Akayama T; Terashima T; Okamoto T; Ogura K (1989). Effects of "Tori Power", an anti-stress feed supplement for laying hens, following forced molting. JA Zenno Shiryo Chikusan Chuo Kenkyujo Shiken Kenkyu Hokoku 16(1987): 165-170.

National Federation of Agricultural Co-operative Associations, Central Res. Inst. for Feed and Livestock

Descriptors: laying hen, chicken raising, formula feed, feed additive, feeding(supply), stress (physiology), resistance (endure), egg-laying, economy (efficiency), body weight, ovary (animal organ), chicken egg


Al-Batshan HA; Scheideler SE; Black BL; Garlich JD; Anderson KE (1994). Duodenal calcium uptake, femur ash, and eggshell quality decline with age and increase following molt. Poultry Science 73(10): 1590-1596.

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the decline in eggshell quality over time during egg production, and its improvement after molting, paralleled the rate of calcium uptake by the duodenum of the laying hen. In vitro duodenal calcium uptake rate and femur ash (percentage of femur weight) were determined at 37, 45, 51, 58, 68, and 72 wk of age Percentage shell and shell thickness (millimeters) were determined at 22, 29, 36, 44, 50, 57, and 71 wk of age. Molt was induced at 63 wk of age. Three commercial strains DeKalb XL-Link, ISA/Babcock B-300V, and Hy-Line W-36 were compared. There were no differences in duodenal calcium uptake rate among strains. There was a significant decline (P < .01) in duodenal calcium uptake from 408 pmol/mg tissue per min at 37 wk of age to 329 pmol/mg per min at 58 wk of age. Femur ash decreased (P < .01) from 50.8% at 37 wk of age to 47.6% at 58 wk of age. Percentage shell and shell thickness declined (P < .01) from 9.79% and .403 mm at 22 wk of age to 8.88% and .373 mm at 57 wk of age, respectively. After the induced molt, duodenal calcium uptake increased (P < .01) to 402 pmol/mg tissue per min, and percentage shell and shell thickness increased (P < .01) to 10.23% and .389 mm, respectively. Duodenal calcium uptake increased immediately postmolt, whereas femur ash did not increase until 72 wk of age (P < .01).

Descriptors: hens, calcium, mineral uptake, duodenum, femur, bone ash, egg shell thickness, age differences, molting, strain differences


Balthazart J; Verheyen G; Schumacher M; Decuypere E (1988). Changes in progesterone metabolism in the chicken hypothalamus during induced egg laying stop and molting. General and Comparative Endocrinology 72(2): 282-295.

Laboratory of General and Comparative Biochemistry, Liege, Belgium.

            NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28

In the present study, we have established and validated a radioenzyme assay which permits us to quantify progesterone metabolism in the chicken brain. Progesterone metabolism was then studied in five brain areas obtained by microdissection from the telencephalon (part of the lobus paraolfactorius immediately rostral to the preoptic area), the preoptic area, and the hypothalamus. Three metabolites of progesterone were produced in large amounts in these brain regions and were quantified in this study: 5 beta-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 beta-DHP) as well as its metabolite 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-pregnane-20-one (5 beta,3 alpha-ol) and 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP). The unmetabolized progesterone was also recovered and quantified. The 5 beta-reduction of progesterone (production of 5 beta-DHP and 5 beta,3 alpha-ol) was very active but its 5 alpha-reduction (production of 5 alpha-DHP) was almost absent in the lobus paraolfactorius. An opposite pattern of metabolism was found in the preoptic area and the hypothalamus (higher 5 alpha- but lower 5 beta-reductase activity). The changes in progesterone metabolism in these brain areas were then studied in groups of hens submitted to induced egg laying stop and molting. A significant decrease in progesterone 5 alpha-reduction was found in the median hypothalamus of hens during the period of molt. Simultaneously, the experimental procedures induced significant decreases in the production of 5 beta-DHP by the lobus paraolfactorius, anterior, and medial hypothalamus but induced a significant increase in the production of this metabolite in the preoptic area. These changes are likely to be involved in the control of reproductive functions including sexual behavior and secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, and a number of possible causal mechanisms are presented. These should now be tested experimentally especially in view of the very limited information which is now available on the biological effects of the metabolites of progesterone.

Descriptors: Brain--metabolism--ME; Chickens--physiology--PH; Hypothalamus --metabolism--ME; Oviposition; Progesterone--metabolism--ME ; 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases--metabolism--ME; Kinetics; NADP--metabolism --ME; Oxidoreductases--metabolism--ME; Pregnanediones--metabolism--ME; Pregnanolone--metabolism--ME; Progesterone Reductase--metabolism--ME; Tissue Distribution


Barron LG; Walzem RL; Hansen RJ (1999). Plasma lipoprotein changes in hens (Gallus domesticus) during an induced molt. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 123B(1): 9-16.

University of California, Davis, California

NAL Call Number: QP501.C6

Blood plasma lipoproteins were studied during food and light deprivation or prolactin injection-induced involution of ovarian follicles (molt) of laying hens. Egg laying stopped 3 days after initiation of either treatment. Food and light-deprived hens lost 29% of initial body weight during the 10-day experiment (P < 0.05), whereas prolactin-treated hens lost 9% of body weight. Yolk-directed very low density lipoprotein (VLDLy) concentration in plasma decreased in both groups, but declined more rapidly in food and light-deprived hens. Very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol decreased 40% in food and light-deprived hens by day 2 compared with a 13% decrease in the prolactin-treated hens. By day 5, a lipoprotein particle 21-22 nm in diameter appeared in the d = 1.019-1.046 g/ml density fraction of plasma in both groups. A similar lipoprotein particle, termed HDL®), developed in overfed hens with involuting ovarian follicles. In conclusion, hens undergoing ovarian regression due to food and light deprivation, prolactin treatment or overfeeding display marked decreases in plasma yolk-directed very low density lipoproteins and the appearance of HDL®). Other lipoprotein populations varied depending on whether the hens continued to feed or not.

Descriptors: hens, molting, blood lipids, lipoproteins


Barron L; Walzem R L; Hansen R J (1992). Appearance of novel lipoprotein in plasma of force-molted Single Comb White Leghorn hens. FASEB (FED AM SOC EXP BIOL) Journal 6(4): A1390.

Dep. Physiol. Sci., Sch. Vet. Med., Univ. California, Davis, Calif. 95616.

            NAL Call Number: 442.9 F31P


Berry WD; Brake J (1991). Research note: induced molt increases eggshell quality and calbindin-D28k content of eggshell gland and duodenum of aging hens. Poultry Science 70(3): 655-657.

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Aged laying hens, which were induced to molt by fasting to a 30% loss of their original body weight or by administration of a diet containing 2% zinc as zinc oxide, experienced reproductive involution and cessation of egg production. Both of the molting treatments resulted in improvement of eggshell density by time of oviposition of the 10th egg after the return to egg production postmolt. Both molting treatments significantly increased the amount of calbindin in the shell gland and duodenum of molted hens as compared with control hens at the 10th egg after return to egg production postmolt.

Descriptors: hens, aging, egg shell quality, molt, calbindin, shell gland, zinc, fasting, duodenum, weight losses


Berry WD; Gildersleeve RP; Brake J (1984). Hens induced to molt by fasting or high dietary zinc exhibit hematological and splenic changes. Poultry Science 63(Suppl.1): 64.

Dep. Poultry Sci., N.C. State Univ., Raleigh, North Carolina

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin


Brake JT (1978). The physiology of forced molting (hen). Dissertation Abstracts International, B 39(2): 575.

            NAL Call Number: Z5055.U49D53

Descriptors: feathers; haematology; blood chemistry; moulting


Brake J; Baker M; Morgan GW; Thaxton P (1982). Physiological changes in caged layers during a forced molt. 4. Leucocytes and packed cell volume. Poultry Science 61(4): 790-795.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Packed cell volume and circulating leucocyte numbers in force-molted, Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens were examined. Two groups of SCWL hens, reared under commercial conditions, were subjected to force molting (FM) at 70 (Trial 2) and 72 weeks of age (Trial 1). The force molting procedure consisted of a reduced photoperiod (6 hr), feed removal for 12 days (Trials 1 and 2), and water withdrawal for 1 day (Trial 1 only). Cessation of egg production was achieved in 6 days. Control (CON) hens were maintained in each trial with no change in daylength, and feed and water were available ad libitum. The FM hens exhibited a significant increase in packed cell volume (PCV) from the time of feed removal until immediately prior to resumption of egg production. This effect was not associated with water deprivation. The FM hens exhibited numerically increased numbers of total leucocytes (TWBC) and monocytes throughout the nonlaying period. However, the increase was significant on Day 14 of both trials for TWBC and on Days 21 and 35 (Trial 1) and Days 14 and 48 (Trial 2) for monocytes. A significant eosinophilia was observed on Days 7 and 14 of both trials. Changes associated with lymphocytes, heterophils, and basophils were inconsistent. Lymphocytes were increased significantly in the FM hens of Trial 2 from Day 21 to Day 48, but no significant difference occurred in Trial 1. A heterophilia was exhibited by the FM hens of Trial 1 on Days 7 and 14, but not in Trial 2. Conversely, a significant basophilia was observed on Days 7 and 14 in Trial 2, but not in Trial 1. These data suggested that an increased PCV, eosinophilia, and possibly increased TWBC and monocyte numbers were associated with a forced molt in caged SCWL hens.

Descriptors: Chickens--physiology--PH; Hematocrit; Housing, Animal; Leukocyte Count --veterinary--VE ; Chickens--blood--BL; Eosinophils--cytology--CY; Lymphocytes--cytology--CY; Monocytes--cytology--CY; Oviposition


Brake J; Berry WD; Thaxton P (1985). Cellular changes in the spleen during an induced molt. Poultry Science 64 (5): 1031-1034.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Agranulocytes proliferated in spleens of molted hens and both leucocytic and erythrocytic cells exhibited decreased numbers of pyknotic nuclei. These changes were confined to the period when the reproductive tract regressed. It was concluded that there is a relationship between the physiological status during an induced molt and the cellular population of the spleen.

Descriptors: Chickens--physiology--PH; Spleen--cytology--CY ; Chickens--anatomy and histology--AH; Fasting; Lymphocytes--cytology--CY


Brake J; Morgan GW; Thaxton P (1981). Recrudescence of the thymus and repopulation of lymphocytes during an artificially induced molt in the domestic chicken: proposed model system. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 5(1): 105-12.

            NAL Call Number: QR180 D4

Descriptors: *Feathers--physiology--PH; *Lymphocytes--physiology--PH; *Models, Biological; *Thymus Gland--physiology--PH ; Chickens; Lymphocytes--immunology--IM; Thymus Gland--immunology--IM; Time Factors


Brake J; Thaxton P (1979). Physiological changes in caged layers during a forced molt. 1. Body temperature and selected blood constituents. Poultry Science 58(3): 699-706.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P


Brake J; Thaxton P (1979). Physiological changes in caged layers during a forced molt. 2. Gross changes in organs. Poultry Science 58(3): 707-716.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

The effects of forced molting on body weight and the absolute and relate weights of the liver, ovary, oviduct, right adrenal, and spleen were studied. White Leghorn hens which were reared and maintained under commercial conditions were force molted by reducing daylength as well as by withdrawing feed and water. This procedure induced a pause in egg production within one week of the initiation of feed removal. Four trials were conducted. In Trial 1 the hens were sampled at weekly intervals for 56 days beginning at the time feed was removed. In Trials 2, 3, and 4 the hens were sampled either daily or on alternate days for up to 22 days beginning at the time of feed removal. The absolute and relative weights of the liver, ovary, and oviduct were decreased significantly. Body weight decreased consistently. No consistent trend over the four trials was found in the absolute or relative weights of the right adrenal or the spleen.

Descriptors: Chickens--physiology--PH; Feathers ; Adrenal Glands--anatomy and histology--AH; Animal Feed; Body Weight; Chickens--anatomy and histology--AH; Light; Liver--anatomy and histology --AH; Organ Weight; Ovary--anatomy and histology--AH; Oviducts--anatomy and histology--AH; Spleen--anatomy and histology--AH


Brake J; Thaxton P (1976). Changes in blood metabolites and body temperature during a forced molt. Poultry Science 55(4): Abstract 1588.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: chicken, protein, calcium, inorganic phosphate, glucose


Brake J; Thaxton P; Benton EH (1979). Physiological changes in caged layers during a forced molt. 3. Plasma thyroxine, plasma triiodothyronine, adrenal cholesterol, and total adrenal steroids. Poultry Science 58(5): 1345-1350.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

The effects of forced molting on plasma levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and adrenal cholesterol and total adrenal steroid content were studied. Commercially available strains of Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens, reared and maintained under commercial conditions, were used in the three trials. The hens were moved to environmentally modified facilities prior to the forced molt which was accomplished by reducing daylength and by withdrawing feed and water. Egg production ceased within one week of initiation of this procedure. The hens were sampled either daily or an alternate days for up to 22 days beginning at the time of feed removal. Plasma T4 initially decreased upon removal of feed, but increased above control levels by the sixth day of feed withdrawal. Plasma T3 levels remained relatively constant throughout the feed withdrawal period. Resumption of feeding with a fortified ground corn ration resulted in a decrease in T4 and concomitant increase in T3. Changes in adrenal cholesterol and total adrenal steroids were not consistent. However, there was a trend toward increased total adrenal steroids during feed withdrawal, and an increase in adrenal cholesterol upon the resumption of feeding.

Descriptors: Adrenal Cortex Hormones--metabolism--ME; Adrenal Glands--metabolism--ME; Chickens--physiology--PH; Cholesterol--metabolism--ME; Thyroxine--blood --BL; Triiodothyronine--blood--BL ; Animal Feed; Chickens--metabolism--ME; Housing, Animal


Brake J; Thaxton P; Pardue SL; Morgan GW (1977). Changes in specific organs of laying hens during a forced molt. Poultry Science 56(5): 1697-1698.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: liver, ovaries, oviducts, adrenal glands, spleen, light, moulting


Cheshmedzhieva S; Dimov V (1994). Metabolism of free fatty acids associated with albumin and lipoproteins in plasma of laying hens, subjected to forced molting. [V"rkhu metabolizma na svobodnite mastni kiselini, sv"rzani s albumina I lipoproteinite v plazmata na kokoshki nosachki podlozheni na prinuditelno lineene]. Zhivotnov"dni Nauki [Animal Science] 31(5-6): 161-164.

Institut po Zhivotnov"dstvo, Kostinbrod Bulgaria and Selskostopanska Akademiya, Sofia Bulgaria

            NAL Call Number: 49 Z65

Descriptors: layer chickens, forced moulting, free fatty acids, lipoproteins, triacylglycerol lipase, blood plasma, statistical analysis , acids, biological development, birds, blood, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, enzymes, esterases, fatty acids, galliformes, hydrolases, livestock, moulting, organic acids, poultry, proteins


Cheshmedzhieva S; Dimov V (1989). Cholesterol metabolism during induced moulting in laying hens. Zhivotnov'dni Nauki 26(8): 57-62.

Institute of Animal Breeding, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria.

            NAL Call Number: 49 Z65

Moulting was induced in 12 100 hybrid laying hens 11 months old and blood was taken during the first month after moulting which lasted for 17 days. Egg laying percentage was up to 70, 30 days after moulting. Induced moulting inhibited endogenous cholesterol synthesis and decreased cholesterol concentration of eggs.

Descriptors: egg production, moulting, cholesterol metabolism, hens

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Chotinski D; Aleksandrov M; Milkov V; Andreev M (1990). Changes in the concentration of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and prolactin in blood plasma during induced moulting in hybrid laying Hisex White hens. Zhivotnov'dni Nauki 27(6): 54-58.

Institute of Poultry Breeding, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria.

            NAL Call Number: 49 Z65

Hisex White hens (numbers not given) were subjected to starvation for 4 days, partial water and light restriction (2 h) on days 3 and 4, partial restriction of feed (40 g), water and light (5 h) on days 5-7, and to 60 g feed and 12-h water and light on days 8-21, followed by a gradual weekly increase to a normal level of nutrition and light (16 h). The concentration of thyroxine decreased from 13 nmol/litre on day 0 to 9 nmol/litre on day 3, increased to 18 nmol/litre on day 22, decreased to 10 nmol/litre on day 52, and returned to normal by day 109. Similar timing of peaks and returns to normal occurred for triiodothyronine and prolactin. 21 ref.

Descriptors: moult, induction, thyroid hormones, blood, prolactin

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Chowdhury VS; Yoshimura Y (2002). Cell proliferation and apoptosis in the anterior pituitary of chicken during inhibition and resumption of laying. General and Comparative Endocrinology 125(1): 132-141.

Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University, Japan

            NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28

White Leghorn laying hens were subjected to inhibition of laying by feed withdrawal to determine whether tissue rejuvenation of the anterior pituitary with cell proliferation and apoptosis occurs during inhibition and resumption of egg-laying. Feeding was resumed on the 4th day after cessation of egg-laying, and bromodeoxyuridine [broxuridine] was intraperitoneally administered (40 mg/kg body mass) an hour before anterior pituitary tissue samples were collected. The sizes of pituitary glandular cells were observed to change during inhibition and resumption of laying. There was no statistically significant correlation between changes in the immunopositive cell population and their sizes within each cell type. However, the sizes of FSH-like cells in anterior pituitary glands collected 10 days after cessation of laying and on the day that laying was resumed, as well as LH-like cells in the glands collected on the day of resumption of laying were larger than those collected around the time that laying was stopped. Thus, the population of gonadotrophs as well as their sizes may be increased around the time that laying is resumed. The results suggest that during inhibition and resumption of laying, the anterior pituitary is likely to be remodeled by proliferation and apoptosis of cells, which occur in association with the changes in the population of hormone-producing cells. Tissue remodeling may result in the rejuvenation of anterior pituitary cells by replacing older cells with new cells and may contribute to the improvement of the function of the anterior pituitary.

Descriptors: anterior pituitary, apoptosis, broxuridine, egg production, gonadotropic cells, hens, laying performance, moulting, pituitary hormones, poultry

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Chowdhury VS; Yoshimura Y (2002). Changes of lysosomal hydrolase activity in the anterior pituitary of hens during induced molting. Japanese Poultry Science 39(1): 22-26.

Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-hiroshima, Japan

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 N57

The goal of this study was to determine whether lysosomal hydrolase activity changes during induced molting in the hen pituitary. White Leghorn aged laying hens were subjected to induced molting by feed withdrawal. Gradual feeding was started on 4th d of egg-laying cessation. The anterior pituitaries were collected from hens of pretreatment, 3 d and 5 d after starvation, 3 d and 10 d after cessation of egg-laying (6 d after resumption of feeding), on day of and 7 d after resumption of egg-laying. They were processed for the detection of acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity by enzyme histochemistry. Sections were then examined under a light microscope with an image analysis computer system. The AcPase activity was observed in the cellular cytoplasm in both cephalic and caudal lobes of the anterior pituitary in all groups of hens. In the both lobes the positive area increased significantly in the group of 3 d after cessation of egg-laying when compared with pretreatment group. These results suggest that lysosomal enzyme activity in the anterior pituitary of chicken was enhanced a few days after cessation of laying, which may be responsible for the digestion of unusable hormonal granules at this phase. (author abst.)


Cleaver WT; Christensen VL (1981). Effect of forced molting on plasma glucose and plasma total protein in turkey hens. Poultry Science 60(7): 1597.

Dep. Of Poultry Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, North Carolina.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: large white breed, feed consumption, light effects, seasonal effects, tissue regeneration


Cleaver WT; Christensen VL; Ort JF (1981). Gross changes in organ weights due to a force molt in turkey hens. Poultry Science 60(7): 1639-1640.

Dep. Poultry Sci., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, North Carolina 27650.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: large white, ovary, oviduct, liver, heart, spleen, light


Dickerman RW; Wise TH; Bahr JM (1992). Effect of ovarian regression and molt on plasma concentrations of thymosin beta 4 in domestic hens (Gallus domesticus). Domestic Animal Endocrinology 9(4): 297-304.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois, Urbana

            NAL Call Number: QL868 D6

Molt induced by infusion of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A, ([D-leu6,Pro9]-GnRH –ethylamide]) or feed withdrawal (FW) has been used as a model to study interactions between ovarian activity and thymosin beta 4 during molting in domestic hens. Thirty-three laying hens were divided into three groups: 1, controls, 2, GnRH-A infusion induced molt (GnRH-A), or 3, FW induced molt. All groups had reduced daylength. Blood was sampled weekly and assayed for concentrations of thymosin beta 4 and progesterone (P4). Plasma P4 concentrations were significantly depressed in both treatment groups compared to controls, indicating ovarian regression. Plasma P4 concentrations had returned to control values in the GnRH-A group by 28 d after the start of treatment, while P4 was still depressed in the FW group at day 42 when the experiment ended. Plasma concentrations of thymosin beta 4 were elevated relative to controls from day 7 through day 14 in the GnRH-A group and from day 7 until day 28 in the FW group. It is concluded that plasma concentrations of thymosin beta 4 are elevated during molting in domestic hens, but the elevation is not attributable to depressed P4 concentrations.

Descriptors: *Chickens--physiology--PH; *Feathers--physiology--PH; *Ovary--physiology --PH; *Thymosin--analogs and derivatives--AA ; Feathers--drug effects--DE; Food Deprivation--physiology--PH; Leuprolide --pharmacology--PD; Ovulation--physiology--PH; Progesterone--blood--BL; Thymosin--blood--BL


El-Aroussi MA; El-Tantawy SMT; El-Barkouky EE; El-Said MA; Goher NE (1996). Effect of forced molting on blood components of laying hens. Fayoum Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 10(2): 44-56.

Descriptors: layer chickens, forced moulting, blood composition, egg production, liver, spleen , animal husbandry methods, animal production, birds, blood, body parts, cardiovascular system, chickens, digestive system, domestic animals, galliformes, livestock, poultry, production


Fontana EA; Ruszler PL; Beane WL; Magar V (1991). The effect of two feed withdrawal and two corticosterone supplementation programs on overall performance body weight and reproductive organ weights of force-rested layers. Poultry Science 70(SUPPL.1): 159.

Poultry Sci. Dep., Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA. 24061-0332.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Copyright© 2002, Biosis


Garlich J; Brake J; Parkhurst CR; Thaxton JP; Morgan GW (1984). Physiological profile of caged layers during one production year, molt, and postmolt: egg production, egg shell quality, liver, femur, and blood parameters. Poultry Science 63(2): 339-343.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

A longitudinal study of a flock of Single Comb White Leghorn pullets was initiated at 19 weeks of age (preproduction) and continued through a production year, a forced molt, and for 4 months of postmolt production. A representative sample of hens was obtained at 12-week intervals during the first year and at subsequent selected times. Liver lipid, femur weight, femur volume, femur density, egg weight, shell weight, percent shell, milligrams shell/square centimeter of shell surface area, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum alkaline phosphatase were determined. Percent hen-day production peaked at 90% and then declined by .6 to .7% each week during the first production year. After molting, percent hen-day egg production peaked at 80% and declined .9% per week over the subsequent 20 weeks. Egg weight increased continually during the first production year. Shell weight was greatest immediately postmolt; thereafter it declined. Shell thickness was greatest at 31 weeks of age and declined throughout the first year. After molting, the shell thickness of 83-week-old hens was similar to values of hens about 37 weeks of age. Serum calcium and phosphorus of laying hens were influenced by age, feed intake and environmental temperature. The lowest values occurred during hot weather. Liver lipid was lowest in nonlaying hens (17 to 20%) and was approximately 42% of dry weight in laying hens. Femur density was greater in laying than nonlaying hens.

Descriptors: *Chickens--physiology--PH; *Egg Shell--analysis--AN; *Femur--physiology--PH ; *Liver--metabolism--ME; *Oviposition ; Alkaline Phosphatase--blood--BL; Calcium--blood--BL; Housing, Animal; Lipids--metabolism--ME; Organ Weight; Phosphorus--blood--BL; Seasons


Garmatina, SM; Novikov BG; Danilova OV (1978). Function of neurosecretory centres in the hypothalamus of hens with forced moulting. [Sostoyanie neirosekretornykh yader gipotalamusa]. Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal, Kiev, USSR 24(5): 681-686.

            NAL Call Number: 444.8 F58

Descriptors: hens, stress, central nervous system, physiology, moulting


Gildersleeve RP (1980). Physiological rhythms in laying hens and in hens before a forced molt. Dissertation Abstracts International, B 40(12): 5556.

Louisiana State University, USA.

            NAL Call Number: Z5055.U49D53

Leghorn layers in the 12th mth of production were placed in 2 sets of environmentally controlled cages, and were exposed to long or short photoperiods in order to maintain egg production or to prepare for moulting resp. Beginning at the onset of moult, 4 hens from each group were killed every 2 h for 2 days. In layers, av. hen-day egg production was 75 plus or minus 5% v 6 in the premoult hens when sampling began. The premoult hens had regressed ovaries, greater body weight losses, and lower hormone levels than layers. A single-peak, daily rhythm of plasma progesterone was seen only in layers. Progesterone level varied with egg location in the oviduct of layers. Episodic progesterone secretion occurred in premoult hens.

Descriptors: moult, induction, body weight, blood, ovaries, size, feathers, hormones, progesterone, glucocorticoids, light, physiology, moulting, egg production

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Gildersleeve RP; Johnson WA; Satterlee DG; Scott TR (1980). Serum biochemical rhythms in laying hens and in hens before a forced molt. Poultry Science 59(7): 1563.

Poultry Science Dep., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Leghorn hens were housed in 2 climatic chambers under 19 h light and 5 h dark (19L:5D) or 6 h light and 18 h dark (6L:18D) photoperiods to decrease egg production and to prepare for moulting. After 2 weeks, feed was withdrawn from the 6L:18D hens for 2 days to initiate moulting; 3 days later, 4 hens from each group were bled and killed every 2 h during 48 h. Serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alanine aminotransferase and albumin were depressed in the 6L:18D hens, whereas, serum alkaline phosphatase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose and cholesterol were increased. Daily rhythms or significant fluctuations over time in serum total Ca, glucose, total protein and albumin were found in both groups. Alanine aminotransferase correlated positively with liver cellular corticosteroid and negatively with plasma corticosterone in 19L:6D hens; aspartate aminotransferase correlated (positively?) with liver cellular corticosteroid in the 6L:18D hens.

Descriptors: blood composition, lighting, hens

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Gildersleeve RP; Johnson WA; Satterlee DG; Scott RR (1979). Daily rhythms of plasma progesterone in hens during egg production and before a forced molt. Poultry Science 58(4): 1013-1014.

Poultry Science Dep., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: progesterone; blood plasma; hens; diurnal variation


Gildersleeve RP; Satterlee DG; Johnson WA; Scott TR (1983). The effects of forced molt treatment on blood biochemicals in hens. Poultry Science 62(5): 755-762.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P


Gildersleeve RP; Satterlee DG; Johnson WA; Scott TR (1982). The effects of forced molt temperature on selected steroids in hens. Poultry Science 61(12): 2362-2369.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P


Gregory NG; Wilkins LJ; Kestin SC; Belyavin CG; Alvey DM (1991). Effect of husbandry system on broken bones and bone strength in hens. Veterinary Record 128(17): 397-399.

Department of Meat Animal Science, University of Bristol.

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641

The effects of rearing system, forced moulting and three different layer housing systems on broken bones and bone strength, were examined in hens at the end of lay. Weak bones and broken bones were more common in battery hens which had been reared to point of lay on deep litter rather than in cages. The incidence of old breaks was greater in perchery birds (14 per cent) than in tiered terrace birds (5 per cent), and there was also a difference between their incidence in two types of perchery design (17 per cent and 11 per cent). Moulting was associated with a transient decline in bone strength, followed by an increase in strength during the second lay.

Descriptors: *Animal Husbandry; *Bone Density; *Chickens--injuries--IN; *Fractures --veterinary--VE; *Housing, Animal ; Chickens--physiology--PH; Fractures--etiology--ET


Gulyamov KKh; Komilov DK; Chugunkin DN; Akhmadov T (1977). Productivity, respiratory gas exchange and heat production in hens force-moulted by different regimes of starvation and water availability in a hot climate. [Produktivnost' I gazoenergeticheskii obmen u kur-nesushek, podvergnutykh lin-ke pri razlichnom rezhime golodaniya I dostupa k vode v usloviyakh zharkogo klimata.] Zhivotnovodstva 9: 139-148.

Tematicheskii Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov. Tadzhikskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut

            NAL Call Number: 49 Z6

In the experiment, groups 1-4, each of 1840 line 18 Katman crossbred fowls weighing, on average, 1272-1548 g before the experiment, were force-moulted by withdrawing food for 5, 8, 10 and 12 days resp., after which ad lib. feeding was progressively reintroduced over a 6-day period. Two subgroups of each group were, resp., (a) deprived of water for 3 days at the start of the experiment, and (b) given water ad lib. Egg production traits were recorded for 212 days after starvation. For the 8 subgroups resp. (i.e. 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, etc.), egg weight averaged 60.1, 60.1, 60.5, 59.5, 59.8, 60.2, 60.9 and 59.9 g v 58.6 for all hens before the forced moult, shape index 1.38, 1.38, 1.40, 1.38, 1.38, 1.38, 1.40 and 1.38 v 1.36, egg sp. gr. 1.081, 1.078, 1.081, 1.081, 1.079, 1.081, 1.079 and 1.082 v 1.068, percentage of albumen in the egg 52.77, 52.33, 51.58, 52.43, 52.49, 53.01, 52.86 and 52.62 v 58.56, percentage of yolk 36.06, 36.33, 36.90, 37.06, 36.36, 36.72, 35.90 and 36.10 v 31.39, shell thickness 327, 329, 336, 341, 336, 334, 337 and 335 v 309 mu , albumen index 0.086, 0.086, 0.085, 0.086, 0.086, 0.086, 0.084 and 0.085 v 0.086, yolk index 0.431, 0.426, 0.428, 0.423, 0.426, 0.426, 0.422 and 0.429 v 0.418, percentage of hens culled 5.5, 5.7, 5.9, 5.6, 5.3, 5.1, 5.4 and 5.7 v 2.3, number of eggs laid during the experiment 84.08, 87.34, 87.80, 91.27, 83.61, 83.52, 89.82 and 97.27, and weight of food consumed/kg eggs laid 4.14, 3.96, 3.90, 3.76, 4.19, 4.01, 3.84 and 3.47 v 6.16 kg.

Descriptors: moult, induction, laying performance, nutrition, food restriction, water deprivation

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Harimurti S; Yuwanta T; Astuti P; Gunali S (2000). Hormone profiles and reproductive tract in induced moulted Indonesian quail hens. British Poultry Science 41(Supplement): S64-S65.

Faculty of Animal Science, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 B77


Hart LE; Pang SF; Nichols CR; Cheng KM (1990). Plasma melatonin concentrations during force resting of SCWL layers. Poultry Science 69(SUPPL. 1): 60.

Dep. Animal Sci., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C V6T 2A2, Canada

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: laying hens, poultry industry, lighting, molting, estradiol, feed withdrawal


Herremans M (1988). Age and strain differences in plumage renewal during natural and induced moulting in hybrid hens. British Poultry Science 29(4): 825-835.

KU Leuven, Landbouwfaculteit, Laboratorium voor Fysiologie der Huisdieren, Heverlee, Belgium

NAL Call Number: 47.8 B77

Descriptors: hens, hybrids, molting, plumage, age, strain differences


Herremans M; Verheyen G; Decuypere E (1988). Effect of temperature during induced moulting on plumage renewal and subsequent production. British Poultry Science 29(4): 853-861.

KU Leuven, Landbouwfaculteit, Laboratorium voor Fysiologie der Huisdieren, Heverlee, Belgium

NAL Call Number: 47.8 B77

Descriptors: hens, temperatures, molting, plumage, poultry feeding, feed conversion


Heryanto B; Yoshimura Y; Tamura T (1997). Cell proliferation in the process of oviductal tissue remodeling during induced molting in hens. Poultry Science 76(11): 1580-1586.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Tissue remodeling and calcium binding protein-D28K (CaBP-D28K) dynamics were examined in the oviduct relative to induced molting. The oviductal tissues of premolting, 7, 10, 13, and 16 d after cessation of laying, and postmolting hens were examined. Frequency of proliferating cells and immunoreactive CaBP-D28K molecules were identified by immunocytochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Western blot for CaBP-D28K. The relative frequency of PCNA-positive cells in the mucosal epithelium of the magnum, isthmus, and shell gland was low in premolting and 7 d after the cessation of egg laying. ln the magnum and isthmus it was markedly increased in 10 and 13 d after cessation, followed by a slight decrease at 16 d after cessation. The frequency in the shell gland was kept high 10, 13, and 16 d after cessation. The frequency of PCNA-positive cells in each segment was decreased when the birds resumed laying. In the stroma of magnum and isthmus where the tubular glands were located, the frequency of PCNA-positive cells was significantly increased 10 d after the cessation of egg laying relative to premolting and 7 d after cessation. In postmolting hens and in hens 16 d after cessation, the frequency was decreased to a same level to that of premolting hen. In the shell gland, the frequency PCNA-positive cells was high at 10, 13, and 16 d, and diminished in postmolting hen. Single immunoprecipitate band for CaBP-D28K was observed in the shell gland of premolting, postmolting, and younger hens, whereas the density of bands was greater in postmolting hens and younger hens than in premolting hens. We suggest that the oviductal tissues are remodeled by replacing the old glandular cells with new ones that are derived from the mucosal epithelium and uninvoluted glandular cells. Such rejuvenation of shell gland tissue may lead the improvement of CaBP-D28K induction.

Descriptors: hens, molting, oviducts, mucosa, shell gland, cell division, immunocytochemistry, antigens, nuclei, calcium binding proteins


Ingram DR; Wilson HR; Mather FB (1982). The response of the oviduct of white leghorn hens to 2 methods of induced resting. Poultry Science 61(7): 1482-1483.

Department of Poultry Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: low sodium diet, low protein diet, photoperiod, shell gland, water and feed restriction


Karapetyan SK; Arutyunyan LA (1977). Changes in processes of ammonia formation in chicken kidney tissue sections after artificially induced molting. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii 30(1): 3-6.

            NAL Call Number: 20 Er4


Klingensmith PM; Hester PY (1985). Effects of an induced molt and shell quality on the physical dimensions and mineral composition of eggs and intrauterine pH. Poultry Science 64(12): 2368-2376.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: hens, molting, soft shelled eggs, shell-less eggs, dimensions, pores, water vapor movement, mineral content, uterus, pH


Meluzzi A; Primiceri G; Giordani R; Farabegoli F (1991). Forced molt of laying hens. 1: Changes in blood constituents. [Muta forzata di galline ovaiole. 1: Modificazioni dei parametri ematochimici]. Proceedings of the 9th National Congress of the Scientific Association for Animal Production [Atti 9. Congresso nazionale Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale], Istituto Studi, Ricerche e Informazioni Mercato Agricolo: Rome (Italy) , May 1991, v.2: 895-903.

Bologna Univ, Italy, Istituto di Zoocolture

Descriptors: layer chickens, forced moulting, blood sampling, blood composition, rations , statistical analysis, oviposition, biological analysis, biological development, birds, blood, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, feeding, galliformes, livestock, moulting, physiological functions, poultry , reproduction, sexual reproduction


Rodin VV (1980). Sulfur content in the blood and tissues of chickens after forced molting. Nauchnye trudy - Stavropol'skii sel'skokhoziaistvennyi institut. 4 (pt.43): 57-60.

Stavropol’skii Institut.

NAL Call Number: 106 ST27


Rodrigues GA; Moraes VMB; Cherici I; Furlan RL; Macari M (1991). Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt. Ars Veterinaria 7(2): 78-86.

Depto. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, UNESP Rod. Carlos Tonnani, km 5, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

            NAL Call Number: SF604 A78

The effect of forced moulting induced by starvation on blood glucose, rectal temperature and thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and minerals in plasma was studied in 3 groups of Hy-line W-36 hens, 78 weeks old, previously fed on diets equal in energy with 14, 17 or 20% crude protein. Blood glucose, rectal temperature and minerals decreased during starvation irrespective of previous protein intake. Before moulting plasma T4 was greater in hens given diets with 17 or 20% protein than in those given diets with 14% protein. Starvation decreased T4 and T3 concentrations in hens given diets with 17 or 20% protein. In hens given 14% protein T4 increased and T3 decreased. Results indicate that previous protein intake does not interfere with metabolic changes during forced moult.

Descriptors: thyroid hormones, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, glucose, blood, body temperature, blood chemistry, starvation, moulting, metabolism, protein intake, hens

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Sirotkin AV; Korovin KF (1984). [Participation of sympathetic-adrenal system catecholamines in regulating the reproduction and molting of the hen] Uchastie katekholaminov simpato-adrenalovoi sistemy v reguliatsii razmnozheniia I lin'ki kury. Zhurnal evoliutsionnoi biokhimii I fiziologii ( USSR ) 20 (1): 38-42 , ISSN 0044-4529

            NAL Call Number: QH345 Z5

Studies have been made of diurnal changes of adrenalin and noradrenalin content of the blood plasma in egg laying and molting hens. In laying hens at night time, as compared to daily period, the level of both catecholamines decreased, whereas that in molting ones--increased. In laying hens kept under illumination, catecholamine content did not undergo significant diurnal changes. Differences between laying and non-laying hens were absent during the daytime. In laying hens, noradrenalin content of the blood exhibited negative correlation with their egg productivity. Reduction of photoperiod from 14 to 6 h per day resulted in a sharp decrease of egg laying and the development of molting. Under these conditions, artificial increase of adrenalin content of the blood at night time (by means of repetitive injections) prevented the decrease in egg laying. Daily injection of this hormone did not produce this effect. Exogenous adrenalin inhibited molting irrespectively of the time of its injection. Noradrenalin injections did not affect the molting rate and egg laying in hens. The data obtained reveal possible role of natural adrenalin in regulation of egg laying and molting in hens at night time.

Descriptors: Adrenal Glands, Catecholamines, Chickens, Feathers, Reproduction; Sympathetic Nervous System, Circadian Rhythm, Epinephrine, Epinephrine --pharmacology--PD; Feathers--drug effects--DE; Norepinephrine--blood--BL; Norepinephrine--pharmacology--PD; Oviposition--drug effects--DE; Reproduction--drug effects--DE CAS Registry No.: 0 (Catecholamines); 51-41-2 (Norepinephrine); 51-43-4 (Epinephrine)


Stremousov VM (1992). Morphological transformation in oviduct sections of laying hens under the effect of forced molt. [Morfologicheskaya transformatsiya v otdelakh yajtsevoda kur-nesushek pod vozdejstviem prinuditel'noj lin'ki]. In Physiological fundamentals of development, resistance and productivity of animals. [Fiziologicheskie osnovy razvitiya, rezistentnosti I produktivnosti zhivotnykh]. Kazan' (Russian Federation), p. 106-110

Descriptors in English: layer chickens, forced moulting, ovaries, animal glands, animal morphology, biological development, birds, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, endocrine glands, female genital system, galliformes, genital system, livestock, moulting, poultry, urogenital system


Stremousov VM (1989). Variation in yolk follicle gradation in laying hens under conditions of artificial moulting. [Izmenenie gradatsii zheltkovykh follikulov yaichnikov kur-nesushek v usloviyakh prinuditel'noj lin'ki ]. In Biological fundamentals and technological methods for poultry breeding intensification. [Biologicheskii osnovy I tekhnologicheskie metody intensifikatsii ptitsevodstva]. Moscow (USSR), p. 49-53.

Descriptors in English: layer chickens, ovulation, ovarian follicles, forced moulting, animal glands, animal morphology, biological development, biological rhythms, birds, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, endocrine glands, female genital system, galliformes, genital system, livestock, moulting, oestrous cycle, ovaries, physiological functions, poultry, reproduction, sexual reproduction, urogenital system


Suzuki T; Takahashi M; Ishida K (1978). Histological changes of hen's uropygial glands by forced moulting. Journal: Bulletin of Research - Toyama College of Technology 11: 77-81.

Toyama College of Technology, Kosugi, Japan


Szelenyi Z; Pethes G; Peczely P (1983). Changes in the plasma concentration of sexual steroids in domestic hens during forced and hormonally-induced molt. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 31(1/3): 57-63.

Budapest : Akademiai Kiado

NAL Call Number: 41.8 AC83


Thangavel A; Gomathi VS; Rao RG (1991). Changes in the plasma proteins, haemoglobin and cholesterol during different periods of forced molting. Cheiron 20(2/3): 54-58.

            NAL Call Number: SF604 C56

Descriptors: laying hens, husbandry, blood proteins, cholesterol, hemoglobin, blood chemistry, molting, egg production


Turkmen G; Mengi A (1994). Effects of forced moulting on serum lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and glucose in caged layers. [Zorlamali tuy degistirmenin yumurta tavuklarinda serum LDH, ALP, Ca, Pi ve glikoz duzeylerine etkileri.] Turk Veterinerlik ve Hayvancilik Dergisi vol. 18 ( 6 ): p.321-329.

            NAL Call Number: SF1 D57

Descriptors: hens, molting, induction, blood chemistry


Uyanik F; Mengi A (1993). Effects of forced moulting on the serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and albumin and globulin levels in caged layers. [Zorlamali tuy degistirmenin yumarta tavuklarinda serum gama-GT, GOT, GPT, albumin ve globulin duzeylerine etkisi.] Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi (Istanbul) 19(2): 245-256.

            NAL Call Number: SF1 I78

Descriptors: hens, light regime, starvation, molting, blood chemistry, poultry


Vanmontfort D; Berghman LR; Rombauts L; Verhoeven G; Decuypere E (1994). Changes of immunoreactive inhibin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in plasma after short-term food deprivation and during the ovulatory cycle of the domestic hen. General and Comparative Endocrinology 95(1): 117-124.

Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, Catholic University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.

            NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28

The interrelationship between immunoreactive inhibin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was measured in laying hens after short-term food deprivation and during the ovulatory cycle. Plasma inhibin was estimated by a heterologous radioimmunoassay validated for use in chicken. FSH was measured by a recently developed homologous radioimmunoassay. Ten hens were deprived of food for 10 days (a method to induce artificial moult or to stop egg laying). Blood samples were taken daily via the brachial vein for 10 consecutive days starting on the day of food withdrawal. The data are expressed in relation to the last day of oviposition. Short-term food deprivation, followed by ovarian atrophy, significantly depressed the plasma inhibin and progesterone (P4) concentration. Plasma FSH concentrations significantly increased, while luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations slightly but not significantly decreased. In another experiment, 6 hens were induced to moult. The control hens (n = 6) were fed ad libitum. On Day 17, the hens were killed and follicular distribution was studied. The atrophy of the large yolky follicles in restricted hens was associated with a significant increase in the number of white follicles. In a third experiment, serial blood samples were taken from hens (n = 15) at 2-hr intervals for 36 hr via a brachial cannula. Plasma immunoreactive inhibin and FSH concentrations did not vary during the ovulatory cycle. LH and P4 increased simultaneously from basal levels to preovulatory peak values 6 hr before ovulation.

Descriptors: Chickens--physiology--PH; Estrus--physiology--PH; FSH--blood--BL; Food Deprivation--physiology--PH; Inhibin--blood--BL; LH--blood--BL; Progesterone--blood--BL; Oviposition--physiology--PH; Radioimmunoassay


Verheyen G; Decuypere E (1983). Cessation of laying by induction in the hen. Effect of different methods on some production parameters and on the concentrations of thyroid hormones, prolactin, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and proteins in the blood serum (Force molting). [Arret de la ponte par induction chez la poule. Effet de differentes methodes sur certains parametres de production et sur les concentrations en hormones thyroidiennes, en prolactine, en Ca, P, Na et en proteines dans le serum sanguin.] Revue de l'agriculture 36(5): 1535-1559.

NAL Call Number: 13 R322


Yamauchi K; Kamisoyama H; Isshiki Y (1997). Effects of fasting and refeeding on structures of the intestinal villi and epithelial cells in White Leghorn hens. [Erratum: May 1997, v. 38(2), p. 225-228.] British Poultry Science 37(5): 909-921.

Laboratory of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa-ken, Japan.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 B77

The fine structural alterations of villi and epithelial cells in each part of the small intestine were investigated in layer-type hens fasted for 12 h to 20 d or refed for one day after each fasting period. 2. Within the first 2-h-fasting, villi of the duodenum showed a remarkable reduction in height and those of the jejunum revealed a gradual decrease; such a significant reduction of the villus height was not obtained in the ileum. After 36-h-fasting, villus height in each part gradually decreased with days of fasting. 3. All intestinal villus heights increased after only 1-d-refeeding of various kinds of diets following 3-, 10-, or 20-d-fasting. The duodenum especially rapidly recovered even after long-term fasting of 20 d but the ileum showed very slow recovery, suggesting that the ileum seems to be inactive in absorptive function. 4. These variable alterations of villus height in the proximal intestine suggest that the higher intestinal absorptive ability is under the normal feeding, the more rapidly villus height is influenced by nutritional conditions. 5. Cell area and cell mitosis decreased after fasting, the latter showing a marked reduction. However, in spite of a remarkable decrease of cell mitosis in the proximal intestine after fasting, refeeding activated cell renewal and it soon reached control levels, demonstrating that the villus height mainly varied with the numbers of epithelial cells. 6. In the epithelial cells of the proximal intestine in chickens fasted for 20 d, large lysosomal autophagous vacuoles including mitochondria and dense bodies were observed. These were reduced in size by refeeding for only one day, suggesting that fasting may cause intracellular digestion through lysosomal autophagy. 7. These results lead to the conclusion that long-term fasting for force moulting is possible, that a high protein and high energy diet can be fed immediately after fasting and that a cell undergoing lysosomal autophagy in normal chickens indicates undernutrition.

Descriptors: hens, villi, epithelium, fasting, refeeding, histopathology, cell ultrastructure, animal nutrition


Zigic L; Srajber L; Masic B; Marinkovic V (1970). The effect of forced molting on the physical properties and inner quality of eggs layed by New Hampshire hens. Veterinaria (Sarajevo) 19(1): 66-71.

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 V6494

Descriptors: albumin, yolk, shell.


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October 23, 2002