Laboratory Care / Research






Galloway, T.S.; Depledge, M.H. (2001) Immunotoxicity in invertebrates: measurement and ecotoxicological relevance. Ecotoxicology 10(1):5‑23, ISSN: 0963‑9292.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E27

Abstract: Concern is growing regarding the impact of chemicals suspected of altering the function of the immune system in humans and wildlife. There are numerous examples of links between pollution and increased susceptibility to disease in wildlife species, including immunosuppression in harbour seals feeding on fish from contaminated sites, altered immune function in riverine fish and decreased host resistance in birds exposed to pollutants. Laboratory tests have identified potential immunological hazards posed by a range of anthropogenic chemicals in mammals and higher vertebrates. However, few reports have considered the ecological relevance of pollution‑induced immunosuppression in invertebrate phyla, which constitute around 95% of all animal species and occupy key structural and functional roles in ecosystems. In this paper effects of chemicals on immune function in invertebrates are briefly reviewed and biomarkers of immunotoxicity are identified. Examples of new approaches for the measurement of immunological inflammatory reactions and stress in molluscan haemocytes are detailed. The relevance of defining the immune system as a target organ of toxicity in invertebrates is discussed and an integrated approach for the use of immunological biomarkers in environment management is proposed, combining measures of immune function and organismal viability at the biochemical, cellular and population level.

Descriptors: ecology, environmental pollutants toxicity, immunotoxins toxicity, Mollusca immunology, biological markers, environmental pollutants immunology, hemocytes immunology, hydrocarbons, halogenated immunology, hydrocarbons, halogenated toxicity, immunotoxins immunology, metals, heavy immunology, metals, heavy toxicity, organotin compounds immunology, organotin compounds toxicity, oxidants immunology, oxidants toxicity, pesticides immunology, pesticides toxicity, polycyclic hydrocarbons immunology, polycyclic hydrocarbons toxicity, biological markers, environmental pollutants, hydrocarbons halogenated, immunotoxins, metals heavy, organotin compounds, oxidants, pesticides, polycyclic hydrocarbons.


Snyder, M.J.; Girvetz, E.; Mulder, E.P. (2001) Induction of marine mollusc stress proteins by chemical or physical stress. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 41(1): 22‑9, ISSN: 0090‑4341.

NAL call no: TD172 A7

Abstract: The cellular stress responses of most organisms in part involve the induction of a class of proteins called heat shock or stress proteins (HSPs) as a result of damage to existing proteins. Cellular proteins can be damaged by chemical exposures known to induce various HSPs. In these experiments, we examine the HSP responses of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and abalone (Haliotis rufescens) tissues to both thermal and chemical exposures. HSP70 isoforms, HSP60, and HSP90 all show varying induction capabilities. The results demonstrate that the extent of stress exposure as both a time‑ and dose‑dependent phenomena can be ascertained by examining changes in mollusc HSP protein levels. We also examined the relationship between HSP induction and levels of a mussel cytochrome P450 (CYP4Y1) mRNA in dose‑response experiments with the products of biologically degraded weathered crude oil. The increases in HSP70 isoforms and HSP90 were correlated with decreases in CYP4Y1 expression levels in a dose‑dependent manner. HSP responses may therefore be a valuable part of a suite of biomarkers in biomonitoring for hydrocarbon exposures in nearshore environments.

Descriptors: heat shock proteins biosynthesis, hydrocarbons adverse effects, Mollusca physiology, mussels physiology, water pollutants, chemical adverse effects, biological markers analysis, cytochrome P 450 metabolism, dose response relationship, drug, analysis, metabolism, biosynthesis, adverse effects, physiology, biological markers, heat shock proteins, hydrocarbons; messenger RNA, water pollutants chemical, cytochrome P450 CYP41, cytochrome P‑450, environmental health, toxicology.





Gomez, M.P.; Nasi, E. (2000) Light transduction in invertebrate hyperpolarizing photoreceptors: possible involvement of a Go‑regulated guanylate cyclase. J Neurosci 20(14): 5254‑63, ISSN: 0270‑6474.

Abstract: The hyperpolarizing receptor potential of scallop ciliary photoreceptors is attributable to light‑induced opening of K(+)‑selective channels. Having previously demonstrated the activation of this K(+) current by cGMP, we examined upstream events in the transduction cascade. GTP‑gamma‑S produced persistent excitation after a flash, accompanied by decreased sensitivity and acceleration of the photocurrent, whereas GDP‑beta‑S only inhibited responsiveness, consistent with the involvement of a G‑protein. Because G(o) (but not G(t) nor G(q)) recently has been detected in the ciliary retinal layer of a related species, we tested the effects of activators of G(o); mastoparan peptides induced an outward current suppressible by blockers of the light‑sensitive conductance such as l‑cis‑diltiazem. In addition, intracellular dialysis with the A‑protomer of pertussis toxin (PTX) depressed the photocurrent. The mechanisms that couple G‑protein stimulation to changes in cGMP were investigated. Intracellular IBMX enhanced the photoresponse with little effect on the baseline current, a result that argues against regulation by light of phosphodiesterase activity. LY83583, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase (GC), exerted a reversible, dose‑dependent suppression of the photocurrent. By contrast, ODQ, an antagonist of NO‑sensitive GC, and YC‑1, an activator of NO‑sensitive GC, failed to alter the light response or the holding current; furthermore, the NO synthase inhibitor N‑methyl‑ l‑arginine was inert, indicating that the NO signaling pathway is not implicated. Taken together, these results suggest a novel type of phototransduction cascade in which stimulation of a PTX‑sensitive G(o) may activate a membrane GC to induce an increase in cGMP and the consequent opening of light‑dependent channels.

Descriptors: GTP binding proteins metabolism, guanosine diphosphate analogs and derivatives, guanylate cyclase metabolism, photoreceptors, invertebrate metabolism, photoreceptors, invertebrate radiation effects, signal transduction drug effects, calcium channel blockers pharmacology, dose response relationship, drug, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, guanosine‑5'‑O-3-thiotriphosphate pharmacology, guanosine diphosphate pharmacology, guanylate cyclase antagonists and inhibitors, Mollusca, nitric oxide synthase antagonists and inhibitors, patch clamp techniques, pertussis toxins pharmacology, phosphodiesterase inhibitors pharmacology, photic stimulation, photoreceptors, invertebrate cytology, retina cytology, signal transduction, radiation effects, thionucleotides pharmacology, wasp venoms pharmacology, metabolism, analogs and derivatives, antagonists and inhibitors, cytology, radiation effects, drug effects.





Gonzalez‑Lanza, C.; Manga‑Gonzalez, M.Y.; Campo, R.; Del‑Pozo, M.P. (1997) Larval development of Dicrocoelium dendriticum in Cernuella (Xeromagna) cespitum arigonis under controlled laboratory conditions. J Helminthol 71(4): 311‑7, ISSN: 0022‑149X.

NAL call no: 436.8 J82

Abstract: The larval development of Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae) in experimentally infected Cernuella (Xeromagna) cespitum arigonis (Schmidt, 1853), a species of mollusc important in the epidemiology of dicrocoeliosis in Spain, has been studied. A total of 948 specimens of this mollusc, distributed in five batches, were tested with individual doses of 50 to 150 parasite eggs, obtained from sheep, after 4 days without food. After infection these molluscs and control specimens were kept in an environmental simulation chamber at 20 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 7 h of light per day. To detect the parasite, a minimum of six molluscs were examined every 20 days from day 1 post‑infection (p.i.). The eggs of D. dendriticum were eliminated in the molluscan faeces 48 h post infection. The percentages of molluscs harbouring the parasite ranged between 17.53% and 75%. Daughter sporocysts with undifferentiated germinal masses and occupying very reduced areas of the hepatopancreas were observed 50 days p.i. and in the period immediately following. After 110 days p.i. sporocysts with cercariae at different stages of development were found although slimeball emission was never observed.

Descriptors: Dicrocoeliasis parasitology, Dicrocoelium physiology, Mollusca parasitology, feces parasitology, larva, time factors.





Anderson, I.G. (1995) Queensland Department of Primary Industries Information Series, QI95011. The preparation and submission of cultured aquatic animals for veterinary laboratory examination. ii+34p. ISBN: 0727‑6273.

Descriptors: ecology, environmental sciences, nutrition, pathology, physiology, systematics and taxonomy, veterinary medicine, medical sciences, wildlife management, conservation, Algae unspecified, Plantae, Arthropoda unspecified, Crustacea unspecified, Arthropoda, Mollusca unspecified, Osteichthyes, Pisces, Vertebrata, Chordata.


Kinne, S.E.; Kinne, R.K.H. (1995) The contribution of marine biology to biomedical research: Past, present, future. Helgolaender Meeresuntersuchungen 49 (1‑4) 45‑56, ISSN: 0174‑3597.

NAL call no: QH91.A1H4

Descriptors: animal care, marine ecology, environmental sciences, nervous system, neural coordination, physiology, reproductive system, Cephalopoda, Chondrichthyes, Pisces, Vertebrata, Chordata, Hominidae, Primates, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia, dogfish (Chondrichthyes), human (Hominidae), squid, animals, chordates, fish, humans, Mammals, Mollusks, nonhuman vertebrates, Primates, Vertebrates.





Pritchard, J.B. (1993) Aquatic toxicology: past, present, and prospects. Environ Health Perspect 100: 249‑57, ISSN: 0091‑6765.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E54

Abstract: Aquatic organisms have played important roles as early warning and monitoring systems for pollutant burdens in our environment. However, they have significant potential to do even more, just as they have in basic biology where preparations like the squid axon have been essential tools in establishing physiological and biochemical mechanisms. This review provides a brief summary of the history of aquatic toxicology, focusing on the nature of aquatic contaminants, the levels of contamination in our waters, and the origins of these agents. It considers the features of the aquatic environment that determine the availability of xenobiotics to aquatic life and the fate of foreign chemicals within the organism. Finally, toxic effects are considered with primary emphasis on the potential of aquatic models to facilitate identification of the underlying mechanisms of toxicity.

Descriptors: forecasting, toxicology trends, water pollutants, chemical adverse effects, carcinogens environmental adverse effects, water pollutants chemical metabolism.





Frye, F.L. (1992) Captive invertebrates : a guide to their biology and husbandry / Fredric L. Frye. Malabar, Fla. : Krieger Pub. Co., 135 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm.

NAL call no: SF407 I58F79 1991

Descriptors: invertebrates as laboratory animals, invertebrates as pets, captive wild animals.


Graham, M.; Wong, K. (1992) Captive care of and research on Arctic fish and invertebrates. International Zoo Yearbook 31 (0) 111‑115, ISSN: 0074‑9664.

NAL call no: QL76.I5

Descriptors: conservation, ecology, environmental sciences, general life studies, wildlife management, conservation, Echinodermata unspecified, Pisces unspecified.





Hinegardner, R.T.; Atz, J.W.; Fay, R.C.; Fingerman, M.; Josephson, R.K.; Meinkoth, N.A.; Miller, J.W.; Rice, M.E.; Muckenhirn, N.A.; Pye, V.I. (1981) Laboratory Animal Management Marine Invertebrates (Marine invertebrates as laboratory animals) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Marine Invertebrates, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 382 pgs., ISBN: 0-309-03134-6.  

NAL call no: SF407.M37M37

Descriptors: aquarium, transport, anesthesia, collection, housing, husbandry, rearing, bioassays, tissue culture, molluscs.


Ray, S.; McLeese, D.W.; Peterson, M.R. (1981) Accumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from two contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates‑‑a laboratory study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 26(3): 315‑22, ISSN: 0007‑4861.

NAL call no: RA1270.P35A1

Descriptors: invertebrates metabolism, metals metabolism, cadmium metabolism, copper metabolism, lead metabolism, Mollusca metabolism, particle size, Polychaeta metabolism, shrimp metabolism, water pollutants, chemical metabolism, zinc metabolism.





Ernst, W. (1979) Factors affecting the evaluation of chemicals in laboratory experiments using marine organisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 3(1): 90‑8, ISSN: 0147‑6513.

NAL call no: QH545.A1E29

Descriptors: environmental pollutants toxicity, mussels drug effects, Polychaeta drug effects, half life, kinetics, lipids metabolism, methods, species specificity, temperature.





Wright, C. A. Land and freshwater molluscs. In UFAW (Univ Fed Anim Welfare) Handb Care Manage Lab Anim, 1976, p. 610‑615. Ref.

NAL call no: QL55.U5 1976

Descriptors: laboratory animals.


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