The  Association. Welfare aspects of broiler breeder production. The Veterinary Record. Aug 22, 1998. v. 143 (8) p. 209-212. ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no:  41.8 V641

Descriptors:  broilers, chicks, turkeys, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, outbreaks, pathogenicity, epidemiology, clinical aspects, spread, Great Britain.


Azzam, A.H.; Gabal, M.A.  Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens.  Avian Pathology. Dec 1998. v. 27 (6) p. 570-577. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on the prophylactic immunization of layer hens against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and fowl cholera. Four-hundred-and-eighty 18-week-old white leghorn chickens were used. Different groups of hens were vaccinated, as per commercial recommendations, with a commercial inactivated triple vaccine against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease. A killed polyvalent bacterin was used for fowl cholera. Aflatoxin was fed for 22 weeks at a daily dose of 200 parts/10(9)/hen. Aflatoxin significantly reduced antibody titres, resulted in a decrease of egg weight, a decrease in egg production and an increase of mortality rate in challenged hens. Aflatoxin was detected in eggs at levels far above the permissible concentration.

Descriptors:  hens, aflatoxins, feeds, antibody formation, inactivated vaccines, vaccination, prophylaxis, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, fowl diseases, egg weight, egg production, mortality, fowl cholera.


Bailey, T.A.; Wernery, U.; Zachariah, R.; Samour, J.H.; Naldo, J.L.; Howlett, J.C.  Maternal transfer of paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies and antibody response to a live Newcastle disease vaccine in kori bustards.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. July 1998. v. 34 (3) p. 472-478. ISSN: 0090-3558

NAL call no:  41.9 W64B

Descriptors:  Guiformes, maternal immunity, Ardeotis kori, bustard birds.


Collins, M.S.; Franklin, S.; Strong, I.; Meulemans, G.; Alexander, D.J.  Antigenic and phylogenetic studies on a variant Newcastle disease virus using anti-fusion protein monoclonal antibodies and partial sequencing of the fusion protein gene.  Avian Pathology. Feb 1998. v. 27 (1) p. 90-96. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  A virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, 34/90, reported to show considerable antigenic diversity from more classical strains of NDV, including vaccine strains, was evaluated phylogenetically and for the presence of neutralizing epitopes on the fusion protein. Comparison of a 309 nucleotide sequence of the fusion protein gene of 34/90 with other viruses confirmed the diversity of this virus, placing it in a discrete fifth genetic lineage with an avirulent virus isolated from waterfowl and genetically quite distant from other strains and isolates. The virus-neutralizing mAbs used in the present study were directed against at least seven distinct epitopes on the fusion protein. Of these seven, five are shared by 34/90 and the live vaccine virus Hitchner B1 and these plus an additional epitope are shared by 34/90 and strain Ulster 2C, which is used in inactivated vaccines. Two potential distinct epitopes were also shared by these three viruses. The results suggest that despite the detected antigenic and genetic variation of 34/90, it is unlikely that mutants which fail to be neutralized by antibodies induced by conventional vaccines would arise readily.

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, epitopes, phylogenetics, antigenic variation, genetic variation, envelope glycoproteins, nucleotide sequences.


Coskun, B.; Inal, F.; Celik, I.; Erganis, O.; Tiftik, A.M.; Kurtoglu, F.; Kuyucuoglu, Y.; Ok, U. Effects of dietary levels of vitamin A on the egg yield and immune responses of laying hens. Poultry Science. Apr 1998. v. 77 (4) p. 542-546. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  This research, which was designed and carried out as two consecutive experiments, investigated the effects of four different levels (0, 4,000, 12,000, and 24,000 IU/kg) of vitamin A supplementation on egg yield, plasma vitamin A levels, and immune responses of laying hens. Transmission of maternal immunity to their descendants was also studied. In the first experiment, egg yield, blood vitamin A levels, and various parameters of the immune system such as T lymphocyte levels in the peripheral blood, plasma cell counts in the spleen, and antibody titers against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in the sera were investigated for a 1-yr period. A total of 864 Hisex-brown laying hens were used in this experiment. The chicks were reared as commercial flocks until the 18th wk of age. No significant differences occurred among the parameters of the different diet groups. In the second experiment, maternal immunity was assessed in the chickens, supplied by hatching the eggs from hens in the first experiment. Maternal immunity was assayed by using the parameters as in Experiment 1. For this purpose, both blood and tissue samples were taken on the 2nd, 7th, and 10th d posthatch. Vitamin A supplementation had no significant effects on maternally, derived antibody titers or histologic structure of the lymphoid organs.

Descriptors:  hens, retinol, dosage, vitamin supplements, T lymphocytes, blood serum, age differences, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, feed conversion, antibody formation, mortality.


Czifra, G.; Meszaros, J.; Horvath, E.; Moving, V.; Engstrom, B.E.  Detection of NDV-specific antibodies and the level of protection provided by a single vaccination in young chickens. Avian Pathology. Dec 1998. v. 27 (6) p. 562-565. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Fourteen groups of young commercial chickens were immunized once with a live NDV vaccine using different vaccine doses and routes of vaccination in five experiments. Three to six weeks later, small groups were selected from each flock. Sera were tested by the haemagglutination-inhibition test and a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA, and the birds were challenged with a virulent NDV strain. Degree of protection was dose-dependent in those groups where the vaccine was administered orally at 3 weeks of age. Aerosol and eye drop vaccinations performed in day-old chicks provided full protection at 5 or 6 weeks of age. There was a good agreement between the two serological methods and positive results in any of the tests were reliable forecasts of protection.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, antibody testing, vaccination, live vaccines, disease prevention, ELISA, hemagglutination, hemagglutination inhibition test, antibody formation.


Ewing, M.L.; Cookson, K.C.; Phillips, R.A.; Turner, K.R.; Kleven, S.H.  Experimental infection and transmissibility of Mycoplasma synoviae with delayed serologic response in chickens.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 1998. v. 42 (2) p. 230-238.  ISSN: 0005-2086   Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Fifteen Mycoplasma-free chickens were contact exposed to five chickens that had been experimentally infected with one of three different strains (two field strains and one laboratory strain) of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive by 3 days postinoculation (PI) in the experimentally infected birds. Lateral transmission was found by 7-14 days postexposure. Positive serum plate agglutination (SPA) results were detected 3-4 wk after positive culture and/or PCR in individual birds. By 42 days PI, all the birds in the groups exposed to field strain K1858 or K3344 had become infected as determined by culture and PCR, whereas only half of the birds in the group exposed to laboratory strain WUV1853 had become infected. Because of the unanticipated lack of seroconversion to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in infected chickens, the study was extended. Each group was split into two groups of 10 birds each, one of which was vaccinated with a live B1/LaSota Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine virus to determine if a viral respiratory challenge might incite a stronger antibody response to the Mycoplasma injection. All the birds were tested for seroconversion 14 and 21 days later. Of the birds vaccinated for ND, a slightly greater number were MS positive by SPA than the nonvaccinated birds. This effect was not present 21 days after vaccination, and there was no significant difference in the MS HI results from these groups, suggesting that the viral respiratory infection had little direct impact on seroconversion. The virulent field strain (K3344) elicited a stronger MS antibody response than the other strains. All results from the MS ELISA were negative in all groups through 9 wk. Positive results from PCR analysis correlated well with culture results, whereas serologic tests did not detect MS infection for several weeks. Monitoring programs solely dependent on seroconversion may be inadequate for diagnosis and control of Mycoplasma infections.

Descriptors: chickens, Mycoplasma synoviae, disease transmission, experimental infection, experimental infections, serology,  strain differences, diagnosis, detection, seroconversion, vaccination, immune response, monitoring, polymerase chain reaction.


Falcone, E.; Vignolo, E.; Di Trani, L.; Puzelli, S.; Tollis, M.  Comparative evaluation of in vitro and in vivo assays for the detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus as a contaminant of live poultry vaccines.  Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA. Sept/Oct 1998. v. 26 (5) p. 629-634.  ISSN: 0261-1929

NAL call no:  Z7994.L3A5

Abstract:  A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specific for identifying avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in poultry vaccines, and the serological response to IBV induced by the inoculation of chicks with a Newcastle disease vaccine spiked with the Massachusetts strain of IBV, were compared for their ability to detect IBV as a contaminant of avian vaccines. The sensitivity of the IBV-RT-PCR assay provided results which were at least equivalent to the biological effect produced by the inoculation of chicks, allowing this assay to be considered a valid alternative to animal testing in the quality control of avian immunologicals. This procedure can easily be adapted to detect a number of contaminants for which the in vivo test still represents the only available method of detection.

Descriptors: infectious bronchitis virus, live vaccines, polymerase chain reaction, chicks, animal testing alternatives. 


Folitse, R.; Halvorson, D.A.; Sivanandan, V.  Efficacy of combined killed-in-oil emulsion and live Newcastle disease vaccines in chickens.  Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 1998. v. 42 (1) p. 173-178. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Following the introduction of routine vaccination regimes with different types of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines, the incidence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in commercial poultry worldwide has declined dramatically. Unfortunately, these vaccination regimes are not feasible in free-range and backyard systems of poultry production practiced in many developing countries. In this study, we sought to develop a single vaccination regime in chickens with ND vaccines to elicit a long-lasting high level of ND virus (NDV) antibodies adequate to protect chickens against ND. The level of antibody response, as measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, and the degree of protection against the virulent strain of NDV were studied in chickens immunized with different vaccines. The vaccines used were: killed-in-oil emulsion (subcutaneous; s.c.) plus live virus (oculanasal; o.n.), given concurrently; experimental vaccine (s.c.) plus live virus (o.n.), given concurrently; killed-in-oil (s.c.); experimental vaccine prepared by homogenizing commercial live vaccine and oil emulsion (s.c.); and live virus (o.n.). The results obtained in this study indicate that concurrent administration of oil emulsion and live NDV vaccines induced the best antibody response, but there was no significant difference in protection among the vaccinated groups.

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease, live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, efficacy, protection, vaccination, incidence, antibodies, serology.


Folitse, R.; Halvorson, D.A.; Sivanandan, V.  A dot immunoblotting assay (dot blot ELISA) for early detection of Newcastle disease antibodies in chickens.  Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 1998. v. 42 (1) p. 14-19. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.  

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using nitrocellulose blotting membrane (dot blot ELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens. In this method, a nitrocellulose blotting membrane was used as the solid phase carrier. NDV antigens were directly bound onto the nitrocellulose membrane that was set into a dot blot microfiltration apparatus. Efficiency of the assay was evaluated using known positive and negative NDV sera obtained from chickens. The ability of the assay to detect antibodies 2 days earlier than the standard hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test was demonstrated on sera collected from chickens experimentally infected with NDV, La Sota strain.

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, antibodies, ELISA, detection, antigens, efficiency, serology, experimental infections, early diagnosis, antibody testing.


Friedman, A.; Bartov, I.; Sklan, D.  Humoral immune response impairment following excess vitamin E nutrition in the chick and turkey.  Poultry Science. July 1998. v. 77 (7) p. 956-962.  ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  The effect of high dietary intakes of vitamin E on antibody production was investigated in chicks and turkeys. Chicks were fed four diets with 0, 10, 30, and 150 mg/kg added vitamin E and turkeys were fed three diets with 0, 50, and 150 mg/kg added vitamin E. Antibodies produced in response to naturally occurring Escherichia coli and to Newcastle disease virus and turkey pox vaccines were determined. In chicks, antibody production in response to E. coli and Newcastle disease was affected by vitamin E nutrition: significantly higher responses were measured in chicks that received 0 and 10 mg/kg added vitamin E, whereas in chicks receiving 30 and 150 mg/kg, antibody production was significantly lower. In turkeys, concentrations of circulating antibodies to Newcastle disease virus and to turkey pox were also influenced by dietary vitamin E: antibody titers to Newcastle disease and turkey pox vaccines were highest in groups receiving 0 mg/kg added vitamin E, whereas titer in groups receiving 150 mg/kg were significantly lower. Responses of groups receiving 50 mg/kg added vitamin E were slightly lower than groups receiving 0 mg/kg, though not significantly so in most cases. These results indicate that humoral immune responses are directly affected by vitamin E, and that excessive vitamin E intake has a detrimental effect on antibody production in chickens and turkeys.

Descriptors: chicks, poults, alpha tocopherol, dosage, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus, turkey pox virus, liveweight gain, feed conversion, antibody formation, immune competence, nutrient excesses.


Gabal, M.A.; Azzam, A.H.  Interaction of aflatoxin in the feed and immunization against selected infectious diseases in poultry. II. Effect on one-day-old layer chicks simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease. Avian Pathology. June 1998. v. 27 (3) p. 290-295. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  A study was conducted to assess the effects of aflatoxin contaminated feed on the immunoresponse of one-day old layer chicks to attenuated live virus vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). Concurrent exposure of chickens to 200 parts per billion (ppb) aflatoxin in feed and vaccination against ND, IB and IBD resulted in lack of adequate protection against subsequent experimental challenge, as assessed by antibody responses compared to chickens fed aflatoxin-free ration. The mortalities were higher in chickens fed 200 ppb of aflatoxin than in chickens fed on aflatoxin-free ration.

Descriptors:  chicks, aflatoxins, feeds, vaccination, live vaccines, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis virus, avian infectious bursitis, antibody formation, mortality.


Hilgers, L.A.T.; Nicolas, I.; Lejeune, G.; Dewil, E.; Boon, B.  Effect of various adjuvants on secondary imune response in chickens.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Nov 24, 1998. v. 66 (2) p. 159-171. ISSN: 0165-2427

NAL call no:  SF757.2.V38

Abstract:  Stimulatory effects of several types of   adjuvants on   secondary antibody response to inactivated Newcastle disease virus (iNDV) were examined in chickens.   For this purpose, animals were primed with iNDV, without adjuvant resulting in a low but significant antibody response, boosted with iNDV plus adjuvant 3 weeks later, and analysed for specific antibody titres in serum 3 weeks after the booster. Water-in-mineral oil emulsion (W/O) caused significant increase in   antibody titres measured in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA), haemagglutination   inhibition (HI) and virus neutralisation (VN) assay. The adjuvants tested included three oil-in-water   emulsions  (i.e. mineral oil-in-water, sulpholipo(SL)-Ficoll400/squalane-in-water and sulpholipo-cyclodextrin/squalane-in-water), three negatively-charged polymers with high molecular weight   (i.e.polyacrylate, polystyrenesulphonate and sulpho(S)-Ficoll400) and two surface-active agents  (i.e. dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and Quil A).  These adjuvants enhanced significantly the secondary immune response but none reached the titre obtained with W/O. Combinations of adjuvants with distinct physicochemical properties, i.e. polyacrylate and DDA   revealed only slight, beneficial effects. We concluded the various types of adjuvants tested can   stimulate secondary immune responses in primed animals but that W/O is superior.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, adjuvants, inactivated vaccines, immune response, stimulation, evaluation, ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition test, virus neutralization.


Jorgensen, P.H.; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.; Manvell, R.J.; Holm,-E.; Alexander, D.J.  Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology.  Avian Pathology.   Aug 1998. v. 27 (4) p. 352-358. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died. Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the flock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed to have contributed significantly to the number of deaths. Samples from 17 of the dead ostriches were examined virologically. Three isolates of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) were obtained from intestines and intestinal contents of dead ostriches submitted for laboratory investigations. In ICPI tests in day-old chicks values for the three APMV-1 isolates were in the range 1.63-1.69. Characterization by means of mouse monoclonal antibodies and by restriction site analysis revealed that the three isolates were indistinguishable and similar to APMV-1 viruses present in a simultaneous epizootic of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry in Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in serum neutralization tests performed in chicken embryo cells. Blood samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were tested in a commercial ELISA for antibodies to APMV-1. In this test 35% of the samples were positive, 35% were border line and 30% were negative.

Descriptors: ostriches, emus, Newcastle disease virus, isolation, characterization, pathogenicity, structural genes, restriction endonuclease analysis, serotypes, serology, immunodiagnosis, monoclonal antibodies, blood serum, hemagglutination inhibition test, virus neutralization tests,  ELISA, F-gene, Denmark.


Kencana, Gst. Ayu Yuniati.  Kajian sifat imunosupresif berbagai vaksin gumboro pada respon primer vaksin penyakit Newcastle pada ayam pedaging. [Studies of immunosuppresive effect of gumboro vaccines on primary immune response of broiler chicken against Newcastle disease vaccine] .   Laporan Penelitian.  Denpasar: Universitas Udayana, 1998. x, 13 leaves: ill.  Note:  In Indonesian with an English summary.

NAL call no: QR189.5.N48K35 1998

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease vaccine, Newcastle disease virus, broilers, Indonesia.


King, D.J.; Seal, B.S.  Biological and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) field isolates with comparisons to reference NDV strains.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1998. v. 42 (3) p. 507-516. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Fifty-seven Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from chickens, turkeys, a rhea, a parrot, and an anhinga were pathotyped and characterized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibition profile, elution rate, and hemagglutinin thermostability. Nucleotide sequence analysis of portions of the fusion protein and matrix protein genes of the parrot isolate was done for comparison with prior sequence analysis of the anhinga isolate and NDV reference strains. Seven of the 43 chicken isolates were recovered from flocks in Canada. The remaining isolates, including 11 from turkeys, were isolated in the United States. All isolates except that of the anhinga were of low virulence by mean death time in embryos, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and/or intravenous pathogenicity index procedures and were classified as lentogens. The anhinga isolate was more virulent than the other strains and was pathotyped as a mesogen. However, nucleotide sequence analysis of the anhinga isolate had revealed a homology with the virulent cormorant isolates of 1992 rather than the classical U.S. mesogens characterized by the Roakin strain. Variability was evident among the lentogenic isolates. Two isolates from turkeys had mAb profiles that differed from B1 and La Sota reference and vaccine strains, and 38% (21/56) of the isolates had more thermostable hemagglutinins than those reference strains. There was no evidence that any of the isolates from poultry were more virulent than the lentogenic pathotype.

Descriptors:  chickens, turkeys, rheas, parrots, wild birds, Newcastle disease virus, strain differences, host range, monoclonal antibodies, pathotypes, hemagglutinins, nucleotide sequences, viral proteins, virulence, embryos, pathogenicity.


Koch, G.; Czifra, G.; Engstrom, B.E. Detection of Newcastle disease virus-specific antibodies in ostrich sera by three serological methods.  The Veterinary Record. July 4, 1998. v. 143 (1) p. 10-12. ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no:  41.8 V641

Descriptors: ostriches, Newcastle disease virus, antibody testing, blood serum, virus neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition test, ELISA, accuracy.


Krishnamurthy, S.; Samal, S.K.  Nucleotide sequences of the trailer, nucleocapsid protein gene and intergenic regions of Newcastle disease virus strain Beaudette C and completion of the entire genome sequence.  The Journal of General Virology. Oct 1998. v. 79 (pt.10) p. 2419-2424. ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  The nucleotide sequences of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene, the intergenic regions in the nucleocapsid protein (NP)-phosphoprotein (P), P-matrix protein (M) and M-fusion glycoprotein gene junctions and the trailer region of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Beaudette C were determined. The NP gene is 1747 nt long and encodes a protein of 489 amino acids. Each of the intergenic sequences determined is 1 nt long and, including the previously published intergenic sequences, the gene junction sequences varied in length from 1-47 nt and lacked any sequence identity. The 5' trailer region is 113 nt in length. Comparison of the sequences of the terminal leader and trailer regions of Beaudette C strain with those of nonvirulent strain B1 showed a high level of conservation, indicating the likelihood of these elements not being a factor in virulence. Together with previously published data, this report completes the sequence of the 15186 nt genomic RNA of NDV strain Beaudette C.

Descriptors:  nucleotide sequences, intergenic DNA, Newcastle disease virus genes, proteins.

Molecular sequence data:  genbank/af064091.


Kuiken, T.; Heckert, R.A.; Riva, J.; Leighton, F.A.; Wobeser, G.  Excretion of pathogenic Newcastle disease virus by double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in absence of mortality of clinical signs of disease.  Avian Pathology.   Dec 1998. v. 27 (6) p. 541-546. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Pathogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) caused several epidemics of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in recent years. Eleven 16-week-old cormorants were infected with, or exposed to, pathogenic NDV from one of these epidemics and monitored for 70 days. No birds died, four birds had transient ataxia between 12 and 27 days post-infection (d.p.i.), and one bird had neuronal necrosis and non-suppurative encephalitis characteristic for Newcastle disease. The mean haemagglutination inhibiting antibody titre to NDV peaked at 1:630, 21 d.p.i., and decreased to 1:56 70 d.p.i. Duration of NDV excretion from the cloaca was 15 +/- 6.2 d.p.i., with a maximum of 28 d.p.i. The absence of mortality in these birds may have been due to age-related resistance. The excretion of NDV by cormorants in the absence of mortality or clinical signs of disease suggests that the cormorant population could maintain pathogenic NDV through serial infection of susceptible birds. The greatest risk of NDV transmission from cormorants to poultry probably is during autumn migration, through contact with infected birds, excreta or contaminated water.

Descriptors:  Phalacrocorax, cormorants, Newcastle disease virus, excretion, experimental infections, morbidity, mortality, immune response, asymptomatic infections, disease resistance.


Kuiken, T.; Leighton, F.A.; Wobeser, G.; Danesik, K.L.; Riva, J.; Heckert, R.A.  An epidemic of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. July 1998. v. 34 (3) p. 457-471. ISSN: 0090-3558

NAL call no:  41.9 W64B

Descriptors: Phalacrocorax auritus, cormorants, epidemiology, Saskatchewan, Canada.


Li, Z.; Sergel, T.; Razvi, E.; Morrison, T.  Effect of cleavage mutants on syncytium formation directed by the wild-type fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus.   Journal of Virology. May 1998. v. 72 (5) p. 3789-3795. ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL call no:  QR360.J6

Descriptors: wild type viral fusion protein, Newcastle disease virus, syncytium formation. 


Lomniczi, B.; Wehmann, E.; Herczeg, J.; Ballagi-Pordany, A.; Kaleta, E.F.; Werner, O.; Meulemans, G.; Jorgensen, P.H.; Mante, A.P.; Gielkens, A.L.J. Newcastle disease outbreaks in recent years in Western Europe were caused by an Old (VI) and a novel genotype (VII). Archives of Virology. 1998. v. 143 (1) p. 49-64. ISSN: 0304-8608

NAL call no: 448.3 Ar23

Descriptors:  restriction fragment length polymorphism, strain differences.


Losio, M.N.; Lodetti, E.; Alborali, L.; Tosi, G.; Buonavoglia, C.  A study on the long-term immunity induced by La Sota strain of Newcastle disease virus grown in a BS/BEK cell line of bovine embryo kidney origin.  Avian Pathology. Feb 1998. v. 27 (1) p. 28-32. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Twenty-day-old susceptible chickens were divided into three groups; two were vaccinated with inactivated, water in oil emulsified La Sota strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) obtained from a bovine embryo kidney (BS/BEK) cell line and from chicken embryos, respectively. The third unvaccinated group represented the control. At 30-day intervals subgroups were exposed to the Herts 33 virulent NDV strain. Serological and clinical findings showed no appreciable difference in the immunogenicity of the antigen from either culture systems and no significant differences could be observed in its ability to protect against ND challenge.

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease virus, inactivated vaccines vaccination, antibody formation, viral antigens, cell lines, kidneys, chick embryos, disease prevention Newcastle disease, bovine embryo kidney cell line.


Maas, R.A.; Oei, H.L.; Kemper, S.; Koch, G.; Visser, L.  The use of homologous virus in the haemagglutination-inhibition assay after vaccination with Newcastle disease virus strain La Sota or Clone30 leads to an over estimation of protective serum antibody titres.  Avian Pathology. Dec 1998. v. 27 (6) p. 625-631. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  We evaluated the influence of the use of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-strains Ulster and La Sota in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for the measurement of antibody titres after NDV vaccination. The use of the homologous La Sota antigen in the HI assay after Clone30 and La Sota vaccination of SPF-chickens, resulted in significantly higher titres than the use of the heterologous Ulster virus. The mean difference was 1.4 on a log2 scale (2.6-fold). A significant difference was also found in virus neutralization (VN) assays. The virus strain in the HI or VN test did not influence the resulting titres after Ulster vaccination. When HI antibody titres after vaccination were related to VN titres measured with virulent Herts NDV or to survival after virulent challenge, it was found that the use of La Sota antigen in the HI assay after vaccination with Clone30 or La Sota resulted in an overestimation of protective serum antibody titres. Also in commercially derived White Leghorns vaccinated with Clone30, significantly higher HI titres were obtained when La Sota antigen was used in the HI test. Our data have direct implications for potency testing of inactivated vaccines as the European Pharmacopeia does not prescribe the antigen to be used in the HI test.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, strain differences, hemagglutination inhibition test, potency, antibody formation, survival.


Meulemans, G.; Roels, S.; van den Berg, T.P.; Godfroid, J.; Decaesstecker, M.  Acute pancreatitis in chickens due to non-virulent Newcastle disease virus.  The Veterinary Record. Sept 12, 1998. v. 143 (11) p. 300-303. ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no: 41.8 V641

Descriptors:  broilers, pancreatitis, Newcastle disease virus, histopathology, lesions, pathogenicity experimental infections.


Nanda, I.; Sick, C.; Munster, U.; Kaspers, B.; Schartl, M.; Staeheli, P.; Schmid, M.  Sex chromosome linkage of chicken and duck type I interferon genes: further evidence of evolutionary conservation of the Z chromosome in birds. Chromosoma. 1998. v. 107 (3) p. 204-210.  ISSN: 0009-5915

NAL call no:  442.8 C46

Abstract:  Type I interferons (IFNs) are a family of proteins that are predominantly expressed in response to viral infection. Two serologically distinct forms of type I IFN, designated ChIFN1 and ChIFN2, have recently been recognized in the chicken. ChIFN1 is encoded by a cluster of ten or more intronless genes, whereas ChIFN2, whose primary sequence is 57% identical, is encoded by a single intronless gene. By fluorescence in situ hybridization we now demonstrate that the genes for ChIFN1 and ChIFN2 are all located on the short arm of the chicken Z chromosome. This assignment was confirmed by results that showed that DNA from male (ZZ) chickens yielded approximately twofold stronger Southern blot signals with ChIFN1 and ChIFN2 hybridization probes than DNA from females (ZW). Attempts to determine differences in IFN production between male and female chickens failed owing to a high degree of variation in virus-induced IFN expression between individuals of both sexes. Sex linkage of IFN genes was also observed in domestic ducks: fluorescence in situ hybridization of duck metaphase chromosomes with a duck type I IFN probe was confined to the terminal region of the long arm of the Z chromosome. Thus, in contrast to mammals, which have their IFN genes on autosomes, birds have the type I IFN genes on the sex chromosome.

Descriptors:  DNA hybridization, molecular mapping, Newcastle disease virus.


Oberdorder, A.; Werner, O.  Newcastle disease virus: detection and characterization by PCR of recent German isolates differing in pathogenicity.  Avian Pathology. June 1998. v. 27 (3) p. 237-243. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  The fusion (F) protein plays an important role in determining the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is described which amplifies a 362 bp fragment encompassing the region of the F protein most important for pathogenicity. A specific PCR product was obtained independent of strain, pathogenicity and host of origin. Sequencing of the region specifying the F protein cleavage site confirmed the correlation between deduced amino acid sequence and pathogenicity. Oligonucleotides corresponding to the sequence of the pathospecific region were designed for recent German NDV isolates and labelled with digoxigenin. Hybridization of PCR fragments of different isolates with pathotype-specific oligonucleotides allowed an estimation of the pathogenicity of most isolates. Results were in good agreement with experimentally determined ICPI values.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, polymerase chain reaction, detection, characterization, pathogenicity, viral proteins, pathotypes, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, DNA, hybridization, fusion protein.


Phillips, R.J.; Samson, A.C.R.; Emmerson, P.T.  Nucleotide sequence of the 5'-terminus of Newcastle disease virus and assembly of the complete genomic sequence: agreement with the "rule of six".  Archives of Virology. 1998. v. 143 (10) p. 1993-2002.  ISSN: 0304-8608

NAL call no:  448.3 Ar23  

Descriptors:  nucleotide sequences, strain differences, regulatory sequences

Molecular sequence data:  genbank/aj225127. genbank/aj225128. genbank/aj225129.


Raghavan, V.S.; Kumanan, K.; Thirumurugan, G.; Nachimuthu, K.  Comparison of various diagnostic methods in characterizing Newcastle disease virus isolates from Desi chickens. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Oct 1998. v. 30 (5) p. 287-293. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  Desi chickens, Newcastle disease virus, strain differences, virulence, cytopathogenicity, native livestock, DNA probes, hemagglutination, rapid methods, laboratory methods, Tamilnadu.


Ragland, W.L.; Mazija, H.; Cvelic-Cabrilo, V.; Savic, V.; Novak, R.; Pogacnik, M.  Immune suppression of commercial broilers in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1981 to 1991.  Avian Pathology. Apr 1998. v. 27 (2) p. 200-204. ISSN: 0307-9457.  Note: Summaires in French, German and Spanish.

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  A continuous decline in immune responses to Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine was observed in commercial broiler flocks in Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina beginning in 1982. Floating mean haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres declined from log2 4 in 1983 to a low of log2 2.4 in 1986, then were log2 2.9 in 1990. Several causes of the decline were discounted, leaving mycotoxins in feed and infection with chicken anaemia virus (CAV) as the two most likely causes. Mycotoxins in feed could not be evaluated retrospectively, but archival tissues were available from Croatia and Slovenia. Tissue sections were examined by in situ hybridization for CAV. Whereas only one chicken from early in the decade was infected, all but one of the chickens from late in the decade were. The increase in CAV detection correlated inversely with ND HI titres. Whereas this correlation does not establish cause and effect, CAV cannot be eliminated as a contributory cause of immune suppression.

Descriptors:  broilers, viral immunosuppression, chicken anemia virus, avian infectious bursitis, mycotoxins, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia Hercegovina.


Ross, L.J.N.  Recombinant vaccines against Marek's disease.  Avian Pathology. Apr 1998. v. 27 (suppl.1) p. S65-S73. ISSN: 0307-9457 Note: In the supplement: Trends in Avian Tumour Virology / edited by B.M. Freeman. Proceedings of a symposium held Oct. 22-23, 1997.

NAL call no: SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Novel approaches to vaccination against very virulent (vv) strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV) are discussed. Fowlpox virus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) recombinants expressing MDV antigens have been constructed. It has been shown that glycoprotein B of MDV serotype 1 (gB1) is an effective immunogen which is particularly important for conferring protective immunity in genetically susceptible chickens. However, maternal antibodies against MDV diminished the efficacy of vaccination with recombinant FPV-gB1. HVT recombinants expressing antigens of MDV and Newcastle disease virus have been constructed and have been shown to be effective in preventing Marek's disease as well as systemic Newcastle disease. Maternal antibodies against MDV and Newcastle disease virus did not affect significantly the efficacy of vaccination with cell-associated HVT recombinants. The potential of retroviral insertion mutagenesis and other means of delivering MDV antigens for immunization are discussed.

Descriptors:  Marek's disease, Marek's disease virus, recombinant vaccines development, vaccination, efficacy of disease prevention, maternal antibodies, turkey herpesvirus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, literature reviews.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.; Selvarangam, R.; Ramaswamy, V. Velogenic Newcastle disease virus in captive wild birds. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Oct 1998. v. 30 (5) p. 299-303. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  captive wild birds, Newcastle disease virus, asymptomatic infections, chick embryos, mortality, virulence, strain differences, Columbiformes, Psittaciformes, monoclonal antibodies, Passeriformes, Phasianidae, India.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.; Manvell, R.  Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from an Indian house crow.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. June 1998. v. 30 (3) p. 177-178. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors: Corvus splendens, Newcastle disease, serotypes, disease transmission, case reports, Tamilnadu.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.  Virulence of Newcastle disease vaccine virus(es) in the field. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Feb 1998. v. 30 (1) p. 41-44.  ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no: SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease, live vaccines, cross reaction, monoclonal antibodies, virulence, outbreaks, Tamil Nadu.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.  Potentiation of immune response of live lentogenic Newcastle disease vaccine using adjuvant.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Feb 1998. v. 30 (1) p. 37-39.  ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chicks vaccination, live vaccines, Newcastle disease virus, age differences, maternal antibodies, adjuvants, antibody formation.


Roy, P.; Koteeswaran, A.; Sridevi, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.  Comparison of Newcastle disease vaccines by serology using serum, tears and feather pulp samples.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Feb 1998. v. 30 (1) p. 31-35. ISSN: 0049-4747  

NAL call no: SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease, live vaccines, blood serum, tears, feathers, hemagglutination inhibition test, strain differences, vaccination, application methods, blood sampling, virus neutralization, oculonasal administration.


Sagrera, A.; Cobaleda, C.; Berger, S.; Marcos, M.J.; Shnyrov, V.; Villar, E.  Study of the influence of salt concentration on Newcastle disease virus matrix protein aggregation. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International. Oct 1998. v. 46 (3) p. 429-435. ISSN: 1039-9712

NAL call no: QD415.A1B52

Descriptors:  ion strength effects, Newcastle disease, protein aggregation, salt effects.


Sander, J.E.; Willinghan, E.M.; Wilson, J.L.; Thayer, S.G.  The effect of inoculating Enterococcus faecalis into the yolk sac on chick quality and maternal antibody absorption. Avian Diseases. Apr/June 1998. v. 42 (2) p. 359-363. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Four hundred thirty-two 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were randomly divided into 36 groups of 12. All chicks were given 0.2 ml of Newcastle disease antiserum (hemagglutination-inhibition [HI] titer 1:5120) by injection into the yolk sac at hatch. Half of the groups received 0.2 ml of Enterococcus faecalis (4.0 x 10(8) colony-forming units/ml) by injection into the yolk sac at hatch (treatment). The remaining 18 groups received no bacteria (control). Two treatment groups and two control groups were weighed, bled, killed, and yolk sac weighed daily for the first 9 days of life. Feed was weighed at placement and at the end of the trial. Blood was tested for packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein, and Newcastle disease HI titer. No significant difference was observed between treatment and control groups for chick body weight, PCV, and feed consumption. Total plasma protein and retained yolk weight were significantly higher for treatment groups over control (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Also, the geometric mean serum HI titer (log2) for Newcastle disease antibody was significantly higher in the control chicks vs. the treatment chicks (P < 0.01).

Descriptors:  chickens, chicks, Streptococcus faecalis, yolk sac, experimental infections, quality, Newcastle disease virus, immune serum, serology, weight, blood chemistry, blood plasma, protein content, feed intake, liveweight, maternal immunity, maternal antibodies.


Seal, B.S.; King, D.J.; Locke, D.P.; Senne, D.A.; Jackwood, M.W.  Phylogenetic relationships among highly virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from exotic birds and poultry from 1989-1996.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Apr 1998. v. 36 (4) p. 1141-1145.  ISSN: 0095-1137

NAL call no:  QR46.J6

Descriptors:  virulence, phylogenetics, amino acid sequences, nucleotide sequences.

Molecular sequence data:  genbank/af015507. genbank/af015508. genbank/af015509. genbank/af015510. genbank/af015511. genbank/af015512. genbank/af015513. genbank/af015514. genbank/af015515. genbank/af015516. genbank/af015517. genbank/af015518. genbank/af015520. genbank/af015519.


Sick, C.; Schultz, U.; Munster, U.; Meier, J.; Kaspers, B.; Staeheli, P. Promoter structures and differential responses to viral and nonviral inducers of chicken type I interferon genes.  The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr 17, 1998. v. 273 (16) p. 9749-9754. ISSN: 0021-9258

NAL call no:  381 J824

Descriptors:  chickens, promoters, interferon, genes, nucleotide sequences, recombinant DNA, reporter genes, luciferase, messenger RNA, gene expression, genetic regulation, Newcastle disease virus, experimental infections, immunostimulants, chifn1 gene, chifn2-gene.

Molecular sequence data: genbank/y14968. genbank/y14969. imidazoquinoline-s-28463.


Stram, Y.; Shchori, D.; Chinitch, Y.; David, D.; Molad, T.; Samina, I.  Molecular characterization of an unassigned Israeli Newcastle disease virus isolate.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1998. v. 42 (4) p. 746-751. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.  

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian pathotyping of NDV isolates are extremely important because the appearance of virulent virus has significant economic consequences in terms of vaccination, eradication, and the ability to export poultry products. By using nucleotide and amino acid (aa) homology analysis, we could demonstrate that a NDV broiler isolate is a velogenic virus. This analysis was done after mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index tests gave inconsistent results. By establishing a nucleotide sequence dendrogram, we found that the disputed Ber-Tuvia was clearly in the same group as the known Herev-Laet, a velogenic isolate. The difference between Ber-Tuvia 92 arid the Herev-Laet velogenic isolate was 6% as opposed to >16% of the meso- arid lentogenic isolates. The Ber-Tuvia isolate contains the Arg/Arg arid Lys/Arg aa at positions 112, 113 arid 115, 116, respectively, in the fusion protein cleavage aa sequence, which is typical for virulent NDV isolates.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, strain differences, pathotypes, detection, identification, diagnosis, virulence, vaccination, disease control, export controls, exports, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, mortality, pathogenicity, phylogenetics, Israel, molecular sequence data.


Swain, P.; Verma, K.C.; Kataria, J.M.; Mohanty, S.K.; Dhama, K.  Antigenic characterization of Indian isolates and vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Oct 1998. v. 30 (5) p. 295-298. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no: SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease virus, monoclonal antibodies, strain differences, ELISA,  neutralization tests, epitopes, virulence, viral-antigens, viral proteins, immunoprecipitation tests.


Takakuwa, H.; Ito, T.; Takada, A.; Okazaki, K.; Kida, H.  An attenuation mechanism of Newcastle disease vaccine strain TCND.  Archives of Virology. 1998. v. 143 (6) p. 1129-1143.  ISSN: 0304-8608

NAL call no:  448.3 Ar23

Descriptors: virulence, strain differences, virual strain TCND, attenuation.


Villegas, P. Viral diseases of the respiratory system.  Poultry Science. Aug 1998. v. 77 (8) p. 1143-1145. ISSN: 0032-5791  Note:  Paper presented at the symposium "Infectious Poultry Diseases" held August 2-3, 1997, in Athens, Georgia, sponsored by the Poultry Science Association and the American Association of Avian Pathologists.

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  Infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, avian influenza, and pneumovirus are the viruses that more frequently affect the respiratory tract of chickens. Because of the tendency to change its antigenic properties, infectious bronchitis is currently the viral disease present in most poultry producing areas of the world. New serotypes and variant strains are reported in several countries. Current commercially available vaccines do not always provide protection against new field isolates. Vaccination programs are constantly adjusted in an attempt to improve protection against this disease. Infectious laryngotracheitis has appeared in the broiler industry as a serious disease. Improved vaccines are needed to control the disease in broilers. In the U.S., the control of the highly pathogenic forms of avian influenza and the velogenic forms of Newcastle disease have been achieved by eradication. In other countries, effective vaccines have been used to control Newcastle and avian influenza. Avian pneumovirus infection is also an emerging disease of chickens and turkeys.

Descriptors:  chickens, respiratory diseases, infectious bronchitis virus, serotypes, Newcastle disease virus, viral diseases, pneumovirus, avian influenzavirus, infectious laryngotracheitis.


Watanabe, K.; Tsuge, Y.; Shimoyamada, M.  Binding activities of pronase-treated fragments from egg white ovomucin with anti-ovomucin antibodies and Newcastle disease virus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Nov 1998. v. 46 (11) p. 4501-4506. ISSN: 0021-8561

NAL call no:  381 J8223

Abstract:  The prepared gel-like ovomucin and its beta-subunit were treated with Pronase at various ratios (1/25600-1/6.25) to the sample weight at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The concentration, chemical composition, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of the obtained soluble fractions and their abilities to bind to anti-ovomucin antibodies and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured. At a ratio of 1/6400 the highest soluble fraction (solubility: nearly 100%) was obtained. At a ratio of 1/800 the fragment with the highest binding activity to the antibodies was obtained, and at a ratio of 1/50 the fragments with the disulfide bonds intact (apparent molecular masses, AMMs: 55, 45, and 40 kDa) which showed binding to the antibodies were prepared and partially characterized. Fragments (AMMs: 220, 120, and 100 kDa) at ratios of 1/3200-1/800 and the final Pronase-resistant fragment (AMM: 120 kDa) at ratios of 1/12.5-1/6.25 with a binding activity to NDV could then be prepared. From the analysis of the fragments of Pronase-treated beta-subunit, the AMM 120-kDa fragment was demonstrated to be a part of the AMM 220-kDa fragment.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, egg proteins, glycoproteins, egg albumen, antibodies, binding, amino-acids, chemical composition, structure activity relationships, enzyme treatment, protein subunits.


Zoeller, B.; Popp, M.; Walter, A.; Redmann-Muller, I.; Lodemann, E.; Jungwirth, C. Overexpression of chicken interferon regulatory factor-1 (Ch-IRF-1) induces constitutive expression of MHC class I antigens but does not confer virus resistance to a permanent chicken fibroblast cell line. Gene. Nov 19, 1998. v. 222 (2) p. 269-278. ISSN: 0378-1119

NAL call no: QH442.A1G4

Descriptors:  chickens, transcription-factors, gene expression, messenger RNA, major histocompatibility complex, histocompatibility antigens, interferon, binding proteins, fibroblasts, disease resistance, Newcastle disease virus, vaccinia virus, Sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, transcriptional activators, gene overexpression, beta microglubulin, gyanylate binding protein, B F  antigen.


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