Alders, R.G. (Robyn G.); Spradbrow, P. B. Controlling Newcastle disease in village chickens: A field manual.  ACIAR monograph series; no. 82. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 2001. 112 p.: ill.  ISBN: 1863203079

NAL call no: SF995.6.N4 A37 2001

Descriptors: Newcastle disease, control, developing countries, handbooks, manuals, chickens, vaccine.


Aldous, E.W.; Collins, M.S.; McGoldrick, A.; Alexander, D.J.  Rapid pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using fluorogenic probes in a PCR assay. Veterinary Microbiology.  June 6, 2001. v. 80 (3) p. 201-212.  ISSN: 0378-1135

NAL call no:  SF601.V44

Abstract:  Hybridisation of PCR fragments with fluorogenic probes specific for pathotype allowed an estimation of pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates using a modified TaqMan procedure. Six probes were used, designed to recognise nucleotide sequences in the fusion protein gene sequence corresponding to the precursor protein F0 cleavage site of both virulent and avirulent viruses. Forty-three of the 45 isolates tested, including 18 examined in a blind study were pathotyped successfully and rapidly, with close correlation between cleavage site nucleotide sequences, TaqMan results and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) values. One isolate, which could not be pathotyped by nucleotide sequencing, was shown using the TaqMan system to be a mixture of virulent and avirulent NDV. The results of this study suggest that using this modified TaqMan protocol, the likely virulence of most ND isolates can be determined rapidly and reproducibly.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, pathotypes, polymerase chain reaction, pathogenicity, estimation, nucleotide sequences, precursors, molecular sequence data.


Aldous, E.W.; Alexander, D.J. Detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1).  Avian Pathology.  Apr 2001. v. 30 (2) p. 117-128. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Substantial variation in the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates means that the detection of NDV or evidence of infection is insufficient for an adequate diagnosis, as control measures for avirulent viruses are very different to those for virulent viruses. Diagnosis therefore requires further characterization, at least as to whether an isolate is virulent or avirulent. Conventional detection and differentiation of ND viruses is perceived as slow, laborious and requiring an undesirable use of in vivo techniques. In addition, further characterization is needed to give greater information on origin and spread. This review concentrates on the application of monoclonal antibody and molecular biological approaches. Panels of monoclonal antibodies were a major advance for the characterization of NDV isolates, although confirmation of virulence for poultry still required in vivo testing. As molecular-based techniques become easier and more reliable, they are likely to supersede the use of monoclonal antibodies, especially for characterizing viruses for epidemiological purposes. The attraction of molecular-based techniques is that they may be able to cover all three aspects of Newcastle disease diagnosis (detection of virus, characterization, including inference of virulence, and epidemiology) quickly, accurately and definitively in a single test. A number of approaches based on the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction have been developed, with subsequent analysis of the product by restriction enzyme analysis, probe hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. Although extensive variation among NDVs still poses technical problems, the real and potential advantages of a molecular biological approach to Newcastle disease diagnosis appear to be overwhelming.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, pathogenicity, diagnostic techniques.


Alexander, D.J. Newcastle disease.  British Poultry Science.  Mar 2001. v. 42 (1) p. 5-22.  ISSN: 0007-1668  Note:  Paper presented at a meeting of the UK Branch of the World's Poultry Science Association held March 2000, Scarborough.

NAL call no:  47.8 B77

Abstract:  1. In this paper several historical and contemporary aspects of Newcastle disease (ND) are reviewed, with particular reference to the greater understanding which modern techniques have allowed. 2. Virulent ND viruses were generally thought to have emerged in 1926 as a result of transfer from a wild bird host reservoir but there is evidence that the virulent virus may have existed in poultry before 1926. Recent findings suggest that the virulent virus may emerge in poultry as a result of mutations in viruses of low virulence. 3. The history of ND in Great Britain reflects the four known panzootics that have occurred and serves as a model for the impact this disease may have on poultry populations. 4. Attempts to control and eradicate ND are not as straightforward as it may appear; in particular vaccination, while preventing deaths and disease, on challenge may not prevent virus replication and could therefore lead to the virulent virus becoming endemic. 5. Village chickens are extremely important assets in most developing countries, representing a significant source of protein in the form of eggs and meat but endemic ND can cause mortality of up to 60% in village chickens.

Descriptors: poultry, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, wild birds as reservoir hosts, disease transmission, virulence, mutations, epidemics, disease control, vaccination, viral replication, mortality, symptoms, literature reviews.


Bacon, L.D.; Witter, R.L.; Silva, R.F. Characterization and experimental reproduction of peripheral neuropathy in White Leghorn chickens.  Avian Pathology.  Oct 2001. v. 30 (5) p. 487-489. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  A clinical neurological syndrome termed peripheral neuropathy (PN) that resembles Marek's disease (MD) occurred at low frequency in a commercial layer strain for several years. Study of chickens from six field cases showed that the PN syndrome could be distinguished pathologically from MD on the basis of several factors, including onset as early as 6 weeks, presence of B-type but not A-type lesions in peripheral nerves, and absence of visceral lymphomas. Serotype 1 MD virus could not be isolated from blood from any chicken or demonstrated in tissues by histochemistry or polymerase chain reaction assays. Moreover, the syndrome was not prevented by MD vaccination, either in the field or in laboratory trials. PN was induced in 3 to 54% of commercial line chickens inoculated at 1 or 6 days of age with whole blood or buffy coat cells from clinically affected donor chickens. Sonicated cells also induced PN, but plasma was ineffective. Chickens did not develop PN if reared in isolators without cellular transfer or when vaccinated solely against MD. However, PN was observed in 9% of 57 B*2/*19 commercial chickens reared in isolators following vaccination against MD, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis, suggesting that common vaccines may predispose chickens to PN. The data confirmed a strong influence of the major histocompatibility complex (B-complex) on both naturally occurring and experimentally induced PN with the B*19 haplotype conferring susceptibility compared with other alleles. It is postulated that PN may represent an autoimmune reaction to nerve tissue that may result from response to a combination of common vaccines. These studies confirmed that PN is distinct from MD, provided criteria for its differential diagnosis, identified strategies for its control, and established a model for its experimental induction.

Descriptors:  chickens nervous system diseases, pathogenesis, etiology, peripheral nerves, experimental infection, major histocompatibility complex, differential diagnosis, disease control.


Berinstein, A.; Sellers, H.S.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S. Use of a heteroduplex mobility assay to detect differences in the fusion protein cleavage site coding sequence among Newcastle Disease Virus isolates.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Sept 2001. v. 39 (9) p. 3171-3178.  ISSN: 0095-1137

NAL call no:  QR46.J6 

Descriptors: nucleotide sequences, viral genes, phylogenetics, amino acid sequences.


Cattoli, G.; Manvell, R.J.; Tisato, E.; Banks, J.; Capua, I.  Characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Italy in 2000.  Avian Pathology.  Oct 2001. v. 30 (5) p. 465-469.  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Thirty-two Newcastle disease virus isolates from the 2000 Italian epidemic were characterized by monoclonal antibody binding pattern and nucleotide sequencing of approximately 400 base pairs of the fusion gene. In addition, the pathogenicity of six of these isolates was assessed by means of the intracerebral pathogenicity test (ICPI). The strains tested exhibited an ICPI ranging from 1.6 to 2.0. On the basis of the monoclonal antibody binding pattern, all isolates could be classified as belonging to group C1. Both monoclonal antibody and genomic analysis revealed a very high degree of homology, indicating a common source of infection. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, it appears that the Italian isolates are closely related to the recent isolates from the UK, Scandinavia and South East Europe, thus suggesting the circulation of this viral strain in Europe during the past 5 years.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, characterization, monoclonal antibodies, nucleotide sequences, pathogenicity, phylogenetics.


Cavanagh, D.  Innovation and discovery: the application of nucleic acid-based technology to avian virus detection and characterization.  Avian Pathology.  Dec 2001. v. 30 (6) p. 581-598. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches to the detection, differentiation and characterization of avian pathogens continue to be developed and refined. The PCRs, or reverse transcriptase-PCRs, may be general, designed to detect all or most variants of a pathogen, or to be serotype, genotype or pathotype specific. Progress is being made with respect to making nucleic acid approaches more suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories. Robotic workstations are now available for extraction of nucleic acid from many samples in a short time, for routine diagnosis. Following general PCR, the DNA products are commonly analyzed by restriction endonuclease mapping (restriction fragment length polymorphism), using a small number of restriction endonucleases, based on a large body of sequence data. Increasingly, however, nucleotide sequencing is being used to analyze the DNA product, in part due to the expanding use of non-radioactive sequencing methods that are safe and enable high throughout. In this review, I highlight some recent developments with many avian viruses: Newcastle disease virus; circoviruses in canary and pigeon; infectious bursar disease virus (Gumboro disease virus); avian adenoviruses, including Angara disease/infectious hydropericardium virus, haemorrhagic enteritis virus of turkeys, and egg drop syndrome virus; avian herpesviruses, including infectious laryngotracheitis virus, duck plague virus, psittacine herpesvirus (Pacheco's parrot disease virus), Marek's disease virus and herpesvirus of turkeys; avian leukosis virus (associated with lymphoid leukosis or myeloid leukosis, and egg transmission); avian pneumoviruses (turkey rhinotracheitis virus); avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus, turkey coronavirus and pheasant coronavirus; astrovirus, in the context of poult enteritis and mortality syndrome, and avian nephritis virus; and avian encephalomyelitis virus, a picornavirus related to hepatitis A virus.

Descriptors: animal viruses, polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acids, detection, characterization, poultry diseases, restriction endonuclease analysis, literature reviews.


Chang, P.C.; Hsieh, M.L.; Shien, J.H.; Graham, D.A.; Lee, M.S.; Shieh, H.K. Complete nucleotide sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 6 isolated from ducks.  The Journal of General Virology.  Sept 2001. v. 82 (pt.9) p. 2157-2168. ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  There are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Only the genome of APMV type 1 (APMV-1), also called Newcastle disease virus (NDV), has been completely sequenced. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of an APMV-6 serotype isolated from ducks is reported. The 16236 nt genome encodes eight proteins, nucleocapsid protein (NP), phosphoprotein (P), V protein, matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), small hydrophobic (SH) protein, haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and large (L) protein, which are flanked by a 55 nt leader sequence and a 54 nt trailer sequence. Sequence comparison reveals that the protein sequences of APMV-6 are most closely related to those of APMV-1 (NDV) and -2, with sequence identities ranging from 22 to 44%. However, APMV-6 contains a gene that might encode the SH protein, which is absent in APMV-1, but present in the rubulaviruses simian virus type 5 and mumps virus. The presence of an SH gene in APMV-6 might provide a link between the evolution of APMV and rubulaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that APMV-6, -1, -2 (only the F and HN sequences were available for analysis) and -4 (only the HN sequences were available for analysis) all cluster into a single lineage that is distinct from other paramyxoviruses. This result suggests that APMV should constitute a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae.

Descriptors:  nucleotide sequences, genomes, APMV-6 serotype from ducks, viral proteins, nucleotide sequence data, viral evolution, new genus, Paramyxovirinae.


Chen, L.; Colman, P.M.; Cosgrove, L.J.; Lawrence, M.C.; Lawrence, L.J.; Tulloch, P.A.; Gorman, J.J. Cloning, expression, and crystallization of the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus. Virology. Nov 25, 2001. v. 290 (2) p. 290-299. ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors: chemical structure, fusion protein, cloning, crystallization of fusion viral protein.


Clavijo, A.; Robinson, Y.; Lopez, J.  Isolation of Newcastle disease virus and Salmonella typhimurium from the brain of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus).  Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 2001. v. 45 (1) p. 245-250. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Summary in Spanish.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from the brain and lung tissues of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Lac Canard, Alberta, Canada. More than 100 birds died during this outbreak in 1999. Affected birds presented signs of central nervous system disease characterized by unilateral wing and leg paralysis. Other geographic locations in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan have reported cases of cormorants suffering from diseases with signs compatible with Newcastle disease. The virus isolated in the 1999 outbreak was characterized as mesogenic. These findings suggest that other pathogens, like S. typhimurium, may influence the clinical presentation of disease caused by mesogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in cormorants.

Descriptors:  Phalacrocorax, Newcastle disease virus, Salmonella typhimurium, cormorants, brain tissue, pathogen isolation, lungs, symptoms, clinical aspects, lesions, outbreaks, case reports, Alberta, Canada.


Coletti, M.; Del Rossi, E.; Franciosini, M.P.; Passamonti, F.; Tacconi, G.; Marini, C.  Efficacy and safety of an infectious bursal disease virus intermediate vaccine in ovo.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 2001. v. 45 (4) p. 1036-1043.  ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Summary in Spanish. 

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The study was divided into two experiments. In the first experiment, the efficacy of in ovo intermediate vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined by challenge at 21 days of age with virulent IBDV in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial chickens. This vaccine was able to induce active immunity and to protect SPF chickens to challenge; protection was not complete in commercial chickens, as testified by bursal lesions, bursal index after challenge, and vaccine immunoresponse. In order to detect field and vaccinal viruses, immunoperoxidase staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, capture, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were tested; the RT-PCR was more effective at detecting both kind of viruses. In the second experiment, the immunosuppressive effect of in ovo vaccination was determined by evaluating the immunoresponse against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination effected at 10 days in both SPF and commercial chickens vaccinated in ovo. The in ovo vaccine causes a reduction of NDV immunoresponse, as testified by lowest geometric mean titer in group I (SPF chickens vaccinated against IBDV in ovo and against NDV at 11 days). In commercial chickens, immunoresponse to NDV vaccination was not influenced by in ovo vaccination.

Descriptors: chick embryos, infectious bursal disease virus, inactivated vaccines, safety and efficacy, disease prevention, maternal antibodies, egg hatchability, survival, immunosuppression.


El Tayeb, A.B.; Hanson, R.P.  The interaction between Newcastle disease virus and Escherichia coli endotoxin in chickens.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2001. v. 45 (2) p. 313-320. ISSN: 0005-2086   Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The interaction between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Escherichia coli endotoxin was studied in cell cultures, embryonated chicken eggs, and 8-wk-old chickens. These interactions were evaluated according to the induction of specific or nonspecific resistance in the host system and the virus titer produced in both chicken embryos and chickens. The endotoxin of E. coli induced a decrease in the size of the bursa of Fabricius in live chickens. Escherichia coli endotoxin given intravenously induced plasma antiviral activity in chickens that was interpreted to be interferon, as detected in a vesicular stomatitis virus plaque reduction assay. Endotoxin failed to produced toxic effects in the chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or to result in any antiviral effect because no change was noted in the number of NDV plaques formed in CEF cultures. When endotoxin was given 3 days before NDV exposure in chickens, the virus titers were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased from a peak of 10(2) to 10(0.18), 10(2.5) to 10(0.18), and 10(2.5) to 0 in the spleens, lungs, and kidneys, respectively, at 72 hr post-NDV inoculation. When endotoxin was given 24 hr after NDV inoculation, the NDV titer significantly (P < 0.05) increased from 10(2.0) to 10(3.5), 10(2.5) to 10(6.5), 10(2.5) to 10(4.5), 0 to 10(2.5) in the spleen, lungs, kidneys, and liver, respectively, at 72 hr after NDV inoculation. In chicken sera, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer to NDV was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced from 1164 to 3127 when endotoxin was given prior to virus inoculation. However, there was a decrease in HI to NDV from 1164 to 727 without a significant difference in chicken sera when NDV was given prior to endotoxin inoculation. 

Descriptors:  chickens, Newcastle disease virus, endotoxins, interactions, Escherichia coli, chick embryos, cell culture studies, bursa Fabricii, spleen, lungs, kidneys, liver.


Farley, J.M.; Romero, C.H.; Spalding, M.G.; Avery, M.L.; Forrester, D.J.  Newcastle disease virus in double-crested cormorants in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Oct 2001. v. 37 (4) p. 808-812. ISSN: 0090-3558

NAL call no:  41.9 W64B

Descriptors:  Phalacrocorax auritus, cormorants, serological surveys, disease transmission, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, wild birds as a disease reservoir.

Fukanoki, S.; Iwakura, T.; Iwaki, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Takeda, R.; Ikeda, K.; Shi, Z.; Mori, H. Safety and efficacy of water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccines containing Newcastle disease virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein.  Avian Pathology. Oct 2001. v. 30 (5) p. 509-516. ISSN: 0307-9457 

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Subunit vaccines containing haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), formulated as water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions, were prepared. First, the suitable constituents of a W/O/W emulsion adjuvant were investigated with polyvalent vaccines using NDV, infectious bronchitis virus and Haemophilus paragallinarum. The W/O/W emulsion adjuvant, composed of the antigen in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), liquid paraffin, squalene, diglyceryl monooleate, polysorbate 80 and PBS in a 30:25:10:5:2:28 ratio, induced a good antibody response with less adverse local reactions. HN protein of NDV was expressed by an improved baculovirus expression vector, a hybrid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HyNPV) between Autographa californica NPV and Bombyx mori NPV, and was prepared from silkworm pupae infected with the recombinant baculovirus, HyNPV-HN. Then, the W/O/W emulsion vaccine containing HN protein was prepared using the aforementioned constituents. Chickens showed 100, 100 and 80% protection against challenge exposure to virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination with W/O/W emulsion vaccines containing 30, 6 and 3% of HyHPV-HN-infected pupae, respectively. The vaccines containing HN protein did not induce adverse local reactions at the site of injection. The subunit vaccine for NDV containing HN protein expressed in the recombinant baculovirus-infected pupae, formulated as a W/O/W emulsion vaccine composed of the antigen in PBS, liquid paraffin, squalene, diglyceryl monooleate, polysorbate 80 and PBS in a 30:25:10:5:2:28 ratio, was therefore found to be safe and effective.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, vaccines, vaccination, chickens, safety, efficacy, disease prevention, emulsions, glycoproteins, adjuvants, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein.


Herczeg, J.; Pascucci, S.; Massi, P.; Luini, M.; Selli, L.; Capua, I.; Lomniczi, B. A longitudinal study of velogenic Newcastle disease virus genotypes isolated in Italy between 1960 and 2000. Avian Pathology.  Apr 2001. v. 30 (2) p. 163-168.  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Thirty-six representative velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus isolated in Italy since 1960 were characterized by restriction site and partial sequence analyses of the fusion protein gene. Viruses belonging to the six known genotypes of Lomniczi et al. were found. Genotype IV, which was most probably the main epizootic group in Europe before the war, was responsible for outbreaks in the 1960s and persisted until the late 1980s in Italy. An epizootic peak in 1972 to 1974 coincided with the appearance of genotype V viruses that were present for more than a decade. Outbreaks in 1992 were caused by genotype VIIa viruses and were part of a contemporaneous epizootic of Far East origin that affected Western European countries. The Newcastle disease epizootic that commenced in Italy in May 2000 was due to a genotype VIIb virus that is indistinguishable from those causing sporadic outbreaks in Great Britain and Northern Europe in the late 1990s. Isolated cases yielded a variant of genotype VI (reference epizootic: Middle East in the late 1960s) and a group VIII virus (enzootic in South Africa).

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, genotypes, nucleotide sequences, strain differences, longitudinal studies, outbreaks, Italy.


Herrera, I.; Khan, M.S.R.; Kaleta, E.F.; Muller, H.; Dolz, G.; Neumann, U. Serological status for Chlamydophila psittaci, Newcastle disease virus, avian polyoma virus, and Pacheco disease virus in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) kept in captivity in Costa Rica.  Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B. Dec 2001. v. 48 (10) p. 721-726. ISSN: 0931-1793

NAL call no:  41.8 Z52

Descriptors: Psittaciformes, viral diseases, Newcastle disease virus, bacterial diseases, infections, serology, aviary birds, captive animals, ELISA, antibodies, disease transmission, Costa Rica.


Huang, Z.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Panda, A.; Samal, S.K.  High-level expression of a foreign gene from the most 3'-proximal locus of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus.   The Journal of General Virology. July 2001. v. 82 (pt. 7) p. 1729-1736. ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL Call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:  A previous report showed that insertion of a foreign gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) between the HN and L genes of the full-length cDNA of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yielded virus with growth retardation and attenuation. The NDV vector used in that study was pathogenic to chickens; it is therefore not suitable for use as a vaccine vector. In the present study, an avirulent NDV vector was generated and its potential to express CAT protein was evaluated. The CAT gene was under the control of NDV transcriptional start and stop signals and was inserted immediately before the open reading frame of the viral 3'-proximal nucleocapsid protein gene. A recombinant NDV expressing CAT activity at a high level was recovered. The replication and pathogenesis of the CAT-expressing recombinant NDV were not modified significantly. These results indicate the potential utility of an avirulent NDV as a vaccine vector.

Descriptors:  live vaccines, avirulant NDV vector, CAT expressing recombinant NDV, CAT protein, gene expression, pathogenicity, chicks, replication, pthogenesis.


Iwamura, T.; Yoneyama, M.; Koizumi, N.; Okabe, Y.; Namiki, H.; Samuel, C.E.; Fujita, T. PACT, a double-stranded RNA binding protein acts as a positive regulator for Type I interferon gene induced by Newcastle disease virus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Mar 30, 2001. v. 282 (2) p. 515-523. ISSN: 0006-291X

NAL call no:  442.8 B5236

Descriptors: virus induced immunity, interferon gene regulation, viral RNA.


Kalorey, D.R.; Kurkure, N.V.; Sakhare, P.S.; Warke, S.; Ali, M.  Effect of growell on performance, organ weight and serum trace element profile of broilers.  Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. May 2001. v. 14 (5) p. 677-679. ISSN: 1011-2367

NAL call no:  SF55.A78A7

Descriptors:  broilers performance, feed supplements, weight, blood chemistry, trace elements, mineral nutrition, humoral immunity, organs, growth promoters, iron, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus, liveweight, feed conversion efficiency, kidneys, thymus gland, zinc, muscles, copper, manganese, liveweight gain.


Kidd, M.T.; Peebles, E.D.; Whitmarsh, S.K.; Yeatman, J.B.; Wideman, R.F. Jr.  Growth and immunity of broiler chicks as affected by dietary arginine.  Poultry Science. Nov 2001. v. 80 (11) p. 1535-1542.  ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no: 47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  A dietary deficiency of Arg may suppress chick immune system functions; however, research evaluating immune function responsiveness of commercial broilers fed dietary Arg levels near NRC (1994) recommendations is sparse. Therefore, three experiments were conducted to evaluate growth and immunity of broilers fed varying Arg levels near NRC (1994) specifications. Because Arg and Lys are similar in structure and are known to compete in intestinal absorption, dietary Lys treatments [near NRC (1994) recommendations] were evaluated to determine if Arg and Lys interact to affect broiler immunity. There were four dietary treatments in Experiment 1 representing a 2 x 2 factorial design of additional Arg (120% of NRC) of additional Lys (120% of NRC) added to a control diet containing 100% of NRC Arg and Lys (six replications per treatment). Experiment 2 contained the following four treatments: the control diet; the control diet plus L-Arg (0.20% Arg of diet); the control diet plus L-Lys HCl (0.20% Lys of diet); and the control diet plus L-Arg-L-Glu (0.10% Arg of diet). Graduations of Arg were fed from 90 to 120% of NRC in 10% increments in Experiment 3. Also, half of the birds were exposed to vaccinations of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in Experiment 3 to derive a 2 x 4 factorial design. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted from Days 1 to 18 and Experiment 3 was conducted from Days 1 to 15 in Petersime battery brooders. No interactions occurred between dietary Lys and Arg in Experiment 1. Increasing dietary Arg, but not Lys, from 100 to 120% of the NRC recommendation increased (P < or = 0.05) Day 18 BW gain. Treatment differences in the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity assay in Experiment 1 did not occur. In Experiment 2, treatment differences in growth responses, lymphoid organ development, and primary antibody titers to SRBC did not occur. Unvaccinated birds in Experiment 3 fed an Arg-deficient diet had lower (P < or = 0.05) feed conversion in comparison with vaccinated birds fed an Arg-deficient diet. Vaccinated birds had lower (P < or = 0.05) Day 15 BW than unvaccinated birds, but higher (P < or = 0.05) titers to Newcastle disease virus. Increasing dietary Arg in Experiment 3 increased plasma Arg (P < or = 0.05), but did not affect plasma Lys. Although increased dietary Arg improved BW gain in Experiment 1, minimal effects were noted in growth and immune system parameters throughout this study. A dietary Arg level near the NRC (1994) recommendation should support proper immune system functions in healthy chicks.

Descriptors:  broiler chicks, arginine, lysine, nutrient nutrient interactions, diets, liveweight gain, antibody formation, delayed type hypersensitivity, feed intake and conversion, bursa Fabricii, thymus gland, spleen, weight, blood picture, vaccination.


King, D.J. Selection of thermostable Newcastle disease virus progeny from reference and vaccine strains.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2001. v. 45 (2) p. 512-516. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.  

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  In a study of low-virulence Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from poultry, 38% of the isolates had a more thermostable hemagglutinin than the lentogenic reference strains B1 and La Sota or live vaccines derived from those strains. Whether those strains with a more thermostable hemagglutinin are truly indigenous or whether they could have originated from vaccines used in the flocks was unknown. Seven monovalent NDV vaccines of B1 or La Sota type and reference B1 and La Sota strains were heat treated at 56 C to select variants more thermostable than the parent virus. Four thermal treatment cycles were completed, and virus propagated from the second and fourth heat treatments was assayed for changes in thermostability and antigenicity. The hemagglutinin thermostability of all vaccine and reference strain variants increased from the initial less than or equal to 10 min to greater than or equal to 120 min after four treatments. Antigenic changes evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition against NDV monoclonal antibodies identified changes in only the heat-treated La Sota strains. The results demonstrate that the field isolates with a more thermostable hemagglutinin could have been derived by selection from the heterogenous NDV populations in vaccine strains and that minor antigenic changes may be a result of that selection.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus strains, low-virulence strains, stability, heat treatment, vaccines, antigens, searching for thermal stable variants,  La Sota type.


Kommers, G.D.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S.; Brown, C.C. Virulence of pigeon-origin Newcastle disease virus isolates for domestic chickens.  Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 2001. v. 45 (4) p. 906-921. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Summary in Spanish

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The virulence of six pigeon-origin isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was evaluated before and after passage in white leghorn chickens. Four isolates were defined as pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) and two isolates were classified as avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) with NDV monoclonal antibodies. The four PPMV-1 isolates were passaged four times in chickens, and the APMV-1 isolates were passaged only once. Infected birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized. Tissues were collected for histopathology, in situ hybridization with a NDV matrix gene digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe, and immunohistochemistry with an anti-peptide antibody to the nucleoprotein. Mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index tests performed before and after passage in chickens demonstrated increased virulence of the passaged PPMV-1 isolates and high virulence of the original isolates of APMV-1. Sequence analysis of the fusion protein cleavage site of all six isolates demonstrated a sequence typical of the virulent pathotype. Although the pathotyping results indicated a virulence increase of all passaged PPMV-1 isolates, clinical disease was limited to depression and some nervous signs in only some of the 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorns inoculated intraconjunctivally. However, an increased frequency of clinical signs and some mortality occurred in 2 wk olds inoculated intraconjunctivally with passaged virus. Histologically, prominent lesions in heart and brain were observed in birds among all four groups inoculated with the PPMV-1 isolates. The behavior of the two pigeon-origin APMV-1 isolates when inoculated into chickens was characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDVs and included necro-hemorrhagic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.

Descriptors: chickens, Newcastle disease virus, avian paramyxovirus, pigeons, virulence, inoculum, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, histopathology, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, phylogenetics, lesions, pathotypes.


Landman, W.J.M.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.; van Eck, J.H.H. Aerosol transmission of arthropathic and amyloidogenic Enterococcus faecalis.   Avian Diseases. Oct/Dec 2001. v. 45 (4) p. 1014-1023.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Summary in Spanish

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  One-day-old brown layer chicks were exposed to an aerosol of an arthropathic and amyloidogenic Enterococcus faecalis strain alone or after being subjected to treatment with formaldehyde gas (100-200 ppm). Four-day-old chicks were also treated with the same aerosol but after treatment with a Newcastle disease vaccine virus (NDVV) aerosol or intramuscular injection with methylprednisolon at day 1. The same E. faecalis strain was inoculated intramuscularly in day-old chicks as positive control. Bacteremia with time showed that 24 hr after the aerosol the day-old exposed chicks had the highest rate of positive blood cultures (70%-80%). Lower numbers of bacteremic birds at this point in time were found in the chicks treated with E. faecalis aerosol at day 4 (3/10 in the methylprednisolon-treated group and 0/10 in the NDVV-treated group) and the E. faecalis intramuscular-injected group at day 1 (2/10). Formaldehyde gas treatment did not favor the occurrence of bacteremia. NDVV aerosol exposure or injection with corticosteroids did not favor the occurrence of bacteremia 24 hr after E. faecalis aerosol exposure at day 4 either, although 66 days after aerosol, one bird (1/14) treated with NDVV showed bacteremia. A few bacteremic birds were found 10 days after aerosol in the NDVV- and methylprednisolon-treated groups, whereas at 14 days after aerosol, one bacteremic bird was seen in the group subjected to E. faecalis aerosol at day 1, indicating the occurrence of chronic bacteremia. In contrast to the E. faecalis intramuscular-inoculated birds, no joint pathology was seen in the aerosol-exposed groups in spite of the occurrence of chronic bacteremia.

Descriptors:  chicks, Streptococcus faecalis, aerosols, formaldehyde, immunosuppression, prednisolone, Newcastle disease virus, chronic bacteremia, disease transmission.


Landman, W.J.M.; van Eck, J.H.H. Aerosolization of Newcastle disease vaccine virus and Enterococcus faecalis. Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2001. v. 45 (3) p. 684-687. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish Summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  In order to study the aerosol transmission of arthropathic and amyloidogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains, preliminary aerosol experiments were performed. The experiments were carried out in empty isolators to assess the yield and viability of E. faecalis and Newcastle disease vaccine virus (NDVV) aerosol particles with time. NDVV was aerosolized because this virus would be used in combination with E. faecalis in a subsequent study. Concentrations of about 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) of E. faecalis/m3 of air were still found 30 min after the aerosol application. At 45 min, however, E. faecalis concentrations dropped below the detection level. The average E. faecalis concentration during the aerosol experiment was estimated at 10(5) CFU/liter. The NDVV aerosol generated an average of 10(4)-10(5) 50% embryo infective dose per liter of air. In these experiments, E. faecalis and NDVV aerosols were successfully generated despite considerable initial particle loss. The bacteria and virus uptakes per chick are discussed in case day-old chicks would be exposed to these aerosols.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, Streptococcus faecalis, aerosol transmission, aerosolized pathogen experiments, yields, viability, chicks.


Li, Z.; Nestor, K.E.; Saif, Y.M.; Anderson, J.W.; Patterson, R.A. Effect of selection for increased body weight in turkeys on lymphoid organ weights, phagocytosis, and antibody responses to fowl cholera and Newcastle disease-inactivatted vaccines.  Poultry Science. June 2001. v.80 (6) p. 689-694. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  The influence of selection was studied for increased 16-wk BW in turkeys on in vivo phagocytic activity, antibody responses to vaccines, and weight of the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. A line (F) of turkeys selected long term for increased 16-wk BW and its corresponding randombred control (RBC2) were compared. Phagocytic activity was evaluated by the carbon clearance assay. Antibody responses to inactivated Newcastle disease virus and Pasteurella multocida vaccines were examined by ELISA. Body weight and relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius of the two lines were also compared. The F line had lower phagocytic activity than the RBC2 line (P < 0.05). In addition, the F line had greater BW, relative weight of spleen, and ratio of spleen to bursa of Fabricius weight (P < 0.01) but had a lower relative weight of bursa of Fabricius at 9 wk of age. However, there were no line differences in the antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus or P. multocida vaccines at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 12 wk after vaccination. Based on the present results, it is suggested that long-term selection for increased 16-wk BW might have resulted in changes in the immune system, as indicated by changes in the relative weights of the spleen and bursa of Fabricius and phagocytic activity. The decreased phagocytic activity in the F line may be partially responsible for increased susceptibility to specific diseases in this line.

Descriptors:  turkeys, spleen, bursa Fabricii, weight, artificial selection, selection criteria, liveweight, phagocytosis, immune system response, inactivated vaccines, Newcastle disease, Pasteurella multocida, disease resistance, susceptibility.


Lublin, A.; Mechani, S.; Siman-Tov, Y.; Weisman, Y.; Horowitz, H.I.; Hatzofe, O.  Sudden death of a breaded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) possibly caused by Newcastle disease virus. Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2001. v. 45 (3) p. 741-744.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  An adult female bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in the Tel Aviv University Research Zoo was found dead without previous clinical signs. The predominant pathologic changes were considerable bloody content in the intestines and enlargement of the liver, which had a rubbery consistency with color changes. Microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal histiocytic infiltration in the liver. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from a cloacal swab and from the lungs and liver. Intracerebral pathogenicity index of the virus, as estimated in 1-day-old chicks, was repeated three times and had an average value of 1.68, indicating a velogenic strain. Numerous Clostridium septicum bacteria were found on the intestinal surface, but bioassays in which they were orally administered into chickens and mice revealed that, even though they were heavily multiplied in the intestines, they were nonpathogenic. It seems that NDV, documented for the first time in a bearded vulture in Israel, was the likely cause of sudden death.

Descriptors:  predatory birds, Gypaetus barbatus, sudden death, etiology, Newcastle disease virus, Clostridium septicum, pathogenicity, vultures, zoo specimen, intestines, liver, lesions, case reports, diagnosis, Israel.


McGinnes, L.W.; Sergel, T.; Chen, H.; Hamo, L.; Schwertz, S.; Li, D.; Morrison, T.G. Mutational analysis of the membrane proximal heptad repeat of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. Virology. Oct 25, 2001. v. 289 (2) p. 343-352.:  ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors: fusion protein structure, viral protein, membranes.


McGinnes, L.; Sergel, T.; Reitter, J.; Morrison, T. Carbohydrate modifications of the NDV fusion protein heptad repeat domains influence maturation and fusion activity.  Virology. May 10, 2001. v. 283 (2) p. 332-342. ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no:  448.8 V81

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, fusion protein, modifications to heptad repeats, effects on fusion.


Mishra, S.; Kataria, J.M.; Sah, R.L.; Verma, K.C.; Mishra, J.P. Studies on the pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus isolates in Guinea fowl. Tropical Animal Health and Production. July 2001. v. 33 (4) p. 313-320. ISSN: 0049-4747

NAL call no:  SF601.T7 

Descriptors:  chickens, guineafowl, pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus, viral strains, mortality, pathogenesis, disease course, hosts, symptoms, postmortem examinations.


Mo, C W.; Cao, Y.C.; Lim, B.L. The in vivo and in vitro effects of chicken interferon alpha on infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus infection. Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2001. v. 45 (2) p. 389-399.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Summary in Spanish.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  The in vitro and in vivo effects of chicken interferon alpha on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection were investigated in this study. A cDNA of interferon alpha was first cloned from a Chinese strain chicken Shiqi by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence has one amino acid substitution with chicken interferon alpha 1 at residue 65 (N to S) and two amino acid substitutions with chicken interferon alpha 2 at residues 50 (N to S) and 58 (P to L), respectively. A prokaryotic expression system was employed to produce a large quantity of recombinant protein. Recombinant interferon was purified in a one-step process, and an optimal refolding process was devised. About 51% recombinant protein from inclusion bodies was refolded, and the final yield of the recombinant interferon reached 24.66 mg/liter culture. The recombinant interferon suppressed IBDV plaque formation in a dose-dependent manner and ameliorated IBDV and Newcastle disease virus infection in both specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial chickens. The antiviral effect of interferon alpha is more significant in commercial chickens than in SPF chickens, and the route of administration affects the efficacy of interferon therapy. This is the first reported study of the effects of interferon alpha on IBDV infection.

Descriptors:  chickens, interferon, recombinant proteins, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, complementary DNA, cloning, antiviral properties, amino acid sequences, chick embryos, fibroblasts.


Westbury, H.  Newcastle disease virus:  An evolving pathogen.  Avian Pathology. Feb 2001. v. 30 (1) p. 5-11.  ISSN: 0307-9457  Note: Summaries in French, German and Spanish.  

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Australia experienced outbreaks of virulent Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens in the state of New South Wales in the years 1998, 1999 and 2000. The disease had occurred previously in Australia in 1930 and 1932 but the country was free of it until the recent outbreaks. Avirulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were detected in 1966 and, during the next two to three decades, strains (so-called lentogenic strains) able to induce mild respiratory disease equivalent to that induced by vaccine strains such as LaSota were also detected. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genes encoding the haemagglutinin and fusion proteins of Australian isolates of the virus during this time demonstrated that Australian chicken strains of NDV could be differentiated from NDV isolated elsewhere. Analysis in this way demonstrated that NDV isolates causing the recent outbreaks of virulent disease were Australian viruses that were so closely related to a recognized Australian lentogenic strain, termed the Peat's Ridge strain, that it was considered to be the precursor of the virulent virus. The outbreaks of virulent disease in 1998 and 1999 were controlled by an official "stamping out" eradication campaign. This was subsequently replaced by strategic use of ND vaccines when virulent virus was again detected on some farms that had been restocked following depopulation. The national situation with regard to ND is now being assessed through a structured national survey of ND viruses, particularly to determine the distribution of the precursor strain. No new outbreaks of virulent ND have been recognized since February 2000, although immunization of flocks in areas where the disease was recognized has occurred.

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, chickens, outbreaks, Newcastle disease, virulence, genes, nucleotide sequences, disease control, vaccination, Australia.


Yu, L.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, Y.; Chang, L.; Kwang, J.  Characterization of newly emerging Newcastle disease virus isolates from the People's Republic of China and Taiwan.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Oct 2001. v. 39 (10) p. 3512-3519. ISSN: 0095-1137

NAL call no:  QR46.J6

Descriptors:  nucleotide sequences, phylogenetics, chickens, pigeons, viral disease strains, molecular sequence data, China, Taiwan.


Yusoff, K.; Tan, W.S. Newcastle disease virus: macromolecules and opportunities.  Avian Pathology.  Oct 2001. v. 30 (5) p. 439-455.  ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no: SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Over the past two decades, enormous advances have occurred in the structural and biological characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). As a result, not only the complete sequence of the viral genome has been fully determined, but also a clearer understanding of the viral proteins and their respective roles in the life cycle has been achieved. This article reviews the progress in the molecular biology of NDV with emphasis on the new technologies. It also identifies the fundamental problems that need to be addressed and attempts to predict some research opportunities in NDV that can be realized in the near future for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease(s).

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, molecular biology, genomes, viral proteins, viral replication, diagnosis, disease control, vaccination, literature reviews.


Zanetti, F.; Mattiello, R.; Garbino, C.; Kaloghlian, A.; Terrera, M.V.; Boviez, J.; Palma, E.; Carrillo, E.; Berinstein, A. Biological and molecular characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 isolate found in Argentina.  Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2001. v. 45 (3) p. 567-571. ISSN: 0005-2086 Note: Spanish summary.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  In this report, we describe the biological and molecular characterization of a paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1) isolate found in wild pigeons in an urban habitat in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Of the nine pigeons captured, three were moribund, and the other six showed diarrhea, ataxia, tremor, torticolis, and wing paralysis. The intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.29, and the amino acid (aa) sequence at the fusion protein cleavage site was 112GRQKRF117. These characteristics correspond to a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate. Nevertheless, it was not possible to reproduce the disease in chickens experimentally although the chickens exhibited seroconversion after inoculation. On the other hand, pigeons inoculated with the isolate became sick. These results provide further evidence about the unusual pathogenicity of PPMV-1 for chickens and show once more the need for more biological determinations in these cases to arrive at a final conclusion.

Descriptors: avian paramyxovirus, pigeons,  type 1 isolate, characterization, disease symptoms, pathogenicity, seroconversion, experimental infection, amino acid sequences, molecular sequence data, Argentina.


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