R.G. (Robyn G.); Spradbrow, P. B. Controlling
Newcastle disease in village chickens: A field manual.ACIAR monograph series; no. 82. Canberra: Australian Centre for
International Agricultural Research, 2001. 112 p.: ill.ISBN: 1863203079
E.W.; Collins, M.S.; McGoldrick, A.; Alexander, D.J. Rapid
pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using fluorogenic probes in a PCR assay.Veterinary Microbiology.June 6, 2001. v. 80 (3) p. 201-212.ISSN: 0378-1135
call no: SF601.V44
Abstract:Hybridisation of PCR fragments with fluorogenic
probes specific for pathotype allowed an estimation of pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates
using a modified TaqMan procedure. Six probes were used, designed to recognise
nucleotide sequences in the fusion protein gene sequence corresponding to the
precursor protein F0 cleavage site of both virulent and avirulent viruses. Forty-three
of the 45 isolates tested, including 18 examined in a blind study were pathotyped
successfully and rapidly, with close correlation between cleavage site nucleotide
sequences, TaqMan results and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) values.
One isolate, which could not be pathotyped by nucleotide sequencing, was shown
using the TaqMan system to be a mixture of virulent and avirulent NDV. The results
of this study suggest that using this modified TaqMan protocol, the likely virulence
of most ND isolates can be determined rapidly and reproducibly.
E.W.; Alexander, D.J. Detection and differentiation
of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1).Avian Pathology. Apr 2001.
v. 30 (2) p. 117-128. ISSN: 0307-9457
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:Substantial variation in the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates
means that the detection of NDV or evidence of infection is insufficient for
an adequate diagnosis, as control measures for avirulent viruses are very different
to those for virulent viruses. Diagnosis therefore requires further characterization,
at least as to whether an isolate is virulent or avirulent. Conventional detection
and differentiation of ND viruses is perceived as slow, laborious and requiring
an undesirable use of in vivo techniques. In addition, further characterization
is needed to give greater information on origin and spread. This review concentrates
on the application of monoclonal antibody and molecular biological approaches.
Panels of monoclonal antibodies were a major advance for the characterization
of NDV isolates, although confirmation of virulence for poultry still required
in vivo testing. As molecular-based techniques become easier and more reliable,
they are likely to supersede the use of monoclonal antibodies, especially for
characterizing viruses for epidemiological purposes. The attraction of molecular-based
techniques is that they may be able to cover all three aspects of Newcastle disease diagnosis (detection
of virus, characterization, including inference of virulence, and epidemiology)
quickly, accurately and definitively in a single test. A number of approaches
based on the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction have been developed,
with subsequent analysis of the product by restriction enzyme analysis, probe
hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. Although extensive variation among
NDVs still poses technical problems, the real and potential advantages of a
molecular biological approach to Newcastle disease diagnosis appear
to be overwhelming.
D.J. Newcastle disease.British Poultry Science. Mar 2001.
v. 42 (1) p. 5-22. ISSN: 0007-1668Note: Paper presented at a meeting of the UK Branch
of the World's Poultry Science Association held March 2000, Scarborough.
call no:47.8 B77
Abstract:1. In this paper several historical and contemporary
aspects of Newcastle disease (ND) are reviewed,
with particular reference to the greater understanding which modern techniques
have allowed. 2. Virulent ND viruses were generally thought to have emerged
in 1926 as a result of transfer from a wild bird host reservoir but there is
evidence that the virulent virus may have existed in poultry before 1926. Recent
findings suggest that the virulent virus may emerge in poultry as a result of
mutations in viruses of low virulence. 3. The history of ND in Great Britain reflects the four known
panzootics that have occurred and serves as a model for the impact this disease
may have on poultry populations. 4. Attempts to control and eradicate ND are
not as straightforward as it may appear; in particular vaccination, while preventing
deaths and disease, on challenge may not prevent virus replication and could
therefore lead to the virulent virus becoming endemic. 5. Village chickens are
extremely important assets in most developing countries, representing a significant
source of protein in the form of eggs and meat but endemic ND can cause mortality
of up to 60% in village chickens.
L.D.; Witter, R.L.; Silva, R.F. Characterization
and experimental reproduction of peripheral neuropathy in White Leghorn chickens.Avian Pathology. Oct 2001.
v. 30 (5) p. 487-489. ISSN: 0307-9457
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:A clinical neurological syndrome termed peripheral
neuropathy (PN) that resembles Marek's disease (MD) occurred at low frequency
in a commercial layer strain for several years. Study of chickens from six field
cases showed that the PN syndrome could be distinguished pathologically from
MD on the basis of several factors, including onset as early as 6 weeks, presence
of B-type but not A-type lesions in peripheral nerves, and absence of visceral
lymphomas. Serotype 1 MD virus could not be isolated from blood from any chicken
or demonstrated in tissues by histochemistry or polymerase chain reaction assays.
Moreover, the syndrome was not prevented by MD vaccination, either in the field
or in laboratory trials. PN was induced in 3 to 54% of commercial line chickens
inoculated at 1 or 6 days of age with whole blood or buffy coat cells from clinically
affected donor chickens. Sonicated cells also induced PN, but plasma was ineffective.
Chickens did not develop PN if reared in isolators without cellular transfer
or when vaccinated solely against MD. However, PN was observed in 9% of 57 B*2/*19
commercial chickens reared in isolators following vaccination against MD, infectious
bursal disease, Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis, suggesting that
common vaccines may predispose chickens to PN. The data confirmed a strong influence
of the major histocompatibility complex (B-complex) on both naturally occurring
and experimentally induced PN with the B*19 haplotype conferring susceptibility
compared with other alleles. It is postulated that PN may represent an autoimmune
reaction to nerve tissue that may result from response to a combination of common
vaccines. These studies confirmed that PN is distinct from MD, provided criteria
for its differential diagnosis, identified strategies for its control, and established
a model for its experimental induction.
Descriptors:chickens nervous system diseases, pathogenesis,
etiology, peripheral nerves, experimental infection, major histocompatibility
complex, differential diagnosis, disease control.
A.; Sellers, H.S.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S. Use
of a heteroduplex mobility assay to detect differences in the fusion protein
cleavage site coding sequence among Newcastle Disease Virus isolates.Journal of Clinical Microbiology.Sept 2001. v. 39 (9) p. 3171-3178. ISSN: 0095-1137
G.; Manvell, R.J.; Tisato, E.; Banks, J.; Capua, I. Characterization
of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Italy in 2000.Avian Pathology. Oct 2001.
v. 30 (5) p. 465-469.ISSN: 0307-9457
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:Thirty-two Newcastle disease virus isolates
from the 2000 Italian epidemic were characterized by monoclonal antibody binding
pattern and nucleotide sequencing of approximately 400 base pairs of the fusion
gene. In addition, the pathogenicity of six of these isolates was assessed by
means of the intracerebral pathogenicity test (ICPI). The strains tested exhibited
an ICPI ranging from 1.6 to 2.0. On the basis of the monoclonal antibody binding
pattern, all isolates could be classified as belonging to group C1. Both monoclonal
antibody and genomic analysis revealed a very high degree of homology, indicating
a common source of infection. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, it
appears that the Italian isolates are closely related to the recent isolates
from the UK, Scandinavia and South East Europe,
thus suggesting the circulation of this viral strain in Europe during the past 5 years.
and discovery: the application of nucleic acid-based technology to avian virus
detection and characterization.Avian Pathology. Dec 2001.
v. 30 (6) p. 581-598. ISSN: 0307-9457
Abstract:Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches
to the detection, differentiation and characterization of avian pathogens continue
to be developed and refined. The PCRs, or reverse transcriptase-PCRs, may be
general, designed to detect all or most variants of a pathogen, or to be serotype,
genotype or pathotype specific. Progress is being made with respect to making
nucleic acid approaches more suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories. Robotic
workstations are now available for extraction of nucleic acid from many samples
in a short time, for routine diagnosis. Following general PCR, the DNA products
are commonly analyzed by restriction endonuclease mapping (restriction fragment
length polymorphism), using a small number of restriction endonucleases, based
on a large body of sequence data. Increasingly, however, nucleotide sequencing
is being used to analyze the DNA product, in part due to the expanding use of
non-radioactive sequencing methods that are safe and enable high throughout.
In this review, I highlight some recent developments with many avian viruses:
Newcastle disease virus; circoviruses in canary and pigeon; infectious bursar
disease virus (Gumboro disease virus); avian adenoviruses, including Angara
disease/infectious hydropericardium virus, haemorrhagic enteritis virus of turkeys,
and egg drop syndrome virus; avian herpesviruses, including infectious laryngotracheitis
virus, duck plague virus, psittacine herpesvirus (Pacheco's parrot disease virus),
Marek's disease virus and herpesvirus of turkeys; avian leukosis virus (associated
with lymphoid leukosis or myeloid leukosis, and egg transmission); avian pneumoviruses
(turkey rhinotracheitis virus); avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis
virus, turkey coronavirus and pheasant coronavirus; astrovirus, in the context
of poult enteritis and mortality syndrome, and avian nephritis virus; and avian
encephalomyelitis virus, a picornavirus related to hepatitis A virus.
P.C.; Hsieh, M.L.; Shien, J.H.; Graham, D.A.; Lee, M.S.; Shieh, H.K. Complete nucleotide sequence of avian paramyxovirus
type 6 isolated from ducks. The Journal
of General Virology.Sept 2001. v. 82 (pt.9) p. 2157-2168. ISSN: 0022-1317
Abstract:There are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus
(APMV). Only the genome of APMV type 1 (APMV-1), also called Newcastle disease virus (NDV), has
been completely sequenced. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of
an APMV-6 serotype isolated from ducks is reported. The 16236 nt genome encodes
eight proteins, nucleocapsid protein (NP), phosphoprotein (P), V protein, matrix
protein (M), fusion protein (F), small hydrophobic (SH) protein, haemagglutinin-neuraminidase
(HN) protein and large (L) protein, which are flanked by a 55 nt leader sequence
and a 54 nt trailer sequence. Sequence comparison reveals that the protein sequences
of APMV-6 are most closely related to those of APMV-1 (NDV) and -2, with sequence
identities ranging from 22 to 44%. However, APMV-6 contains a gene that might
encode the SH protein, which is absent in APMV-1, but present in the rubulaviruses
simian virus type 5 and mumps virus. The presence of an SH gene in APMV-6 might
provide a link between the evolution of APMV and rubulaviruses. Phylogenetic
analysis demonstrates that APMV-6, -1, -2 (only the F and HN sequences were
available for analysis) and -4 (only the HN sequences were available for analysis)
all cluster into a single lineage that is distinct from other paramyxoviruses.
This result suggests that APMV should constitute a new genus within the subfamily
Descriptors:nucleotide sequences, genomes, APMV-6 serotype
from ducks, viral proteins, nucleotide sequence data, viral evolution, new genus,
L.; Colman, P.M.; Cosgrove, L.J.; Lawrence, M.C.; Lawrence, L.J.; Tulloch, P.A.;
Gorman, J.J. Cloning, expression, and
crystallization of the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus.Virology.Nov
v. 290 (2) p. 290-299. ISSN: 0042-6822
call no:448.8 V81
Descriptors: chemical structure, fusion
protein, cloning, crystallization of fusion viral protein.
A.; Robinson, Y.; Lopez, J. Isolation of Newcastle disease virus and Salmonella typhimurium from the brain of
double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus).Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 2001. v. 45 (1) p. 245-250. ISSN: 0005-2086
Note: Summary in Spanish.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) and Salmonella
typhimurium were isolated from the brain and lung tissues of double-crested
cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Lac Canard, Alberta, Canada. More than 100 birds died
during this outbreak in 1999. Affected birds presented signs of central nervous
system disease characterized by unilateral wing and leg paralysis. Other geographic
locations in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan have reported cases of
cormorants suffering from diseases with signs compatible with Newcastle disease. The virus isolated
in the 1999 outbreak was characterized as mesogenic. These findings suggest
that other pathogens, like S. typhimurium, may influence the clinical presentation
of disease caused by mesogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in cormorants.
M.; Del Rossi, E.; Franciosini, M.P.; Passamonti, F.; Tacconi, G.; Marini, C.Efficacy and safety of an infectious
bursal disease virus intermediate vaccine in ovo.Avian
Diseases. Oct/Dec 2001. v. 45 (4) p. 1036-1043.ISSN: 0005-2086Note:
Summary in Spanish.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:The study was divided into two experiments.
In the first experiment, the efficacy of in ovo intermediate vaccine against
infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined by challenge at 21 days
of age with virulent IBDV in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial chickens.
This vaccine was able to induce active immunity and to protect SPF chickens
to challenge; protection was not complete in commercial chickens, as testified
by bursal lesions, bursal index after challenge, and vaccine immunoresponse.
In order to detect field and vaccinal viruses, immunoperoxidase staining, enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay, capture, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
(RT-PCR) were tested; the RT-PCR was more effective at detecting both kind of
viruses. In the second experiment, the immunosuppressive effect of in ovo vaccination
was determined by evaluating the immunoresponse against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination
effected at 10 days in both SPF and commercial chickens vaccinated in ovo. The
in ovo vaccine causes a reduction of NDV immunoresponse, as testified by lowest
geometric mean titer in group I (SPF chickens vaccinated against IBDV in ovo
and against NDV at 11 days). In commercial chickens, immunoresponse to NDV vaccination
was not influenced by in ovo vaccination.
Tayeb, A.B.; Hanson, R.P. The interaction between Newcastle disease virus and Escherichia coli endotoxin in chickens.Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2001. v. 45 (2) p. 313-320. ISSN: 0005-2086Note: Spanish summary.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:The interaction between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and
Escherichia coli endotoxin was studied in cell cultures, embryonated chicken
eggs, and 8-wk-old chickens. These interactions were evaluated according to
the induction of specific or nonspecific resistance in the host system and the
virus titer produced in both chicken embryos and chickens. The endotoxin of
E. coli induced a decrease in the size of the bursa of Fabricius in live chickens.
Escherichia coli endotoxin given intravenously induced plasma antiviral activity
in chickens that was interpreted to be interferon, as detected in a vesicular
stomatitis virus plaque reduction assay. Endotoxin failed to produced toxic
effects in the chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or to result in any antiviral
effect because no change was noted in the number of NDV plaques formed in CEF
cultures. When endotoxin was given 3 days before NDV exposure in chickens, the
virus titers were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased from a peak of 10(2)
to 10(0.18), 10(2.5) to 10(0.18), and 10(2.5) to 0 in the spleens, lungs, and
kidneys, respectively, at 72 hr post-NDV inoculation. When endotoxin was given
24 hr after NDV inoculation, the NDV titer significantly (P < 0.05) increased
from 10(2.0) to 10(3.5), 10(2.5) to 10(6.5), 10(2.5) to 10(4.5), 0 to 10(2.5)
in the spleen, lungs, kidneys, and liver, respectively, at 72 hr after NDV inoculation.
In chicken sera, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer to NDV was significantly
(P < 0.05) enhanced from 1164 to 3127 when endotoxin was given prior to virus
inoculation. However, there was a decrease in HI to NDV from 1164 to 727 without
a significant difference in chicken sera when NDV was given prior to endotoxin
J.M.; Romero, C.H.; Spalding, M.G.; Avery, M.L.; Forrester, D.J.Newcastle disease virus in double-crested cormorants in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. Journal
of Wildlife Diseases. Oct 2001. v. 37 (4) p. 808-812. ISSN: 0090-3558
call no:41.9 W64B
Descriptors:Phalacrocorax auritus, cormorants, serological
surveys, disease transmission, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, wild birds as a disease
S.; Iwakura, T.; Iwaki, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Takeda,
R.; Ikeda, K.; Shi, Z.; Mori, H. Safety and efficacy of
water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccines containing Newcastle disease virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein. Avian Pathology.
Oct 2001. v. 30 (5) p. 509-516. ISSN: 0307-9457
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:Subunit vaccines containing haemagglutinin-neuraminidase
(HN) glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), formulated
as water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions, were prepared. First, the suitable
constituents of a W/O/W emulsion adjuvant were investigated with polyvalent
vaccines using NDV, infectious bronchitis virus and Haemophilus paragallinarum.
The W/O/W emulsion adjuvant, composed of the antigen in phosphate-buffered saline
(PBS), liquid paraffin, squalene, diglyceryl monooleate, polysorbate 80 and
PBS in a 30:25:10:5: ratio, induced a good
antibody response with less adverse local reactions. HN protein of NDV was expressed
by an improved baculovirus expression vector, a hybrid nucleopolyhedrovirus
(HyNPV) between Autographa californica NPV and Bombyx mori NPV, and was prepared
from silkworm pupae infected with the recombinant baculovirus, HyNPV-HN. Then,
the W/O/W emulsion vaccine containing HN protein was prepared using the aforementioned
constituents. Chickens showed 100, 100 and 80% protection against challenge
exposure to virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination with W/O/W emulsion vaccines
containing 30, 6 and 3% of HyHPV-HN-infected pupae, respectively. The vaccines
containing HN protein did not induce adverse local reactions at the site of
injection. The subunit vaccine for NDV containing HN protein expressed in the
recombinant baculovirus-infected pupae, formulated as a W/O/W emulsion vaccine
composed of the antigen in PBS, liquid paraffin, squalene, diglyceryl monooleate,
polysorbate 80 and PBS in a 30:25:10:5: ratio, was therefore found to be safe and
J.; Pascucci, S.; Massi, P.; Luini, M.; Selli, L.; Capua, I.; Lomniczi, B. A longitudinal study of velogenic Newcastle disease virus genotypes isolated in Italy between 1960 and 2000. Avian Pathology. Apr 2001.
v. 30 (2) p. 163-168. ISSN: 0307-9457
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:Thirty-six representative velogenic strains
of Newcastle disease virus isolated
in Italy since 1960 were characterized
by restriction site and partial sequence analyses of the fusion protein gene.
Viruses belonging to the six known genotypes of Lomniczi et al. were found.
Genotype IV, which was most probably the main epizootic group in Europe before the war, was responsible
for outbreaks in the 1960s and persisted until the late 1980s in Italy. An epizootic peak in
1972 to 1974 coincided with the appearance of genotype V viruses that were present
for more than a decade. Outbreaks in 1992 were caused by genotype VIIa viruses
and were part of a contemporaneous epizootic of Far East origin that affected Western
European countries. The Newcastle disease epizootic that
commenced in Italy in May 2000 was due to
a genotype VIIb virus that is indistinguishable from those causing sporadic
outbreaks in Great Britain and Northern Europe in the late 1990s. Isolated
cases yielded a variant of genotype VI (reference epizootic: Middle East in the late 1960s) and
a group VIII virus (enzootic in South Africa).
I.; Khan, M.S.R.; Kaleta, E.F.; Muller, H.; Dolz, G.; Neumann, U. Serological status for Chlamydophila psittaci,
Newcastle disease virus, avian polyoma virus, and Pacheco disease virus in scarlet
macaws (Ara macao) kept in captivity in Costa Rica.Journal
of Veterinary Medicine. Series B. Dec 2001. v. 48 (10) p. 721-726. ISSN: 0931-1793
Z.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Panda, A.; Samal, S.K. High-level
expression of a foreign gene from the most 3'-proximal locus of a recombinant
Newcastle disease virus.The Journal of General Virology.July 2001. v. 82 (pt. 7) p. 1729-1736. ISSN: 0022-1317
Call no: QR360.A1J6
Abstract:A previous report showed that insertion of a
foreign gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) between the HN
and L genes of the full-length cDNA of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yielded
virus with growth retardation and attenuation. The NDV vector used in that study
was pathogenic to chickens; it is therefore not suitable for use as a vaccine
vector. In the present study, an avirulent NDV vector was generated and its
potential to express CAT protein was evaluated. The CAT gene was under the control
of NDV transcriptional start and stop signals and was inserted immediately before
the open reading frame of the viral 3'-proximal nucleocapsid protein gene. A
recombinant NDV expressing CAT activity at a high level was recovered. The replication
and pathogenesis of the CAT-expressing recombinant NDV were not modified significantly.
These results indicate the potential utility of an avirulent NDV as a vaccine
T.; Yoneyama, M.; Koizumi, N.; Okabe, Y.; Namiki, H.; Samuel, C.E.; Fujita,
T. PACT, a double-stranded RNA binding protein
acts as a positive regulator for Type I interferon gene induced by Newcastle
disease virus. Biochemical and Biophysical
v. 282 (2) p. 515-523. ISSN: 0006-291X
D.R.; Kurkure, N.V.; Sakhare, P.S.; Warke, S.; Ali, M.Effect
of growell on performance, organ weight and serum trace element profile of broilers.Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. May 2001. v. 14 (5) p. 677-679. ISSN: 1011-2367
M.T.; Peebles, E.D.; Whitmarsh, S.K.; Yeatman, J.B.; Wideman, R.F. Jr.Growth
and immunity of broiler chicks as affected by dietary arginine.Poultry Science. Nov 2001. v. 80 (11) p. 1535-1542.ISSN: 0032-5791
call no: 47.8 Am33P
Abstract:A dietary deficiency of Arg may suppress chick
immune system functions; however, research evaluating immune function responsiveness
of commercial broilers fed dietary Arg levels near NRC (1994) recommendations
is sparse. Therefore, three experiments were conducted to evaluate growth and
immunity of broilers fed varying Arg levels near NRC (1994) specifications.
Because Arg and Lys are similar in structure and are known
to compete in intestinal absorption, dietary Lys treatments [near NRC (1994)
recommendations] were evaluated to determine if Arg and Lys interact to affect broiler
immunity. There were four dietary treatments in Experiment 1 representing a
2 x 2 factorial design of additional Arg (120% of NRC) of additional Lys (120%
of NRC) added to a control diet containing 100% of NRC Arg and Lys (six replications
per treatment). Experiment 2 contained the following four treatments: the control
diet; the control diet plus L-Arg (0.20% Arg of diet); the control diet plus
L-Lys HCl (0.20% Lys of diet); and the control
diet plus L-Arg-L-Glu (0.10% Arg of diet). Graduations of Arg were fed from
90 to 120% of NRC in 10% increments in Experiment 3. Also, half of the birds
were exposed to vaccinations of Newcastle disease virus and infectious
bronchitis virus in Experiment 3 to derive a 2 x 4 factorial design. Experiments
1 and 2 were conducted from Days 1 to 18 and Experiment 3 was conducted from
Days 1 to 15 in Petersime battery brooders. No interactions occurred between
dietary Lys and Arg in Experiment 1. Increasing dietary
Arg, but not Lys, from 100 to 120% of the
NRC recommendation increased (P < or = 0.05) Day 18 BW gain. Treatment differences
in the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity assay in Experiment 1 did not occur.
In Experiment 2, treatment differences in growth responses, lymphoid organ development,
and primary antibody titers to SRBC did not occur. Unvaccinated birds in Experiment
3 fed an Arg-deficient diet had lower (P < or = 0.05) feed conversion in
comparison with vaccinated birds fed an Arg-deficient diet. Vaccinated birds
had lower (P < or = 0.05) Day 15 BW than unvaccinated birds, but higher (P
< or = 0.05) titers to Newcastle disease virus. Increasing
dietary Arg in Experiment 3 increased plasma Arg (P < or = 0.05), but did
not affect plasma Lys. Although increased dietary Arg improved
BW gain in Experiment 1, minimal effects were noted in growth and immune system
parameters throughout this study. A dietary Arg level near the NRC (1994) recommendation
should support proper immune system functions in healthy chicks.
Descriptors:broiler chicks, arginine, lysine, nutrient nutrient
interactions, diets, liveweight gain, antibody formation, delayed type hypersensitivity,
feed intake and conversion, bursa Fabricii, thymus gland, spleen, weight, blood
D.J. Selection of thermostable Newcastle disease virus progeny from reference and vaccine strains.Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2001. v. 45 (2) p. 512-516. ISSN: 0005-2086Note: Spanish summary.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:In a study of low-virulence Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates
from poultry, 38% of the isolates had a more thermostable hemagglutinin than
the lentogenic reference strains B1 and La Sota or live vaccines derived from
those strains. Whether those strains with a more thermostable hemagglutinin
are truly indigenous or whether they could have originated from vaccines used
in the flocks was unknown. Seven monovalent NDV vaccines of B1 or La Sota type
and reference B1 and La Sota strains were heat treated at 56 C to select variants
more thermostable than the parent virus. Four thermal treatment cycles were
completed, and virus propagated from the second and fourth heat treatments was
assayed for changes in thermostability and antigenicity. The hemagglutinin thermostability
of all vaccine and reference strain variants increased from the initial less
than or equal to 10 min to greater than or equal to 120 min after four treatments.
Antigenic changes evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition against NDV monoclonal
antibodies identified changes in only the heat-treated La Sota strains. The
results demonstrate that the field isolates with a more thermostable hemagglutinin
could have been derived by selection from the heterogenous NDV populations in
vaccine strains and that minor antigenic changes may be a result of that selection.
Descriptors:Newcastle disease virus strains,
low-virulence strains, stability, heat treatment, vaccines, antigens, searching
for thermal stable variants,La Sota
G.D.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S.; Brown, C.C. Virulence
of pigeon-origin Newcastle disease virus isolates for domestic chickens. Avian Diseases.
Oct/Dec 2001. v. 45 (4) p. 906-921. ISSN: 0005-2086Note: Summary in Spanish
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:The virulence of six pigeon-origin isolates
of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was
evaluated before and after passage in white leghorn chickens. Four isolates
were defined as pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) and two isolates were classified
as avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) with NDV monoclonal antibodies. The four PPMV-1
isolates were passaged four times in chickens, and the APMV-1 isolates were
passaged only once. Infected birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized.
Tissues were collected for histopathology, in situ hybridization with a NDV
matrix gene digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe, and immunohistochemistry with an
anti-peptide antibody to the nucleoprotein. Mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity
index, and intravenous pathogenicity index tests performed before and after
passage in chickens demonstrated increased virulence of the passaged PPMV-1
isolates and high virulence of the original isolates of APMV-1. Sequence analysis
of the fusion protein cleavage site of all six isolates demonstrated a sequence
typical of the virulent pathotype. Although the pathotyping results indicated
a virulence increase of all passaged PPMV-1 isolates, clinical disease was limited
to depression and some nervous signs in only some of the 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free
white leghorns inoculated intraconjunctivally. However, an increased frequency
of clinical signs and some mortality occurred in 2 wk olds inoculated intraconjunctivally
with passaged virus. Histologically, prominent lesions in heart and brain were
observed in birds among all four groups inoculated with the PPMV-1 isolates.
The behavior of the two pigeon-origin APMV-1 isolates when inoculated into chickens
was characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDVs and included necro-hemorrhagic
lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.
W.J.M.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.; van Eck, J.H.H. Aerosol transmission of arthropathic and amyloidogenic Enterococcus faecalis.Avian
Diseases. Oct/Dec 2001. v. 45 (4) p. 1014-1023.ISSN: 0005-2086Note: Summary in Spanish
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:One-day-old brown layer chicks were exposed
to an aerosol of an arthropathic and amyloidogenic Enterococcus faecalis strain
alone or after being subjected to treatment with formaldehyde gas (100-200 ppm).
Four-day-old chicks were also treated with the same aerosol but after treatment
with a Newcastle disease vaccine virus
(NDVV) aerosol or intramuscular injection with methylprednisolon at day 1. The
same E. faecalis strain was inoculated intramuscularly in day-old chicks as
positive control. Bacteremia with time showed that 24 hr after the aerosol the
day-old exposed chicks had the highest rate of positive blood cultures (70%-80%).
Lower numbers of bacteremic birds at this point in time were found in the chicks
treated with E. faecalis aerosol at day 4 (3/10 in the methylprednisolon-treated
group and 0/10 in the NDVV-treated group) and the E. faecalis intramuscular-injected
group at day 1 (2/10). Formaldehyde gas treatment did not favor the occurrence
of bacteremia. NDVV aerosol exposure or injection with corticosteroids did not
favor the occurrence of bacteremia 24 hr after E. faecalis aerosol exposure
at day 4 either, although 66 days after aerosol, one bird (1/14) treated with
NDVV showed bacteremia. A few bacteremic birds were found 10 days after aerosol
in the NDVV- and methylprednisolon-treated groups, whereas at 14 days after
aerosol, one bacteremic bird was seen in the group subjected to E. faecalis aerosol at day 1, indicating the occurrence of chronic bacteremia. In contrast
to the E. faecalis intramuscular-inoculated birds, no joint pathology was seen
in the aerosol-exposed groups in spite of the occurrence of chronic bacteremia.
W.J.M.; van Eck, J.H.H. Aerosolization
of Newcastle disease vaccine virus and Enterococcus faecalis.Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2001. v. 45 (3) p. 684-687. ISSN: 0005-2086Note: Spanish Summary.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:In order to study the aerosol transmission of
arthropathic and amyloidogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains, preliminary aerosol
experiments were performed. The experiments were carried out in empty isolators
to assess the yield and viability of E. faecalis and Newcastle disease vaccine virus
(NDVV) aerosol particles with time. NDVV was aerosolized because this virus
would be used in combination with E. faecalis in a subsequent study. Concentrations
of about 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) of E. faecalis/m3 of air were still
found 30 min after the aerosol application. At 45 min, however, E. faecalis concentrations dropped below the detection level. The average E. faecalis concentration
during the aerosol experiment was estimated at 10(5) CFU/liter. The NDVV aerosol
generated an average of 10(4)-10(5) 50% embryo infective dose per liter of air.
In these experiments, E. faecalis and NDVV aerosols were successfully generated
despite considerable initial particle loss. The bacteria and virus uptakes per
chick are discussed in case day-old chicks would be exposed to these aerosols.
Z.; Nestor, K.E.; Saif, Y.M.; Anderson, J.W.; Patterson, R.A. Effect of selection for increased body weight
in turkeys on lymphoid organ weights, phagocytosis, and antibody responses to
fowl cholera and Newcastle disease-inactivatted vaccines. Poultry
Science. June 2001. v.80 (6) p. 689-694. ISSN: 0032-5791
call no:47.8 Am33P
Abstract:The influence of selection was studied for increased
16-wk BW in turkeys on in vivo phagocytic activity, antibody responses to vaccines,
and weight of the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. A line (F) of turkeys selected
long term for increased 16-wk BW and its corresponding randombred control (RBC2)
were compared. Phagocytic activity was evaluated by the carbon clearance assay.
Antibody responses to inactivated Newcastle disease virus and Pasteurella
multocida vaccines were examined by ELISA. Body weight and relative weights
of spleen and bursa of Fabricius of the two lines were also compared. The F
line had lower phagocytic activity than the RBC2 line (P < 0.05). In addition,
the F line had greater BW, relative weight of spleen, and ratio of spleen to
bursa of Fabricius weight (P < 0.01) but had a lower relative weight of bursa
of Fabricius at 9 wk of age. However, there were no line differences in the
antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus or P. multocida vaccines at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 12 wk after vaccination. Based on the present
results, it is suggested that long-term selection for increased 16-wk BW might
have resulted in changes in the immune system, as indicated by changes in the
relative weights of the spleen and bursa of Fabricius and phagocytic activity.
The decreased phagocytic activity in the F line may be partially responsible
for increased susceptibility to specific diseases in this line.
Lublin, A.; Mechani, S.; Siman-Tov,
Y.; Weisman, Y.; Horowitz, H.I.; Hatzofe, O. Sudden
death of a breaded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) possibly caused by Newcastle disease virus.Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2001. v. 45 (3) p. 741-744.ISSN: 0005-2086 Note: Spanish summary.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:An adult female bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)
in the Tel Aviv University Research Zoo was found dead without previous clinical
signs. The predominant pathologic changes were considerable bloody content in
the intestines and enlargement of the liver, which had a rubbery consistency
with color changes. Microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal histiocytic
infiltration in the liver. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was
isolated from a cloacal swab and from the lungs and liver. Intracerebral pathogenicity
index of the virus, as estimated in 1-day-old chicks, was repeated three times
and had an average value of 1.68, indicating a velogenic strain. Numerous Clostridium
septicum bacteria were found on the intestinal surface, but bioassays in which
they were orally administered into chickens and mice revealed that, even though
they were heavily multiplied in the intestines, they were nonpathogenic. It
seems that NDV, documented for the first time in a bearded vulture in Israel, was the likely cause
of sudden death.
L.W.; Sergel, T.; Chen, H.; Hamo, L.; Schwertz, S.; Li, D.; Morrison, T.G. Mutational analysis of the membrane proximal
heptad repeat of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein.Virology.Oct
v. 289 (2) p. 343-352.:ISSN: 0042-6822
call no: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: fusion protein structure,
viral protein, membranes.
L.; Sergel, T.; Reitter, J.; Morrison, T.
Carbohydrate modifications of the NDV fusion protein heptad repeat domains influence
maturation and fusion activity. Virology.May
v. 283 (2) p. 332-342. ISSN: 0042-6822
call no:448.8 V81
Descriptors:Newcastle disease virus, fusion
protein, modifications to heptad repeats, effects on fusion.
S.; Kataria, J.M.; Sah, R.L.; Verma, K.C.; Mishra, J.P. Studies on the pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus isolates in Guinea
fowl.Tropical Animal Health and Production. July 2001. v. 33 (4) p. 313-320. ISSN: 0049-4747
C W.; Cao, Y.C.; Lim, B.L. The in vivo
and in vitro effects of chicken interferon alpha on infectious bursal disease
virus and Newcastle disease virus infection.Avian
Diseases. Apr/June 2001. v. 45 (2) p. 389-399.ISSN: 0005-2086 Note: Summary in Spanish.
call no:41.8 Av5
Abstract:The in vitro and in vivo effects of chicken
interferon alpha on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection were investigated
in this study. A cDNA of interferon alpha was first cloned from a Chinese strain
chicken Shiqi by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced
amino acid sequence has one amino acid substitution with chicken interferon
alpha 1 at residue 65 (N to S) and two amino acid substitutions with chicken
interferon alpha 2 at residues 50 (N to S) and 58 (P to L), respectively. A
prokaryotic expression system was employed to produce a large quantity of recombinant
protein. Recombinant interferon was purified in a one-step process, and an optimal
refolding process was devised. About 51% recombinant protein from inclusion
bodies was refolded, and the final yield of the recombinant interferon reached
24.66 mg/liter culture. The recombinant interferon suppressed IBDV plaque formation
in a dose-dependent manner and ameliorated IBDV and Newcastle disease virus infection
in both specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial chickens. The antiviral
effect of interferon alpha is more significant in commercial chickens than in
SPF chickens, and the route of administration affects the efficacy of interferon
therapy. This is the first reported study of the effects of interferon alpha
on IBDV infection.
H.Newcastle disease virus:An evolving
Pathology. Feb 2001. v. 30 (1) p. 5-11.ISSN:
0307-9457Note: Summaries in French,
German and Spanish.
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:Australia experienced outbreaks
of virulent Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens
in the state of New South Wales in the years 1998, 1999
and 2000. The disease had occurred previously in Australia in 1930 and 1932 but the
country was free of it until the recent outbreaks. Avirulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were
detected in 1966 and, during the next two to three decades, strains (so-called
lentogenic strains) able to induce mild respiratory disease equivalent to that
induced by vaccine strains such as LaSota were also detected. Nucleotide sequence
analysis of the genes encoding the haemagglutinin and fusion proteins of Australian
isolates of the virus during this time demonstrated that Australian chicken
strains of NDV could be differentiated from NDV isolated elsewhere. Analysis
in this way demonstrated that NDV isolates causing the recent outbreaks of virulent
disease were Australian viruses that were so closely related to a recognized
Australian lentogenic strain, termed the Peat's Ridge strain, that it was considered
to be the precursor of the virulent virus. The outbreaks of virulent disease
in 1998 and 1999 were controlled by an official "stamping out" eradication
campaign. This was subsequently replaced by strategic use of ND vaccines when
virulent virus was again detected on some farms that had been restocked following
depopulation. The national situation with regard to ND is now being assessed
through a structured national survey of ND viruses, particularly to determine
the distribution of the precursor strain. No new outbreaks of virulent ND have
been recognized since February 2000, although immunization of flocks in areas
where the disease was recognized has occurred.
L.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, Y.; Chang, L.; Kwang, J. Characterization
of newly emerging Newcastle disease virus isolates from the People's Republic of China and Taiwan.Journal
of Clinical Microbiology. Oct 2001. v. 39 (10) p. 3512-3519. ISSN: 0095-1137
K.; Tan, W.S. Newcastle disease virus:
macromolecules and opportunities.Avian
Pathology. Oct 2001. v. 30 (5) p. 439-455. ISSN: 0307-9457
call no: SF995.A1A9
Abstract:Over the past two decades, enormous advances
have occurred in the structural and biological characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). As
a result, not only the complete sequence of the viral genome has been fully
determined, but also a clearer understanding of the viral proteins and their
respective roles in the life cycle has been achieved. This article reviews the
progress in the molecular biology of NDV with emphasis on the new technologies.
It also identifies the fundamental problems that need to be addressed and attempts
to predict some research opportunities in NDV that can be realized in the near
future for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease(s).
F.; Mattiello, R.; Garbino, C.; Kaloghlian, A.; Terrera, M.V.; Boviez, J.; Palma, E.; Carrillo, E.; Berinstein,
A. Biological and molecular characterization
of a pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 isolate found in Argentina.Avian
Diseases. July/Sept 2001. v. 45 (3) p. 567-571. ISSN: 0005-2086
Note: Spanish summary.
call no: 41.8 Av5
Abstract:In this report, we describe the biological and
molecular characterization of a paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1) isolate found
in wild pigeons in an urban habitat in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Of the nine pigeons captured,
three were moribund, and the other six showed diarrhea, ataxia, tremor, torticolis,
and wing paralysis. The intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.29, and the
amino acid (aa) sequence at the fusion protein cleavage site was 112GRQKRF117.
These characteristics correspond to a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate.
Nevertheless, it was not possible to reproduce the disease in chickens experimentally
although the chickens exhibited seroconversion after inoculation. On the other
hand, pigeons inoculated with the isolate became sick. These results provide
further evidence about the unusual pathogenicity of PPMV-1 for chickens and
show once more the need for more biological determinations in these cases to
arrive at a final conclusion.