no: QP772.V53C4

Descriptors: central nervous system, smooth muscle cells, neurotransmitter release, peptidergic neurons, brain synaptosomes, Lymnaea stagnalis, Molluscan neuron, organ culture, growth cones, fluorescence.





Bianchi, F.; Bolognani, A.M.; Fratello, B.; Sabatini, M.A.; Sonetti, D. (1993) Cell‑specific effects of lead on cultured neurons of the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus. Acta Biologica Hungarica 44 (1) 15‑19, ISSN: 0236‑5383.

NAL call no: 475 AC85

Descriptors: cell biology, development, estuarine ecology, environmental sciences, metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, physiology, skeletal system, movement and support, toxicology, Gastropoda, Planorbarius corneus.


Eliot, L.S.; Kandel, E.R.; Siegelbaum, S.A.; Blumenfeld, H. (1993) Imaging terminals of Aplysia sensory neurons demonstrates role of enhanced calcium influx in presynaptic facilitation. Nature 361 (6413) 634‑637, ISSN: 0028‑0836.

NAL call no: 472 N21

Descriptors: cell biology, endocrine system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, membranes, cell biology, metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, physiology, Aplysia, Gastropoda, calcium, potassium ion, serotonin.


Harada, A.; Yoshida, M.; Minakata, H.; Nomoto, K.; Muneoka, Y.; Kobayashi, M. (1993) Structure and function of the molluscan myoactive tetradecapeptides. Zoolog Sci 10(2): 257‑65, ISSN: 0289‑0003.

NAL call no: QL1.Z68

Abstract: Effects of myoactive tetradecapeptides, Achatina excitatory peptide 2 and 3 (AEP2 and AEP3) and Fusinus excitatory peptide 4 (FEP4), on several molluscan muscles and neurons were investigated. In the penis retractor and radula retractor muscles of Achatina fulica (pulmonate), the three peptides enhanced the tetanic contraction elicited by nerve stimulations. The order of potency was AEP2 > AEP3 > FEP4, although the effects of AEP3 and FEP4 on the radula retractor were somewhat irregular. AEP2 also induced rhythmic bursts of activity in the buccal ganglionic neuron B4 known as a cholinergic motoneuron of the radula retractor. In the radula protractor and retractor muscles of Fusinus ferrugineus (prosobranch), FEP4 was most potent in enhancing the contraction. The enhancement was greater in the protractor than in the retractor. It was suggested that myoactive tetradecapeptides modulate mainly the cholinergic transmission in molluscan muscles.

Descriptors: Mollusca physiology, muscle contraction physiology, proteins chemistry, snails physiology, amino acid sequence, dose response relationship drug, molecular sequence data, muscle contraction drug effects, neurons drug effects, proteins physiology, sequence homology, amino acid.


Pagulayan, I.F.; Salunga, T.L. (1993) Reproductive biology of Achatina fulica Ferussac. Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). 1993. 1 leaf. Philippines Univ., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology. National Malacological Convention. Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). 3‑4 Dec 1993. AVAILABILITY: UPLB‑National Crop Protection Center Library, College, Laguna.

Abstract: Achatina fulica Ferussac or the African giant snail collected from the field were reared and maintained in the laboratory. They were fed with (Lactuca sativa L.), yeast and chalk particles and frequently supplied with water to moisten the soil. The gross morphology of the reproductive system was studied. A. fulica is hermaphroditic. The male and female gametes differentiate within a single gonad called hermaphroditic gland. They have an ambisexual hermaphroditic gland in which oocytes and spermatozoa are produced simultaneously in close proximity within each acinus. However, it takes two snails to produce eggs. It was observed that courtship and copulation are reciprocal, both animals acting as males and females at the same time. There are four stages of mating behaviour: the spiral phase, the upright phase, the down turning phase and the immobility phase. Sex pheromones released from the head wart and some environmental factors like temperature, moisture, photoperiod and food influences the activity of the snail in the breeding season. It takes 24 to 48 hours for the snail to lay eggs which hatch in 7 to 15 days. A mass of 27 to 155 eggs laid per snail were obtained from the cultures.

Descriptors: Achatina fulica, pests of plants, reproductive performance, copulation, pheromones, Philippines, Asia, biological properties, fertilization, Gastropoda, performance, pests, physiological functions, reproduction, semiochemicals, sexual reproduction, south east Asia.


Santarelli, L.; Ghirardi, M.; Casadio, A.; Montarolo, P.G. (1993) Aplysia hemolymph enhances neurite outgrowth from identified Helix neurons in cell culture. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 19 (1‑3) 1085, ISSN: 0190‑5295.

NAL call no: QP351.S56716

Descriptors: cell biology, nervous system, neural coordination, physiology, toxicology, Gastropoda.





Bedford, J.A.; Lutz, P.L. (1992) Respiratory Physiology Of Aplysia-Californica (Morton, J.E. and Yonge, C.M., 1964) and Aplysia-Brasiliana Upon Aerial Exposure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology  v. 155, n2, p.239-248.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: aerial exposure, anaerobic, Aplysia, desiccation, metabolic depression, oxygen consumption, intertidal animals, energy metabolism, air, anaerobiosis, responses, behavior, hypoxia.


Buonomano, D.V.; Cleary, L.J.; Byrne, J.H. (1992) Inhibitory Neuron Produces Heterosynaptic Inhibition of the Sensory-to-Motor Neuron Synapse in Aplysia. Brain Research V. 577, N1 (APR 10), P. 147-150.

Descriptors: Aplysia, heterosynaptic inhibition, inhibitory neuron, synaptic plasticity, tail withdrawal reflex, siphon-withdrawal reflex, presynaptic inhibition, gill, camp, sensitization, modulation, serotonin, fmrfamide, tail.


Foster, M.C.; Castiglia, C.M.; Saubermann, A.J. (1992) Effects of Serotonin and Carbachol on Glial and Neuronal Rubidium Uptake in Leech CNS. Brain Research V 597, N2 (DEC 4), P. 181-188, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Descriptors: neurotransmitter, electron microprobe, potassium, serotonin, carbachol, leech, X-ray analysis, central nervous system, scanning electron microscopy, frozen hydrated sections, elemental composition, water content, cells, astrocytes, mechanism, K+.


Hughes, R.N.; Burrows, M.T.; Rogers, S.E. (1992) Ontogenic Changes in Foraging Behavior of the Dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology V 155, N2, P. 199-212.

NAL call no: QH91.A1J6

Descriptors: foraging behavior, Nucella, ontogeny, prey selection, predator, history, mussels, rates.


Saubermann, A.J.; Castiglia, C.M.; Foster, M.C. (1992) Preferential Uptake of Rubidium from Extracellular-Space by Glial-Cells Compared to Neurons in Leech Ganglia. Brain Research V 577, N1 (APR 10), P. 64-72.

Descriptors: neuron, glial cell, elemental composition, potassium, electron probe x-ray microanalysis, X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, frozen hydrated sections, central nervous system, potassium uptake, elemental composition, ion activities, water content, astrocytes, accumulation.





Byrne, J.H.; Baxter, D.A.; Buonomano, D.V.; Cleary, L.J.; Eskin, A.; Goldsmith, J.R.; Mcclendon, E.; Nazif, F.A.; Noel, F.; Scholz, K.P. (1991) Neural and Molecular-Bases of Nonassociative and Associative Learning in Aplysia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences V 627, AUG, P. 124-149.

NAL call no: 500 N484

Descriptors: tail sensory neurons, long term facilitation, pre-synaptic facilitation, siphon-withdrawal reflex, presynaptic facilitation, protein synthesis, gill-withdrawal, transmitter release, cellular mechanism, adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate, learning in aplysia, identified sensory neuron synapses during long-term sensitization, central nervous system, gill withdrawal reflex, c-fos messenger RNA induction, rat spinal cord, long term potentiation, Aplysia sensory neurons.





Buonomano, D.V.; Byrne, J.H. (1990) Long-Term Synaptic Changes Produced by a Cellular Analog of Classical-Conditioning in Aplysia. Science V 249, N4967, P. 420-423.

NAL call no: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: Aplysia model system, identified gill motor neurons, long term sensitization, neural networks, multiconnected memory models, associative theories.


Lacanilao, F. (1990) Reproduction of the golden apple snail (Ampullaridae): egg mass, hatching, and incubation. Philippine Journal of Science 119(2): 95‑105.

NAL call no: 475 P53

Abstract: Reproduction in the golden apple snail (Apullarius sp.) was studied to provide breeding information for laboratory and field culture. The influence of food quality and some environmental conditions on egg properties were studied in the laboratory at normal temperatures. Wandering jew produced the most numerous egg masses; combination of camote and papaya leaves and pechay, the largest egg masses; combination of wandering jew and kangkong, the shortest incubation period; and duckweed, the highest hatching rate and the best overall effects on egg properties. Water change affected number of egg masses at higher stocking density, but affected egg mass size at all stocking densities and sex ratios. Seasonal or natural temperature effects were only seen on incubation period‑shortest in the warm months of April and May but longest in the cool months of December‑February. Increasing age decreased the number and size of egg masses and hatching rate, but did not affect incubation period.

Descriptors: snails, snail culture, reproduction, hatching, egg incubation, animal developmental stages, animal husbandry methods, animal production, biological development, developmental stages, Mollusca, physiological functions, production, reproduction, sexual reproduction, animal husbandry.





Madec, L. (1989) Geographic variations in Helix aspersa Mueller shell size and form. Evolution of these characters in laboratory conditions.  Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France 114(1): 85‑100, ISSN: 0037‑962X.

NAL call no; 410.9 P214B

Descriptors: snails, shell, dimensions, environment, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, chemicophysical properties, integument, invertebrates, tissues.





Spiridonov, N. A.; M. A. Kostenko; S. P. Volkova; A. G. Pogorelov; M. N. Kondrashova. Influence of biologically active substances isolated from Galleria mellonella on neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis in culture.  Comp Biochem Physiol C Comp Pharmacol Toxic. Oxford : Pergamon Press. 1984. v. 78 (1) p. 207‑210. ill. ISSN: 0306‑4492.

NAL call no: QP901.C6

Descriptors: Galleria mellonella, Lymnaea stagnalis, neurons, biologics, isolated giant neurons culture, test system, aggregation inhibition, freshwater snail, neurite activation, neuronal cells, chemical compositions.





Nevo, E.; Lavie, E.; Ben‑Shlomo, R. (1983) Selection of allelic isozyme polymorphisms in marine organisms: pattern, theory, and application. Isozymes Curr Top Biol Med Res 10: 69‑92, ISSN: 0160‑3787.

NAL call no: QP601.I74

Abstract: The evolutionary significance of allelic isozyme polymorphisms in several Mediterranean marine organisms was tested initially by post‑hoc gene frequency analyses at 11‑15 gene loci in natural populations of barnacles, Balanus amphitrite, under thermal [Nevo et al, 1977] and chemical [Nevo et al, 1978] pollutions. We next carried out pre‑hoc controlled laboratory experiments to test the effects of heavy metal pollution (Hg, Zn, Cd) on genotypic frequencies of 15 phosphoglucomutase (PGM) genotypes in thousands of individuals of the shrimp Palaemon elegans [Nevo et al, 1980, 1981a, and the present study]. Similarly, we tested the effects of Hg, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu pollutions on the genotypic and allelic frequencies of five phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) genotypes in the two close species of marine gastropods, Monodonta turbinata and M turbiformis [Lavie and Nevo, 1982, and the present study]. In both the thermal and chemical pollution studies, we established in repeated experiments statistically significant differences of allele frequencies at 8 out of 11 (73%) and 10 out of 15 (67%) gene loci, respectively, between the contrasting environments in each. While no specific function could be singled out in the post‑hoc chemical study due to the complex nature of polluted marine water, temperature could be specified as the primary selective agent in the thermal study. The strongest direct and specific evidence for significant differential survivorship among allelic isozyme genotypes was obtained in the pre‑hoc studies in Palaemon and Monodonta. Their differential viability was probably associated with the different degree of heavy metal inhibition uniquely related to each specific pollutant. Furthermore, we demonstrated in the two closely related Monodonta species parallel genotypic differentiation as a response to pollution. Our results are inconsistent with the neutral theory of allelic isozyme polymorphisms and appear to reflect the adaptive nature of the allelic isozyme polymorphisms studied. Allelic isozyme genotypes are sensitive to and vary with the quality and quantity of specific pollutants. Therefore, they can provide precise genetic indicators of the effects of pollution on the short‑ and long‑term genetic changes of populations. Ideally, in different marine species specific genetic loci, either singly or in combination, may prove sensitive markers to different pollutants and could easily be assayed by quick electrophoretic tests and be used as genetic monitors. An extensive search for the appropriate enzymatic systems in various relatively sedentary marine species exposed to pollutants is therefore urgent.

Descriptors: isoenzymes genetics, polymorphism genetics, water pollution adverse effects, adaptation physiological, alleles, environment, evolution, glucose‑6‑Phosphate isomerase genetics, metals toxicity, Mollusca genetics, phosphoglucomutase genetics, shrimp genetics, Gastropoda.


Zelia, O. P.; S. A. Beer. A technique of individual maintenance of molluscs infected with larvae of Schistosoma mansoni. Parazitologiia. Leningrad : "Nauka". Sept‑Oct 1983, v. 17 (5) p. 412‑415. ISSN: 0031‑1847. Note: In Russian with English summary.

NAL call no: QL757.A1P32

Abstract: technique for individual maintenance of snail intermediate hosts in constant temperature water bath, effect on host growth, reproductive ability, and production of cercaria; technique used for study of compatibility between Malaysian strain of S. mansoni and Biomphalaria sudanica on basis of total cercaria production, Gastropoda.

Descriptors: Biomphalaria sudanica, freshwater snail, Schistosoma mansoni, maintenance, host- parasite relationship, snail intermediate host, water bath, reproduction, cercaria production, compatibility, model system, water bath, host growth, technique. 




Uki, N.; Kikuchi, S. (1982) Influence of food levels on maturation and spawning of the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai related to effective accumulative temperature. Bulletin of Tohoku Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.45) p. 45‑53, ISSN 0049‑402X.

NAL call no: SH301.S852

Descriptors: abalones, maturation, oviposition, food intake, environmental temperature, biological development, consumption, environment, environmental conditions, food consumption, foods, isscaap group b 52, isscaap groups of species, physiological functions, reproduction, seafoods, shellfish, temperature, aquatic ecology, fisheries production, Gastropods, snail like molluscs.





Bayne, C. J. Gastropod cells in vitro. Adv Cell Cult. New York : Academic Press. 1981, v. 1 p. 297‑334. ISSN: 0275‑6358.

NAL call no: QH585.A3

Abstract: gastropod cells in vitro, establishment and maintenance of cultures, uses of cultures, includes adaptation for study of parasites and host/parasite systems and for synxenic cultivation of Schistosoma mansoni, review.

Descriptors: Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater snail, neurobiology, Aplysia, sea hare, maintenance, culture uses, synxenic cultivation, karotyping, antigenicity, behavior, immunology, phagocytosis, Schistosoma mansoni, attachment, aggregation, degranulation, chemotaxis, primary cultures, snail cell culture, short-term culture, in vitro, review article, embryonic and adult tissues.


Levitan, I.B.; Adams, W.B. (1981) Cyclic AMP modulation of a specific ion channel in an identified nerve cell: possible role for protein phosphorylation. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res  14: 647‑53, ISSN: 0084‑5930.

NAL call no: QP801.N82A3

Abstract: Multidisciplinary studies of the role of cAMP in synaptic transmission have been made possible by the favorable properties of the molluscan nervous system, and there is now evidence from several laboratories implicating cAMP in physiological responses in various Aplysia nerve and muscle cells (9,10,15,18,21). The results we have obtained satisfy all the criteria (8) necessary to establish that cAMP mediates the response to a neurotransmitter: a) the response is mimicked by intra‑ or extracellular application of cAMP derivatives, and by activation of adenylate cyclase within R15; b) a phosphodiesterase inhibitor enhances the response to low concentrations of serotonin; c) serotonin causes cAMP to accumulate within R15, and stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from R15 cell bodies; and d) the serotonin receptors mediating adenylate cyclase stimulation and R15 hyperpolarization are pharmacologically very similar. This is the first time all these criteria have been satisfied in a neuronal system, and thus we conclude that the serotonin‑induced increase in potassium conductance in neuron R15 is mediated by cAMP.

Descriptors: cyclic AMP metabolism, ion channels metabolism, neurons metabolism, protein kinases metabolism, serotonin pharmacology, Aplysia, cyclic AMP analogs and derivatives, cyclic AMP pharmacology, ion channels drug effects, membrane potentials drug effects, neurons drug effects, phosphorylation.


Mulvey, M.; R. C. Vrijenhoek. Genetic variation among laboratory strains of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Biochem Genet. New York : Plenum Press. Dec 1981 v. 19 (11‑12) p. 1169‑1182. ISSN: 0006‑2928.

NAL call no: QR73.B5

Abstract: Biomphalaria glabrata (intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni), genetic variation among laboratory strains.

Descriptors: Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater snail, Schistosoma mansoni, intermediate host, polymorphism, genetics, genetic variation, laboratory strains.


Paris, C. G.; V. F. Castellucci; E. R. Kandel; J. H. Schwartz. Protein phosphorylation Protein phosphorylation, presynaptic facilitation, and behavioral sensitization in Aplysia Marine mollusc. Edited by Ora M. Rosen, Edwin G. Krebs. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1981. p. 1361‑1375. ill. ISBN: 0879691409.  

NAL call no: QP606.P76P76

Descriptors: Aplysia, sea slug, protein phosphorylation, animal model, molecular pathway, learning, sensitization, gill-withdrawl reflex, biochemistry, neurons, serotonin receptor, adenylate cyclase, cyclic AMP regulatory subunit, presynaptic facilitation, behavioral sensitization, nervous system.


Uki, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Grant, J.F. (1981) Juvenile growth of the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, fed certain benthic micro algae related to temperature. Bulletin of Tohoku Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.43) p. 59‑64, ISSN 0049‑402X.

NAL call no: SH301.S852

Descriptors: abalones, Haliotis, young animals, benthic environment, feeds, algae, periphyton, growth, environmental temperature, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic communities, aquatic environment, aquatic organisms, biocoenosis, biological development, environment, environmental conditions, foods, gastropods, invertebrates, isscaap group b 52, isscaap groups of species, physiological functions, physiology, plants, seafoods, shellfish, temperature.


Uki, N. (1981) Feeding behavior of experimental populations of the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Bulletin of Tohoku Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory (no.43) p. 53‑58, ISSN: 0049‑402X.

NAL call no: SH301.S852

Descriptors: abalones, haliotis, feeding habits, phaeophyceae, biological rhythms, environmental temperature, algae, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, behaviour, environment, environmental conditions, foods, gastropods, invertebrates, isscaap group b 52, isscaap group b 91, isscaap groups of species, plants, seafoods, shellfish, temperature, time, timing, aquatic ecology, Gastropods, snail like molluscs.





Saitoh, Y.; H. Itagaki. A new breeding system of Oncomelania hupensis nosophora in the laboratory.  Jap J Parasitol. Tokyo : Japanese Society of Parasitology. Oct 1980, v. 29 (5) p. 341‑350 (p. 17‑26). ISSN: 0021‑5171.

NAL call no: 436.8‑J27

Abstract: new system for maintenance and mass breeding of Oncomelania hupensisnosophora (vector of Schistosoma japonicum) in the laboratory.

Descriptors: Oncomelania hupensisnosophora, freshwater snail, maintenance, breeding, Schistosoma japonicum, rearing, feeding, long-term culture, space requirements, aquaterrarium, aquarium, reproduction, artificial and natural lighting, moisture control.






Nakanishi, T. (1978) Studies on the effects of the environment on the heart rate of shellfishes, 2: Effects of temperature, low salinity and hypoxia on the heart rate of an abalone Haliotis (Nordotis) discus hannai Ino. Bulletin of the Hokkaido Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory. (no.43) p. 59‑68, ISSN: 0513‑2541. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: 414.9 H683

Descriptors: aquatic ecology.





Stephenson, J.W.; Dibley, G.C. (1975) Electric fence for retaining slugs in outdoor enclosures. Lab Pract 24(12): 815, ISSN: 0023‑6853.

NAL call no: Q183.L3

Descriptors: Mollusca, electricity, environment design, laboratories.

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