Alexander, D.J.; Manvell, R.J.; Lowings, J.P.; Frost, K.M.; Collins, M.S.; Russell, P.H.; Smith, J.E. Antigenic diversity and similarities detected in avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) isolates using monoclonal antibodies. Avian Pathology. June 1997. v. 26 (2) p. 399-418. ISSN: 0307-9457   Note: Summaries in French, German and Spanish.  

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Newcastle disease (ND) virus (APMV-1) isolates submitted to the International Reference Laboratory for ND were characterised antigenically by their ability to cause binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cell cultures infected with the isolate. Since the availability of the mAbs 1526 viruses have been examined using a panel of nine mAbs and 818 with an extended panel of 26 mAbs. Using the nine mAb panel a total of 14 different patterns was seen and viruses grouped by the same pattern showed relationships with each other which were either biological, temporal or geographical or more than one of these. There was a marked tendency of viruses placed in the same group to show similar virulence for chickens. Extension of the panel to 26 mAbs produced 39 distinct patterns, although some of these were seen with only a single virus. Again, viruses inducing similar binding patterns shared similar properties and some binding patterns were specific for viruses causing discrete epizootics. Cluster analysis of the mAb binding patterns did not produce concise, discrete groupings, but did emphasise some relationships between virus properties and antigenicity. Examples of the usefulness of this approach were the ability to link two important outbreaks to the contamination of stored food by infected feral pigeons, and the demonstration of two separate viruses responsible for outbreaks in countries of the European Union during 1991 to 1994 thus preventing erroneous epizootiological tracing.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, antigenic variation, monoclonal antibodies, virulence, chickens, antigens, binding, cluster analysis.


Cadman, H.F.; Kelly, P.J.; De Angelis, N.D.; Rohde, C.; Collins, N.; Zulu, T.  Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination inhibition test for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in ostriches (Struthio camelus).  Avian Pathology. June 1997. v. 26 (2) p. 357-363.  ISSN: 0307-9457 Note:  Summaries in French, German and Spanish.

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Reactivity of ostrich sera to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test were compared. Ten-month old ostriches seronegative by both tests were vaccinated with an oil-based NDV vaccine on days 0 and 11. Significant levels of reactive antibodies were first detected on day 11 by ELISA (sample/positive ratio > 0.2 in 11/20 birds; 55%) and HI (titre > 1/8 in 10/20 birds; 50%). At the end of the experiment (day 37) all birds had significant antibody levels by ELISA, but only 16/20 (80%) by HI test. There was a sigmoidal relationship (r= 0.62, 3rd degree polynomial) between antibody levels detected by ELISA and by HI test. Antibodies reactive with NDV in naturally exposed ostriches from Zimbabwe and Botswana were also detected by ELISA (112/165; 68%) and HI (85/165; 52%).

Descriptors:  ostriches, Newcastle disease virus, ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition test, antibodies, detection, vaccination, Newcastle disease, diagnostic value.


Deng, R.; Mirza, A.M.; Mahon, P.J.; Iorio, R.M.  Functional chimeric HN glycoproteins derived from Newcastle disease virus and human parainfluenza virus-3.  Archives of Virology, Supplementum. 1997. (suppl. 13) p. 115-130. ISSN: 0939-1983  Note: Paper presented at the 9th Munich Symposium on Microbiology entitled "Viral Zoonoses and Food of Animal Origin: a Re-Evaluation of Possible Hazards for Human Health," Munich. Edited by O.R. Kaaden, C.P. Czerny, and W. Eichhorn.

NAL call no: QR355.A72

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, chimeras, envelope proteins, viral hemagglutinins, sialidase, enzyme activity, molecular conformation, amino acid sequences.


Errington, W.; Emmerson, P.T.  Assembly of recombinant Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein into nucleocapsid-like structures is inhibited by the phosphoprotein.  The Journal of General Virology. Sept 1997. v. 78 (pt. 9) p. 2335-2339. ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  A recombinant baculovirus expressing the nucleocapsid gene (NP) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the genus Rubulavirus, has been generated and shown to express the native protein to high levels in insect cells. In contrast to the NP protein of the rubulavirus human parainfluenza virus 2, the NDV protein has been demonstrated by electron microscopy and caesium chloride gradient analysis to be capable of self-assembly in vivo to form nucleocapsid-like structures in the absence of other NDV proteins. These structures, which contained RNA that was resistant to micrococcal nuclease digestion, were also observed when the protein was expressed in E. coli, a phenomenon which was not inhibited by the presence of a 40 amino acid fusion region at the amino terminus of the protein. Further, the formation of these structures was inhibited by the co-expression of the phosphoprotein (P). Therefore, we conclude that the P protein acts as a chaperone, preventing uncontrolled encapsulation of non-viral RNA by NP protein.

Descriptors:  nucleocapsid protein gene, phosphoprotein inhibition, recombinant baculovirus.


Folitse, Raphael Deladem.  Early Diagnosis and Control of Newcastle Disease in Chickens. 1997. vii, 86 leaves, ill.  Note: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Minnesota, 1997.

Descriptors: chickens, diagnosis, prevention and control.


Friedman, A.; Sklan, D.  Effect of dietary fatty acids on humoral immune response of turkeys.

British Poultry Science. Sept 1997. v. 38 (4) p. 342-348. ISSN: 0007-1668

NAL call no:  47.8 B77

Abstract:  1. This study examined the effect of increasing amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition in serum and antibody production following a standard vaccination programme in growing turkeys. Turkey poults were fed on 5 diets containing 75g/kg added fat made up of different proportions of palm and soyabean oils, and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and necrotic enteritis according to a standard vaccination programme. Blood samples were taken before and one week after each vaccination. 2. Fatty acid composition in serum reflected the composition of the diets although arachidonic acid concentration was not changed by dietary fatty acid content. Growth, erythrocyte and leukocyte parameters were not affected by the respective diets. 3. Specific antibody production was related quadratically to serum linoleic and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. No correlation was found with linolenic or arachidonic acids. 4. It is concluded that dietary fatty acid composition can augment the specific anti-vaccine immune response in turkey poults.

Descriptors:  turkeys, dietary fat, polyenoic fatty acids, vaccination, palm oils, soybean oil, antibody formation, blood serum, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid.


Heckert, R.A.; Best, M.; Jordan, L.T.; Dulac, G.C.; Eddington, D.L.; Sterritt, W.G.  Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Oct 1997. v. 63 (10) p. 3916-3918. ISSN: 0099-2240

NAL call no:  448.3 Ap5

Abstract:  The efficacy of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide in a pass-through box for the decontamination of equipment and inanimate materials potentially contaminated with exotic animal viruses was evaluated. Tests were conducted with a variety of viral agents, which included representatives of several virus families (orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae. Caliciviridae, and Rhabdoviridae) from both avian and mammalian species, with particular emphasis on animal viruses exotic to Canada. The effects of the gas on a variety of laboratory equipment were also studied. Virus suspensions in cell culture media, egg fluid, or blood were dried onto glass and stainless steel. Virus viability was assessed after exposure to vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. For all viruses tested and under all conditions (except one), the decontamination process reduced the virus titer to 0 embryo-lethal doses for the avian viruses (avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses) or less than 10 tissue culture infective doses for the mammalian viruses (African swine fever, bluetongue, hog cholera, pseudorabies, swine vesicular disease, vesicular exanthema, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. The laboratory equipment exposed to the gas appeared to suffer no adverse effects. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide decontamination can be recommended as a safe and efficacious way of removing potentially virus-contaminated objects from biocontainment level III laboratories in which exotic animal disease virus agents are handled.

Descriptors: decontamination, biocontainment, exotic animal viruses, virus contaminated objects, orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae. Caliciviridae, Rhabdoviridae.


Heller, E.D.; Levy, A.M.; Vaiman, R.; Schwartsburd, B.  Chicken-embryo fibroblasts produce two types of interferon upon stimulation with Newcastle disease virus.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. July 1997. v. 57 (3/4) p. 289-303. ISSN: 0165-2427

NAL call no:  SF757.2.V38

Abstract:  Controversy has long surrounded the question of whether chickens, like mammals, can produce two types of interferon (IFN). Recently, type-I and type-II chicken IFNs have been cloned. Our study focuses on the further characterization of native fibroblast and spleen IFNs and shows that chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) produce a mixture of type-I and type-II IFNs. IFN was purified by three different methods, controlled pore-glass chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and preparative SDS-PAGE. Three protein bands showing IFN-like anti-viral activity, from CEFs which had been virus-stimulated for IFN production, were detected at 25, 27 and 29 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies produced against these bands showed partial cross-reaction with purified media from mitogen-stimulated spleen cells in ELISA, western blot analysis and anti-viral activity neutralization assay. Differences between purified conditioned media from CEF and spleen were found with respect to the stimulation of macrophages for nitric oxide production, pH stability and signal transduction pathways; only CEF IFN activated the IFN-stimulated gene factor-3 complex, whereas both CEF and spleen IFNs activated the IFN regulatory factor-1 gene. These findings concur with the differences that are known to exist between mammalian type-I and type-II IFNs. Attempts at sequencing the 25 and 27 kDa proteins by Edman degradation yielded evidence of N-terminal blockage.

Descriptors:  interferon development, chicken fibroblasts.


Kant, A.; Koch, G.; van Roozelaar, D.J.; Balk, F.; Huurne, A. ter. Differentiation of virulent and non-virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus within 24 hours by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathology. Dec 1997. v. 26 (4) p. 837-849. ISSN: 0307-9457  Note: Summaries in French, German, and Spanish.

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Fast diagnosis of Newcastle disease is a prerequisite for confining outbreaks. Diagnosis implies the differentiation of virulent and non-virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). However, conventional methods, i.e. isolation of the virus and determination of the intracerebral pathogenicity index, take at least 5 days. Therefore, we investigated whether diagnosis can be performed by using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on RNA isolated directly from tissue homogenate. Two oligonucleotide primers, representing the sequence at the cleavage site of the F protein of either virulent or non-virulent NDV strains, respectively, were used to differentiate NDV. Using the RT-PCR we were able to differentiate 15 NDV reference strains, 11 of which were virulent and 14 non-virulent. The RT-PCR was further validated by using homogenate of brain, trachea, lung and spleen from 12 chicken flocks and one turkey flock suspected of Newcastle disease. The RT-PCR detected virulent NDV in samples of seven flocks and non-virulent NDV in two out of three flocks in agreement with conventional methods. However the RT-PCR failed to detect virus in 1/3 flocks from which non-virulent virus was isolated. The results are discussed. We conclude that the RT-PCR described can be used to confirm diagnosis of Newcastle disease within 24 h using RNA isolated directly from tissue homogenate.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, virulence, strain differences, differential diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase, RNA, rapid methods.


King, D.J.; Seal, B.S. Biological and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates from surveillance of live bird markets in the northeastern United States.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1997. v. 41 (3) p. 683-689. ISSN: 0005-2086 Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is frequently recovered from surveillance samples collected by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service personnel in live bird markets. Six NDV isolates, five from chickens and one from a pheasant, were characterized for comparison with reference NDV  isolates from poultry and other birds. All isolates tested were of low virulence for chickens. Four of the six isolates were similar to reference lentogens B1 and La Sota, but two isolates, one from a chicken and one from a pheasant, were different. The aberrant chicken isolate had a monoclonal antibody-binding profile like an unusual Canadian pigeon isolate. Sequence analysis of the matrix gene of this isolate demonstrated that it differed from all isolates included in the comparison and therefore may represent a third phylogenetic NDV group. The pheasant isolate had a monoclonal antibody-binding profile typical of other U.S. NDV lentogens but had a matrix gene sequence and hemagglutinin thermostability similar to strains Ulster and Queensland V4 (QV4), viruses originally isolated in Northern Ireland and Australia, respectively. The pheasant virus is the first lentogen isolated in the United States known to be closely related phylogenetically to Ulster and QV4. The unusual chicken and pheasant isolates were readily shed from the intestinal tract during chicken passage, whereas the other isolates were shed from the respiratory tract with little or no intestinal shedding. The frequency in live bird markets of viruses similar to those previously thought to be exotic to the United States is unknown.

Descriptors:  chickens, pheasants, Newcastle disease virus, virulence, characterization, nucleotide sequences, genetic diversity, phylogenetics, infectivity, thermal properties, Northeastern States, USA.  

Molecular sequence data:  genbank/u79551. genbank/u79552. genbank/u79553.


Lessard, M.; Hutchings, D.; Cave, N.A.  Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens maintained on diets containing different levels of vitamin A.  Poultry Science. Oct 1997. v. 76 (10) p. 1368-1378. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  Broiler chickens were examined for the effects of low (400 IU/kg), standard (1,500 IU/kg), or high (15,000 IU/kg) dietary vitamin A (VitA) levels on immune responsiveness postimmunization to Newcastle disease virus (NDV). A control pair-fed group (1,500 IU/kg) was included to compensate for the reduced feed intake associated with diet containing the low level of VitA. Interdigital skin reactions to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and CD4:CD8 T lymphocyte ratios were significantly reduced in chickens fed the low VitA diet, whereas their antibody responses to NDV were significantly increased as compared to birds that consumed the 1,500 to 15,000 VitA diet ad libitum. On the other hand, birds on the high VitA diet had reduced lymphocyte responses to concanavalin A and pokeweed, but not to PHA. No effect of dietary VitA was observed for natural killer activity, nor on levels of percentage of cells expressing Class II MHC antigens among groups that consumed feed ad libitum. The results indicated that both humoral and cellular immune responses were modulated by levels of VitA in the diet, and suggest that VitA-deficient chickens developed a T helper (Th)2 immune response, whereas the chickens fed highly enriched VitA diet showed a Th1 immune response.

Descriptors:  broilers, retinol, dosage, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity, lymphocyte transformation, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, T4 lymphocytes, T8 lymphocytes, spleen, weight, liver, body weight, skin, allergic reactions, antibody formation.


Roy, P.; Anandan, S.; Ravikumar, G.; Koteeswaran, A.; Venugopalan, A.T.  Use of egg yolk in seromonitoring against Newcastle disease.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Nov 1997. v. 29 (4) p. 245-246. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  hens, serological surveys, Newcastle disease virus, egg yolk, seroconversion, hemagglutination tests, solvents, chloroform.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T. Agar-gel-immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis for diagnosis of Newcastle disease.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Nov 1997. v. 29 (4) p. 231-234. ISSN: 0049-4747 Note:  Summaries in French and Spanish.

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chickens, experimental infections, Newcastle disease virus, immunodiffusion tests, tissues, hemagglutination tests, rapid methods, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, accuracy.


Russell, P.H.; Dwivedi, P.N.; Davison, T.F.  The effects of cyclosporin A and cyclophosphamide on the populations of B and T cells and virus in the Harderian gland of chickens vaccinated with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Dec 12, 1997. v. 60 (1/2) p. 171-185.  ISSN: 0165-2427 

NAL call no:  SF757.2.V38

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, strains, ciclosporin, cyclophosphamide, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, glands animal, immune response, immunohistochemistry, antigens, cytoplasm IGM, viral replication, concanavalin A.


Stone, H.; Mitchell, B.; Brugh, M.  In ovo vaccination of chicken embryos with experimental Newcastle disease and avian influenze oil-emulsion vaccines.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1997. v. 41 (4) p. 856-863. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Inactivated oil-emulsion (OE) Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccines were injected into 18-day-old white rock (WR) and white leghorn (WL) chicken embryos to evaluate their immunologic efficacy and their effects on hatchability. Embryonating eggs were inoculated at 1.5 inches depth with various vaccine volumes and antigen concentrations. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were first detected in chickens at 2 wk posthatch. Protection against morbidity and mortality was demonstrated in all of 10 chickens vaccinated as embryos and challenged with viscerotropic velogenic ND virus at 53 days of age and also in all of eight in ovo- vaccinated chickens challenged with highly pathogenic AI virus at 34 days of age. All of five unvaccinated control chickens for each respective ND- and AI-vaccinated group died. In pooled groups from successive hatches, the hatchability of WR or WL embryos injected with 100 microliters of vaccine was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from unvaccinated hatchmate controls when needle gauges of 22, 20, and 18 were used. Seroconversion rates of chickens vaccinated as embryos ranged from 27% to 100% with ND vaccination and 85% to 100% for AI vaccination. For ND, geometric mean HI titers of chickens per vaccine group ranged from 11 to 733, and in pooled groups, the range was 49 to 531. Titers for AI vaccine groups ranged from 156 to 1178. This study demonstrated that acceptable hatchability, seroconversion rates, and protective immunity can be attained with in ovo inoculation of ND or AI OE vaccines if the vaccines are prepared with sufficient antigen and administered properly.

Descriptors: chick embryos, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus, avian influenzavirus, viral diseases, vaccines efficacy, evaluation, egg hatchability, dosage, antigens, morbidity, mortality, pathogenicity, application equipment, seroconversion, immunity, formulations, needle gauges.


Stone, H.D. Newcastle disease oil emulsion vaccines prepared with animal, vegetable, and synthetic oils. Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1997. v. 41 (3) p. 591-597. ISSN: 0005-2086 Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

Abstract: Animal, vegetable, and synthetic oils were tested as potential replacements for mineral oil in Newcastle disease oil emulsion vaccines. Emulsifying surfactants of seed oil origin comprised 10% of the oil phase that was used to prepare water-in-oil emulsion vaccines that contained a final concentration of 20% aqueous antigen. The hemagglutination inhibition responses of chickens inoculated with 46 of the newly formulated oil vaccines were, in most cases, not significantly different from chose of control chickens inoculated with mineral oil vaccine. Tissue reactions associated with animal, vegetable, and synthetic oil vaccines were less severe than chose associated with mineral oil vaccines. Viscosity of the mineral oil formulations ranged from 1/2 to 3 1/2 times that of the mineral oil control vaccines. These findings indicate that any of several oils may be more suitable than mineral oil for preparation of immune adjuvants for poultry vaccines.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, vaccines, vaccine development, animal and plant oils, emulsions, surfactants, chickens, adverse effects, viscosity.


Stone-Hulslander, J.; Morrison, T.G.  Detection of an interaction between the HN and F proteins in Newcastle disease virus-infected cells.  Journal of Virology. Sept 1997. v. 71 (9) p. 6287-6295. ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL call no:  QR360.J6

Abstract:  For many paramyxoviruses, including Newcastle disease virus (NDV), syncytium formation requires the expression of both surface glycoproteins (HN and F) in the same cell, and evidence suggests that fusion involves a specific interaction between the HN and F proteins. Because a potential interaction in paramyxovirus-infected cells has never been demonstrated, such as interaction was explored by using coimmunoprecipitation and cross-linking. Both HN and F proteins could be precipitated with heterologous antisera after a 5-min radioactive pulse as well as after a 2-h chase in nonradioactive medium, but at low levels. Chemical cross-linking increased detection of complexes containing HN and F proteins at the cell surface. After cross-linking, intermediate- as well as high-molecular-weight species containing both proteins were precipitated with monospecific antisera. Precipitation of proteins with anti-HN after cross-linking resulted in the detection of complexes which electrophoresed in the stacker region of the gel, from 160 to 300 kDa, at 150 kDa, and at 74 kDa. Precipitates obtained with anti-F after cross-linking contained species which migrated in the stacker region of the gel, between 160 and 300 kDa, at 120 kDa, and at 66 kDa. The three to four discrete complexes ranging in size from 160 to 300 kDa contained both HN and F proteins when precipitated with either HN or F antisera. That cross-linking of complexes containing both HN and F proteins was not simply a function of overexpression of viral glycoproteins at the cell surface was addressed by demonstrating cross-linking at early time points postinfection, when levels of viral surface glycoproteins are low. Use of cells infected with an avirulent strain of NDV showed that chemically cross-linked HN and F proteins were precipitated independent of cleavage of F0. Furthermore, under conditions that maximized HN protein binding to its receptor, there was no change in the percentages of HN and F0 proteins precipitated with heterologous antisera, but a decrease in F1 protein precipitated was observed upon attachment. These data argue that the HN and F proteins interact in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Upon attachment of the HN protein to its receptor, the HN protein undergoes a conformational change which causes a conformational change in the associated F protein, releasing the hydrophobic fusion peptide into the target membrane and initiating fusion.

Descriptors: viral hemagglutinins, sialidase, viral proteins, fusion protein.


Thirumurugan, G.; Jayakumar, R.; Kumanan, K.; Venugopalan, A.T.; Nachimuthu, K.  Latex immunoassay for rapid detection of Newcastle disease virus.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Nov 1997. v. 29 (4) p. 227-230.  ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, latex agglutination test, accuracy, rapid methods, tissues, hemagglutination inhibition test.


Tsuge, Y.; Shimoyamada, M.; Watanabe, K.  Bindings of ovomucin to Newcastle disease virus and anti-ovomucin antibodies and its heat stability based on binding abilities.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Dec 1997. v. 45 (12) p. 4629-4634.:  ISSN: 0021-8561

NAL call no:  381 J8223

Abstract:  The bindings of ovomucin, its chemically modified compounds, including its disulfide-reduced and alkylated alpha- and beta-subunits, and desialylated ovomucin to NDV and anti-ovomucin antibodies were determined by ELISA. We found that the NeuAc residue in the beta-subunit greatly contributed to the binding of ovomucin to NDV, and disulfide bonds in ovomucin contributed to the binding of ovomucin to antibodies. The conformational, biological, and chemical alterations of ovomucin heated at 60-100 degrees C for 10 min under the various pH conditions (pH 6-12) were examined on the changes in the ability to NDV and anti-ovomucin antibodies which were also determined by ELISA, along with determinations of SDS-PAGE patterns and CD spectra. Ovomucin degraded together with the increases in temperature and pH, depending on destruction of NeuAc in beta-subunit, and cleavages of disulfide bonds in inter- and intrasubunits and peptide bonds in alpha- and beta-subunits.

Descriptors: ovomycin binding, Newcastle Disease virus, anti-ovomycin, ELISA, SDS-PAGE patterns, CD spectra, temperatue, pH.


Tsuge, Y.; Shimoyamada, M.; Watanabe, K.  Structural features of Newcastle Disease Virus-and anti-ovomucin antibody-binding glycopeptides from pronase-treated ovomucin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. July 1997. v. 45 (7) p. 2393-2398.  ISSN: 0021-8561

NAL call no:  381 J8223

Abstract:  Pronase-treated ovomucin was applied on a Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography and separated into five fractions. The SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern, and amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, of each of the obtained fractions were compared to those of ovomucin and its alpha- and beta-subunits. Subsequently, bindings of each fraction to hen newcastle disease virus (NDV) and anti-ovomucin antibodies were estimated. It was found that the P1, P2, and P3 fractions from the beta-subunit which were composed of O-glycoproteins, containing more or less cluttered sialic acid moieties, had higher binding activity to NDV, while the peptide-rich P4 and P5 fractions mainly derived from the alpha-subunit had higher binding activity to the anti-ovomucin antibodies.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, egg proteins, proteolysis, protein subunits.


Williams, R.; Boshoff, C.H.; Verwoerd, D.; Schoeman, M.; Van Wyk, A.; Gerdes, T.H.; Roos, K. Detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in ostriches (Struthio camelus) by an indirect ELISA.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1997. v. 41 (4) p. 864-869. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  A two-graph receiver operating characteristic analysis, performed on the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test results of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-positive and NDV-negative control group of ostrich sera, proved that the ELISA was superior to the HI in both sensitivity and specificity. Comparison of results of the two assays performed on a panel of simulated positive sera ranging from very weak to very strong showed that the ELISA was at least 10 times more sensitive than the HI in detecting low levels of ostrich antibodies to NDV. The ELISA also has the advantage of using untreated serum in a single dilution as opposed to the HI test, which uses pretreated serum in titration.

Descriptors:  ostriches, antibodies, Newcastle disease virus, antibody testing, ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition test, diagnosis, evaluation, comparisons, serology.


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