Ahlers, C.; Huttner, K.; Pfeiffer, D.  Comparison between a live and an inactivated vaccine against Newcastle disease in village chickens. A field study in northern Malawi.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. June 1999. v. 31 (3) p. 167-174. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, live vaccines, intramuscular injection, antibody formation, application methods, Malawi, eye drop application.


Alexander, D.J.; Banks, J.; Collins, M.S.; Manvell, R.J.; Frost, K.M.; Speidel, E.C.; Aldous, E.W. Antigenic and genetic characterisation of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from outbreaks in domestic fowl and turkeys in Great Britain during 1997. The Veterinary Record. Oct 9, 1999. v. 145 (15) p. 417-421. ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no: 41.8 V641

Descriptors:  chickens, turkeys, Newcastle disease virus, Newcastle disease, outbreaks, characterization, antigens, phylogenetics, Great Britain, Scandinavia, Northern Ireland.


Alexander, D.J.; Manvell, R.J.; Banks, J.; Collins, M.S.; Parsons, G.; Cox, B.; Frost, K.M.; Speidel, E.C.; Ashman, S.; Aldous, E.W.  Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of the Newcastle disease viruses from outbreaks in Great Britain in 1997 for chickens and turkeys, and the protection afforded by vaccination.  Avian Pathology. Oct 1999. v. 28 (5) p. 501-511. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  The Newcastle disease virus isolated from healthy turkeys in outbreak GB 97/6 was used to challenge 4-week-old turkeys and chickens, which were either not vaccinated or had received a single dose of Hitchner B1 live vaccine 14 days earlier, by one of the intramuscular, intranasal or contact routes. Similar experiments were done in 38-day-old turkeys and chickens using virus isolated from severely sick chickens in outbreak GB 97/1. All vaccinated chickens showed low but measurable immune responses 14 days after vaccination, but only three of the turkeys had de-tectable antibodies. No vaccinated turkey or chicken showed any clinical sign after challenge with either virus. The virus from healthy turkeys in outbreak GB 97/6 induced clinical signs in 12/30 unvaccinated turkeys after challenge and 7/30 died. In unvaccinated chickens, challenge with this virus produced clinical signs in 25/30 birds and 21/30 died. In challenge experiments with the virus from outbreak GB 97/1 in chickens, 3/30 unvaccinated turkeys showed clinical signs and all three subsequently died. In contrast, 30/30 unvaccinated chickens challenged with this virus showed clinical signs and died. Vaccination did not prevent infection and excretion of either challenge virus. However, when compared with unvaccinated birds, vaccination reduced significantly the length of time virus was excreted and the overall proportion of swabs that were positive.

Descriptors:  chickens, turkeys, Newcastle disease virus, pathogenicity, outbreaks, vaccination, live vaccines, intramuscular injection, application methods, immune response, antibodies, clinical aspects, symptoms, species differences, Great Britain.


Bensink, Z.; Spradbrow, P.  Newcastle disease virus strain I2--a prospective thermostable vaccine for use in developing countries. Veterinary Microbiology. Aug 16, 1999. v. 68 (1/2) p. 131-139.  ISSN: 0378-1135  Note: In the special issue: Veterinary Virology in Australia / edited by G.E. Wilcox. Paper presented at a conference held September 24-26, 1998, Melbourne.

NAL call no:  SF601.V44

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus strains, vaccines, heat stability, evaluation, virulence, application methods, oral administration, antibodies, vaccination.


Berinstein, A.; Seal, B.S.; Zanetti, F.; Kaloghlian, A.; Segade, G.; Carrillo, E.  Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Argentina: use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for molecular typification.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1999. v. 43 (4) p. 792-797. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.  

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains a major pathogen of poultry where highly virulent strains require reporting to the Office of International Epizootes. NDV is a paramyxovirus existing as different strains classified on the basis of severity of the disease they cause. The present study was conducted in Argentina to determine the prevalence of highly virulent velogenic NDV strains in commercial poultry farms. Tracheal and cloacal swabs from 693 flocks, representing 14% of the broiler production, were collected and pooled. A pool amplified twice in embryonated eggs presented a limited hemagglutination titer. We performed reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction to amplify fusion and matrix protein gene sequences of the isolate and the strain Trenque Lauquen, isolated in Argentina during an outbreak in 1970-71 and previously characterized as velogenic viscerotropic by biological methods. The amino acid sequences were deduced from nucleotide sequences of the amplification products and the pathotype predicted according to the sequences obtained. From the samples analysed, we found only one type of NDV, being the isolate identified as lentogenic NDV. This strain is probably the one used in vaccination of flocks where that sample was obtained. These data have allowed us to consider a velogenic NDV-free status in Argentina's commercial poultry.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, disease surveys, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, molecular sequence data, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, pathotypes phylogenetics, Argentina.


Brown, C.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.  Detection of a macrophage-specific antigen and the production of interferon gamma in chickens infected with Newcastle disease virus.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1999. v. 43 (4) p. 696-703. ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded spleen and intestinal tissues were harvested at 2 days postinfection from 4-wk-old white rock chickens infected with five different strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These tissues were examined for the presence of macrophage antigen expression, virus replication, and interferon gamma (IFNgamma) production. The five strains represented all three NDV pathotypes. Viral replication and IFNgamma, as determined by riboprobe in situ hybridization, were detected only in those chickens infected with velogenic viscerotropic NDV (VVNDV) strains. Macrophage antigen expression, an indicator of macrophage activation, was determined by immunohistochemistry with a macrophage-specific antibody, CVI-ChNL-68.1. Presence of macrophage antigen was most prominent in VVNDV-infected chickens. The distribution of this antigen within tissues was far more diffuse than the staining for viral mRNA. The presence of IFNgamma mRNA was detected in the spleen and intestinal lymphoid tissue of VVNDV-infected chickens. There was also increased macrophage antigen expression in the mesogen-infected birds, but it was less dramatic than in tissues from VVNDV-infected chickens. One of two lentogen-infected birds had evidence of increased macrophage antigen expression only in the spleen.

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease virus, interferon, macrophage activation, antigens, macrophages, pathotypes, viral replication, messenger RNA.


Brown, C.C.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S. Comparison of pathology-based techniques for detection of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus in chickens.  Journal of Comparative Pathology. May 1999. v. 120 (4) p. 383-389. ISSN: 0021-9975

NAL call no:  41.8 J82

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, detection, viral proteins, immunohistochemistry, diagnostic techniques, spleen, cecum, eyelids, bursa Fabricii, small intestine, riboprobe in situ hybridization.


Brown, C.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S. Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence.  Veterinary Pathology. Mar 1999. v. 36 (2) p. 125-132. ISSN: 0300-9858

NAL call no:  41.8 P27

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease virus, virulence, pathotypes, pathogenesis, experimental infections, histopathology, nucleic acids, viral replication.


Crespo, R.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Woolcock, P.R.; Nordhousen, R.; Chin, R.P.  Macroscopic and microscopic pathology of an exotic Newcastle disease outbreak.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 108-109.  Note:  Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999, Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, California.


Crespo, R.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Woolcock, P.R.; Chin, R.P.; Davidson-York, D.; Tarbell, R. Exotic Newcastle disease in a game chicken flock.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 1999. v. 43 (2) p. 349-355.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  A sudden increase in mortality, preceded by a short history of respiratory signs and diarrhea, occurred in a backyard flock of 48 game chickens in the Central Valley of California. Necropsy findings included severe generalized linear hemorrhages and/or ulcers in the digestive tract, larynx, and trachea. Histology revealed severe multifocal hemorrhages and necrosis in the mucosa of the respiratory and digestive tracts, vasculitis, and necrosis of lymphoid tissue. The birds were serologically negative to Newcastle disease virus; this was consistent with an acute infection. The avian paramyxovirus type 1 isolated was characterized as velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus. A thorough epidemiologic investigation was carried out, and no other premises were found to have birds with clinical signs or evidence of exposure. The entire outbreak was limited to the original backyard flock and resolved within 14 days of the onset of clinical signs.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, flocks, clinical aspects, spread, outbreaks, case reports, California.


Deng, R.; Wang, Z.; Mahon, P.J.; Marinello, M.; Mirza, A.; Iorio, R.M. Mutations in the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein that interfere with its ability to interact with the homologous F protein in the promotion of fusion.  Virology. Jan 5, 1999. v. 253 (1) p. 43-54. ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, fusion protein, fusion process, genetic mutation. 


Empel, P. van; Vrijenhoek, M.; Goovaerts, D.; van den Bosch, H. Immunohistochemical and serological investigation of experimental Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in chickens.  Avian Pathology.  Oxfordshire: Carfax Publishing Ltd. Apr 1999. v. 28 (2) p. 187-193.:  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Immunohistochemical techniques were used to prove that Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale was the causative agent of lesions in the air sacs and lungs in chickens, but only after infection with Newcastle Disease virus (NDV). At first, the bacteria attached to the epithelium of the air sacs. Subsequently, they infiltrated the air sacs, and caused thickening of the air sacs, the formation of oedematous and granulomatous tissue, and accumulation of macrophages. The infection peaked at 5 to 9 days, after which recovery was seen. In the lungs, some areas with bronchially-associated lymphoid tissue were affected. The other organs investigated were shown not to be affected. In the absence of NDV infection, aerosol exposure of chickens to O. rhinotracheale only resulted in minimal and temporary microscopic air sac lesions. No O. rhinotracheale cells or fragments could be detected at any time point later than 2 days post-exposure. In spite of the absence of visible lesions, chickens exposed to O. rhinotracheale without prior NDV infection reacted serologically. The duration and the titre of this immune response was indistinguishable from that obtained in chickens exposed after NDV infection. Thus, infection with O. rhinotracheale appears to be restricted to the respiratory tract, with lesions only evident in birds previously infected with NDV, even though a strong serological response can be established in the absence of prior viral infection.

Descriptors: chickens, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, experimental infections, disease course, immunohistochemistry, serology, air sacs, lungs.


Foster, H.A.; Chitukuro, H.R.; Tuppa, E.; Mwanjala, T.; Kusila, C. Thermostable newcastle disease vaccines in Tanzania. Veterinary Microbiology. Aug 16, 1999. v. 68 (1/2) p. 127-130.  ISSN: 0378-1135  Note: In the special issue: Veterinary Virology in Australia / edited by G.E. Wilcox. Paper presented at a conference held September 24-26, 1998, Melbourne.

NAL call no:  SF601.V44

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, vaccines, heat stability, evaluation, villages, eyes, application methods, medicated feeds, disease prevention, Tanzania.


Gagic, M.; St. Hill, C.A.; Sharma, J.M. In ovo vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with vaccines containing multiple agents.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 1999. v. 43 (2) p. 293-301.  ISSN: 0005-2086 Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

Abstract:  We used in ovo technology to protect chickens against multiple diseases by inoculating vaccines containing mixtures of live viral agents. A single in ovo injection of a vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a vaccine strain of serotype 1 infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and recombinant fowl pox vaccine with HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (rFP-NDV) induced protection against virulent MDV, IBDV, Newcastle disease virus, and fowl poxvirus. The multiple-agent vaccine induced specific antibodies against the viral agents present in the mixture and did not adversely affect the survival of hatched chickens. Inoculation of a vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of MDV and IBDV did not affect hatchability of eggs, although the addition of rFP-NDV to the mixture reduced hatchability by 23%-26%. In ovo vaccination with a vaccine containing MDV and IBDV vaccine viruses did not exacerbate the inhibitory effect of individual viral agents on humoral and cellular immune competence.

Descriptors:  chickens, vaccination, eggs, live vaccines, combined vaccines, antibody formation, disease prevention, egg hatchability, immune competence, Marek's disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus.


Glaser, L.C.; Barker, I.K.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Ludwig, J.; Windingstad, R.M.; Key, D.W.; Bollinger, T.K. The 1992 epizootic of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants in North America. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Apr 1999. v. 35 (2) p. 319-330. ISSN: 0090-3558

NAL call no:  41.9 W64B

Descriptors:  Phalacrocorax auritus, cormorants, wild bird disease, epidemiology, Newcastle disease virus, North America.


Gohm, D.S.; Thur, B.; Audige, L.; Hofmann, M.A. A survey of Newcastle disease in Swiss laying-hen flocks using serological testing and simulation modelling.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Feb 15, 1999. v. 38 (4) p. 277-288. ISSN: 0167-5877

NAL call no: SF601.P7

Descriptors:  hens, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, surveys, simulation models, mathematical models, serological surveys, vaccination, outbreaks, infections, detection, ELISA,  disease prevalence, clinical aspects, symptoms, asymptomatic infections, computer techniques, Switzerland.


Graham, D.A.; German, A.; Abernethy, D.; McCullough, S.J.; Manvell, R.J.; Alexander, D.J. Isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from wild birds in Northern Ireland during the 1997 Newcastle disease epizootic. The Veterinary Record. July 3, 1999. v. 145 (1) p. 20-21. ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no:  41.8 V641

Descriptors:  wild birds, waterfowl, Orthomyxoviridae, paramyxovirus, isolation, outbreaks, Newcastle disease, Northern Ireland.


Granzow, H.; Weiland, F.; Mundt, E.; Kollner, B.; Werner, O. Intranuclear inclusions in cells infected with Newcastle Disease Virus.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B.  Aug 1999. v. 46 (6) p. 411-421. ISSN: 0931-1793

NAL call no:  41.8 Z52

Descriptors: cell cultures, Newcastle disease virus, infections, symptoms, nuclei, clinical aspects, cytoplasm, cell ultrastructure, coat proteins, immunocytochemistry, viral proteins.


Haddad, E.E.; Whitfill, C.E.; Avakian, A.P.; Clark, F.D.; Van Zant, P.D.; Link, D.B.; Wakenell, P.S.  In ovo vaccination with a novel Newcastle disease vaccine in SPF and broiler embryos; evaluation of safety and efficacy.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 117. Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999, Vancouver, Canada

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors:  chick embryos, ovo vaccination, Newcastle disease virus.


Hansson, E.; Young, J.G.; Hooper, P.T.; Della-Porta, A.J. Virulence and transmissibility of some Australian and exotic strains of Newcastle disease virus used in some vaccines.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  Jan. 1999. v. 77 (1) p. 51-53. ISSN: 0005-0423

NAL call no:  41.8 Au72

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, vaccines, virulence, strain differences, spread by aerosols, disease transmission, tracheitis, seroconversion, Australia.


Harrison, A.; Girshick, T.  The use of western blotting in epidemiologic studies of common virus diseases.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 117-118.  Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999, Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors: avian influenzavirus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, western blotting technique.  


Heckert, R.A.; Nagy, E.  Evaluation of the hemagglutination-inhibition assay using a baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Jan 1999. v. 11 (1) p. 99-102.  ISSN: 1040-6387

NAL call no: SF774.J68

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, antibody testing, hemagglutination inhibition test, recombinant antigens.


Herczeg, J.; Wehmann, E.; Bragg, R.R.; Travassos-Dias, P.M.; Hadjiev, G.; Werner, O.; Lomniczi, B.  Two novel genetic groups (VIIb and VIII) responsible for recent Newcastle disease outbreaks in southern Africa, one (VIIb) of which reached southern Europe.  Archives of Virology. 1999. v. 144 (11) p. 2087-2099.  ISSN: 0304-8608

NAL call no:  448.3 Ar23

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, genetic distance, strain differences, amino acid sequences, animal testing alternatives, restriction fragment length polymorphism, phylogenetics, South Africa. Mozambique, Bulgaria, Turkey.

Genetic sequence data: genbank/af136762. genbank/af136763. genbank/af136764. genbank/af136765. genbank/af136766. genbank/af136767. genbank/af136768. genbank/af136769. genbank/af136770. genbank/af136771. genbank/af136772. genbank/af136773. genbank/af136774. genbank/af136775. genbank/af136776. genbank/af136777. genbank/af136778. genbank/af136779. genbank/af136780. genbank/af136781. genbank/af136782. genbank/af136783. genbank/af136784. genbank/af136785. genbank/af136786.


Hooper, P.T.; Russell, G.M.; Morrow, C.J.; Segal, Y.  Lentogenic newcastle disease virus and respiratory disease in Australian broiler chickens.  Australian Veterinary Journal. Jan 1999. v. 77 (1) p. 53-54. ISSN: 0005-0423

NAL call no:  41.8 Au72

Descriptors: broilers, Newcastle disease virus, tracheitis, histopathology, Australia.


Hooper, P.T.; Hansson, E.; Young, J.G.; Russell, G.M.; Della Porta, A.J. Lesions in the upper respiratory tract in chickens experimentally infected with Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Australia.  Australian Veterinary Journal. Jan 1999. v. 77 (1) p. 50-51. ISSN: 0005-0423

NAL call no:  41.8 Au72

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, lesions, respiratory system, experimental infections, pathogenicity, viral antigens, avirulence, Australia.


Jorgensen, P.H.; Handberg, K.J.; Ahrens, P.; Hansen, H.C.; Manvell, R.J.; Alexander, D.J.  An outbreak of Newcastle disease in free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B. Aug 1999. v. 46 (6) p. 381-387.  ISSN: 0931-1793

NAL call no:  41.8 Z52

Descriptors:  pheasants, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, outbreaks, epidemiology, mortality, epidemics, pathogenicity, disease transmission, strain differences, virulence, amino acid sequences, polymerase chain reaction, identification, Denmark.


Juang, Y.T.; Au, W.C.; Lowther, W.; Hiscott, J.; Pitha, P.M. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits virus-mediated induction of interferon genes by disruption of nuclear transport of interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7.  The Journal of Biological Chemistry. June 18, 1999. v. 274 (25) p. 18060-18066. ISSN: 0021-9258

NAL call no:  381 J824

Descriptors:  mice, macrophages, cell lines, Newcastle disease virus, stimulation, interferon, interleukin-6, gene expression, messenger RNA, transcription, transcription factors, phosphorylation, protein transport, nuclei, inhibition, lipopolysaccharides.


Kim, I.J.; Gagic, M.; Sharma, J.M. Recovery of antibody-producing ability and lymphocyte repopulation of bursal follicles in chickens exposed to infectious bursal disease virus.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1999. v. 43 (3) p. 401-413. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

Abstract:  We studied the long-term effect of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in chickens. Specifically, the restoration of virus-induced bursal lesions and the duration of humoral immunodeficiency were examined. One-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were intraocularly inoculated with an intermediate vaccine strain (IBDV-Vac) or a virulent strain (IM-IBDV). At intervals postinoculation (PI), chickens were examined for histopathologic lesions. At 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 wk PI, the chickens were injected with a mixture of antigens, and primary antibody responses were examined at 10 days postimmunization. Initially, the virus caused extensive necrosis of bursal B lymphocytes. This lesion was accompanied by an infiltration of T lymphocytes. With time, the necrotic lesion in the bursa was resolved. The follicles became partly repopulated with B lymphocytes. The repopulation occurred faster in the chickens exposed to IBDV-Vac than in the chickens exposed to IM-IBDV. By 7 wk PI, 40% and 80% of bursal follicles in IM-IBDV- and IBDV-Vac-inoculated chickens, respectively, were repopulated with immunoglobulin M+ B lymphocytes. Both IBDV-Vac and IM-caused suppression of the primary antibody response to antigens. However, the antibody responses of the chickens exposed to either of the two IBDV strains used were compromised only during the first 6 wk of virus exposure. Subsequently, the antibody response returned to near normal levels.

Descriptors:  chickens, infectious bursal disease virus, antibody formation, humoral immunity, lymphocytes, bursa Fabricii, lesions, viral immunosuppression, duration, tetanus toxoid, Newcastle disease virus, Brucella abortus, vaccination.


King, D.J.  A comparison of the onset of protection induced by Newcastle disease virus strain B1 and a fowl poxvirus recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine to a viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus challenge.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1999. v. 43 (4) p. 745-755.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Four-week-old specific-pathogen-free white rock chickens were immunized with either a commercial recombinant fowl poxvirus-vectored Newcastle disease vaccine (FP-N) expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain B1 or live NDV B1. Vaccinates and controls were challenged by eyedrop and intranasal (E/I) route with a viscerotropic velogenic NDV at 14 days postvaccination to determine the time of clearance of challenge virus. In a subsequent experiment, chickens were challenged at 3, 6, or 10 days postvaccination to determine the onset of immunity. Chickens that received a recommended field dose (1x) or a 0.01 x dose of FP-N subcutaneously (SC) and were seropositive by hemagglutination-inhibition test at 14 days postvaccination cleared the challenge virus by 14 days postchallenge. Clinical Newcastle disease and high challenge virus titers in tissues were seen only in seronegative FP-N 0.01 x dose vaccinates and controls. In a comparison of vaccination with FP-N (1x, 10(4.9) median tissue culture infective dose) SC, B1 (10(6) median egg infective dose [EID(50)]) SC, or B1 (10(6) EID(50)) E/I, chickens vaccinated at 6 or 10 days before challenge with all vaccines were protected against clinical disease, but only those vaccinated with B1 E/I 10 days before challenge were protected against infection with the challenge virus. Vaccination at 3 days before challenge with B1 E/I provided early protection, but severe nervous signs developed later and reduced overall protection to 60%, whereas disease in chickens vaccinated with B1 SC and FP-N SC 3 days before challenge was similar to the challenge controls.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, fowl pox virus, recombinant vaccines, live vaccines, vaccination, subcutaneous injection, disease prevention, immunity, seroconversion.


Kuiken, T.; Wobeser, G.; Leighton, F.A.; Haines, D.M.; Chelack, B.; Bogdan, J.; Hassard, L.; Heckert, R.A.; Riva, J. Pathology of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan, with comparison of diagnostic methods.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Jan 1999. v. 35 (1) p. 8-23. ISSN: 0090-3558

NAL call no:  41.9 W64B

Descriptors:  Phalacrocorax auritus, cormorants, histopathology, central nervous system, diagnostic tests, comparison study.


Lee, J.  Newcastle disease: protecting poultry farmers on two fronts.  Agricultural Research. Oct 1999. v. 47 (10) p. 16-17.:  ISSN: 0002-161X

NAL call no:  1.98 Ag84

Descriptors: poultry protection, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, protective measures.


Leeuw, O. de,; Peeters, B.  Complete nucleotide sequence of Newcastle disease virus: evidence for the existence of a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae.  The Journal of General Virology. Jan 1999. v. 80 (pt.1) p. 131-136.  ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  We have completely sequenced the genome of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strain LaSota. The sequences of the 3'- and 5'-terminal ends of the RNA genome were determined by sequencing cDNA fragments generated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The entire genomic sequence, which was established by sequencing cDNA fragments generated by high-fidelity RT-PCR, consists of 15 186 nt. Comparison of the 5'-terminal sequence of NDV LaSota with the 5'-terminal sequences of ten members of the Paramyxovirinae showed that NDV LaSota has an unusually long 5' untranscribed region. Comparison of the entire genomic sequences showed that NDV is only distantly related to the other members of the genus Rubulavirus, to which NDV has been assigned. In this paper we present data which suggest that NDV should not be classified in the genus Rubulavirus, but instead should be considered as a member of a new genus within the subfamily Paromyxovirinae.

Descriptors:  nucleotide sequences, chemotaxonomy, new genus, taxonomic status, taxonomic revisions, Paromyxovirinae.

Molecular sequence data:  genbank/af077761. 


Li, Y.C.; Ledoux, D.R.; Bermudez, A.J.; Fritsche, K.L.; Rottinghaus, G.E.  Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected immune responses in broiler chicks.  Poultry Science. Sept 1999. v. 78 (9) p. 1275-1282.  ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  Three experiments were conducted to evaluate immune responses in chicks fed fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). Day-old male chicks were randomly allotted to dietary treatments: 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg FB(1)/kg diet. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed diets for 3 wk and were injected intravenously with 4.6 x 10(6) Escherichia coli on Day 21. Blood samples were collected at 60, 120, and 180 min postinjection, and liver, spleen, and lung were collected after 180 min. Chicks fed 200 mg FB(1)/ kg diet had significantly higher numbers of bacterial colonies in blood, spleen, and liver (P < 0.05) than control chicks. In Experiment 2, chicks were placed on the diets for 4 wk and were injected with 0.5 mL inactivated Newcastle Disease virus vaccine on Weeks 2 and 3 of the experiment, and primary and secondary antibody titers were measured 7 d after each injection. The secondary antibody response in chicks fed 200 mg FB(1)/kg diet was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of control chicks. In Experiment 3, lymphocyte proliferation in chicks exposed to FB(1) in vivo or in vitro was determined. Results of the in vivo study showed that cell proliferation in response to mitogens was lower (P < 0.05) in chicks fed 200 mg FB(1)/kg diet than in control chicks. For the in vitro study, cell proliferation was lower (P < 0.05) when cells were exposed to greater than or equal to 2.5 micrograms FB(1)/mL. Data of the current study suggested that FB(1) is immunosuppressive in chicks when present in the ration at 200 mg FB(1)/kg diet.

Descriptors:  broiler chicks,  fumonisins, dosage,  Escherichia coli, experimental infections, immune response, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, Newcastle disease virus, antibody formation, lymphocyte transformation, infection,  immunosuppressive agents, liver, spleen, lungs, mitogens, responses.


Maas, R.A.; Oei, H.L.; Venema-Kemper, S.; Koch, G.; Bongers, J.  Dose-response effects of inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines: influence of serologic assay, time after vaccination, and type of chickens.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 1999. v. 43 (4) p. 670-677.  ISSN: 0005-2086 Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Knowledge of the dose-response relation of inactivated vaccines and of the factors that influence this relation is essential for the evaluation of existing vaccine potency assays and the development of new potency assays that are based on the antigen content of the inactivated vaccines. We quantified the relation between vaccine dose, serologic response, and clinical protection after vaccination for three different inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines. Qualitatively, similar dose-response curves were obtained for the three vaccines when either the serologic response or the clinical protection of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens was plotted against the different vaccine doses applied. However, the vaccines differed quantitatively: doses of vaccines that induced similar antibody titers or clinical protection differed 2-8-fold. In contrast with the narrow range of antibody titers induced by a full vaccine dose, a very broad range of titers was obtained after dilution of the vaccines. At least 95% of the SPF chickens with detectable antibody in the serum were protected against a challenge with virulent Herts ND virus. The relation between the dosage of two different ND vaccines and the serum antibody titers remained markedly constant between 3 and 18 wk after vaccination. Vaccination of broilers instead of layers with a dilution series of inactivated ND vaccine resulted in significantly lower antibody levels and less clinical protection against virulent challenge. In conclusion, despite quantitative differences, we found comparable dose-response relations for the three inactivated ND vaccines studied.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, inactivated vaccines, strains, vaccination, dosage, potency, immune response, disease prevention.


Makkay, A.M.; Krell, P.J.; Nagy, E.  Antibody detection-based differential ELISA for NDV-infected or vaccinated chickens versus NDV HN-subunit vaccinated chickens. Veterinary Microbiology. Apr 19, 1999. v. 66 (3) p. 209-222.  ISSN: 0378-1135

NAL call no:  SF601.V44

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, ELISA, antibodies, detection, infections, vaccination, vaccines, diagnosis, coat proteins, amino acid sequences.


Mtambo, M.M.A.; Mushi, E.J.; Kinabo, L.D.B.; Maeda-Machang'u, A.; Mwamengele,  G.L.M.; Yongolo, M.G.S.; Temu, R.P.C. Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Dec 15, 1999. v. 68 (1/3) p. 55-61. ISSN: 0378-8741

NAL call no:  RS160.J6

Descriptors: herbal treatment for Newcastle disease, domestic fowl, pepper, lemon, Opuntia cactus, Tanzania.


Muller, T.; Hlinak, A.; Muhle, R.U.; Kramer, M.; Liebherr, H.; Ziedler, K.; Pfeiffer, D.U.  A descriptive analysis of the potential association between migration patterns of bean and white-fronted geese and the occurrence of Newcastle disease outbreaks in domestic birds. Avian Diseases. Apr/June 1999. v. 43 (2) p. 315-319. ISSN: 0005-2086

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The sightings and migration patterns of 65 bean (Anser fabalis) and 65 white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) are reported. In the past, these geese were serologically screened for the occurrence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and other avian viral diseases by Hlinak et al. Of the 130 birds originally tagged and serologically screened in 1991, 53 birds were resighted between 1991 and 1996. Most of the sightings were reported from main wintering and resting sites in Germany and The Netherlands. It is noteworthy that 19 of the 53 birds sighted had serologic evidence that they had been exposed to NDV before the time of marking in 1991. Although the origin of these infections in bean geese and white-fronted geese is still unknown, the sightings reported in this study indicate that, once infected, wild geese may be involved in the dissemination and spread of avian viral diseases, specifically Newcastle disease. The migration patterns of the wild geese provided further evidence that the main resting and wintering areas of migratory waterfowl are likely to be important for the inter- and intraspecies transmission of avian diseases, thereby representing risk areas for the poultry industry.

Descriptors:  geese, Newcastle disease virus, migration, outbreaks, spread, disease transmission, Germany, Netherlands, Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons.


Nara, P.L. The status and role of vaccines in the U.S. food animal industry: implications for biological terrorism.  Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences v. 894.  Food and Agricultural Security Guarding Against Natural Threats and Terrorist Attacks Affecting Health, National Food Supplies, and Agricultural Economics. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. 1999. p. 206-217. ISBN: 1573312304.  Note:  Paper presented at the "International Conference on Food and Agricultural Security," September 28-30, 1998, in Washington, D.C.

NAL call no:  500 N484 v. 894

Descriptors:  meat and livestock industry, vaccines, biological warfare, terrorism, disease prevention, disease control, avian influenzavirus, Newcastle disease virus, foot and mouth disease, aphthovirus, rinderpest virus, African swine fever virus, swine fever virus, USA.


Peeters, B.P.H.;  de Leeuw, O.S.; Koch, G.; Gielkens, A.L.J.  Rescue of Newcastle disease virus from cloned cDNA: evidence that cleavability of the fusion protein is a major determinant for virulence.  Journal of Virology. June 1999. v. 73 (6) p. 5001-5009. ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL call no:  QR360.J6

Descriptors: complementary DNA, cloning, pathogenicity, chickens.


Rautenschlein, S.; Sharma, J.M. Response of turkeys to simultaneous vaccination with hemorrhagic enteritis and Newcastle disease virus.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 1999. v. 43 (2) p. 286-292. ISSN: 0005-2086 Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The effects of single and combined vaccination of turkeys against hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were investigated. Dual vaccination of turkeys with NDV-B1 and HEVp30 or marble spleen disease virus (MSDV) enhanced white mottling of the spleens and the apoptosis rate in spleen cells (P < 0.05). In addition, simultaneously vaccinated turkeys had fewer HEV-infected spleen cells at 4 days postvaccination than turkeys given HEVp30 or MSDV alone. The anti-HEV antibody response was significantly reduced at 14 days postvaccination (P < 0.05), whereas the anti-NDV antibody response was enhanced (P < 0.05) in turkeys vaccinated with HEVp30 + NDV-Bl. Further, the effect of dual vaccination on macrophage function was studied. Spleen cells from NDV-B1-vaccinated turkeys were primed to produce nitric oxide (NO) after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide. Spleen cells from HEVp30- or MSDV-vaccinated turkeys did not produce NO after in vitro stimulation. In dual-vaccinated turkeys, the priming effect of NDV-B1 was reduced in comparison with single-inoculated birds.

Descriptors:  turkeys, vaccination, combined vaccines, vaccines, hemorrhagic enteritis virus, Newcastle disease virus, lesions, viral replication, antibody formation, macrophage activation.


Reynolds, D.L.; Maraqa, A.D.  A rapid virus neutralization assay for Newcastle disease virus with the swine testicular continuous cell line. Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1999. v. 43 (3) p. 564-571.:  ISSN: 0005-2086 Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Five continuous cell lines, swine testicular (ST), human rectal tumor (HRT 18), fetal rhesus monkey kidney (MA104), bovine turbinate (BT), and quail tracheal (QT35), were evaluated and compared with chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) for their ability to propagate B1 or Texas GB strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The NDV Texas GB strain replicated in all the continuous cell lines used in this study. Only the ST and QT35 cells produced a cytopathic effect (CPE) similar to that produced in CEFs. However, the ST cell line remained attached while displaying CPE, whereas infected QT35 cells detached, as did the CEFs. The B1 strain of NDV replicated in ST cells, MA104 cells, and CEFs but with less CPE as compared with the Texas GB strain. Pretreatment with trypsin did not enhance CPE with either NDV strain at the level tested. Sera evaluated for neutralizing antibody titers to NDV were significantly higher in titer when the ST cell line was used and compared with CEFs. A high correlation was found between the microscopic examination and the tetrazolium dye (MTT) microassay methods for determining the viral neutralization endpoint, thus suggesting the ST cell line and MTT microassay could be used as an alternative to CEFs and microscopic examination for evaluating neutralizing antibodies titers to NDV.

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, virus neutralization, rapid methods, cell lines, testes, viral replication.


Reynolds, D.L.; Maraqa, A.D.  A technique for inducing B-cell ablation in chickens by in ovo injection of cyclophosphamide.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1999. v. 43 (3) p. 367-375. ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The effect of cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment in ovo on avian B and T cells was studied. CY was injected in ovo on the 16th, 17th, and 18th days of incubation. Blood samples were collected periodically from CY-treated and nontreated birds after hatch and were used to measure blood lymphocyte responses to the T-cell and B-cell mitogens, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. Additionally, flow cytometric analysis was used to determine the presence of B and T cells in peripheral blood, and birds were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigen at 3 wk of age and booster vaccinated at 5 wk of age CY treatment reduced hatchability by 35%-40%, increased mortality by 3%-5% within the first 2 wk of life, and induced a significant retardation in body weight gains. At 2 wk of age, approximately 50% of CY-treated birds were devoid of B-cell mitogenic responsiveness while demonstrating significant T-cell mitogenic responsiveness. However, B-cell responses were observed at 4 and 6 wk from a small percentage of birds that were originally T-cell responsive and B-cell nonresponsive at 2 wk of age. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CY-treated birds had significantly less B cells (or were devoid of B cells) than the corresponding nontreated control birds. However, no significant difference in the T-cell percentage was observed between CY-treated and nontreated birds. CY-treated birds did not produce detectable antibodies specific for NDV during the first and second weeks postvaccination, as demonstrated by hemagglutination inhibition assay. However, antibodies were detected in some CY-treated birds 10 days postbooster. Those antibody-positive birds were found to be the same birds that had subsequently responded to the LPS mitogen on the blastogenesis microassay. This study indicates the importance of monitoring the B- and T-cell responses in CY-treated birds to identify those birds in which B-cell regeneration may have occurred.

Descriptors:  chick embryos, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, ablation, cyclophosphamide injection,  concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharides,  hatching, blood, flow cytometry, Newcastle disease virus, lymphocyte transformation, vaccination, antibody formation, liveweight gain, mortality.


Romer-Oberdorfer, A.; Mundt, E.; Mebatsion, T.; Buchholz, U.J.; Mettenleiter, T.C.  Generation of recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus from cDNA.  The Journal of General Virology. Nov 1999. v. 80 (pt.11) p. 2987-2995.  ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  Recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of the vaccine strain Clone-30 was reproducibly generated after simultaneous expression of antigenome-sense NDV RNA and NDV nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from plasmids transfected into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase. For this purpose, the genome of Clone-30, comprising 15186 nt, was cloned and sequenced prior to assembly into a full-length cDNA clone under control of a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. Recombinant virus was amplified by inoculation of transfection supernatant into the allantoic cavity of embryonated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs. Two marker restriction sites comprising a total of five nucleotide changes artificially introduced into noncoding regions were present in the progeny virus. The recombinant NDV was indistinguishable from the parental wild-type virus with respect to its growth characteristics in cell culture and in embryonated eggs. Moreover, an intracerebral pathogenicity index of 0.29 was obtained for both viruses as determined by intracerebral inoculation of day-old SPF chickens, proving that the recombinant NDV is a faithful copy of the parental vaccine strain of NDV.

Descriptors: complementary DNA, nucleotide sequences, recombination.

Molecular sequence data: genbank/y18898.


Salle, C.T.P.; Soares, R.B.; Ce, M.C.; Silva, A.B.; Moraes, H.L.S.; Nascimento, V.P.; Guahyba, A.S.  Immune response assessment in turkey breeders vaccinated against Newcastle disease using mathematical models.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 129.  Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999. Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors:  turkeys, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus, immune response.


Samina, I.; Khinich, Y.; Gutter, B.; Michael, A.; Peleg, B.A.  Day-old vaccination with live-in-oil vaccines: Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chicks and ND in turkey poults.  Avian Pathology. Feb 1999. v. 28 (1) p. 73-78. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9  

Abstract:  One-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine incorporated in oil alone or in killed-in-oil ND vaccine. Incorporation of live vaccine in oil emulsions was carried out just prior to vaccination. Live-in-oil ND vaccine containing 10(6.0) median embryo lethal doses (ELD50/dose induced the same protection following challenge and the same level of antibody at 42 days post-vaccination as did commercial killed-in-oil ND vaccine containing about 250 times as much antigen (10(8.4) ELD50/dose). Incorporation of live ND vaccine in killed-in-oil vaccine contributed markedly to protection rates and antibody levels, as compared to those obtained following vaccination with killed-in-oil vaccine only. One-day-old turkey poults also showed the advantage of incorporation of live ND vaccine in killed-in-oil vaccine when challenged 3 months post-vaccination. One-day-old broiler chicks, vaccinated with live ND and infectious bursar disease vaccine (IBD) incorporated in killed-in-oil combined ND + IBD vaccine, showed better protection against challenge with IBDV and higher antibody levels to NDV as compared to vaccination with killed-in-oil vaccine alone.

Descriptors: poults, chicks, live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, combined vaccines, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, disease prevention.


San Roman, K.; Villar, E.; Munoz-Barroso, I.  Acidic pH enhancement of the fusion of Newcastle disease virus with cultured cells.  Virology. Aug 1, 1999. v. 260 (2) p. 329-341.  ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors: in vitro methods, acidity, fusion of cells and virus.


Scanlon, D.B.; Corino, G.L.; Shiell, B.J.; Della-Porta, A.J.; Manvell, R.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Hodder, A.N.; Gorman, J.J. Pathotyping isolates of Newcastle disease virus using antipeptide antibodies to pathotype-specific regions of their fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins.  Archives of Virology. 1999. v. 144 (1) p. 55-72. ISSN: 0304-8608

NAL call no:  448.3 Ar23

Descriptors:  virulence, pathotypes, amino acid sequences, immune serum.


Schelling, E.; Thur, B.; Griot, C.; Audige, L.  Epidemiological study of Newcastle disease in backyard poultry and wild bird populations in Switzerland.  Avian Pathology. June 1999. v. 28 (3) p. 263-272.  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no: SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Blood samples and cloacal swabs from poultry were collected in 107 small chicken flocks and 62 pure-bred poultry flocks to determine their status regarding Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. A questionnaire emphasizing potential contacts of poultry with wild birds and management practices associated with NDV infection was completed for each flock. Additionally, 1576 wild bird carcasses of 115 different bird species were collected from hunters and taxidermists. Poultry sera and tissue fluids of wild birds were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking ELISA. Cloacal swabs were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for NDV genome detection. In-herd NDV seroprevalences between 5 and 29% were found in one small chicken flock, as well as in four pure-bred poultry flocks. NDV antibody positive wild birds were found in 10.2% of all wild birds examined. Highest proportions (i.e. > 15%) of positive birds per species were found among sparrowhawks, kites, tawny owls, eagle owls, barn owls, cuckoos, swifts, cormorants and grebes. No NDV genome was detected in cloacal swabs. This study suggests that buying eggs or poultry abroad and exchanging poultry within the country were factors, more important than wild birds, to explain the higher NDV seropositivity in pure-bred poultry flocks.

Descriptors: chickens, ducks, geese, wild birds, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, epidemiology, flocks, inbred lines, seroprevalence, risk factors, animal husbandry, Switzerland.


Scott, P.C.; Westbury, H.; Reece, R.; Arzey, G.  Review of Newcastle disease virus in Australia. Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 94-95. Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999, Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4 

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, Australia.


Shivaprasad, H.L.; Rupiper, D.; Woolcock, P.R.; Woods, L.  An outbreak of Newcastle disease in exotic pheasants and doves.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 43. Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999, Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors: pheasants, doves, Columbidae, Newcastle disease virus.


Stone-Hulslander, J.; Morrison, T.G.  Mutational analysis of heptad repeats in the membrane-proximal region of Newcastle disease virus HN protein.   Journal of Virology. May 1999. v. 73 (5) p. 3630-3637.  ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL call no:  QR360.J6

Descriptors:  viral hemagglutinins, sialidase, mutants, targeted mutagenesis.


Thiagarajan, D.; Ram, G.C.; Bansal, M.P.  Optimum conditions for in vitro chicken IL-2 production and its in vivo role in Newcastle disease vaccinated chickens.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Jan 4, 1999. v. 67 (1) p. 79-91.  ISSN: 0165-2427

NAL call no:  SF757.2.V38

Abstract:  Optimum conditions for in vitro chicken interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were studied. IL-2 containing culture supernatants were generated by mitogen stimulation of splenic mononuclear cells (SMC) and the samples were tested on 72 h Concanavalin A (ConA) blasts for their proliferative ability. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used as a measurement of proliferation. Higher stimulation indices and thus maximal IL-2 production were obtained with the following culture conditions: 5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 micrograms ml-1 ConA in serum free Iscove's modified Dulbecco medium. The molecule responsible for IL-2 activity was found to have a molecular weight of 14000 as estimated by size exclusion chromatography. SMC obtained from chickens inoculated with Newcastle disease virus were used to study the immunomodulatory role of IL-2. The lymphocyte transformation test was used as an in vitro correlate of cell mediated immunity in these chickens. The mitogen responses of cells obtained from virus inoculated and control chickens were similar on the basis of stimulation indices. Antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation was demonstrated using SMC obtained from virus inoculated chickens. Uptake of exogenous IL-2 by 72 h ConA blasts was of similar magnitude in both virus inoculated and control chickens indicating that uptake of IL-2 by T lymphocytes was normal in Newcastle disease virus inoculated chickens.

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, interleukin-2, cell cultures, monocytes, spleen cells, mitogens, concanavalin A, cell division, protein synthesis, molecular weight, immunostimulation, lymphocyte transformation.


Verwoerd, D.J.; Olivier, A.; Gummow, B.; Gerdes, G.H.; Williams, R.  Experimental infection of vaccinated slaughter ostriches in a natural, open-air feedlot facility with virulent Newcastle disease virus.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1999. v. 43 (3) p. 442-452.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) since the 1993-94 epidemic in southern Africa holds major implications for the export of ostrich products from this region. A challenge experiment with this field strain was conducted in open-air feedlot facilities under strict biosecurity measures. The experiment was designed to follow vaccination and preslaughter quarantine regulations currently enforced in South African export ostrich facilities in order to determine the viremia period and immune response under these specific circumstances. One hundred forty-three slaughter ostriches were allocated into three test groups, according to the time period between pretrial vaccination and challenge (1-2 mo, 2-4 mo, 4-6 mo), and an unchallenged control group. All birds in the test groups were challenged by oral, tracheal, and ocular routes with a field isolate of NDV. They were slaughtered over the next 4 wk on nine separate occasions and bled on 12 occasions. Virus isolation was attempted from seven sets of pooled samples from each bird to determine the viremia period and the serum antibody concentrations were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to establish an immune response curve. NDV could be back-isolated only up to day 9 postinfection and from only six ostriches with poor immune response titers and corresponding to a rise in antibody levels above an indirect ELISA optical density reading of 0.33. Virus could be recovered only from brain and respiratory tract tissue. The HI test was less sensitive than the ELISA. Immune response curves did not differ significantly between the groups and peaked on day 14 postinfection. From these data, ELISA titers would appear to be a good indicator of the probability that an ostrich will be clinically infected after velogenic NDV challenge. These results also suggest that the current vaccination schedule enforced by the South African Veterinary Authorities results in protective immunity in up to 95% of slaughter ostriches from export approved facilities. The standard 30-day preslaughter quarantine period introduced as part of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus control measures also appears sufficient to encompass the determined NDV viremia period of 9-11 days in slaughter ostriches.

Descriptors:  ostriches, Newcastle disease virus, experimental infections, feedlots, vaccination, quarantine, viremia, immune response, South Africa.


Wang, Z.Y.; Iorio, R.M. Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain.  The Journal of General Virology. Mar 1999. v. 80 (pt.3) p. 749-753. ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no: QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.

Descriptors: viral hemagglutinins, sialidase, ectodomain, viral protein, mutations, NA activity.


Ward, M.D.; Fuller, F.J.; Mehrotra, J.; De-Buysscher, E.V.  The nucleoprotein of Newcastle disease virus: the avian immune response to rNP of NDV is not different from the response to rNP of avian influenza virus.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 141. Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999. Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, nucleoproteins, chickens, immune responses.


Ward, M.D.; Suyemoto, M.; Qureshi, M.A.; Weinstock, D.; De-Buysscher, E.V. Experimental DNA-vaccination against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV): transient expression vectors expressing the nucleoprotein (NP)-, or haemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN)-gene.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 1999. (48) p. 54-55.  Note: Meeting held on April 24-27, 1999, Vancouver, Canada.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors: chickens, vaccination, Newcastle disease, plasmid vectors, genes.


Watson, S.A.  The changing biological warfare threat: anti-crop and anti-animal agents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 894.  Food and Agricultural Security  Guarding Against Natural Threats and Terrorist Attacks Affecting Health, National Food Supplies, and Agricultural Economics. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1999. 1999. p. 159-163.:  ISBN: 1573312304 (cloth: alk. paper)  Note:  Paper presented at the "International Conference on Food and Agricultural Security," September 28-30, 1998, in Washington, D.C.

NAL call no:  500 N484 v. 894

Descriptors:  biological warfare, terrorism, plant diseases, animal diseases, plant viruses, animal viruses, bacterial diseases, mycoses, fungal diseases, meat and livestock industry, poultry industry, Newcastle disease virus, USA.


Wehmann, E.; Herczeg, J.; Tanyi, J.; Nagy, E.; Lomniczi, B.  Lentogenic field isolates of Newcastle disease virus isolated in Canada and Hungary are identical with the vaccine type used in the region. Avian Pathology. Feb 1999. v. 28 (1) p. 6-12. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Lentogenic field isolates of Newcastle disease virus were examined by restriction enzyme analysis of RT-PCR products generated from the matrix protein gene that discriminates between strains LaSota and B-1, the two most widely used lentogenic vaccine viruses. Isolates were derived from regions where, exclusively or predominantly, only one type of vaccine was employed. Viruses collected in Hungary for two decades were exclusively of LaSota-type while the Canadian collection predominantly included B-1, which corresponded to the vaccine types used in the regions. Isolation of vaccine type lentogenic viruses from unvaccinated flocks supports the occurrence of area spread of these lentogenic viruses.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus strains, vaccines, spread, restriction endonuclease analysis, polymerase chain reaction, Canada, Hungary, apathogenic strains.


Wu, H.Y.; Chiou, S.H.; Shien, J.H.; Chang, P.C.; Shieh, H.K. Detection of proteins and nucleic acids of Newcastle disease virus in Eimeria acervulina.  Avian Pathology.   Oct 1999. v. 28 (5) p. 441-445. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Ten-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated simultaneously with Eimeria acervulina and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). By employing immunofluorescent staining and in situ hybridization techniques, we detected NDV proteins and nucleic acids in different life stages of E. acervulina. However, no NDV particle was found within E. acervulina by electron microscopy. Oocysts from E. acervulina that contained NDV proteins and nucleic acids could elicit antibodies against NDV after repeated inoculation into SPF chickens. Moreover, the proportion of oocysts from chickens infected with E. acervulina and NDV which could be induced to sporulate in vitro was lower than those from chickens infected with E. acervulina alone. These results indicate that nucleic acids and proteins of NDV can exist within E. acervulina, and stimulate an immune response against NDV in chickens, and that NDV may also interfere with the sporulation of oocysts.

Descriptors: chickens, Eimeria acervulina, Newcastle disease virus, viral proteins, nucleic acids, detection, interactions, oocysts, sporulation, experimental infections.


Yang, C.Y.; Shieh, H.K.; Lin, Y.L.; Chang, P.C.  Newcastle disease virus isolated from recent outbreaks in Taiwan phylogenetically related to viruses (genotype VII) from recent outbreaks in western Europe.  Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 1999. v. 43 (1) p. 125-130. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Three major outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) occurred in Taiwan in the last three decades (in 1969, 1984, and 1995). Newcastle disease vines (NDVs) isolated in the three outbreaks, together with those isolated in 1998, were sequenced between nucleotides 47 and 435 of the fission gene. A phylogenetic tree based on sequences obtained showed that the NDV isolated in 1969 was similar to the genotype III viruses. In contrast, all isolates in 1984 and seven of the eight isolates in 1995, together with all isolates in 1998, fell into the genotype VII. These results suggest that the 1969 outbreak of ND in Taiwan was caused by the genotype III virus, whereas the 1984 and 1995 outbreaks were caused by the genotype VII viruses. To date, the genotype VII viruses have caused many outbreaks in east Asia and western Europe. We suspect that these outbreaks have constituted the fourth panzootic of ND, which is distinct from the third panzootic caused by the "pigeon PMV-1 viruses. NDV isolated in Taiwan in 1984 was the earliest isolation of the genotype VII virus.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, outbreaks, phylogenetics, genotypes, nucleotide sequences, strain differences, epidemiology, identification, genes, amino acid sequences, Europe, Taiwan.

Molecular sequence data: genbank/af083959. genbank/af083960. genbank/af083961. genbank/af083962. genbank/af083963. genbank/af083964. genbank/af083965. genbank/af083966. genbank/af083967. genbank/af083968. genbank/af083969. genbank/af083970. genbank/af083971. genbank/af083972. genbank/af083973. genbank/af083974.


Yonash, N.; Kaiser, M.G.; Heller, E.D.; Cahaner, A.; Lamont, S.J.  Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) related cDNA probes associated with antibody response in meat-type chickens. Animal Genetics. Apr 1999. v. 30 (2) p. 92-101. ISSN: 0268-9146

NAL call no:  QP98.A1A5

Abstract:  The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region was examined as a set of candidate genes for association between DNA markers and antibody response. Intercross F2 families of chickens were generated from a cross between high (HC) and low (LC) Escherichia coli; antibody lines. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was conducted by using three MHC-related cDNA probes: chicken MHC class IV (B-G), chicken MHC class I (B-F), and human MHC-linked Tap2. Association between RFLP bands and three antibody response traits (E. coli, sheep red blood cells and Newcastle disease virus) were determined by two methods: by statistically analyzing each band separately and also by analyzing all bands obtained from the three probes by using multiple regression analysis to account for the multiple comparisons. The MHC class IV probe was the highest in polymorphisms but had the lowest number of bands associated with antibody response. The MHC class I probe yielded 15 polymorphic bands of which four exhibited association with antibody response traits. The Tap2 probe yielded 20 different RFLP bands of which five were associated with antibody production. Some Tap2 bands were associated with multiple antibody response traits. The multiband analysis of the three probes' bands revealed more significant effects than the analysis of each band separately. This study illustrates the efficacy of using multiple MHC region probes as candidate markers for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling antibody response in chickens.

Descriptors: broilers, major histocompatibility complex, complementary DNA, immune response, genes, genetic markers Escherichia coli, antibodies, restriction fragment length polymorphism, sheep, erythrocytes, Newcastle disease virus, quantitative traits, loci, crosses


Young, J.K.; Li, D.; Abramowitz, M.C.; Morrison, T.G.  Interaction of peptides with sequences from the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein heptad repeat regions.   Journal of Virology. July 1999. v. 73 (7) p. 5945-5956.  ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL call no:  QR360.J6

Descriptors: amino acid sequences, binding sites, heptad repeat regions.


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