Alexander, D.J.  Newcastle disease in ostriches (Struthio camelus)--a review.  Avian Pathology. Apr 2000. v. 29 (2) p. 95-100.  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Descriptors: ostriches, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, outbreaks, infections, mortality, symptoms, age differences, disease transmission, morbidity, infection, experimental infections, chickens, vaccines, ELISA, diagnostic techniques, virus neutralization, literature reviews.


Ali, A.; Reynolds, D.L.  A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for Newcastle disease virus and avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain).  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 2000. v. 44 (4) p. 938-943. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian pneumovirus (APV) cause Newcastle disease and rhinotracheitis respectively, in turkeys. Both of these viruses infect the respiratory system. A one-tube, multiplex, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of both NDV and Colorado strain of APV (APV-Col) was developed and evaluated. The primers, specific for each virus, were designed from the matrix protein gene of APV-Col and the fusion protein gene of NDV to amplify products of 631 and 309 nucleotides, respectively. The multiplex RT-PCR assay, for detecting both viruses simultaneously, was compared with the single-virus RT-PCR assays for its sensitivity and specificity. The specific primers amplified products of predicted size from each virus in the multiplex as well as the single-virus RT-PCR assays. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was determined to be equivalent to the single-virus RT-PCR assays for detecting both NDV and APV-Col. This multiplex RT-PCR assay proved to be a sensitive method for the simultaneous and rapid detection of NDV and APV-Col. This assay has the potential for clinical diagnostic applications.

Descriptors: avian pneumovirus, Newcastle disease virus, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, diagnostic techniques, detection, rhinotracheitis, respiratory diseases, evaluation.


Ali, A.; Reynolds, D.L. Characterization of the stunting syndrome agent:  Relatedness to known viruses.  Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 2000. v. 44 (1) p. 45-50. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  An enteric disease of young turkeys, referred to as stunting syndrome (SS), causes reduced growth and impaired feed efficiency. A recently isolated virus, stunting syndrome agent, (SSA) has been found to be the etiologic agent of SS. The objective of the present study was to determine relatedness of the SSA with other viral agents. Serologic (viral neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) assays and a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used. The antisera against turkey enteric coronavirus (bluecomb agent), bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine Breda-1 virus, bovine Breda-2 virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) of swine were evaluated by dot-immunobinding avidin-biotin-enhanced ELISA and did not react with SSA. The homologous (anti-SSA) antiserum was positive by ELISA. Similarly, anti-SSA antiserum did not react when NDV, IBV, BCV, or TGEV was used as antigen but did react with the homologous (SSA) virus. The virus neutralization assay was performed by inoculating 24-to-25-day-old turkey embryos via the amniotic route and by assessing the embryo infectivity on the basis of gross intestinal lesions and intestinal maltase activity at 72 hr postinoculation. None of the aforementioned antisera neutralized SSA infectivity in embryos except for the homologous anti-SSA antiserum. A RT-PCR was performed with known primers specific for NDV, IBV, BCV, and TGEV. The known primers failed to amplify SSA genome but amplified their respective viral genomes. We concluded that the SSA was distinct from the viral agents that were evaluated.

Descriptors: viral diseases, growth, feed conversion, viruses, serology, polymerase chain reaction, identification, immune serum, virus neutralization, evaluation, assays, embryos.


Blignaut, A.; Burger, W.P.; Morley, A.J.; Bellstedt, D.U. Antibody responses to La Sota strain vaccines of Newcastle disease virus in ostriches (Struthio camelus) as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2000. v. 44 (2) p. 390-398. ISSN: 0005-2086 Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Because of the fact that South Africa is a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-endemic country, major concerns exist that the export of ostrich meat could transmit velogenic strains of this disease. The ability to transmit the virus could be reduced by effective vaccination of South African ostriches. In this study, two vaccination trials were conducted to assess serum antibody production in response to vaccination with La Sota strain NDV vaccines. To this end, a commercially available chicken anti-NDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified for the detection of anti-NDV antibodies in ostrich serum. The results obtained with this ELISA were verified by comparison with an indirect ELISA. In the first trial, ostriches were immunized subcutaneously four times with different volumes of an inactivated vaccine and their immune response was determined from 2.5 mo up to the ideal slaughter age of 14 mo. Results indicated that ostriches responded in a dose-dependent manner and gave support for the vaccination schedule currently recommended to South African farmers. In a second trial, immunization by eyedrop with a live La Sota vaccine of 5-wk-old ostriches did not elicit a humoral immune response. The results indicate that it is highly unlikely that ostriches that have been vaccinated according to the recommended vaccination schedule can transmit the virus.

Descriptors: ostriches, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, immune response, ELISA, inactivated vaccines, live vaccines, antibody testing, age differences, L833L810.


Clavijo, A.; Robinson, Y.; Booth, T.; Munroe, F. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.  The Canadian Veterinary Journal. May 2000. v. 41 (5) p. 404-406. ISSN: 0008-5286  Note: French summary.

NAL call no: 41.8 R3224

Descriptors:  Psittaciformes, Psittacidae, Cacatuidae, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, importation, quarantine, virulence, clinical aspects, diagnosis and mortality, Quebec, Netherlands.


Gohm, D.S.; Thur, B.; Hofmann, M.A.  Detection of Newcastle disease virus in organs and faeces of experimentally infected chickens using RT-PCR.  Avian Pathology.  Apr 2000. v. 29 (2) p. 143-152. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, detection, organs, feces, experimental infections, polymerase chain reaction, diagnostic techniques, evaluation, outbreaks, identification, time, serotypes, pathotypes.


Gutierrez-Ruiz, E.J.; Ramirez-Cruz, G.T.; Gamboa, E.I.C.; Alexander, D.J.; Gough, R.E. A serological survey for avian infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus antibodies in backyard (free-range) village chickens in Mexico. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Dec 2000. v. 32 (6) p. 381-390. ISSN: 0049-4747 Note: Summaries in French and Spanish.

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors: chickens, serological surveys, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, antibody formation, free range husbandry, seroprevalence, respiratory diseases, Mexico.


Huang, H.J.; Matsumoto, M.  Nonspecific innate immunity against Escherichia coli infection in chickens induced by vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 2000. v. 44 (4) p. 790-796.:  ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract: The objective was to test the hypothesis that vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induce nonspecific immunity against subsequent infection with Escherichia coli. White leghorn chickens at 5 wk of age were vaccinated with a NDV vaccine at various days before challenge exposure with O1:K1 strain of E. coli via an intra-air sac route. Immunity was determined on the basis of the viable number of E. coli in the spleen 24 hr after the infection. Roakin strain induced significant (P < 0.05) immunity against E. coli at 4, 6, and 8 days, and La Sota strain at 2, 4, and 8 days, postvaccination. Secondary NDV vaccination administered 14 days later failed to induce immunity against E. coli when chickens were infected 1 or 5 days after the vaccination. Significant (P < 0.05) suppression of this nonspecific immunity was observed in birds treated with corticosterone, 40 mg/kg in feed, given for three consecutive days immediately prior to the bacterial exposure but not in those treated prior to the period. The results indicate that innate immunity induced by the primary NDV vaccination may significantly suppress the multiplication of E. coli in chickens for a period of 2-8 days postvaccination. The NDV-induced immunity was inhibited by corticosterone, which is known to mediate physiological responses to stress.

Descriptors:  chickens, Escherichia coli, immunity effects, non-specific immunity, Newcastle disease virus, induced resistance, disease resistance, defense mechanisms, vaccination, vaccines, experimental infections, corticosterone, medicated feeds, duration, inhibition.


Ibrahim, I.K.; Shareef, A.M.; Al Joubory, K.M.T. Ameliorative effects of sodium bentonite on phagocytosis and Newcastle disease antibody formation in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis.  Research in Veterinary Science. Oct 2000. v. 69 (2) p. 119-122. ISSN: 0034-5288

NAL call no:  41.8 R312

Descriptors:  broilers, aflatoxicosis, bentonite, dosage, phagocytosis, Newcastle disease, vaccination, antibody formation, immunosuppression.


Kirkland, P.D. Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus in Australia: in through the 'back door'. Australian Veterinary Journal. May 2000. v. 78 (5) p. 331-333. ISSN: 0005-0423

NAL call no:  41.8 Au72

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, virulence, poultry, outbreaks, Australia.


Krishnamurthy, S.; Huang, Z.; Samal, S.K.  Recovery of a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus from cloned cDNA: expression of a foreign gene results in growth retardation and attenuation. Virology. Dec 5, 2000. v. 278 (1) p. 168-182. ISSN: 0042-6822.

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors: complementary DNA, virulence.


Leslie, J. Newcastle disease: outbreak losses and control policy costs. The Veterinary Record. May 20, 2000. v. 146 (21) p. 603-606.  ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no:  41.8 V641

Descriptors: poultry industry, Newcastle disease, disease control, estimated costs, outbreaks, losses, vaccination, Northern Ireland.


Ley, E.C.; Morishita, T.Y.; Harr, B.S.; Mohan, R.; Brisker, T.  Serologic survey of slaughter-age ostriches (Struthio camelus) for antibodies to selected avian pathogens.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 2000. v. 44 (4) p. 989-992. ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Serum samples from 163 slaughter-age ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Ohio and Indiana were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), paramyxovirus (PMV) 2, PMV3, PMV7, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Bordetella avium, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, and Salmonella typhimurium. One ostrich had antibodies to AIV H5N9, 57% of the ostriches had antibodies to NDV, four ostriches had antibodies to both NDV and PMV2, and one ostrich had antibodies to NDV, PMV2, PMV3, and PMV7. None of the ostriches had antibodies to IBDV, B. avium, M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum, O. rhinotracheale, S. pullorum, S. gallinarum, and S. typhimurium. This is the first report of antibodies to avian influenza and PMV7 in ostriches in the United States.

Descriptors: ostriches, pathogens, viruses, bacteria, serological surveys, antibodies, infections, new host records, avian influenzavirus, paramyxovirus, incidence, Newcastle disease virus.


Li, Y.C.; Ledoux, D.R.; Bermudez, A.J.; Fritsche, K.L.; Rottinghaus, G.E.  The individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 and moniliformin on performance and selected immune parameters in turkey poults.  Poultry Science. June 2000. v. 79 (6) p. 871-878.  ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no: 47.8 Am33P

Descriptors:  poults, fumonisins, mycotoxins, synergism, antibody formation Newcastle disease virus, lymphocyte transformation, Escherichia coli, bacteremia, blood, bacterial count, feed intake, liveweight gain, feed conversion, thymus gland, bursa Fabricii, spleen, weight, mortality.


Li, Y.C.; Ledoux, D.R.; Bermudez, A.J.; Fritsche, K.L.; Rottinghaus, G.E.  Effects of moniliformin on performance and immune function of broiler chicks.  Poultry Science. Jan 2000. v. 79 (1) p. 26-32. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of moniliformin (M) on performance and immune function in chicks. Day-old chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (0, 50, 75, or 100 mg M/kg diet). In Trial 1, chicks were placed on treatments for 3 wk and were injected intravenously with 4.6 x 10(6) Escherichia coli on Day 21. Blood samples were collected at 60, 120, and 180 min after inoculation, and liver, spleen, and lung were collected at 180 min postinjection. Compared with control chicks, chicks fed 75 and 100 mg M/kg diet had higher (P < 0.05) numbers of E. coli colonies in the circulation, liver, and spleen. In Trial 2, chicks were placed on diets for 4 wk and were injected with 0.5 mL Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine intramuscularly on Weeks 2 and 3 of the experiment. The primary and secondary anti-NDV antibody titers were measured 7 d after each injection. Chicks fed 100 mg M/kg diet had lower (P < 0.05) secondary antibody titers than did control chicks. In Trial 3, lymphocyte proliferation in chicks exposed to M in vivo and in vitro was determined. Results of the in vivo study showed that cell proliferation in response to mitogens from control- and M-fed chicks did not differ (P > 0.05). For the in vitro study, lymphocyte proliferation decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increased concentrations of M. In all three trials, chicks fed 100 mg M/kg diet had lower (P < 0.05) feed intake and weight gain than did control chicks. Data from the current study suggested that M decreased performance and immune response in chicks at the level of 75 mg/kg diet.

Descriptors: chicks, mycotoxins, fusarium, Escherichia coli, experimental infections, bacteremia, antibody formation, lymphocyte transformation, feed intake, body weight, feed conversion, dosage.


Mishra, S.; Kataria, J.M.; Verma, K.C.; Sah, R.L. Response of chickens to infection with Newcastle disease virus isolated from a guinea fowl.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Oct 2000. v. 32 (5) p. 277-284. ISSN: 0049-4747  Note:  Summaries in French and Spanish.

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors: guineafowls, Newcastle disease virus, chickens, pathogenicity, mortality, morbidity, antibody formation, hemagglutination inhibition test, neutralization tests, virus neutralization.


Morales, A.; Valle, V.; Gonzalez, M.  A serological evaluation of a polyvalent vaccine containing NDV, IB, EDS and HPS virus in layer hens.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 2000. (49th) p. 108-109.  Note: Meeting held on Mar 5-7, 2000, Sacramento, CA.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors: hens, polyvalent vaccines, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, egg drop syndrome, poultry diseases, hydropericardium syndrome.


Morishita, T.Y.; Aye, P.P.; Ley, E.C.; Harr, B.C.  Survey of pathogens and blood parasites in free-living passerines.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 1999. v. 43 (3) p. 549-552.  ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

Abstract:  To determine the disease prevalence of free-living passerines, 1709 passerines were sampled from 38 different field sites in Ohio. Choanal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and cultured for the presence of Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli by standard microbiologic techniques. In addition, the serum from each bird was analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus. A blood smear was also made to examine for the presence of blood parasites. Results indicated that the isolation of E. coli varied with bird species, with the European starling having a higher (21.4%) isolation of E. coli. Salmonella spp. were also isolated from these free-living passerines. Pasteurella multocida was not isolated from any of the sampled passerines. These birds did not have antibodies to M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, Newcastle disease virus, or avian influenza virus. Blood parasites were not detected in any of the birds sampled.

Descriptors:  Passeriformes bird diseases, wild birds, disease prevalence, Pasteurella multocida. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Newcastle disease virus, avian influenza virus, parasites, Ohio.


Murakawa, Y.; Takase, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Suesoshi, M.; Nagatomo, H.  Characterization of a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from broiler chickens in Japan.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2000. v. 44 (3) p. 686-690. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Newcastle disease virus (NDV), named MET95, was isolated from a nonvaccinated broiler flock in Japan in 1995. The MET95 strain was determined to be a lentogenic NDV. The strain has the properties of eluting rapidly at 4C and has low thermostability in hemagglutinating activity with chicken erythrocytes. In these studies, no difference could be found between the MET95 strain and the Hitcher B1 vaccine strain. However, the chickens inoculated with the MET95 strain, as well as chickens that they were in contact with, had a much higher hemagglutination-inhibition antibody response than those inoculated with the B1 strain. Accordingly, the MET95 strain is thought to be a promising candidate as a live ND vaccine strain. In Japan, this is the first report on the isolation of lentogenic NDV from chickens since the paper on the Ishii strain isolated in 1966.

Descriptors: broilers, Newcastle disease virus, characterization, strain differences, pathogenicity, immune response, Japan.


Nanthakumar, T.; Tiwari, A.K.; Kataria, R.S.; Butchaiah, G.; Kataria, J.M.; Goswami, P.P. Sequence analysis of the cleavage site-encoding region of the fusion protein gene of Newcastle diseae viruses from India and Nepal.  Avian Pathology. Dec 2000. v. 29 (6) p. 603-607.  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Five field isolates of Newcastle disease virus, including one from a pigeon from the Indian subcontinent, along with three vaccine strains have been characterized by sequence analysis of the fusion protein (F) gene in the region encoding the F2-F1 cleavage site. Based on the amino acid sequence present at the cleavage site and on the percent divergence at nucleotide and amino acid levels, three field isolates could be classified as velogenic and two were of lentogenic pathotypes. The velogenic phenotypes had the sequence RRQK/RRF at the cleavage site, while the lentogenic strains had GRQA/GRL at the corresponding position.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, molecular sequence data, viral proteins, pathotypes, characterization, India, Nepal.


Nanthakumar, T.; Kataria, R.S.; Tiwari, A.K.; Butchaiah, G.; Kataria, J.M.  Pathotyping of Newcastle disease viruses by RT-PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. Veterinary Research Communications. May 2000. v. 24 (4) p. 275-286. ISSN: 0165-7380

NAL call no:  SF601.V38

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, pathotypes, polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, detection, identification, nucleotide sequences, viral proteins, pathogenicity, vaccines.


Nasser, M.; Lohr, J.E.; Mebratu, G.Y.; Zessin, K.H.; Baumann, M.P.O.; Ademe, Z.  Oral Newcastle disease vaccination trials in Ethiopia.  Avian Pathology. Feb 2000. v 29 (1) p. 27-34. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Vaccination experiments were carried out in Ethiopia to study the efficacy of the NDV-I2 vaccine against challenge with an Ethiopian velogenic strain of NDV. In experiment A, which comprised 300 broiler chicks, the efficacy of the ocular/drinking water application of the HB1/La Sota vaccine was compared with the ocular/drinking water and the feed application of the NDV-I2 vaccine on untreated barley and sorghum. The NDV-I2 vaccine applied by eye-drop or drinking-water protected the chickens against challenge as efficiently as combined HB1/La Sota vaccination but untreated barley and sorghum were unsuitable vaccine carriers. The vaccine virus could not be recovered and chickens neither seroconverted nor were they protected. In experiment B, 120 broiler chicks were divided into 6 treatment groups. One group each received NDV-I2 vaccine mixed with untreated barley or sorghum which was applied immediately, or 14 h after mixing and standing at ambient temperature. The fifth group was vaccinated intraocularly and via the drinking water with the NDV-I2 vaccine. The sixth group remained untreated. Experiment B confirmed the results of experiment A. In experiment C, 100 chicks were divided into 5 groups of 20 chickens each. One group each received the NDV-I2 vaccine on parboiled barley or sorghum as vaccine carriers 0 and 6 h after mixing. The last group remained untreated. Parboiled barley given 0 or 6 h and parboiled sorghum given 0 h after mixing with the vaccine led to seroconversion and protection of the chickens. Parboiled sorghum given 6 h after mixing with the vaccine did not. It is concluded that the thermostable NDV-I2 vaccine may be a suitable vaccine for oral application under Ethiopian conditions.

Descriptors:  chicks, oral vaccination, vaccines, Newcastle disease virus Newcastle disease, efficacy, disease prevention, drinking water, vaccination, medicated feeds, barley, sorghum, survival, immune response, eye drop vaccination, Ethiopia.


New Zealand. MAF Biosecurity Authority. Import Risk Analysis: Chicken Meat and Chicken Meat Products: Bernard Matthews Foods Ltd Turkey Meat Preparations from the United Kingdom: Revised Quantitative Risk Assessments on Chicken Meat from the United States: Reassessment of Heat Treatment for Inactivation of Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken Meat. Other title:  Chicken Meat and Chicken Meat Products.  Bernard Matthews Foods Ltd Turkey Meat Preparations from the United Kingdom.  Revised Quantitative Risk Assessments on Chicken Meat from the United States. Reassessment of Heat Treatment for Inactivation of Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken Meat. Chicken Meat Risk Analysis. Wellington, N.Z.: Biosecurity Authority, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, [2000] 24 leaves: ill. 

NAL call no: HD9437.N452 2000

Descriptors: chicken and turkey industry, poultry diseases, Newcastle disease virus, risk analysis, treatment, New Zealand.


Oakeley, R.D. The limitations of a feed/water based heat-stable vaccine delivery system for Newcastle disease-control strategies for backyard poultry flocks in sub-Saharan Africa. [Erratum: May 1, 2001, v. 49 (3/4), p. 279.].  Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Dec 8, 2000. v. 47 (4) p. 271-279.  ISSN: 0167-5877

NAL call no:  SF601.P7

Descriptors:  poultry flocks, feed and water based vaccine delivery, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, medicated feeds, disease control, outbreaks, extensive production, heat stability, rural communities, Africa south of Sahara.


Peeters, B.P.H.; Gruijthuijsen, Y.K.; Leeuw, O.S. de.; Gielkens, A.L.J.  Genome replication of Newcastle disease virus: Involvement of the rule-of-six.  Archives of Virology. 2000. v. 145 (9) p. 1829-1845. ISSN: 0304-8608

NAL call no:  448.3 Ar23

Descriptors:  infection, genome analysis, transcription.


Pfitzer, S.; Verwoerd, D.J.; Gerdes, G.H.; Labuschagne, A.E.; Erasmus, A.; Manvell, R.J.; Grund, C. Newcastle disease and avian influenza A virus in wild waterfowl in South Africa.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2000. v. 44 (3) p. 655-660. ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish Summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  In an intensive ostrich farming area in South Africa with a history of ostrich influenza outbreaks, we conducted a survey of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild aquatic birds. During late autumn and winter 1998, the time of year when outbreaks in ostriches typically start to occur, 262 aquatic birds comprising 14 species were sampled and tested for both virus infections. From eight samples, AIV, serotype H10N9, could be isolated. All isolates were apathogenic as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index (0.00). Conversely, none of33 sera of these wild birds showed antibodies against H10. However, one bird was found serologically positive for H6 AIV. This AIV serotype was later isolated from ostriches during an avian influenza outbreak in this area. No NDV was isolated although 34 of 46 serum samples contained NDV-specific antibodies. This is the first H10N9 isolate to be reported from Africa. In addition, our data support the notion that wild aquatic birds may function as a reservoir for AIV and NDV in South Africa.

Descriptors:  waterfowl, wild birds, Newcastle disease virus, avian influenzavirus, disease surveys, serotypes, pathogenicity, reservoir hosts, South Africa.


Pitt, J.J.; Da Silva, E.; Gorman, J.J.  Determination of the disulfide bond arrangement of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin neuraminidase. Correlation with a beta-sheet propeller structural fold predicted for Paramyxoviridae attachment proteins.  The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar 3, 2000. v. 275 (9) p. 6469-6478. ISSN: 0021-9258

NAL call no:  381 J824

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, viral hemagglutinins, sialidase, amino acid sequences, cysteine, cystine, molecular conformation, molecular weight, pseudomolecular weight.


Poston, R.M.; Johnson, B.D.; Hutchins, J.E.; Doelling, V.W.; Reynolds, D.L.  In ovo NDV vaccination in combination with interferon-type I is safe and efficacious.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 2000. (49th) p. 13-17.  Note: Meeting held on Mar 5-7, 2000, Sacramento, CA.

NAL call no: SF995.W4

Descriptors: chick, embryos, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus vaccines, interferon.


Reynolds, D.; Akinc, S.; Ali, A.  Passively administered antibodies alleviate stunting syndrome in turkey poults.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2000. v. 44 (2) p. 439-442.  ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.  

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Stunting syndrome is an enteric disease of young turkeys that results in reduced growth (stunting) of poults and impaired feed efficiency. A virus, which has been termed the stunting syndrome agent (SSA), causes stunting syndrome. In this study passive immunity was evaluated as a method of protecting poults from stunting syndrome. One-day-old poults were injected with either tryptose phosphate broth, an anti-SSA antibody preparation, or an anti-Newcastle disease virus antibody preparation before challenge by placing them into SSA-contaminated isolators or control (nonchallenge) isolators. Poults that received anti-SSA antibodies were significantly heavier (P < 0.05) and did not display as severe clinical disease compared to birds that did not receive the anti-SSA antibodies. However, the birds that received anti-SSA antibodies and were challenged were significantly lighter (P < 0.05) than birds that were not challenged. The results of this trial demonstrate that the injection of anti-SSA antibodies benefited poults undergoing stunting syndrome. The role of passive immunity, either through breeder hen vaccination or through supplying antibodies to poults artificially (i.e., at the hatchery), may have future applications in alleviating stunting syndrome.

Descriptors:  poults, viral diseases, growth disorders, passive immunization, passive immunity, antibodies, immune serum, disease prevention, body weight.


Reynolds, D.L.; Maraqa, A.D. Protective immunity against Newcastle disease: the role of cell-mediated immunity. Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 2000. v. 44 (1) p. 145-154. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The role of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in protection of birds from Newcastle disease was investigated by two different strategies in which only Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-specific CMI was conveyed without neutralizing antibodies. In the first strategy, selected 3-wk-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were vaccinated with either live NDV (LNDV), ultraviolet-inactivated NDV (UVNDV), sodium dodecyl sulfate-treated NDV (SDSNDV), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (negative control) by the subcutaneous route. Birds were booster vaccinated 2 wk later and challenged with the velogenic Texas GB strain of NDV 1 wk after booster. All vaccinated birds had specific CMI responses to NDV as measured by a blastogenesis microassay. NDV neutralizing (VN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses were detected in birds vaccinated with LNDV and UVNDV. However, birds vaccinated with SDSNDV developed antibodies that were detected by western blot analysis but not by the VN or HI test. Protection from challenge was observed only in those birds that had VN or HI antibody response. That is, birds with demonstrable CMI and VN or HI antibody response were protected, whereas birds with demonstrable CMI but no VN or HI antibody response were not protected. In the second strategy, birds from SPF embryos were treated in ovo with cyclophosphamide (CY) to deplete immune cells. The birds were monitored and, at 2 wk of age, were selected for the presence of T-cell activity and the absence of B-cell activity. Birds that had a significant T-cell response, but not a B-cell response, were vaccinated with either LNDV, UVNDV, or PBS at 3 wk of age along with the corresponding CY-untreated control birds. The birds were booster vaccinated at 5 wk of age and were challenged with Texas GB strain of NDV at 6 wk of age. All birds vaccinated with LNDV or UVNDV had a specific CMI response to NDV, VN or HI NDV antibodies were detected in all CY-nontreated vaccinated birds and some of the CY-treated vaccinated birds that were found to have regenerated their B-cell function at 1 wk postbooster. The challenge results clearly revealed that CY-treated birds that had NDV-specific CMI and VN or HI antibody responses to LNDV or UVNDV were protected, as were the CY-nontreated vaccinated birds. However, birds that had NDV-specific CMI response but did not have VN or HI antibodies were not protected from challenge. The results from both strategies indicate that specific CMI to NDV by itself is not protective against virulent NDV challenge. The presence of VN or HI antibodies is necessary in providing protection from Newcastle disease.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, chickens, immunity, neutralizing antibodies, vaccination, live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, experimental infections, bioassays, immune response, embryos, virulence, antibodies, hemagglutinins.


Reynolds, D.L.; Maraqa, A.D. Protective immunity against Newcastle disease: the role of antibodies specific to Newcastle disease virus polypeptides. Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 2000. v. 44 (1) p. 138-144. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Studies were performed to determine if passive immunization with hyperimmune sera generated to specific Newcastle disease virus (NDV) proteins conferred protection against virus challenge. Six groups of 3-wk-old chickens were passively immunized with antiserum against either hemagglutinin-neuraminidase/fusion, (HN/F) protein, nucleoprotein/phosphoprotein (NP/P), Matrix (M) protein, a mixture of all NDV proteins (ALL), intact ultraviolet-inactivated NDV (UVNDV), or negative sera. Blood samples were collected 2 days postimmunization, and the birds were challenged with Texas GB strain of NDV. Antibody titers were detected from those recipient birds that had received the antisera against the HN7F, ALL, or UVNDV by a hemagglutination inhibition test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a virus neutralization test. Antibodies were detected only by the ELISA from the birds that had received antisera against NP/P and M protein. Antibody titers in the recipient birds dropped by two dilutions (log2) after 2 days postinjection. Birds passively immunized with antisera against HN/F, ALL, and UVNDV were protected from challenge, whereas chickens passively immunized with antisera against NP/P and M protein and specific-pathogen-free sera developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The challenge virus was recovered from the tracheas of all passively immunized groups. The presence of neutralizing antibodies to NDV provided protection from clinical disease but was unable to prevent virus shedding from the trachea.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, polypeptides, antibodies, immunity, immune serum, viral proteins, blood chemistry, experimental infections, passive immunization,  virus shedding, symptoms, morbidity, mortality.


Reynolds, D.  Newcastle disease: protection and immunity.  Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 2000. (49th) p. 1-5.  Note: Meeting held on Mar 5-7, 2000, Sacramento, CA.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, vaccines, vaccination, immune response.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.; Koteeswaran, A.  Antigenetically unusual Newcastle disease virus from racing pigeons in India.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. June 2000. v. 32 (3) p. 183-188.  ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7  

Descriptors:  racing pigeons, Newcastle disease virus, outbreaks, vaccination, live vaccines, hemagglutination inhibition test, hemagglutination tests, pathogenicity, acute course, monoclonal antibodies, immunity, chickens, India.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.; Manvell, R.  Characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chickens and ducks in Tamilnadu, India. Veterinary Research Communications. Mar 2000. v. 24 (2) p. 135-142.  ISSN: 0165-7380

NAL call no:  SF601.V38

Descriptors:  chickens, ducks, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, outbreaks, strains, strain differences, identification, mortality, pathogenicity, hemagglutinins, erythrocytes, monoclonal antibodies, binding, serotypes, serology, vaccines, vaccination, epidemics, Tamilnadu.


Roy, P.; Venugopalan, A.T.  Passive haemagglutination test in the serology of Newcastle disease virus.  Tropical Animal Health and Production. Feb 2000. v. 32 (1) p. 19-22. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease virus, live vaccines, hemagglutination tests, vaccination, antibody formation, hemagglutination inhibition test.


Slacum, G.; Hein, R.; Lynch, P. Observations with a novel Newcastle disease strain, C2. Proceedings of ... Western Poultry Disease Conference. Davis, Calif.: University of California. 2000. (49th) p. 17-19.  Note: Meeting held on Mar 5-7, 2000, Sacramento, CA.

NAL call no:  SF995.W4

Descriptors:   Newcastle disease virus, vaccine development, live vaccines.


Swain, B.K.; Johri, T.S.; Majumdar, S. Effect of supplementation of vitamin E, selenium and their different combinations on the performance and immune response of broilers.  British Poultry Science. July 2000. v. 41 (3) p. 287-292. ISSN: 0007-1668

NAL call no:  47.8 B77

Abstract:  1. The effect of dietary vitamin E, selenium (Se) and their different combinations on body weight gain, food consumption, food conversion efficiency, leukocyte migration inhibition and antibody production was determined in broilers. 2. Chicks were fed on maize-soya bean based diets with concentrations of supplemental vitamin E varying from 0 to 300 IU/kg and selenium concentrations varying from 0 to 1 mg/kg either alone or in combination from 1 to 42 d of age. 3. The chicks were immunised for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine at 21 d. Per cent leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) was studied on 42 d. Antibodies to NDV in serum were determined at 10 and 21 d post immunisation (PI). 4. Chicks receiving Se, 1 mg/kg and vitamin E 300 IU/kg had significantly higher cellular immune responses in terms of per cent LMI. 5. Maximum body weight gain and best efficiency of food utilisation were obtained in chicks fed diets containing 0.50 mg/kg Se and 300 IU/kg vitamin E. 6. Significantly higher antibody titres (HI and ELISA) at 10 d PI were attributed to 0.06 mg/kg and 150 IU/kg Se and vitamin E, respectively. 7. These data suggest that optimum growth and immune response may be achieved at supplemental level of Se of 0.06 mg/kg and vitamin E at 150 IU/kg. The vitamin E level is higher than that recommended by NRC (1984, 1994).

Descriptors:  broilers, vitamin supplements, vitamin E acetate, mineral supplements, selenium, feed intake, liveweight gain, feed conversion, broiler performance, maize, soybean oilmeal, antibody formation, vaccination, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity, nutrient-nutrient interactions, leukocyte migration inhibition test. 


Takimoto, T.; Taylor, G.L.; Crennell,-S.J.; Scroggs, R.A.; Portner, A.  Crystallization of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein.  Virology. Apr 25, 2000. v. 270 (1) p. 208-214. ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors: viral glycoprotein crystallization, Newcastle disease virus. 


Turner, S.P.; Ewen, M.; Rooke, J.A.; Edwards, S.A. The effect of space allowance on performance, aggression and immune competence of growing pigs housed on straw deep-litter at different group sizes.  Livestock Production Science. Sept 2000. v. 66 (1) p. 47-55. ISSN: 0301-6226

NAL call no:  SF1.L5

Descriptors: pigs, performance, aggressive behavior, immune competence, space requirements, pig housing, deep litter housing, livestock numbers, liveweight gain, efficiency, lesions, immune response, Newcastle disease virus, growth rate.


Wambura, P.N.; Kapaga, A.M.; Hyera, J.M.K.  Experimental trials with a thermostable Newcastle disease virus (strain I2) in commercial and village chickens in Tanzania.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Jan 20, 2000. v. 43 (3) p. 75-83. ISSN: 0167-5877

NAL call no:  SF601.P7

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, live vaccines, virulence, immune response, oral administration, application methods, survival, medicated feeds, drinking water, heat stability, Tanzania.


Ward, M.D.W.; Fuller, F.J.; Mehrotra, Y.; De Buysscher, E.V.  Nucleotide sequence and vaccinia expression of the nucleoprotein of a highly virulent, neurotropic strain of Newcastle Disease virus.  Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 2000. v. 44 (1) p. 34-44. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.  

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The nucleoprotein (NP) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was selected to study the relative importance of an internal structural protein in the avian immune response. The NP gene of the virulent, neurotropic NDV Texas GB (TGB) strain was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence data for the NP gene allowed comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences for the NP genes of NDV-TGB and the avirulent duck isolate NDV-D26. These comparisons demonstrated an 89% nucleotide sequence homology and a 97% homology between the deduced amino acid sequences. The NDV-TGB NP expressed in recombinant vaccinia virus (rVAC) was electrophoretically and immunologically identical to the wild-type NDV-TGB. Although inoculation of chickens with the recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the NDV NP gene elicited anti-NDV antibodies in higher titers than in birds inoculated with live LaSota NDV, this strong anti-NDV response did not protect against lethal challenge with NDV-TGB.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, nucleotide sequences, virulence, gene expression, nucleoproteins, strains, immune response, amino acid sequences, electrophoresis, recombinant proteins, experimental infection, vaccination, mortality.

Molecular sequence data:  genbank/af144730.


Yunis, R.; Ben-David, A.; Heller, E.D.; Cahaner, A.  Immunocompetence and viability under commercial conditions of broiler groups differing in growth rate and in antibody response to Escherichia coli vaccine.  Poultry Science. June 2000. v. 79 (6) p. 810-816. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Descriptors:  broilers, line differences, selection criteria, antibody formation, selection responses, broiler lines, crossbreds, liveweight gain, Newcastle disease virus, Escherichia coli, mortality, disease resistance, infectious diseases, poultry farming.


Zdzisinska, B.; Filar, J.; Paduch, R.; Kaczor, J.; Lokaj, I.; Kandefer-Szerszen, M. The influence of ketone bodies and glucose on interferon, tumor necrosis factor production and NO release in bovine aorta endothelial cells.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. May 23, 2000. v. 74 (3/4) p. 237-247.  ISSN: 0165-2427

NAL call no:  SF757.2.V38

Descriptors:  cattle aorta, endothelium, ketone bodies, glucose, interferon, tumor necrosis factor, biosynthesis, nitrous oxide, cell cultures, acetoacetic acid, acetone, lipopolysaccharides, Newcastle disease virus, nitrite.


Zulkifli, I.; Che-Norma, M.T.; Israf, D.A.; Omar, A.R. The effect of early age feed restriction on subsequent response to high environmental temperatures in female broiler chickens.  Poultry Science. Oct 2000. v.79 (10) p. 1401-1407.  ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  This study was conducted to determine whether early age  feed restriction improves heat tolerance in female  broiler chickens. Chicks were brooded for 3 wk and then  maintained at 24 +/- 1 C. On Day 0, chicks were  assigned  to one of four feeding regimens; each regimen was  applied to four cages of chicks. The feeding regimens  were 1) ad libitum feeding (ALF); 2) 40% feed  restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F40); 3) 60% feed  restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F60); and (4) 80%  feed restriction at 4,  5, and 6 d of age (F80). From 35 to 41 d of age, all  birds were exposed to 38 +/- 1 C for 2 h/d. Serum  concentrations of glucose were elevated by the heat  challenge, but were not affected by the feeding  regimen.  The heat treatment  resulted in hypocholesteremia among ALF and F80 chicks,  whereas the concentrations increased and remained  constant in the F60 and F40 birds, respectively.  Subjecting chicks to F60 improved growth and  survivability and reduced heterophil to lymphocyte  ratios (H/L) in  response to the heat treatment as compared with the ALF  and F80 regimens. The survivability rate and H/L of F40  chicks were similar to those attained by chicks on  other  regimens. Newcastle disease antibody titer of ALF birds  declined with duration of heat treatment. It is  concluded  that the F60 regimen is beneficial for alleviating, at  least in part, the detrimental effects of heat stress  in female broiler chickens.

Descriptors:  broilers, restricted feeding, heat tolerance, environmental temperature, timing, age differences, unrestricted feeding, blood picture, lymphocytes, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality, blood serum, cholesterol, antibody formation, stress response, body weight, heterophil : lymphocyte ratio.


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