SALMONELLA, OTHER PATHOGENS, AND IMMUNOLOGY


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Alodan MA; Mashaly MM (1999). Effect of induced molting in laying hens on production and immune parameters. Poultry Science 78(2): 171-177.

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

A total of 600 commercial strain (DeKalb) Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 80 wk of age, were used in this study to determine the effects of different induced molting programs on production and immune parameters. The hens were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three experimental and one control) of 150 hens each. The hens in the first treatment group were fed a layer ration containing 20,000 ppm of zinc for 5 d, and received a reduced photoperiod of 8 h/d for 5 d (Zn group). In the second group, feed was withdrawn for 10 d, the photoperiod was reduced to 8 h/d and oyster shell and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. At Day 11, hens consumed corn and oyster shell ad libitum until Day 30 and at Day 31, hens were returned to a full feed layer ration and received 16 h of light/d [California treatment (CAL group)]. In the third treatment, light was reduced to 8 h/d, and oyster shell was provided for ad libitum consumption until Day 60. Feed and water were removed for the first 2 d and on Days 4, 6, and 8. On Days 3, 5, 7, and 9, hens were fed 45 g of feed per hen. On Day 10 until Day 60, hens were fed 90 g/hen and at Day 61, hens were returned to the layer ration ad libitum and received 16 h of light/d [on-again, off-again program (ON-OFF group)]. The last group served as controls (CONT). Body weight, egg production, egg size, internal egg quality, shell weight, and mortality were determined. Total circulating leukocytes, differential leukocyte counts, and antibody production were also measured. The results demonstrated that induced molting significantly increased egg production from 64% to 77 to 83%, Haugh units from 80.4 to 85.9 to 87.3, and shell weight from 5.3 g to 6.3 to 6.4 g when compared to CONT. The body weight of the molted hens decreased significantly to 84.8, 74.5, and 88% of the initial body weight for Zn, CAL, and ON-OFF groups, respectively. The total circulating leukocytes was significantly lower in molted hens than in CONT hens. Differential leukocyte counts were affected by all induced molting programs and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased, reaching 0.61, whereas that of CONT was only 0.20. Antibody production was largely unaffected by any of the induced molting programs.

Descriptors: hens, molting, zinc, mineral supplements, photoperiod, restricted feeding, maize, oyster shells, refeeding, body weight, blood picture, ratios, leukocyte count, weight losses, laying performance, egg weight, egg shell, weight, egg quality, antibody formation, mortality, heterophil lymphocyte ratio

 

Al-Rawashdeh OF; Gumaa AY; Saeed M; Orban JI; Patterson JA; Nour AYM (2000). Effects of sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel and feed restriction on the performance, hematological values and cecal bacteriological counts of broiler chickens. Acta Veterinaria (Beograd) 50(4): 225-239.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 V6447

Inclusion of fructo-oligosaccharide in poultry diets and feed restriction are some of the strategies that have received increased attention in efforts to improve production efficiency and reduce mortality and Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Forty-eight 3-week-old Peterson x Arbor Acres males were used in an experiment to evaluate the influence of the novel sugar sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel (STOC) on haematological values and caecal total Gram-negative counts in growing broilers fed ad libitum or restricted diets. Broilers fed STOC consumed more feed, gained more weight (P<0.001) and had a similar feed conversion compared with birds on the control diet. Birds fed ad libitum consumed more feed and gained more (P<0.001) weight compared with birds fed the restricted diet. Chickens fed STOC had slightly but not significantly higher (P>0.05) MCV, heterophil counts, H/L ratio and basophils than chickens fed the control diet. Feed-restricted birds had slightly higher PCV, MCV, WBC, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes than birds fed ad libitum. Six-week-old birds had slightly but not significantly higher values for PCV, RBC, MCV, WBC, lymphocytes and basophils. Packed cell volume (PCV) was lower for 4-week-old birds and tended to increase up to 6 weeks of age. In 8-week-old-birds fed STOC ad libitum there were lower lymphocyte counts and a higher H/L ratio compared with the control group. Although diet did not influence caecal Gram-negative bacterial counts (log10), the results indicate a significant decrease in log10 bacterial counts in birds fed the restricted diets. Birds fed STOC had slightly less caecal Gram-negative bacteria than the control group. Caecal Gram-negative bacteria were influenced by age in broilers. Eight-week-old birds had lower mean log10 bacterial counts in their caeca than 6-week-old birds. The results showed only slight alterations in haematological profile in broilers due to the influence of STOC and feed restriction. The observation of reduced numbers of Gram-negative bacteria in birds fed STOC with feed restriction needs further investigation.

Descriptors: oligosaccharides, heat treatment, processing, caramel, restricted feeding, haematology, caecum, intestinal microorganisms, pathogens, Gram negative bacteria, feed supplements, poultry

 

Alshawabkeh K; Tabbaa MJ (2002). Using dietary propionic acid to limit Salmonella gallinarum colonization in broiler chicks. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 15(2): 243-246.

NAL Call Number: SF55.A78A7

Descriptors: chicks, broilers, propionic acid, feed additives, Salmonella gallinarum, experimental infections, inhibitors, dosage, digesta, crop, cecum, pH, bacterial count, intestinal microorganisms

 

Ambrus SA; Tellez G; Hargis BM; Corrier DE; Deloach JR (1992). Resistance to cecal Salmonella-enteritidis (SE) colonization following dietary lactose or capsaicin administration is associated with histopathological and morphometric changes of the cecal mucosa in leghorn chicks. Poultry Science 71(Suppl.1): 135.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

 

Arnold JW; Holt PS (1996). Cytotoxicity in chicken alimentary secretions as measured by a derivative of the tumor necrosis factor assay. Poultry Science 75(3): 329-334.

USDA, ARS, Poultry Processing and Meat Quality, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

The host immune response to enteric bacterial infections, including salmonellosis, results in inflammatory cells entering the intestine near the site of infection. These cells produce factors, such as cytokines, that are cytotoxic to bacteria-infected cells, resulting in loss of host cells. In this study, an assay was developed, based on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) assay, that measured the cytotoxic activity in alimentary secretions from chickens during a Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection. Secretions were collected by pilocarpine-induced evacuation from the alimentary tract and clarified by centrifugation. Activity was assessed by the cytotoxic effect of secretions on chicken embryo fibroblasts as target cells. Cytotoxic activity from SE-infected hens was measured at intervals during the first 24 h following infection and daily for the next 10 d. The level of activity varied between hens but was maximal in secretions obtained at 24 h and 10 d after SE infection. Maximal levels of cytotoxic activity in alimentary secretions from hens occurred in response to a dose of 5 X 10(8) cfu/mL of SE. The cytotoxicity in secretions from SE-exposed hens that were deprived of feed was greater than those from control SE-exposed hens by more than fivefold.

Descriptors: chickens, salmonella enteritidis, cytotoxicity, inflammation, intestines, secretions, molting, bioassays, tumor necrosis factor, experimental infections

 

Bailey JS; Blankenship LC; Cox NA Effect of fructooliogsaccharide on Salmonella colonization of the chicken intestine. Poultry Science 70(12): 2433-2438.

USDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

The influence of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to grow and colonize the gut of chickens was investigated. In vitro studies showed that Salmonella did not grow when FOS was the sole carbon source. When FOS was fed to chicks at the .375% level, little influence on Salmonella colonization was observed. At the .75% level 12% fewer FOS-fed birds were colonized with Salmonella compared with control birds. When chicks given a partially protective competitive exclusion (CE) culture were fed diets supplemented with .75% FOS, only 4 of 21 (19%) chickens challenged with 10(9) Salmonella cells on Day 7 became colonized as compared with 14 of 23 (61%) chickens given CE alone. When chickens were stressed by feed and water deprivation on Day 13 and challenged with 10(9) Salmonella on Day 14, 33 of 36 (92%) chickens fed a control diet were colonized compared with only 9 of 36 (25%) chickens fed a .75% FOS diet. Chickens treated with FOS had a fourfold reduction in the level of Salmonella present in the ceca. Feeding FOS in the diet of chickens may lead to a shift in the intestinal gut microflora, and under some circumstances may result in reduced susceptibility to Salmonella colonization.

Descriptors: fowls, salmonella typhimurium, colonizing ability, oligosaccharides, oral administration, competitive ability, stress response, feed additives, competitive exclusion

 

Barnhart ET; Caldwell DJ; Crouch MC; Byrd JA; Corrier DE; Hargis BM (1999). Effect of lactose administration in drinking water prior to and during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from broiler crops and ceca. Poultry Science 78(2): 211-214.

Department of Poultry Science, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Texas 77843

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Salmonella contamination of the chicken crop has been reported to increase markedly and significantly during feed withdrawal, probably due to coprophagy, and may contribute to carcass contamination at processing. The effect of prolonged lactose administration (2.5%) in the drinking water on the incidence of Salmonella recovery from broiler crops or ceca was evaluated in seven experiments. In these experiments, all or a percentage (providing seeders and contacts) of 7-wk-old broilers were challenged with approximately 1 x 108 cfu Salmonella enteritidis and provided lactose for 5 or 11 d prior to and during an 18 or 24 h feed withdrawal period. A small but significant lactose-mediated reduction in Salmonella contamination of crops was observed in one of two identical experiments with 18 h feed withdrawal. Extending the feed withdrawal period to 24 h did not improve the ability of lactose to affect Salmonella recovery from crops or ceca. Similarly, lactose did not affect Salmonella recovery when the percentage of birds challenged was reduced to 3 out of 16 and Salmonella recovery from crops or ceca of unchallenged, contact broilers was measured. Extending the duration of exposure to 2.5% lactose in the drinking water from 5 to 11 d did not improve the ability of lactose to affect Salmonella recovery. Taken together, these data suggest that provision of 2.5% lactose in the drinking water during the last 5 to 11 d of growout prior to slaughter will not be useful in an integrated Salmonella control program under commercial conditions.

Descriptors: *Chickens--microbiology--MI; *Lactose--pharmacology--PD; *Salmonella --isolation and purification--IP ; Animal Husbandry--methods--MT; Cecum--microbiology--MI; Chickens --physiology--PH; Crop, Avian--microbiology--MI; Drinking; Food Contamination--prevention and control--PC; Food Deprivation; Lactose --administration and dosage--AD; Salmonella--pathogenicity--PY

 

Barua A; Furusawa S; Yoshimura Y; Okamoto T (2001). Effects of forced molting on the IgY concentration in egg yolk of chickens. Japanese Poultry Science 38(2): 169-174.

Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-hiroshima, Japan

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 N57

Descriptors: laying hen, yolk, immunoglobulin, rearing management, restricted feeding, molting, ELISA, immunoglobulin Y, forced molting, IgY concentration is increased during early phase of postmolt

 

Berchieri A Jr; Murphy CK; Marston K; Barrow PA (2001). Observations on the persistence and vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum in chickens: effect of bacterial and host genetic background. Avian Pathology 30(3): 221-231.

NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9

Commercial laying hens inoculated with a strain of Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum when they were 4 days old showed no morbidity, but harboured infection until they came into lay, and then produced S. Pullorum-contaminated eggs and infected progeny. There was limited evidence of transmission of maternal immunity to the progeny. Attempts were made to set up similar infections in hens with Salmonella Gallinarum, but without success. Infection either resulted in clinical disease or elimination of the pathogen. Infection of birds when in lay produced a similar result. The possibility of eggs becoming contaminated with S. Gallinarum after they were laid in the nest box was evaluated but there was no evidence for this. In-bred chicken lines with a SalI-susceptible phenotype showed greater localization of S. Pullorum in the reproductive tract than did a SalI-resistant line. In addition, in-bred birds, which were SalI resistant but showed greater susceptibility to intestinal colonization by Salmonella, infected with S. Gallinarum when they were 1 week old, showed longer term persistence in the liver and spleen than did a resistant line.

Descriptors: hens, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, microbial contamination, eggs, chicks, vertical transmission, persistence, liver, spleen, maternal immunity, line differences, susceptibility, genetic-resistance

 

Berchieri A. Jr.; Wigley P; Page K; Murphy CK; Barrow PA (2001). Further studies on vertical transmission and persistence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 in chickens. Avian Pathology 30(4): 297-310.

NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9

One-week-old commercial layers were infected orally with 10(8) colony forming units of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4. No mortality was observed. The inoculated organism was isolated in decreasing viable numbers from a number of tissues, particularly the spleen, liver and caeca. Organisms present in the spleen were primarily localized within macrophages. No Salmonella Enteritidis organisms were isolated between 10 and 24 weeks of age, when the experiment was terminated after several weeks of lay. When two groups of adult hens, housed with males, were infected, contaminated eggs were found within 2 weeks of infection in one of the experiments only. Progeny hatched from these eggs showed no mortality unless they were infected artificially with the S. Enteritidis strain. In this case, the percentage mortality fell as the hatches progressed, indicating increasing immunity to infection. The faecal excretion of the inoculated phage type 4 strain by infected but healthy progeny was followed. Although most birds ceased to excrete by 11 to 12 weeks of age, a small number of the birds continued to excrete until they themselves came into lay. The small numbers of birds in which this occurred indicates that tolerance to infection does not occur readily following infection of hens laying fertile eggs or in progeny birds infected before or within hours of hatching. Birds infected when they were less than 24 h old remained persistently infected until they were well into lay. However, control birds infected when 1 week old, on this occasion, showed a high level of excretion until the birds began to lay at 18 weeks. Inbred lines of chickens showing differences in their susceptibility to systemic salmonellosis did not show significant differences in the extent to which S. Enteritidis localized in the organs of the reproductive tract or in the number of infected eggs produced.

Descriptors: chickens, Salmonella enteritidis, vertical transmission, persistence, macrophages, experimental infections, eggs, microbial contamination, mortality, maternal immunity, chicks, genotypes, susceptibility, age

 

Bhatia TR; McNabb GD (1980). Dissemination of Salmonella in broiler-chicken operations. Avian Diseases 24(3): 616-624.

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Dissemination of Salmonella from hatchery to broiler farm and from broiler farm to processing plant was assessed. Bacteriological examination of fluff and meconium at the hatchery, feed and litter at the farm, and carcass rinsing at the plant level was conducted. When fluff and/or meconium were contaminated with Salmonella, litter and carcasses were contaminated with the same serotypes. Properly pelleted feed does not seem to be an important source of infection. Stress (feed and water deprivation) and some effect on shedding of Salmonella. Fluff and meconium at hatchery, feces from 3-to-7-day-old chicks, and litter at 3 and 6 weeks can be used as an indicator of flock infection and thus carcass contamination.

Descriptors: *Chickens--microbiology--MI; *Salmonella--isolation and purification--IP ; Animal Feed; Animal Husbandry; Feathers--microbiology--MI; Food Microbiology; Food-Processing Industry; Manure; Meat; Meconium --microbiology--MI; Salmonella typhimurium--isolation and purification

 

Bierer BW; Eleazer TH (1965). Clinical salmonellosis accidentally induced by feed and water deprivation of one-week-old broiler chicks. Poultry Science 44(6): 1606-1607.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Descriptors: *Poultry Diseases; *Salmonella Infections, Animal--etiology--ET; *Starvation

 

Branton SL; May JD; Lott BD; Pharr GT (1999). Effects of age at inoculation and induced molt on the recovery of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from layer chickens. Avian Diseases 43(3): 516-520.

USDA, ARS, South Central Poultry Research Laboratory, Mississippi State.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of age at inoculation and induced molt on the reisolation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) from commercial leghorn hens that had been eyedrop-inoculated with F strain MG at either 10 or 66 wk of age. Chickens were maintained in biological isolation units from 10 wk of age through 78 wk of age. At 70 wk of age (premolt), hens were swabbed, cultured for MG, and molted. Swabs were taken both at the end of molt (postmolt [74 wk]) and again 4 wk later (postmolt + 4 [78 wk]). A significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in MG isolations was observed in the postmolt swabs as compared with the premolt swabs of hens inoculated at either 10 or 66 wk of age. A significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) increase in isolations was observed in the postmolt + 4 swabs as compared with the postmolt swabs of hens inoculated at either 10 or 66 wk of age. For the hens inoculated at 10 wk, no significant difference was found in premolt as compared with postmolt + 4 MG isolations; however, for hens inoculated at 66 wk, a significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) decrease was observed between premolt and postmolt + 4 isolations. Significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) fewer MG isolations were obtained from the premolt swabs of hens inoculated at 10 wk as compared with hens inoculated at 66 wk. No significant difference in MG isolations was observed in either the postmolt or postmolt + 4 swabs between hens inoculated at either 10 or 66 wk.

Descriptors: chickens, mycoplasma gallisepticum, age, vaccination, molt, persistence

 

Branton SL; Simmons JD; Hardin JM (1989). The effect of biological isolation and a molt-inducing regimen on the recovery of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from commercial Leghorn hens. Avian Diseases 33(3): 574-577.

USDA, ARS, South Central Poultry Research Laboratory, Mississippi State, Mississippi

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of induced molt on the reisolation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) from commercial leghorn hens that had been eyedrop-inoculated with MG at 10 weeks of age. Chickens were maintained in a conventional floored chicken house on dry litter through 100 weeks of age. At age 64 weeks, 4 days (Trial 1), and at 100 weeks (Trial 2), hens were swabbed and cultured for MG and then molted in biological isolation units. Swabs were again taken at the end of each molt. No difference was observed in the number of MG isolations between molted hens and controls that did not undergo molting. However, a significant decrease in MG isolations was observed in both trials from swabs obtained when hens were housed on dry litter floors as compared with swabs taken from the same hens after 18 days (Trial 1) or 21 days (Trial 2) of confinement in isolation units.

Descriptors: Chickens--microbiology--MI; Mycoplasma--isolation and purification--IP; Mycoplasma Infections--veterinary--VE; Poultry Diseases--microbiology--MI ; Age Factors; Chickens--physiology--PH; Housing, Animal; Mycoplasma Infections--microbiology--MI

 

Byrd JA; Corrier DE; Hume ME; Bailey RH; Stanker LH; Hargis BM (1998). Effect of feed withdrawal on Campylobacter in the crops of market-age broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 42(4): 802-806.

USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, College Station, Texas

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

The presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella on poultry meat products remains a significant public health concern. Previous research has indicated that feed withdrawal may significantly increase Salmonella contamination of broiler crops and that crop contents may serve as an important source of Salmonella carcass contamination at commercial processing. The present study evaluated the effect of preslaughter feed withdrawal on the incidence of Campylobacter isolation in crops of market-age commercial broiler chickens prior to capture and transport to the processing plant. The incidence of Campylobacter isolation from the crop was determined immediately before and after feed withdrawal in 40 7-wk-old broiler chickens obtained from each of nine separate broiler houses. Ceca were collected from broilers in six of the same flocks for comparison with the crop samples. Feed withdrawal caused a significant (P < 0.025) increase in Campylobacter-positive crop samples in seven of the nine houses sampled. Furthermore, the total number of Campylobacter-positive crops increased significantly (P < 0.001) from 90/360 (25%) before feed removal to 224/359 (62.4%) after the feed withdrawal period. Alternatively, feed withdrawal did not significantly alter the Campylobacter isolation frequency from ceca. Similar to our previous studies with Salmonella. the present results suggest that preharvest feed withdrawal increases the frequency of Campylobacter crop contamination and, thus, provides a source of Campylobacter contamination of carcasses at commercial processing.

Descriptors: broilers, campylobacter, food deprivation, crop, food safety, contamination, carcasses, incidence, cecum

 

Corrier DE; Byrd JA; Hargis BM; Hume ME; Bailey RH; Stanker LH (1999). Survival of Salmonella in the crop contents of market-age broilers during feed withdrawal. Avian Diseases 43(3): 453-460.

USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, College Station, Texas

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Recent studies have indicated that crop contamination increases during preslaughter feed withdrawal and that contaminated crop contents may serve as an important source of Salmonella entry into poultry processing plants. During the present study, we evaluated the effect of preslaughter feed withdrawal on crop pH and Salmonella crop contamination in broilers from three commercial broiler flocks. The effect of experimental feed withdrawal on crop pH, lactic acid concentration, and Salmonella crop contamination was also evaluated in market-age broilers challenged experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium. Crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 3.64 +/- 0.25 before feed removal to 5.14 +/- 0.72 after 8 hr of feed withdrawal in broilers from commercial flocks. The incidence of Salmonella crop contamination in the commercial broilers increased (P < 0.05) from 3.3% before feed removal to 12.6% after 8 hr of feed withdrawal. Similarly, crop pH increased (P < 0.05) by a magnitude of approximately 1 unit in broilers after 8 hr of experimental feed withdrawal. The population of S. typhimurium in the crops of the experimentally challenged broilers increased (P < 0.05) by approximately 1 log unit during the 8-hr experimental feed withdrawal. The concentration of lactic acid in the crop of the broilers during experimental feed withdrawal decreased (P < 0.01) from a range of 119-135 micromol/ml before feed removal to a range of 22-32 micromol/ml after 8 hr of feed withdrawal. The results indicated that feed withdrawal resulted in a decrease in lactic acid in the crop, accompanied by an increase in crop pH, and an increase in Salmonella crop contamination.

Descriptors: broilers, salmonella, survival, crop, pH, food deprivation, microbial contamination, lactic acid, flocks

 

Corrier DE; Nisbet DJ; Hargis BM; Holt PS; DeLoach JR (1997). Provision of lactose to molting hens enhances resistance to Salmonella enteritidis colonization. Journal of Food Protection 60(1): 10-15.

ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, USDA, College Station, TX.

NAL Call Number: 44.8 J824

Older leghorn hens, more than 50 weeks of age, were divided into three groups designated 1, unmolted controls; 2, molted; or 3, molted treated with lactose. Forced molt was induced by 14 days of feed removal. Lactose was provided to the hens in group 3 as 2.5% (wt/vol) of the daily drinking water. Each hen in all groups was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis (SE) cells on day 7 of feed removal. The study was repeated in three replicated trials. The concentrations of acetic, propionic, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the cecal contents of the molted hens in groups 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) on days 6 and 14 of molt compared with the unmolted controls. Forced molt had no apparent effect on pH or on the oxidation-reduction potential of the ceca. Compared to the unmolted controls, SE cecal and spleen and liver colonization was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the molted hens in group 2. Compared to the molted hens in group 2, SE cecal and spleen and liver colonization was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in two of three trials in the hens in group 3provided with lactose. The results suggested that the increased susceptibility of molting hens to SE colonization may be associated with decreased fermentation and production of VFA by cecal bacteria or by a depletion of the number of VFA-producing bacteria present in the ceca. The results further suggest that providing lactose in the drinking water during molting may significantly enhance resistance to SE colonization.

Descriptors: chickens, diet, lactose, salmonella enteritidis, disease resistance ;

 

Corrier DE; Nisbet DJ; Hargis BM; Kogut MH; Deloach JR (1995). Protective effect of providing lactose to leghorn hens during molting on Salmonella enteritidis infection. Poultry Science 74(Suppl. 1): 51.

Food Animal Protection Res. Lab., USDA-ARS, College Station, TX 77845 USA

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

 

Dorn CR; Silapanuntakul R; Angrick EJ; Shipman LD (1993). Plasmid analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from human gastroenteritis cases and from epidemiologically associated poultry flocks. Epidemiology and Infection (ENGLAND) 111(2): 239-243.

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210.

            NAL Call Number: RA651 A1E74

Plasmid analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from human gastroenteritis cases and from two commercial egg-producing poultry flocks was performed to determine if the poultry flocks were the source of the human infections. The plasmid profile and restriction fragment pattern (fingerprint) of five S. enteritidis isolates from human cases matched those of nine isolates from internal organs of egg-laying hens in one flock which was the source of eggs consumed by the cases. Another commercial flock was epidemiologically associated as the source of eggs consumed by affected persons in four separate gastroenteritis outbreaks from which S. enteritidis isolates were available. Five S. enteritidis isolates from human cases in these four outbreaks had the same profile and fingerprint, and they all matched those of the 24 isolates from hens in this flock. These results provide further documentation of egg-borne transmission of S. enteritidis to humans.

Descriptors: *Chickens--microbiology--MI; *Food Microbiology; *Gastroenteritis --microbiology--MI; *Salmonella Food Poisoning--microbiology--MI; *Salmonella enteritidis--genetics--GE ; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Bacterial--analysis--AN; Disease Outbreaks; Eggs --microbiology--MI; Gastroenteritis--epidemiology--EP; Plasmids--genetics --GE; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length; Salmonella Food Poisoning -

 

Durant JA; Corrier DE; Byrd JA; Stanker LH; Ricke SC (1999). Feed deprivation affects crops environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of Leghorn hens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(5): 1919-1923.

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

NAL Call Number: 448.3 Ap5

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion.

Descriptors: transcription factors, gene expression

 

Durant JA; Corrier DE; Stanker LH; Ricke SC (2000). Expression of the hilA Salmonella typhimurium gene in a poultry Salmonella enteritidis isolate in response to lactate and nutrients. Journal of Applied Microbiology 89(1): 63-69.

Department of Poultry Science, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843-2472

            NAL Call Number: QR1 J687

Pathogens express virulence genes in response to the combination of environmental conditions present in the host environment. The crop is the first gastrointestinal environment encountered in birds. However, feed withdrawal alters the crop environment resulting in an increased pH, and decreased concentrations of lactate, glucose and amino acids compared with unmoulted birds. Salmonella enteritidis infections increase significantly in hens that have been forced to moult by feed withdrawal. The effects of pH, carbohydrate sources, amino acids and lactate on expression of S. enteritidis virulence was investigated by measuring expression of hilA. The hilA gene encodes a transcriptional activator that regulates expression of Salmonella virulence genes in response to environmental stimuli. HilA expression was measured using a poultry isolate of S. enteritidis carrying a hilA-lacZY transcriptional fusion from S. typhimurium. The media used were Luria Bertani (LB) broth and LB broth diluted 1:5 (DLB). The expression of hilA was 2.9-fold higher in DLB broth compared with LB broth which suggested that there is a nutritional component to the regulation of hilA. Addition of 0.2% glucose, fructose or mannose to LB and DLB reduced hilA expression 1.5- to 2-fold. Addition of 0.2% Casaminoacids, arabinose, fucose, or lactose had little effect on hilA expression. Lactate (25 and 50 mmol/litre) reduced hilA expression at pH 6, 5 and 4, with the lowest expression at pH 4. These results suggest that the composition of the crop lumen could potentially affect S. enteritidis virulence expression.

Descriptors: nutrients; poultry; amino acids; arabinose; environment; fructose; digestive system; genes; lactates; mannose; nutrition; virulence; gene expression; in vitro culture; bacterial diseases

 

Ebel E; Schlosser W (2000). Estimating the annual fraction of eggs contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis in the United States. International Journal of Food Microbiology 61(1): 51-62.

NAL Call Number: QR115.I57

Descriptors: eggs, food contamination, microbial contamination, salmonella enteritidis, estimation, incidence, monte carlo method, epidemiology, flocks, prediction, risk assessment, mathematical models, molting, affected flocks

 

Fadly AM; Davison TF; Payne LN; Howes K (1989). Avian leukosis virus infection and shedding in Brown Leghorn chickens treated with corticosterone or exposed to various stressors. Avian Pathology 18(2): 283-298.

AFRC Inst. Anim Hlth., Houghton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE17 2DA, UK.

            NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9

Brown Leghorn chicks derived from hens positive for antibodies to subgroup A avian leukosis virus (MAB+) and chicks derived from virus-free hens (MAB-) were exposed to avian leukosis virus (ALV HPRS-F42 strain)-infected hens from hatching to 18 weeks of age. At one or two weeks of age some chicks were implanted with a pellet containing a mixture of corticosterone and cholesterol (1:4 w/w) or with an osmostic pump containing corticosterone dissolved in polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) which delivered 50 micro g/hour over 7 days. In a second trial implanted chicks were moved to climatic chambers at two weeks old and kept at 40 deg C or 25 deg C for 3 weeks, or at 15 deg C for 4 days and then at 10 deg C. In a third trial 38-week-old hens that had been inoculated with ALV as embryos, at one day old or at 4 weeks old and forced to moult by changes in photoperiod and food and water intakes were examined for egg production, plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine. In a fourth trial these hens were implanted with osmotic pumps as above after return to lay (60 weeks old) and inoculated with ALV (1.6 x 105 infectious units) by oral, nasal, ocular and tracheal routes. Samples of meconium, cloacal, and vaginal swabs and plasma were tested for ALV. Increased levels of plasma corticosterone following implantation of the hormone at 1, but not 2, weeks after exposure to ALV at hatching, increased cloacal shedding of ALV in chickens that lacked maternal antibody (MAB-) to ALV. Exposure of 2-week-old chickens, which had been exposed to virus at hatching, to heat- or cold-stress for 21 days had no effect on ALV infection and shedding in treated as well as in control chickens. Induced moulting or raised circulating corticosterone in adult hens did not affect the incidence of ALV infection or shedding.

Descriptors: glucocorticoids, cold zones, heat, molting, stress

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Fernandez F; Hinton M; Gils B van (2002). Dietary mannan-oligosaccharides and their effect on chicken caecal microflora in relation to Salmonella enteritidis colonization. Avian Pathology 31(1): 49-58.

Division of Food Animal Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Avon BS40 5DU, UK.

            NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9

This study first investigates the effects of mash diet, or mash supplemented with either 2.5% mannose-oligosaccharide (MOS) or palm kernel meal (PKM), on the microflora of the hen caecal contents. Second, it investigates the effect of caecal contents of hens (HCC) fed mash or mash supplemented with MOS or PKM on the major microflora groups of chicks, and their inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (PT4) colonization. Finally, this study investigates the effect over time of diets supplemented with MOS or PKM on S. Enteritidis colonization and the microflora of chicks. In hens, supplemented diets increased Bifidobacterium spp., while decreasing members of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp., compared with the mash diet. Chicks dosed with the HCC showed, on average, increased numbers of anaerobes, while the numbers of aerobes decreased including coliforms and S. Enteritidis compared with controls without HCC. In chicks fed the MOS-supplemented or PKM-supplemented diets, S. Enteritidis colonization decreased over time, compared with mash alone. Four-week-old PKM birds showed an increase in Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., with a decrease in S. Enteritidis compared with week 2. Generally, the HCC and diets supplemented with MOS or PKM affected the birds intestinal microflora by increasing the Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., while decreasing the Enterobacteriaceae groups. They also reduced susceptibility in young chickens to colonization by S. Enteritidis.

Descriptors: caecum, chicks, diets, hens, infection, mannans, microbial flora, oligosaccharides, palm kernel cake, poultry

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Furuta K (1); Mekada Hiroyuki (2); Hayashi N (2) (1991). Detection of antibodies against pathogens and measurement of serum components of chickens which laying was paused by forced molting. Nippon Kakin Gakkaishi (Japanese Poultry Science) 28(1): 47-51.

(1)Univ. of Ryukyus, College of Agriculture ; (2)Gifu Prefect. Poultry Exp. Stn.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 N57

Descriptors: molting, laying hen, antibody titer, enzyme activity, egg-laying, blood component, serum, alkaline phosphatase, GOT, GPT, pathogen, rearing management

 

Gast RK; Nasir MS; Jolley ME; Holt PS; Stone HD(2002). Serologic detection of experimental Salmonella enteritidis infections in laying hens by fluorescence polarization and enzyme immunoassay. Avian Diseases 46(1): 137-142.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Detection of infected poultry flocks is essential for controlling eggborne transmission of Salmonella enteritidis to humans. The present study evaluated the detection of antibodies in the sera of experimentally infected chickens by a fluorescence polarization assay with a tracer prepared from the O-polysaccharide of S. enteritidis and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an S. enteritidis flagellin antigen. In two trials, groups of specific-pathogen-free laying hens were infected orally with either 10(6) or 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of S. enteritidis (phage type 13a) or with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella typhimurium. Serum samples were collected before inoculation and at five subsequent weekly intervals. Both assays successfully detected the majority of hens infected with S. enteritidis at either dose level, but they also identified a substantial number of hens infected with S. typhimurium as seropositive. The fluorescence polarization test detected S. enteritidis infection significantly more often and cross-reacted with sera from hens infected with S. typhimurium significantly less often than the ELISA. The fluorescence polarization assay also offered advantages in terms of speed and methodologic simplicity.

 

Gray JS (1982). The effect of induced moulting in hens on resistance to primary and secondary infections of Raillietina cesticillus Molin, 1858. Journal of Helminthology 56(1): 37-40.

NAL Call number: 436.8 J82

Mature hens induced to moult were subsequently found to be resistant to both primary and secondary infections of Raillietina cesticillus; non-moulting birds that continued to lay were susceptible to both.

Descriptors: resistance, host, immunity, reproduction, Raillietina cesticillus (Cestoda)

 

Hill CH (1989). Effect of Salmonella gallinarum infection on zinc metabolism in chicks. Poultry Science 68(2): 297-305.

Dep. Poultry Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7608, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

The effect of Salmonella gallinarum infection in chickens on serum, liver and kidney zinc concentrations was studied. Within 48 h after intraperitoneal administration of S. gallinarum, serum Zn decreased to about one-half the control value. In one experiment, serum Zn remained low for the 12 days of the experiment, whereas in a second experiment, serum Zn gradually increased after 6 days postinoculation but never returned to the control value. Supplemental zinc 500 mg/kg did not prevent the infection-induced decrease in the serum Zn. The infection resulted in a sequestering of Zn in the liver; the kidney remained relatively unresponsive in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by gel filtration column chromatography revealed that the Zn in livers of infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, whereas that of controls was associated with high molecular weight proteins. Increasing serum Zn by repeated subcutaneous Zn injections had no effect on mortality. Restricting feed intake of uninfected chickens to that of infected chickens resulted in similar weight gains, but effects on metallothionein and serum Zn were minimal compared with effects in infected chickens.

Descriptors: zinc metabolism, infection, Salmonellosis, Salmonella gallinarum

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Holt PS (1999). Impact of induced molting on immunity and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection in laying hens. In Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in humans and animals: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control, Saeed AM; Gast RK; Potter ME; Wall PG (eds.), Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa USA, p.367-375.

            NAL Call Number: RA644 S15 S23 1999

Descriptors: moulting, immune response, hens, animal husbandry, disease transmission, poultry

 

Holt PS (1995). Horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in molted and unmolted laying chickens. Avian Diseases 39(2): 239-249.

USDA, ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

The impact of induced molting on the horizontal transmission of S. enteritidis was studied. In Expt. 1, every other hen in rows of either molted or unmolted hens was infected with S. enteritidis (1 X 10(6) bacteria/hen). S. enteritidis was transmitted more rapidly to the unchallenged hens in the adjacent cages of molted hens than in unmolted hens, and these molted hens shed significantly more of the organism than unmolted hens. In Expts. 2 and 3, the center hen in two rows each of 11 molted and unmolted hens was infected with S. enteritidis (dose of 6-8 X 10(4) in Expt. 2 and 1 X 10(3) in Expt. 3). In both trials of Expt. 2, the rate of transmission was significantly higher in molted hens than in unmolted hens, and the molted hens shed significantly more of the organism. In Trial 1 of Expt. 3, molting had little effect on S. enteritidis shedding. In Trial 2 of Expt. 3, however, molted hens had significantly higher shed rates and shed more S. enteritidis than the unmolted hens. Individual hens in Expts. 2 and 3 frequently shed more S. enteritidis than the original challenge. The amplification of intestinal S. enteritidis in the molted hens plus their previously described higher susceptibility to S. enteritidis infection accelerated transmission of the organism to the uninfected hens in neighboring cages. These results indicate that induced molting can have substantial effects on transmission of S. enteritidis to uninfected hens, which could affect the overall S. enteritidis status of a flock.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, disease transmission, spread, molting, susceptibility, food deprivation, induced molting

 

Holt PS (1993). Effect of induced molting on the susceptibility of white leghorn hens to a Salmonella enteritidis infection. Avian Diseases 37(2): 412-417.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Older white leghorn hens (more than 52 weeks old) were induced to molt using a 14-day feed-removal protocol. On day 4 of feed removal, groups of hens were infected with varying 10-fold dilutions of Salmonella enteritidis, and these hens were examined for S. enteritidis intestinal shedding 7 days later. Molting hens infected with a 10-1 dilution of S. enteritidis shed 3-4 logs more of the organism at 7 days postinfection than the unmolted group receiving a similar dose. The mean infectious dose (ID50) for S. enteritidis in unmolted hens ranged from 0.65 X 10(4) to 5.6 X 10(4), whereas in molting hens the ID50 was found to be less than 101, a 2-3 log increase in the susceptibility of the hens to the organism.

Descriptors: hens, molting, induction, salmonella enteritidis, susceptibility, disease resistance, inoculum, experimental infection

 

Holt PS (1993). Effect of induced molting on the susceptibility of chickens to Salmonella enteritidis infection. Poultry Science 72(Suppl.1): 171.

USDA/ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA 30605

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

 

Holt PS (1992). Effect of induced on molting on B cell and CT4 and CT8 T cell numbers in spleens and peripheral blood of White Leghorn hens. Poultry Science 71(12): 2027-2034.

USDA, ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Two trials were conducted to examine the possible effect of induced molting on splenic and peripheral blood T and B cells. Molting was achieved using shortened light exposure and a 14-day fast. Feed was removed on Day 0 and blood for analysis was removed on Days 3, 10, and 17 whereas spleens were removed on Days 4, 11, and 18. Fluorochrome-labeled antichicken CT4 and CT8 monoclonal antibodies were used to examine molting effects on chicken T cells and polyclonal anti-chicken immunoglobulin was used to detect chicken B cells. The labeled cell preparations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Molted hens had significantly decreased CT4+ peripheral blood T cells on Day 3 in both trials and on Day 10 in one trial. No effects on peripheral blood CT8+ T cells were observed. Splenic CT4+ T cells were decreased on Day 11 in one trial whereas splenic CT9+ T cells were significantly increased on Day 4 in two trials and on Day 11 in one trial. Peripheral blood and splenic B cells were largely unaffected in both trials. These results indicate that fasting to induce a molt does alter T lymphocyte subpopulations and these effects primarily occur early in the fasting procedure.

Descriptors: hens, fasting, b lymphocytes, t lymphocytes, molting, spleen, blood, cell counting, flow cytometry, immunological deficiency

 

Holt PS (1992). Effects of induced moulting on immune responses of hens. British Poultry Science 33(1): 165-175.

US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 B77

In spent hens from White Leghorn and White Rock layer flocks induced to moult by withdrawal of food, lymphocyte numbers were lower in moulted birds than in nonmoulted controls. Antibody responses to sheep red blood cells or Brucella abortus antigen were largely unaffected. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to the skin sensitiser dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was depressed during the period of food withdrawal but recovered when feeding resumed. It is concluded that induced moulting probably has a negative effect on the cellular component of the immune system of the moulted birds.

Descriptors: cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, immunity, molting, molt, immunuosuppression

 

Holt PS; Buhr RJ; Cunningham DL (1993). Comparison of molt induction by 14-day feed-removal versus the use of a low-energy, low density molt feed on the exacerbation of an intestinal Salmonella enteritidis infection on white leghorn hens. Poultry Science 72 (Suppl.1): 90.

USDA/ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA 30605

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

 

Holt PS; Buhr RJ; Cunningham DL; Porter RE Jr (1994). Effect of induced molting via feed removal or low energy, low density feed on the severity of an intestinal infection by Salmonella enteritidis in white leghorn hens. Poultry Science 73 (Suppl.1): 140.

USDA/ARS, Southeast Poultry Res. Lab., 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

 

Holt PS; Buhr RJ; Cunningham DL; Porter RE Jr (1994). Effect of two different molting procedures on a Salmonella enteritidis infection. Poultry Science 73(8): 1267-1275.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Previous studies have shown that inducing a molt using feed removal exacerbated an intestinal infection by Salmonella enteritidis (SE). The current study was conducted to determine whether inducing a molt using a molt diet would still cause a pause in egg laying but not exacerbate an intestinal SE infection. In Experiments 1 and 2, hens were either provided ad libitum access to layer feed (control), fed 45 g molt diet (molt-feed) daily, or deprived of feed for 14 d (molted), and were orally infected with 1 X 10(7) SE on Day 4 of molt. Egg lay ceased in hens subjected to both molt treatments. The percentage of hens shedding SE did not differ among treatment groups in Experiment 1, whereas in Experiment 2 the molted hens had significantly higher shed rates than the controls on Days 10, 17, and 24 postinfection and the molt-feed hens on Days 17 and 24 postinfection. Compared with both fed groups of hens, the molted hens shed significantly more SE in Experiment 1 on Day 10 postinfection, and in Experiment 2 the molted hens shed significantly more SE on all 4 sampling days. In Experiment 3, subgroups of hens within each treatment group received serial 10-fold dilutions of SE and intestinal shedding of the organism in each subgroup was determined 7 d later. The 50% infectious dose (ID50) was calculated for each treatment group from these shedding results. The ID50 was 2.7 X 10(3) SE, 5.2 X 10(2) SE, and 1.3 SE for control, molt-feed, and molted hens, respectively, indicating that feed removal substantially increased the susceptibility of hens to an SE infection and the molt diet decreased this susceptibility. Little difference was observed in the pH of alimentary samples or of cecal contents from hens in each treatment group, indicating that increased severity of SE infection was not due to alterations of intestinal pH. Histologically, the molted hens exhibited more extensive inflammation of the intestinal tract at Day 4 postinfection compared with the unmolted group. Intestinal inflammation in the molt-feed hens was intermediate between the two. These results indicated that molt induction, using a molt diet, will not put hens at risk for the severe intestinal infection observed in birds subjected to feed removal.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, molting, restricted feeding, fasting, unrestricted feeding, experimental infections, digesta, ph, digestive tract, inflammation

 

Holt PS; Macri NP; Porter RE Jr. (1995). Microbiological analysis of the early Salmonella enteritidis infection in molted and unmolted hens. Avian Diseases 39(1): 55-63.

USDA, ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

A study was conducted in which the early kinetics (4 hr to 96 hr) of an infection by Salmonella enteritidis in older white leghorn hens was examined, and a molt was induced through withholding feed to determine its effect on the progression of this infection. Molted and unmolted hens were orally infected with 5-10 X 10(6) S. enteritidis on day 4 of the feed removal. At 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postinfection, liver, spleen, ileum, colon, cecum, and feces were removed from six hens per group and sampled for the presence of the challenge organism. By 24 hr postinfection, S. enteritidis was most prevalent in the cecum and feces of unmolted hens, and this prevalence continued throughout the experimental period. In molted hens, however, S. enteritidis could be determined in a high percentage (90-100%) of colon, cecum, and feces samples at 24 to 96 hr postinfection and in 67% or more of ileum samples at 48 to 96 hr postinfection, indicating a much wider distribution of the S. enteritidis along the intestinal tract than in unmolted hens. The numbers of S. enteritidis recovered from these alimentary samples were also significantly higher in molted than unmolted hens. S. enteritidis could not be detected in livers or spleens of either treatment group at 4 or 24 hr postinfection. At 48, 72, and 96 hr postinfection, 50% or more of the livers and spleens in both the molted and unmolted hens were positive for the challenge organism, but significantly more S. enteritidis was recovered from the organs of the molted hens at these three sampling times. These results indicate that induced molting has a profound effect on both intestinal and extraintestinal infection by S. enteritidis, and these effects occur within 24 hr postinfection in the intestine and within 48 hr postinfection in the livers and spleens.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, molt, fasting, bacterial diseases, disease course, liver, spleen, ileum, colon, cecum, feces

 

Holt PS; Mitchell BW; Gast RK (1998). Airborne horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in molted laying chickens. Avian Diseases 42(1): 45-52.

USDA, ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Salmonella enteritidis is currently thought to be transmitted principally through contact with infected individuals and ingestion of fecally contaminated materials. The present study was undertaken to determine if S. enteritidis could be spread in chickens by the airborne route and if induced molting could affect this mode of transmission. To test for airborne transmission, hens were placed in two rows of cages, the rows separated from each other by 1 m. One row of hens was challenged with S. enteritidis, whereas the other row remained unchallenged but exposed to the room air. Ventilation delivered within the room provided an even air distribution within the area and minimized directional air flow toward any set of cages. In Expt. 1, 4 of 12 and 9 of 12 exposed molted hens became infected with S. enteritidis after 3 and 8 days of exposure, respectively, compared with 1 of 12 and 0 of 12 unmolted hens sampled on the same days. Similar S. enteritidis levels were detected circulating in the air in the two rooms housing the hens. Expts. 2 and 3 examined airborne transmission in molted hens only. In Expt. 2, 2 of 12 exposed hens became infected with S. enteritidis at 3 days postchallenge, and this increased to 12 of 12 1 wk later. In Expt. 3, exposed hens were again housed in cages 1 m from challenged hens but were placed in every other cage to prevent transmission through contact with hens in adjacent cages. At day 3 post challenge, 0 of 12 exposed hens were culture positive for S. enteritidis, and this increased to only 3 of 10 positive hens at day 10. Large numbers of S. enteritidis shed by the molted challenged hens were recovered from the floors beneath the cages. These results indicate that, contrary to the generally held beliefs regarding organism spread, airborne transmission S. enteritidis can occur and induced molting can provide the impetus for this event. As was observed previously, rapid dissemination of the organism to other members of the flock resulted through bird-to-bird contact.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, disease transmission, airborne infection, molting, ventilation, experimental infection, epidemiology

 

Holt PS; Porter RE Jr. (1993). Effect of induced molting on the recurrence of a previous Salmonella enteritidis infection. Poultry Science 72(11): 2069-2078.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Previous work in the authors' laboratory had shown that hens infected with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) during the feed removal phase of an induced molt shed significantly more SE and more readily transmitted SE to uninfected hens in adjacent cages when compared with unmolted hens. A study was conducted to examine the effect of induced molting on the recurrence and horizontal transmission of a previous SE infection. Hens aged 59 and 69 wk in Trials 1 and 2, respectively, were infected with SE and then molted 21 days later. In Trial 1, more molted hens were SE-culture-positive on Days 38 (P less than or equal to .005) and 45 (P less than or equal to .005) postinfection, and these hens shed more SE on these days (P less than or equal to.05 and P less than or equal to .005, respectively) than unmolted hens. Horizontal transmission of SE to previously uninfected but contact exposed hens in adjacent cages was also higher in the molted group than the unmolted group on Days 38 (P less than or equal to .05) and 45 (P less than or equal to .001). Molted, contact- exposed hens also shed significantly more SE than unmolted hens. In Trial 2, the molted infected hens shed progressively more SE than the unmolted hens but the differences were not significant. However, more molted contact-exposed hens became SE-positive at Day 31 (P less than or equal to .05) and 38 (P less than or equal to .005) and also shed more SE on these days (P less than or equal to .05 and P less than or equal to .01, respectively) than the unmolted hens. Serum and intestinal antibody titers to SE were also examined in Trial 2. Molting appeared to exert no effect on the serum SE titers, but antibody titers in the alimentary tract were lower in the molted hens than the unmolted hens on Days 45 (P less than or equal to .005) and 52 (P less than or equal to .05). In Trial 1, three of eight molted directly infected hens and two of eight molted contact-exposed hens produced an SE-contaminated egg, but none of the unmolted hens produced any SE-contaminated eggs. In Trial 2, no SE-contaminated eggs were produced.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, molting, relapse, susceptibility, disease transmission, stress

 

Holt PS; Porter RE Jr. (1992). Effect of induced molting on the course of infection and transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in White Leghorn hens of different ages. Poultry Science 71(11): 1842-1848.

USDA, ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA

NAL Call Number: 47.8 AM33P

Previous work in the authors' laboratory had shown that inducing molt using a 2-wk feed removal protocol in 58- to 84-wk-old White Leghorn hens increased the severity of intestinal infection by Salmonella enteritidis (SE). As susceptibility to infection can be influenced by age, a study was conducted to compare the effect of the feed removal on infection by SE in 20-, 40-, and 74-wk-old hens. Birds were orally infected with 5 to 10 X 10(6) SE on Day 4 of fast and were sampled for SE shedding 3, 10, 17, and 24 days later. Significantly higher numbers of SE were shed in fasted birds on Day 3 (20 and 40 wk of age), Day 10 (40 and 74 wk of age), and Day 17 (74 wk of age). Transmission of SE to uninfected, contact-exposed birds was observed in all three trials for both the fed and fasted groups. However, significantly more fasted contact-exposed birds became positive for SE on Day 3 (20-wk-old), Day 10 (74-wk-old), and Day 17 (74-wk-old). Significantly more SE was also shed in these fasted contact-exposed birds on Day 3 (20-wk-old), Day 10 (all age groups), and Day 17 (74-wk-old). The current results indicate that the fasting conditions used to induce a molt in hens increase the shedding of SE in direct-infected and contact-exposed hens and this effect does not appear to be affected by age.

Descriptors: hens, age differences, molting, fasting, salmonella enteritidis, susceptibility, aging, disease transmission, disease course

 

Holt PS; Porter RE Jr. (1993). Effect of induced molting on the recurrence of a previous Salmonella enteritidis infection. Poultry Science 72(11): 2069-2078.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Previous work in the authors' laboratory had shown that hens infected with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) during the feed removal phase of an induced molt shed significantly more SE and more readily transmitted SE to uninfected hens in adjacent cages when compared with unmolted hens. A study was conducted to examine the effect of induced molting on the recurrence and horizontal transmission of a previous SE infection. Hens aged 59 and 69 wk in Trials 1 and 2, respectively, were infected with SE and then molted 21 days later. In Trial 1, more molted hens were SE-culture-positive on Days 38 (P less than or equal to .005) and 45 (P less than or equal to .005) postinfection, and these hens shed more SE on these days (P less than or equal to.05 and P less than or equal to .005, respectively) than unmolted hens. Horizontal transmission of SE to previously uninfected but contact exposed hens in adjacent cages was also higher in the molted group than the unmolted group on Days 38 (P less than or equal to .05) and 45 (P less than or equal to .001). Molted, contact- exposed hens also shed significantly more SE than unmolted hens. In Trial 2, the molted infected hens shed progressively more SE than the unmolted hens but the differences were not significant. However, more molted contact-exposed hens became SE-positive at Day 31 (P less than or equal to .05) and 38 (P less than or equal to .005) and also shed more SE on these days (P less than or equal to .05 and P less than or equal to .01, respectively) than the unmolted hens. Serum and intestinal antibody titers to SE were also examined in Trial 2. Molting appeared to exert no effect on the serum SE titers, but antibody titers in the alimentary tract were lower in the molted hens than the unmolted hens on Days 45 (P less than or equal to .005) and 52 (P less than or equal to .05). In Trial 1, three of eight molted directly infected hens and two of eight molted contact-exposed hens produced an SE-contaminated egg, but none of the unmolted hens produced any SE-contaminated eggs. In Trial 2, no SE-contaminated eggs were produced.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, molting, relapse, susceptibility, disease transmission, stress

 

Holt PS; Porter RE Jr. (1992). Effect of induced molting on severity of Salmonella enteritidis infection in different aged hens. Poultry Science 71(Suppl.1): 156.

USDA/ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA. 30605.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Descriptors: bacteria, microorganism, bird, starvation, intestinal disease, poultry industry

 

Holt PS; Porter RE Jr. (1992). Induced molting increases severity and recrudescence of Salmonella enteritidis intestinal infections in laying hens. Proceedings 19th World's Poultry Congress Amsterdam 19-24 September 1992, Volume 1: 346-349.

            NAL Call Number: SF481.2 W6 1992

Descriptors: bacterial diseases, poultry, food deprivation, egg production, moulting, predisposition, stress, poultry diseases, Salmonella enteritidis

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Holt PS; Porter RE Jr. (1992). Microbiological and histopathological effects of an induced-molt fasting procedure on a Salmonella enteritidis infection in chickens. Avian Diseases 36(3): 610-618.

USDA, ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA

NAL Call Number: 41.8 AV5

A study was undertaken to determine if a 2-week feed-removal protocol, as is used by industry to induce a molt in aging hens, could affect the course of a Salmonella enteritidis infection. White leghorn hens aged 69-84 weeks were deprived of feed to induce a molt, and on day 4 of the fast, the birds were orally infected with 5 X 10(6) S. enteritidis. S. enteritidis organisms were enumerated in the spleen on day 6 and from the alimentary tract on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Little difference was detected in numbers of S. enteritidis from spleens of molted and unmolted hens. Significantly more molted hens shed detectable intestinal S. enteritidis than unmolted hens on day 14 (one of two trials) and day 21 (one of two trials). Intestinal levels of S. enteritidis were increased 100- to 1000-fold in the molted birds on day 7 (one of two trials) and day 14 (two of two trials), and many of the hens exhibited bloody alimentary secretions. Histological examination of the intestinal tract of S. enteritidis-infected molted hens showed increased inflammation in the epithelium and lamina propria of colons and ceca, compared with unmolted infected hens.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, molting, food deprivation, experimental infection, histopathology, disease course, immune response

 

Holt PS; Porter RE (1991). Effects of induced molting on immunocompetence and susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in laying hens. Poultry Science 70(Suppl. 1): 53.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Descriptors: Salmonellosis, Immune response, disease resistance

 

Horuto P (1998). The SE countermeasure in hen. 1. Concentrating countermeasure in forced molting and day-old chicken. Effect of aerial negative ionization. Niwatori no Kenkyu 73(12): 23-26.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 N64

Descriptors: laying hen, animal hygiene, Salmonella enteritidis, bird disease, rearing management, chick, indoor air, anion, forced ventilation, antibiotics, forced molting

 

Humphrey TJ; Baskerville A; Whitehead A; Rowe B; Henley A (1993). Influence of feeding patterns on the artificial infection of laying hens with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. The Veterinary record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association 132(16): 407-409.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, food deprivation

 

Ito T (1999). HACCP as prevention measures for Salmonella food poison in the U.S. and food poisoning tendency by foodservice facilities in Japan and countermeasures. Shokuhin Eisei Joho 10(2): 1-8.

Tokyo Kenbikyoin

Descriptors: HACCP, USA, food poisoning, chicken egg, chicken house, Salmonella, rat, food service, cooking place, microorganism contamination, heating, heat sterilization, education and training, consumer, rearing management, forced molting

 

Jones DR; Anderson KE; Curtis PA; Jones FT (2002). Microbial contamination in inoculated shell eggs: I. Effects of layer strain and hen age. Poultry Science 81(5): 715-720.

Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Three Ottawa control strains and a current commercial laying stock were reared and housed under identical environmental and management conditions. Eggs were collected from each strain when hens were 32, 45, 58, 71, and 84 wk of age. The eggs were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis (SE), Pseudomonasfluorescens (PF), or a combination of the two. After storage at 26 C, bacterial counts were obtained from the exterior shell surfaces (rinse), air cell, egg contents, and shell structure. SE and PF survived at different rates on the shell surface with as much as a 1 log difference during a given collection period. Egg content counts tended to be higher than eggshell counts in PF, whereas the opposite was true for SE. These data suggest that PF is a primary invader of eggs that is more capable of contaminating egg contents through the shell membranes than SE. The PF and SE data suggest that bacterial contamination of air cells, shells, and egg contents is more easily achieved in eggs from older hens than from younger hens. There were also differences between the strains. Control Strain 10 consistently maintained a lower level of contamination for both organisms in each sampling location. The overall results of this study suggest that genetic selection has altered the ability of eggs to resist microbial contamination and that screening for microbial integrity should be considered in the selection process among the laying egg breeders.

 

Kato H(1999). For right knowledge and correspondence of Salmonella enteritidis(SE). 144. Concepts of HACCP in raising of layer. 9. Keiranniku Joho (Poultry Magazine) 29(11): 42-46.

Descriptors: laying hen, chicken egg, HACCP, Salmonella enteritidis, rearing management, clostridium infection, coccidiosis, bird disease, Salmonella enteritidis, forced molting

 

Keiranniku Joho (1998). State of Maryland Department of Agriculture. Keiranniku Joho (Poultry Magazine) 28(9): 48-52.

Descriptors: Maryland, Salmonella enteritidis, chicken egg, food contamination, laying hen, rearing management, slaughter and dressing, slaughter house, forced molting

 

Kogut MH; Genovese KJ; Stanker LH (1999). Effect of induced molting on heterophil function in White Leghorn hens. Avian Diseases 43(3): 538-548.

USDA, ARS, Food Animal Protection Research Laboratory, College Station, TX.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of induced molt on basal functional activities of heterophils from aging hens. For this purpose, heterophils from both molted and unmolted hens were examined by in vitro bioassays for functional responsiveness and efficiency. We evaluated the ability of the heterophils to migrate to chemotactic stimuli, phagocytize opsonized and nonopsonized Salmonella enteritidis (SE), and generate an oxidative burst in response to inflammatory agonists. A significant (P < 0.001) heterophilia was found in the molted hens within 2 days after feed withdrawal and remained throughout the length of the experimental feed withdrawal period. No significant differences were found in the random migration of heterophils from either group. The chemotactic movement of heterophils from molted hens was not affected until 8 days after feed withdrawal when compared with heterophil chemotaxis from unmolted hens. A significant decrease in chemotaxis by the heterophils from molted hens was observed days 8-12 after feed withdrawal (P < 0.05). Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer heterophils from molted hens were able to phagocytize opsonized (59% vs. 38%) and nonopsonized (26% vs. 15%) SE within 2 days after feed withdrawal. Likewise, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer bacteria were phagocytized per heterophil from the molted hens when compared with the number of bacteria per heterophil from the unmolted hens. The oxidative burst of heterophils stimulated by either opsonized zymosan A or phorbol myristate acetate of heterophils from molted hens was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced when compared with that generated by heterophils from the unmolted hens. These results indicate that feed withdrawal to induce molt alters the number and function of peripheral blood heterophils. This decreased efficiency, of heterophil functional activity appears to play a role in the increased susceptibility of molting hens to SE infections.

Descriptors: hens, molting, phagocytes, phagocytosis, salmonella enteritidis, chemotaxis, defense mechanisms

 

Latshaw JD (1991). Nutrition--mechanisms of immunosuppression. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30(1): 111-20.

Department of Poultry Science, Columbus, OH 43210

            NAL Call Number: SF757.2 V38

Nutritionists must formulate diets that supply adequate amounts of nutrients from five major groups. These are carbohydrate, protein (amino acids), fat, minerals and vitamins. Carbohydrate is usually a cheaper source of energy than fat, but fat is often used to increase the caloric concentration of the diet. Variations in energy intake which may effect immunocompetence usually result from management practices rather than diet formulation. Feed restriction for broiler breeders and withholding feed in forced molting practices may affect immunocompetence. Feed restriction causes higher plasma corticosterone levels, which are known to decrease the immune response, possibly through effects on cytokines. Excessive feed, through forced feeding, may also have short-term effects on indicators of humoral immunity. Protein and amino acid nutrition have been studied in relation to immunocompetence. The level of dietary amino acid needed to maximize growth and feed efficiency will also generally maximize measures of immunocompetence. The level of amino acids needed for maximum growth is lower in chicks which have been immunologically stressed than in chicks which have not. An immune response changes metabolism so that less growth occurs, thereby decreasing the need for amino acids. Dietary levels of minerals can affect immunocompetence. While deficient levels of sodium and chloride decrease humoral immunity, levels of these nutrients which supported maximum growth also supported maximal humoral immunity. Low dietary zinc levels did not affect indicators of immunocompetence in the chick. The effect of fat soluble vitamin levels on the immune system has been studied. Vitamin A is needed to maintain epithelial tissue and prevent infection. Cellular immune response is decreased when the chick is deficient in this nutrient. Several indicators of immune responsiveness are depressed when chicks are vitamin E and/or selenium deficient. Since these nutrients serve as antioxidants, cellular integrity may be affected by a deficiency. Cellular integrity is very important for receiving, and responding to the messages needed to coordinate an immune response. High levels of vitamin E (greater than 10 times the required level) have been found to be immunostimulatory.

Descriptors: Animal Nutrition, Chickens--immunology--IM, Immune Tolerance , Avitaminosis--immunology--IM, Poultry Diseases--immunology--IM, Virus Diseases--immunology--IM, Virus Diseases--veterinary--VE

 

Le Floch N (1992. [Effect of starvation and cooling on chick sensibility for Salmonella infection] Effet de la privation alimentaire et hydrique et du refroidissement sur la sensibilite du poussin a l'infection salmonellique. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (France) Thesis Degree: Doctorat (These) , 7 Fev 1992 , 108 p.

Availability: INRA, Centre de Jouy, Unite Centrale de Documentation, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas (Fr)

Descriptors: chicks, salmonella typhimurium, pathogenicity, stress, water deprivation, malnutrition, biological contamination, in vivo experimentation , bacteria, biological properties, birds, chickens, contamination, domestic animals, domesticated birds, enterobacteriaceae, experiments, galliformes, livestock, microbial properties, poultry, salmonella, useful animals, young animals

 

Leitner G; Heller ED (1992). Colonization of Escherichia coli in young turkeys and chickens. Avian Diseases 36(2): 211-220.

Department of Animal Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

In order to investigate the possibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli penetrating the bloodstream via the intestinal mucosa in normal and stressed turkeys and chickens, birds were inoculated orally with the bacteria or exposed environmentally to it. Immediately after hatch, intestines contained a substantial number of coliform bacteria that increased with time. In orally infected turkeys, the pathogenic bacteria (nalidixic-acid-resistant O78) replaced 10%-50% of the native coliform flora but could not be isolated from the trachea or blood. Environmentally exposed groups exhibited pathogenic bacteria in intestines but not in blood. Stressing of exposed turkeys resulted in isolation of the pathogenic bacteria from blood and even spleen. In orally infected broiler chickens, stress resulted in bacteremia and mortality. Chickens that were exposed to pathogenic bacteria at a young age and showed no mortality or morbidity demonstrated no detrimental effects due to challenge with the same pathogenic bacteria later in life. Stress seems to cause penetration of the pathogenic bacteria into the bloodstream, which in turn can cause severe disease and mortality.

Descriptors: *Chickens; *Escherichia coli--physiology--PH; *Escherichia coli Infections --veterinary--VE; *Poultry Diseases--microbiology--MI; *Turkeys ; Bacteremia--etiology--ET; Bacteremia--microbiology--MI; Bacteremia --veterinary--VE; Carrier State--microbiology--MI; Carrier State --veterinary--VE; Escherichia coli--isolation and purification--IP; Escherichia coli--pathogenicity--PY; Escherichia coli Infections--etiology --ET; Escherichia coli Infections--microbiology--MI; Food Deprivation; Heat--adverse effects--AE; Intestines--microbiology--MI; Poultry Diseases --etiology--ET; Spleen--microbiology--MI; Stress--complications--CO; Stress--veterinary--VE; Water Deprivation

 

Leitner G; Waiman R; Heller ED (2001). The effect of apramycin on colonization of pathogenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of chicks. Veterinary Quarterly (Netherlands ) 23(2): 62-66.

Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel.

            NAL Call Number: SF601 V46

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of apramycin sulphate on the colonization of pathogenic E. coli in the intestines of chicks. Apramycin treatment (0.5g/l in the drinking water) of 3-to 5-week-old Leghorn chicks for 24 or 48 hours resulted in a reduction, to an undetectable level, in the number of coliforms in the digestive tract for at least the first 24 h. Per os inoculation of E. coli (O2:K1) after 24 to 48 h of treatment resulted in a significant decrease in colony forming units (cfu) in the digestive tract of the treated chicks. Food deprivation from the time of inoculation did not significantly change the results. However, food and water deprivation caused bacteraemia in a number of the control chicks but not in the treated chicks. Comparison of the level of protection between Leghorn and broiler (Anak strain) chicks revealed that there was a significantly higher (P<0.05) level of bacteraemia in the broiler than in the Leghorn chicks. Chicks treated with 0.25 g/l or 0.125 g/l apramycin for 24 or 48 h before E. coli inoculation showed significantly lower cfu in the colon and caecum than untreated control chicks, but significantly higher cfu were found in the colon than in chicks treated with 0.5 g/l apramycin. Although in vitro preincubation of apramycin with ileum cells did not decrease the percentage of cells to which the bacteria adhered, the number of bacteria adhered per cell decreased significantly. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo results show that apramycin is effective against E. coli by preventing colonization of the gut by the bacteria, which could lead to a reduction of colibacillosis in poultry.

Descriptors: *Antibiotics, Aminoglycoside--pharmacology--PD; *Chickens; *Escherichia coli--drug effects--DE; *Escherichia coli Infections--veterinary--VE; *Nebramycin--analogs and derivatives--AA; *Nebramycin--pharmacology--PD; *Poultry Diseases--prevention and control--PC ; Bacteremia--etiology--ET; Bacteremia--veterinary--VE; Bacterial Adhesion --drug effects--DE; Cells, Cultured; Colony Count, Microbial--veterinary --VE; Escherichia coli--pathogenicity--PY; Escherichia coli Infections --drug therapy--DT; Escherichia coli Infections--prevention and control --PC; Food Deprivation; Intestines--microbiology--MI; Poultry Diseases --drug therapy--DT; 10Water Deprivation

 

Lloyd AB (1978). Salmonellosis and stress. Proceedings Second Australasian Poultry and Stock Feed Convention, 12-17 March, p.253-254.

            NAL Call Number: SF95 A8 1978

Descriptors: poultry, bacterial diseases, hygiene, cold zones, social behaviour, food deprivation, carrier state, predisposition, stress, poultry diseases, salmonellosis

 

Macri NP; Porter RE; Holt PS (1997). The effects of induced molting on the severity of acute intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enteritidis. Avian Diseases 41(1): 117-124.

Purdue University, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

This study describes and compares early inflammation caused by Salmonella enteritidis in molted and nonmolted hens. Adult white leghorn chickens were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis 4 days after feed removal. At 2, 4, 8, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after infection, the hens were euthanatized, and the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were evaluated by light microscopy. Two trials were conducted, and in both trials inflammation occurred more frequently and was significantly greater in the cecum and colon of molted-infected hens compared with nonmolted-infected hens beginning at 8 hr after infection. In one trial, inflammation was more severe in the ileum of molted-infected hens compared with nonmolted-infected hens. Results indicated that molting by feed deprivation shortened the time of onset and increased the severity of acute intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enteritidis.

Descriptors: chickens, salmonella enteritidis, molting, restricted feeding, disease course, inflammation, intestines, experimental infections

 

Maxwell MH; Robertson GW; Anderson IA; Dick LA; Lynch M (1991). Haematology and histopathology of seven-week-old broilers after early food restriction. Research in Veterinary Science 50(3): 290-297.

Agricultural and Food Research Council Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Edinburgh Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS (United Kingdom)

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312

Descriptors: chicks, broiler chickens, pathogenesis, deficiency diseases, blood , pathology, nutritional disorders, birds, chickens, disorders, domestic animals, domesticated birds, functional disorders, galliformes, livestock, meat animals, poultry, useful animals, young animals

 

McElroy AP; Manning JG; Jaeger LA; Taub M; Williams JD; Hargis BM (1994). Effect of prolonged administration of dietary capsaicin on broiler growth and Salmonella enteritidis susceptibility. Avian Diseases 38(2): 329-333.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

The effect of continuous (42 days) dietary administration of 5 or 20 ppm capsaicin to broiler chickens on Salmonella enteritidis susceptibility, body weight, and feed efficiency was investigated. Chickens were weighed at 1, 21, and 42 days of age. No significant differences in body weight or feed efficiency were observed. Chickens were challenged with 1 X 10(8) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis at 21, 28, or 42 days of age. The S. enteritidis-positive culture rate for cecal tonsils was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups receiving 5 ppm or 20 ppm dietary capsaicin than in the untreated control group at all challenge times. Dietary capsaicin (5 and 20 ppm) resulted in protection against S. enteritidis organ invasion at 28 days in one experiment and at both 21 and 42 days in the other. These results indicate that continual dietary capsaicin administration increases resistance to S. enteritidis colonization and organ invasion throughout the normal growth period without detrimental effects on growth in broiler chickens,

Descriptors: broilers, capsaicin, chemoprophylaxis, Salmonella enteritidis, susceptibility, disease prevention, body weight, feed conversion efficiency, growth rate, colonization

 

Mityushnikov VM; Kozharinova TA (1976). Effect of forced moulting on the resistance of hens to disease. Veterinariya, Moscow (No.8): 39-41.

Descriptors: disease resistance, moulting, animal husbandry, poultry

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Mohammed HO; Carpenter TE; Yamamoto R; Mcmartin DA (1986). Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial layers in Southern and Central California USA. Avian Disease 30(3): 519-526.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616.

The prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) in commercial pullet and layer flocks in Southern and Central California was estimated by testing serum and egg-yolk samples from 360 sample flocks in Southern California and 41 sample flocks in Central California. Data relating to potential risk factors associated with MG and MS infections were collected. The estimated true prevalence rate of MG was 73% in Southern California and 3% in Central California. The estimated true prevalence rate of MS was 91% in Southern California and 32% in Central California. Compared with uninfected flocks, MG-infected flocks in Southern California were significantly older and were medicated less (P < 0.05). More managements were under a multiple-age system, more flocks had molted, more were vaccinated with F-strain, and more had concurrent infection with MS (P < 0.05). Only one sample flock in Central California was MG-infected; none were vaccinated with F-strain. In Southern California, MS-infected flocks were older than uninfected flocks, more had molted, more were medicated, and more had concurrent infection with MG (P < 0.05). In Central California, MS-infected flocks did not differ significantly from uninfected flocks in any factor examined; the lack of statistical significance may be due to small sample size.

Descriptors: risk factors, age, medication, multiple-age management, molt history, F-strain, vaccination, concurrent infection

            Copyright© 2002, Biosis

 

Mondini S (1980). Cannibalism due to earthquake in laying hens after forced moult. [Cannibalismo (da terremoto?) in ovaiole da consumo in muta forzata]. Clinica Veterinaria 103(7): 456-458.

Ist. Allevamenti Zootecnici, Universita, Bologna, Italy

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 C61

When a previously successful method was used to induce moult in 7107 hens, 224 (3%) died in the following 10 days as a result of cannibalism. This had not occurred in the 400 000 already treated, the only difference this time being an earth tremor of intensity IV on the Mercalli scale on the day after moult induction.

Descriptors: etiology, disasters, moulting, cannibalism

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Nakamura M (1999). Transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and effect of stress on shedding in laying hens. In Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in humans and animals: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control, Saeed AM; Gast RK; Potter ME; Wall PG (Eds.), Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa, p.377-389.

            NAL Call Number: RA644 S15 S23 1999

Descriptors: disease transmission, stress, restraint of animals, vertical transmission, egg shell, contamination, experimental infections, water deprivation, food deprivation, social behaviour, heat, cold zones, poultry

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Nakamura M (1999). For right knowledge and correspondence of Salmonella enteritidis(SE). 146. Salmonella pollution control strategy of egg 1. For control of Salmonella food poison. Effect of stress on Salmonella infection of chicken. Keiranniku Joho (Poultry Magazine) 29(13): 40-46.

Kitasato Univ., Sch. of Vet. Med. and Anim. Sci.

Descriptors: Gallus, stress(physiology), Salmonella, bird disease, bacterium count, cecum, egg-laying, air duct(respiration), vitamin, rearing management, chicken egg, germ excluding, forced molting

 

Nakamura M (1999). Salmonella (SE) countermeasure in layer hen. (Japan chicken raising society S). Yokei Seisan Taio Shisutemu Kento Jigyo, p. 2-6.

Kitasato Univ., Sch. of Vet. Med. and Anim. Sci.

Descriptors: Salmonella enteritidis, Gallus, bird disease, salmonellosis, pathogenicity, USA, Japan, bacteria test, rearing management, stress(physiology), United Kingdom, Netherlands, prevention, Salmonella enteritidis, pullorum disease, forced molting

 

Nakamura M (1995). Effect of forced molting on the salmonellosis infection. Yokei Gijitsu to keiei 5: 9-13.

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, National Veterinary Assay Laboratory

Descriptors: rearing management, salmonellosis, bird disease, Salmonella enteritidis, Gallus, prevention of animal epidemic, heat stress, fasting

 

Nakamura M; Nagamine N; Takahashi T; Norimatsu M; Suzuki S; Sato S (1995). Intratracheal infection of chickens with Salmonella enteritidis and the effect of feed and water deprivation. Avian Diseases 39(4): 853-858.

Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori, Japan.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

The tissue distribution of Salmonella enteritidis in intratracheally inoculated chickens and the effect of deprivation of food and water on tissue distributions of the bacteria have been investigated. Seven-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated intratracheally with 10(2), 10(5), or 10(8) cells and orally with 10(5) cells. The intratracheally inoculated organisms entered the blood stream immediately after inoculation and produced generalized infection. Infection by the intratracheal route resulted in colonization of S. enteritidis in the cecum that was similar to infection by the oral route. The tissue distribution of S. enteritidis was markedly affected when chickens were deprived of food and water for a short time, demonstrating an increased susceptibility of chickens to S. enteritidis infection. This suggests that stresses such as food and water deprivation are one of the causes of the rapid dissemination of S. enteritidis among chickens in poultry houses.

Descriptors: chickens, salmonella enteritidis, experimental infection, trachea, application methods, stress, food deprivation, water deprivation, susceptibility, animal tissues, oral administration

 

Nakamura M; Nagamine N; Takahashi T; Suzuki S; Kijima M; Tamura Y; Sato S (1994). Horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis and effect of stress on shedding in laying hens. Avian Diseases 38(2): 282-288.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in laying hens and the short-term effect of stress on shedding were examined in 32 seven-month-old laying hens. Half were inoculated with 10(5) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis phage type 4, and the remaining half were left uninoculated to study horizontal transmission. Isolation of S. enteritidis from cecal droppings of all hens was attempted every morning. Uninoculated hens rapidly became infected through contaminated drinking water. Introduction of young chickens to the same rearing room and withdrawal of water and feed for 2 days coincided with a rapid increase in the shedding rate of S. enteritidis for a short period of time. The results showed that a short-term increase in the shedding rate of S. enteritidis is associated with short-term exposure to environmental stress.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, disease transmission, stress, dexamethasone, immunosuppression, egg production

 

Nakamura M; Saeed AM (ed.); Gast RK (ed.); Potter ME (ed.); Wall PG (1999). Transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and effect of stress on shedding in laying hens. In Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in humans and animals: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control, p. 377-389.

            NAL Call Number: RA644 S15 S23 1999

Descriptors: disease transmission, stress, restraint of animals, vertical transmission, egg shell, contamination, experimental infections, water deprivation, food deprivation, social behaviour, heat, cold zones

 

Nihon'yokeikyo (1998). Guideline of Salmonella countermeasure in egg-laying farm. Keiranniku Joho (Poultry Magazine) 28(19): 42-46.

Descriptors: laying hen, salmonellosis, bird disease, guiding principle, animal hygiene, microorganism test, rearing management, sterilization(disinfection), cleaning(sweeping), forced molting

 

Niwatori no Kenkyu (1998). Effect of feed additives. 3. Production of much high quality of chicken meat and eggs, by improving productivity. Supply of the safety food by using oligosaccharides. Niwatori no Kenkyu 73(10): 41-44.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 N64

Descriptors: commentary, Gallus, feed additive, oligosaccharide, diarrhea, umami, egg-laying, Salmonella, offensive odor, reducing sugar, rearing management, forced molting

 

Oyarzabal OA; Conner DE (1996). Application of direct-fed microbial bacteria and fructooligosaccharides for Salmonella control in broilers during feed withdrawal. Poultry Science 75(2): 186-190.

Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5416, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Providing direct-fed-microbial (DFM) bacteria and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) for the control of potential escalation of Salmonella colonization during simulated feed withdrawal and confinement was assessed. Eight hundred and eighty broilers (16 pens; 55 chicks per pen) were reared to 6 wk of age. Chicks were sprayed with a solution containing 10(6) nalidixic-acid resistant Salmonella typhimuriumNR cells per milliliter on the 2nd d after hatching. Because this first challenge did not yield a high infection rate, chickens were rechallenged per Os at Day 18 by providing water containing 10(7) cells of S. typhimuriumNR per milliliter. At 3 and 5 wk of age, 10 birds per pen were euthanatized and cecal Salmonella were quantified (log colony-forming units per gram). Feed was removed from all pens at 6 wk, and pens were randomly assigned to be either the treatment group or the control group. The treatment groups were provided a DFM (mixture of nine bacteria) and FOS 50 ®) (10%) in the drinking water. The control groups received drinking water only. After 6 h of feed withdrawal, chickens were cooped (eight per coop) and held 10 h. Immediately after confinement, 10 chickens were used for cecal enumeration of S. typhimuriumNR. Salmonella colonization declined from 99% at 3 wk to 44% at 5 wk. After feed withdrawal, application of the treatment, and confinement, 11 and 14% of the treated and control groups, respectively, yielded S. typhimuriumNR by direct plating from ceca (3.87 and 3.75 log 10 cfu/g, respectively). No difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella colonization occurred between the treated and the control groups; however, enrichment of ceca (incubation in nutrient broth at 37 C for 24 h) yielded a higher incidence of S. typhimuriumNR in the control groups (32% in the treated vs 51% in the control). Ceca weights were greater in the treated group (P < 0.05). Simulated feed withdrawal and confinement did not escalate Salmonella colonization in the chicken ceca.

Descriptors: *Diet--veterinary--VE; *Food Deprivation--physiology--PH; *Lactobacillus --physiology--PH; *Oligosaccharides--pharmacology--PD; *Poultry Diseases --prevention and control--PC; *Salmonella--growth and development--GD; *Salmonella Infections, Animal--prevention and control--PC ; Cecum--microbiology--MI; Chickens; Diet--standards--ST; Drinking --physiology--PH; Eating--physiology--PH; Enterococcus faecium--isolation and purification--IP; Enterococcus faecium--physiology--PH; Lactobacillus --isolation and purification--IP; Lactococcus lactis--isolation and purification--IP; Lactococcus lactis--physiology--PH; Oligosaccharides --administration and dosage--AD; Pediococcus--isolation and purification --IP; Pediococcus--physiology--PH; Poultry Diseases--diet therapy--DH; Poultry Diseases--physiopathology--PP; Propionibacterium--isolation and purification--IP; Propionibacterium--physiology--PH; Salmonella--isolation and purification--IP; Salmonella Infections, Animal--diet therapy--DH; Salmonella Infections, Animal--physiopathology--PP; Salmonella typhimurium --isolation and purification--IP; Water Microbiology

 

Palmu L; Camelin I (1997). The use of competitive exclusion in broilers to reduce the level of Salmonella contamination on the farm and at the processing plant. Poultry Science 76(11): 1501-1505.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

The effect of a competitive exclusion (CE) product, Broilact, on Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens was studied on the farm and at the processing plant. In the first part of the study, two flocks per week, a CE-treated and an untreated control flock, were placed in similar broiler houses. The CE treatment was administered in the hatchery using a modified spray vaccination cabinet. Salmonella was analyzed from the paper pads of the transport boxes on arrival at the farm and from fecal samples taken 2 wk before slaughter. The results of Salmonella sampling were received for 67 flocks. The other 141 flocks of the company that were reared during the trial period were also sampled for Salmonella and the results were compared to those of treatment and control groups. Broiler performance, including mortality, weight, and feed conversion, was recorded for the trial flocks. In the second part of the study, Salmonella contamination of neck skin samples taken at the processing plant from 18 CE-treated and 28 control flocks was compared. The Broilact®-treatment significantly reduced Salmonella contamination both on the farm and at the processing plant. At the level of the farm, the percentage of Salmonella-positive flocks was essentially the same in the control flocks and in other flocks reared during the trial period. An improvement in broiler performance was indicated, although the difference was not significant.

Descriptors: poultry, Salmonella, farm hygiene, slaughter hygiene, field trial

 

Pimentel JL; Cook ME; Greger JL (1991). Immune response of chicks fed various levels of zinc. Poultry Science 70(4): 947-954.

University of Wisconsin, Department of Poultry Science, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

In 5 experiments, the effects of zinc intake on immune response of chicks was studied. 144 Ancona chicks (experiment 1), 180 New Hampshire (experiment 2), 88 New Hampshire X Leghorn (experiment 3), and 280 broiler chicks (experiments 4 and 5) were fed semipurified (experiments, 1, 2, 3 and 4) or maize and soyabean meal diets (experiment 5) containing Zn from 8 to 88 ╡g/g of diet. An extra group of chicks in experiments 1, 2 and 4 were fed on a diet adequate in Zn, but pair fed to intakes of chicks fed the lowest Zn level in each respective experiment. Low Zn intake (less than 28 ╡g/g of diet) suppressed body weight at all times measured. The effect of Zn intake on the size of lymphoid tissues was variable, but at 5 weeks old, chicks given Zn 8 ╡g/g of diet had smaller bursae of Fabricius and thymi than those given additional Zn. Zn intake had no influence on primary and secondary immune response to sheep red blood cells or delayed hypersensitivity to phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA) or human gamma globulin in Ancona and broiler chicks. However, Zn intake did have a small effect in chicks with New Hampshire parents. In experiments 1, 2 and 4 (at least at certain times), antibody titres were reduced in pair-fed chicks. Thus, although Zn supplementation at the levels of practical diets did not affect immune function, feed restriction did.

Descriptors: immune response, restricted feeding, zinc intake

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Porter RE; Holt PS (1993). Effect of induced molting on the severity of intestinal lesions caused by Salmonella enteritidis infection in chickens. Avian Diseases 37(4): 1009-1016.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

A study was conducted to describe the intestinal lesions caused by Salmonella enteritidis infection in 20-, 40-, and 74-week-old white leghorn chickens that were undergoing a feed deprivation-induced molt. The chickens were infected on the fourth day after feed was removed. At 4 days postinfection (8 days of feed deprivation), cecal and cecal tonsil inflammation was significantly greater in molted infected chickens than in unmolted infected chickens. The cecal lamina propria and epithelium of molted infected chickens contained heterophilic infiltrates, and there were heterophils and sloughed epithelial cells in cecal lumina. Colonic inflammation, consisting of heterophils infiltrating lamina propria and epithelium, occurred more often in molted infected chickens than in unmolted infected chickens. Immunoperoxidase staining of intestinal sections from 20- and 40-week-old chickens revealed S. enteritidis antigen in the lamina propria of cecum, cecal tonsil, and occasionally the colon of molted infected chickens. The character of the S. enteritidis-induced intestinal lesions associated with molting was similar for different ages of birds.

Descriptors: chickens, salmonella enteritidis, disease course, intestines, histopathology, molting, restricted feeding, age differences

 

Porter RE Jr; Holt PS (1992). Effect of induced molting on the intestinal lesions caused by Salmonella enteritidis in different aged hens. Poultry Science 71(Suppl.1): 169.

USDA/ARS, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA. 30605

            NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Descriptors: bacteria, microorganism, starvation, poultry industry, feed industry

 

Praharaj NK (1996). Nutrition and the immune response in chickens. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 31(1): 1-5.

Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India.

            NAL Call Number: SF481 I5

The effects of feed restriction and nutrients (energy, amino acids, vitamins and minerals) on immune response in chickens are reviewed. Nutrient requirements of the immune system are different from those of other body tissues. Therefore, immunosuppression may occur when nutrient requirements are based on criteria, such as genetic stock, body weight gain, rate of production and husbandry practices. In the formulation of diets, attention should be given to requirements of those nutrients that are associated with the development of the immune system and the degree of protection required against diseases.

Descriptors: immune response, nutrition, restricted feeding, immunity, nutrient requirements, reviews

            Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Ramirez GA; Sarlin LL; Caldwell DJ; Yezak CR Jr.; Hume ME; Corrier DE; DeLoach JR; Hargis BM (1997). Effect of feed withdrawal on the incidence of Salmonella in the crops and ceca of market age broiler chickens. Poultry Science 76(4): 654-656.

Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Texas

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

Previous research regarding Salmonella contamination in poultry has focused predominantly on cecal and intestinal contamination. Recently, the crop has been implicated as an important source of carcass contamination within the processing plant. In the present study, broiler chickens were orally challenged with 1 X 10(8) cfu S. enteritidis at 6 wk of age. At 7 wk of age, birds were randomly divided into two groups consisting of full access to feed, or total feed withdrawal, 18 h prior to sample collection. At the time of sample collection, crops and ceca were aseptically removed and cultured for the presence or absence of S. enteritidis by enrichment. The incidence of S. enteritidis-positive crops was consistently higher (range: 2.8- to 7.3-fold increases) following feed withdrawal than the incidence in samples collected from full-fed broilers in four experiments. Similarly, the incidence of S. enteritidis isolation was consistently higher (range: 1.4- to 2.1-fold increases) in ceca following feed withdrawal than in samples collected from full-fed broilers in these experiments. In a subsequent experiment, ceca and crops were aseptically collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella immediately prior to or following 8 h feed withdrawal at a commercial broiler house. Similar to the laboratory experiments, the incidence of Salmonella isolation was significantly (P < 0.01) greater from crops following feed withdrawal (36/100) than from samples obtained immediately prior to withdrawal (19/100). However, the incidence of Salmonella in the ceca was not significantly higher following feed withdrawal (31/100) than in samples obtained immediately prior to withdrawal (25/100) in this field experiment. These studies indicate that feed withdrawal increases the incidence of Salmonella in broiler crops prior to slaughter and provide further evidence that the crop may be an important critical control point for reducing Salmonella contamination of broiler carcasses.

Descriptors: broilers, salmonella enteritidis, oral administration, experimental infection, crop, food deprivation, starvation, cecum, slaughter

 

Rigby CE; Pettit JR (1981). Effects of feed withdrawal on the weight, fecal excretion and Salmonella status of market age broiler chickens. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 45(4): 363-365.

Anim. Path. Lab., 116 Veterinary Rd, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 2R3, Canada.

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 C162

In 7-week-old fowls, previously infected with S. typhimurium, withdrawal of feed for 8 hours before being crated for 18 hours (to simulate transportation), had little effect on live weight, but reduced intestine weight in 84 of 120 birds, and caecal weight in 60 of 132; it greatly reduced faecal excretion, but there was no consistent effect on salmonella excretion. Feed withdrawal may be an effective means of reducing the spread of salmonella through faecal contamination during transport.

Descriptors: bacterial diseases, feces, poultry, epidemiology, food deprivation, transport of animals, poultry diseases, salmonellosis, fecal transmission

 

Rigby CE; Pettit JR (1979). Some factors affecting Salmonella typhimurium infection and shedding in chickens raised on litter. Avian Diseases 23(2): 442-455.

Anim. Dis. Res. Inst., PO Box 11300, Station H, Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8P9, Canada

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

Inapparent Salmonella typhimurium (S.t.) infection of chickens placed at different ages on contaminated pinewood-shaving litter was studied in three sequential trials. Infection spread rapidly through chicks on new litter contaminated by infected seeders. As the flock matured, fewer birds were infected, and the number of organisms in their caeca and faeces decreased. After 87 days, 36/59 were infected, 7 were shedding, and the litter contained 104 S.t. per g. 30 three-day-old chickens placed on this litter readily became infected; 28 days later, although the number of S.t. in the litter had fallen to 102/g, 28/80 birds were infected, and 8 were shedding. Two days later, 63-day-old chickens were placed on this 131-day-old litter, and 32 days later, 41/50 birds were infected and 23 were shedding, although the litter contained only 102 organisms/g. Removing infected 24-day-old chicks to a wire cage hastened the age-related decline in faecal excretion of S.t. Subjecting chickens to "transport stress" (crowding, motion, chilling, and food and water deprivation) did not increase shedding or detectable infection, although the average weights of both caecal and cloacal contents increased.

Descriptors: bacterial diseases, transport of animals, epidemiology, age, floor husbandry, poultry, litter, salmonellosis, excretion of salmonella, salmonella contamination, infection in fowl

 

Rozak; Ungerer T; Nasution SH (1992). Effect of stress from feed and drinkwater restriction on hormone level and body resistance reaction of chickens. [Pengaruh stress pengurangan makanan dan minuman terhadap kadar hormon dan kadar reaksi alat pertahanan tubuh]. Gema Penelitian 5(1): 17.

            NAL Call Number: S471 I5G45

Descriptors: chickens, feed consumption, starvation, water deprivation, forced moulting, stress, antibodies, leukocytes, erythrocytes , biological development, birds, blood, blood cells, cells, consumption, domestic animals, domesticated birds, feeding, galliformes, immunological factors, immunology, livestock, moulting, poultry

 

Ruszler PL (1998). Health and husbandry considerations of induced molting. Poultry Science 77(12): 1789-1793.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

NAL Call Number: 47.8 Am33P

There have been many methods proposed to induce molting. Some worked very well in practice, but others were detrimental to the health and welfare of the hens. The most effective methods use some level of feed restriction and daylength manipulation to reduce body weight (Hansen, 1966; Ruszler, 1974, 1984, 1996; Swanson and Bell, 1974; Brake and Carey, 1983). Weight reduction is necessary for rest and rejuvenation of body tissues. Other methods evaluated incorporated dietary imbalances using either zinc, iodine, or sodium. Pharmaceuticals have been used but have not been cost effective. In recent years there have been those who question whether molting techniques are humane. Therefore, interest has been heightened in alternate methods to induce molting. Research reported to date has been inadequate to accurately determine which methods of induced molting are the least stressful, if they in fact, cause any more stress than that experienced by the hen during a natural molt. The three or four most highly refined methods being used commercially are not generally detrimental to the health and welfare of today's laying hen, provided that they are managed in accordance with proper husbandry practices.

Descriptors: hens, molting, starvation, duration, animal welfare, restricted feeding, protein intake, weight losses, light regime, oyster shells, calcium, laying performance

 

Saeed AM; Gast RK; Potter ME; Wall PG (eds.) (1999). Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in humans and animals: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control, Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa, 443 p. ISBN: 0-8138-2707-8

            NAL Call Number: RA644 S15 S23 1999

This book was prepared with the help of 84 international scholars and scientists. A wide coverage of the epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is given in 4 parts. Part 1, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis epidemiological and public health considerations: a global prospective, has 12 chapters on the epidemiology in the UK, United States, France, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy. The second part, Molecular epidemiology, has 4 chapters on methods of differentiation, molecular markers, phenotypic and genotypic characterization and molecular biological markers. Part 3, Virulence and pathogenesis, has 7 chapters on virulence, contamination of eggs and poultry, vertical transmission, phage type and outer membrane protein characteristics, experimental infection models, and the role of fimbriae in pathogenesis. Part 4, Prevention and control, has an introduction and 15 chapters. These cover economic consequences of infection in man and on the US egg industry, disease control in Sweden, the US National Poultry Improvement Plan, epidemiology in UK flocks, infection in poultry and rodents in the US, prevalence in unpasteurized eggs and aged laying hens, the Pilot Project in Pennsylvania, USA, the effect of induced moulting on immunity in hens, transmission caused by stress in hens, competitive exclusion, immunization and immunoprophylaxis, and culture methods for isolation of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Papers are well illustrated with diagrams and maps. There is an index.

Descriptors: zoonoses, public health, eggs, poultry, disease control, epidemiology

 

Seo KH; Holt PS; Gast RK; Hofacre CL (2000). Combined effect of antibiotic and competitive exclusion treatment on Salmonella enteritidis fecal shedding in molted laying hens. Journal of Food Protection 63(4): 545-548.

NAL Call Number: 44.8 J824

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA.

Salmonella enteritidis is an important pathogen for the layer industry, primarily because of its ability to infect hens and ultimately contaminate egg contents. Studies have shown that stress situations, such as flock recycling (induced molting), can increase Salmonella Enteritidis problems in the flock. The present study examined the effect of antibiotic treatment and competitive exclusion (CE) on Salmonella Enteritidis shedding in the period following molt and 14-day feed withdrawal. In two separate trials, 48 birds after molt and feed withdrawal were divided into one group that was treated for 10 days with enrofloxacin in water followed by administration of CE culture and a group that was left untreated. Salmonella Enteritidis shedding was significantly reduced in the antibiotic-CE group. The Salmonella Enteritidis shedding rate was 33 and 25% in untreated birds versus 4 and 0% in the enrofloxacin-CE group on the two test days. These results indicate that treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis-positive laying hens after molting with enrofloxacin and CE culture can substantially reduce Salmonella Enteritidis problems due to molting and would be a possible alternative to diverting eggs for pasteurization or slaughtering the infected flock. Possible development of bacterial resistance in conjunction with antibiotic use is also discussed.

Descriptors: hens, salmonella enteritidis, shedding, poultry droppings, enrofloxacin, drug therapy, cell cultures, time, molting, restricted feeding, salmonellosis, competitive exclusion cultures, feed withdrawal, induced molting, intestinal shedding

 

Seo KH; Holt PS; Gast RK (2001). Comparison of Salmonella enteritidis infection in hens molted via long-term feed withdrawal versus full-fed wheat middling. Journal of Food Protection 64(12): 1917-1921.

USDA/ARS Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia 30605 USA.

            NAL Call Number: 44.8 J824

Molting is an important economic management tool for the layer industry as a means of maximizing the effective laying life of a flock. Previous work has shown that molting birds through feed removal (FM) increased the severity of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection. The current study was conducted to follow the progression of an SE infection in unmolted hens versus hens molted via 14-day FM or ad libitum feeding of wheat middlings (WM), in the presence or absence of 2.5% lactose administered in the drinking water. In two trials of the experiment, all hens were infected with approximately 1 x 10(7) SE at day 4 of molt and sampled for SE shedding on days 4, 10, 17, and 24 postinfection (PI). Organ levels of SE were determined on day 7 PI. All molt procedures caused cessation of egg lay within 3 to 7 days. In trials 1 and 2, birds subjected to total FM shed 3 to 5 logs more SE than either the control birds (unmolted) or the birds fed WM on days 4 and 10 PI. Liver and spleen, ovary, and cecum counts were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fasted birds in one trial and liver and spleen and cecum counts in the second. No differences in any of the SE counts were observed in unmolted versus WM-fed birds. Lactose supplementation in drinking water did not provide any advantage in reducing SE infection in either trial. These results indicate that there are alternative methods to long-term FM that can be used to molt birds and not increase the risk for SE problems. How these alternative methods compare with FM with regard to second-cycle egg production and the mechanisms involved in the reduced SE shedding remain to be investigated.

Descriptors: *Chickens--physiology--PH; *Poultry Diseases--microbiology--MI; *Salmonella Infections, Animal--transmission--TM; *Salmonella enteritidis--isolation and purification--IP; Animal Feed; Animal Husbandry--methods--MT; Colony Count, Microbial; Eggs; Feces--microbiology--MI; Food Deprivation; Poultry Diseases--epidemiology --EP; Poultry Diseases--transmission--TM; Recurrence; Salmonella Infections, Animal--epidemiology--EP; Salmonella Infections, Animal --microbiology--MI; Time Factors

 

Shcherbina PF (1986). Natural stressor resistance of hens of different genotypes with combs of different shapes. Soviet Agricultural Sciences 4: 68-72. [Translated from: Vsesoiuznaia akademiia sel'skokhoziaistvennykh nauk, Doklady, (4), 1986, p. 38-40.]

NAL Call Number: S1.S68

Descriptors: hens, genotypes, stress, resistance, molting, forced molting

 

Souza ERN de (2000). Study of the presence of Salmonella sp in layers submitted to forced moulting [Estudo da presenca de Salmonella sp em poedeiras submetidas a muda forcada]. Thesis Degree: Tese (Mestre em Microbiologia dos Alimentos), Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil), 37 p.

Availability: CENAGRI, CP 02432, 70043-900 Brasilia, DF - Brazil.

Descriptors in English: layer chickens, forced moulting, salmonella, rations, eggs, microbiological analysis, infection , animal husbandry methods, animal products, bacteria, biological analysis, birds, chickens, disease transmission, domestic animals, enterobacteriaceae, galliformes, livestock, pathogenesis, poultry

 

Tellez GI; Jaeger L; Dean CE; Corrier DE; DeLoach JR; Williams JD; Hargis BM (1993). Effect of prolonged administration of dietary capsaicin on Salmonella enteritidis infection in leghorn chicks. Avian Diseases 37(1): 143-148.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

The effect of 14 or 19 days of dietary capsaicin (18 ppm) on Salmonella enteritidis infection and histological, morphometric, and pH changes of the ceca was investigated. At day 13 or day 18, chicks were challenged with 10(8) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis. Chicks were killed and cultured 24 hours later. The total number of S. enteritidis-organ-culture-positive chicks was significantly lower among chicks fed capsaicin for either 14 or 19 days than among controls (P <0.05). Subjective histological examination revealed a mild to moderate infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophils in lamina propria of ceca, as well as epithelial cell proliferation in chicks following either 14 or 19 days of capsaicin administration. Using morphometric analysis, the mean lamina propria thickness and mean epithelial cell thickness in chickens fed capsaicin for 14 or 19 days were significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.65). Capsaicin significantly decreased luminal pH in both trials (P < 0.05). These data indicate that the observed capsaicin-induced resistance to S. enteritidis organ invasion is associated with measurable pH and morphological changes of the cecal mucosa.

Descriptors: chicks, capsaicin, Salmonella enteritidis, colonization, cecum, histopathology, pH, intestinal mucosa

 

Terachi H; Tanimoto A; Otani Y; Yano M; Sumii K; Takahashi M (1999). Food hygienic countermeasure against hen's eggs contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. Hiroshimaken Jui Gakkai Zasshi (Hiroshima Journal of Veterinary Medicine) 14: 107-112.

Descriptors: chicken egg, Salmonella enteritidis, food hygiene, survey on actual situation, chicken raising, animal hygiene, food distribution, microorganism test, storage stability

 

To S; Nagino K; Kuroda N; Goto K (1998). Field Experiences with Monitoring and Reducing Salmonella in Layer Farms. Keibyo Kenkyu Kaiho (Journal of the Japanese Society of Poultry Diseases) 34, zokango: 7-11.

Descriptors: laying hen, Salmonella, animal hygiene, Salmonella enteritidis, antibacterial drug, Lactobacillus preparation, rearing management, cleaning(purification), pathogen control, Fukuoka prefect, forced molting

 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (1998). Salmonella

Enteritidis Risk Assessment: Shell Eggs and Egg Products. Final Report.

Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/risk/index.htm

            NAL Call Number: aQR201 S25S25 1998

 

Weinack OM; Snoeyenbos GH; Soerjadi-Liem AS; Smyser CF (1985). Influence of temperature, social, and dietary stress on development and stability of protective microflora in chickens against S. typhimurium. Avian Diseases 29(4): 1177-1183.

Dep. Vet. Anim. Sci., Univ., Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

            NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5

In the 1-day-old chick, physiological stress in the form of high (40.6-43 deg C) or low (10-16 deg C) temperatures of feed and water deprivation either interfered with colonization or altered the protection provided by the normal intestinal microflora against subsequent challenge with S. typhimurium. The response was more obvious after individual exposure of chicks to salmonella than after exposure to infected seeders. Physiological and dietary stress at 2 weeks of age did not appreciably alter the S. typhimirium excretion pattern in treated chicks. The protective micoflora appeared to be stable under these stress conditions.

Descriptors: poultry, susceptibility, prevention, intestinal microorganisms, stress, salmonellosis, bacterial diseases, poultry diseases, Salmonella exclusion

 

Yamauchi K; Nakanishi U (1997). Poultry farmers group making effort to produce safe eggs and sanitation guidance. Yokei no Tomo 427: 21-24.

Miekenkitasekachikuhoken'eisho

Descriptors: chicken egg, laying hen, rearing management, animal hygiene, Salmonella, microorganism contamination, microorganism test, food hygiene, prevention of animal epidemic, Mie prefect

 

Zakia AMA; El-Khashab E; El-Nabarawi AM; El-Jaky J (1995). Effect of light and food withdrawal on the broiler responses to heat stress and/or Salmonella typhimurium infection at early growing stage. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 43(4): 461-468.

Dept. of Hygiene, Husbandry and Zoonoses, Fac. Veg. Med., Zagazig University, Egypt

            NAL Call Number: SF604 C13

Eight-day-old broilers were exposed to heat stress of 40 deg C for a period of 4 h each day for 4 days (1000-1400 h). The birds were inoculated with S. typhimurium at 9 days of age by intercrop instillation of 0.1 ml of 106 CFU. The birds were kept under good husbandry with ample floor area (200 cm width x 200 cm length x 210 cm height/pen). Birds were divided in 3 groups which received either no food (starting 2 h before the heat stress), no light or both available during the hot period, with uninfected controls for each regimen. Food and light withdrawal had no significant effect on body weight gains throughout the experiment. All treatments had decreased body weights at the end of the 2nd and 3rd week compared to the controls. Alleviating heat stress by light and food withdrawal showed a significant decrease in rate of reisolation of S. typhimurium from all internal organs of the infected birds. No significant differences were detected in weights of liver and spleen between all treatments and controls, whereas there was a significant difference in the weights of the Fabricius bursa between the treatments and controls. Mortality rate was highest in the Salmonella-infected birds (24%) and lowest (10%) in the heat stressed birds with access to food and light.

Descriptors: poultry, heat, stress, husbandry, weight gain, mortality, heat stress, lighting, food deprivation, bacterial diseases, Salmonella typhimurium



PRESS RELEASE


Hot Pepper May Prevent Salmonella In Poultry

October 29, 2001

Contact: Audrey McElroy

Department of Poultry Science, Virginia Polytechnic University

[Ed. Note: See also CSREES Reports for project report]


Adding capsaicin, the spicy component of peppers, to the diet of broiler chicks appears to increase their resistance to Salmonella, according to Audrey McElroy, poultry science researcher at Virginia Tech.


As a student, McElroy and her advisor got the idea of feeding hot pepper oil to chickens while they were eating hamburgers covered with jalapeno peppers. When they wondered why people like spicy food even though it often causes a runny nose and other ill effects, a Mexican student said that people in his country believe spices provide protection from disease.

The researchers hypothesized that a diet that included some form of hot peppers might protect poultry from intestinal disease. Salmonella typically results in little to no observable illness in chickens, but can cause human illness.


They divided 1,530 chicks into three groups and fed each group a standard corn and soybean meal-based diet for 42 days. McElroy fed the plain feed to the first group, added five parts per million of pure capsaicin to second group's feed, and 20 parts per million to the third group's feed. She administered Salmonella enteritidis to the chicks at 21, 28, and 42 days of age. Both the low and the high level of capsaicin increased resistance to the Salmonella without adversely affecting feed consumption, weight gain, or the taste of the chicken when cooked.

"The capsaicin appears to cause a mild inflammation in the intestines," she says.

She's investigating the possibility that the capsaicin-induced inflammation might make it more difficult for the Salmonella to bind to the intestinal cells and, from there, to invade the blood, liver, and spleen.


"Or," she says, "it may be that the capsaicin acts on the intestine to recruit immune cells, which then fight off the Salmonella."


Her current research is designed to evaluate any observable effects of capsaicin directly on Salmonella in laboratory conditions the effects of capsaicin on the intestinal environment, and the most economical scheme of feeding capsaicin to poultry.


The poultry seem to have no objections to the taste or sting of the capsaicin.


Contact Dr. McElroy at 540-231-8750 or amcelroy@vt.edu



Selected Websites


Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture Projects:


Detection And Control Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Poultry

http://nps.ars.usda.gov/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=404010


Evaluation Of Strategies For Induced Molting On Salmonella Enteritidis Problems In Laying Flocks

http://nps.ars.usda.gov/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=404430


Molecular Pathobiology And Epidemiology Of Egg-Contaminating Salmonella Enteritidis

http://nps.ars.usda.gov/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=405800


Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory

http://nps.ars.usda.gov/locations/locations.htm?modecode=66-12-07-00 (links to research projects)
http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/ (laboratory homepage)



Egg Safety From Production to Consumption: An Action Plan to Eliminate Salmonella Enteritidis Illnesses Due to Eggs December 10, 1999: President's Council on Food Safety

http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/ceggs.html


Focus On Shell Eggs: Food Safety and Inspection Service

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OA/pubs/shelleggs.htm


Good Management Practices for Salmonella Risk Reduction in the Production of Table Eggs: University of Minnesota Extension Service

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/livestocksystems/DI6054.html


Joint FAO/WHO Activities on Risk Assessment of Microbiological Hazards in Foods. Risk Assessment: Salmonella spp. In Broilers and Eggs. Preliminary Report Prepared for Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Risk Assessment of Microbiological Hazards in Foods, FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy, 17 - 21 July 2000

http://www.who.int/fsf/Micro/Report_of%20_July2000_Consultation.pdf


The National Poultry Improvement Plan

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/npip/


Project No. 15: Effects of a Variety of Stress Factors on the Immune Systems of Poultry and Subsequent Infection of Shell Eggs by Salmonella enteritidis: US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Nutrition

http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/3fs3re15.html


Public Meeting on Salmonella enteritidis Research Hapeville, Georgia, September 8, 2000, Transcript of Proceedings: U. S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture

http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/egg0900.html


Salmonella
http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/
Includes information on outbreaks from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s FoodNet.

Salmonella Control And Molting Of Egg-Laying Flocks--Are They Compatible: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/vm017


Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in Table Eggs-NAHMS Layers '99 (October, 2000)

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cahm/Poultry/poult.htm


Salmonella enteritidis and molting California Poultry Letter March/April 2001 Cooperative Extension - University of California at Davis

http://animalscience.ucdavis.edu/Avian/cpl301.pdf


Salmonella enteritidis in Eggs. AGENCIES: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA; Food and Drug Administration, HHS.ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking; request for comments. Federal Register.

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/97N-0322.htm


U.S. Poultry & Egg Association position papers: Induced Molting in the Layer Industry

http://www.poultryegg.org/positionpapers/docs/moltingposp.PDF

 

Valuing Pain and Suffering and Lost Productivity: Measuring the Pain, Suffering, and Functional Disability Associated with Foodborne Illness (Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in shell eggs and egg products)

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/mp1570/mp1570g.pdf



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Updated May 13, 2005