Artois, M.; Manvell, R.; Fromont, E.; Schweyer, J.B.  Serosurvey for Newcastle disease and avian imfluenza A virus antibodies in great cormorants from France.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Jan 2002. v. 38 (1) p. 169-171. ISSN: 0090-3558

NAL call no:  41.9 W64B

Descriptors:  Phalacrocorax carbo, cormorants, serological surveys, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus.


Capua, I.; Dalla Pozza, M.; Mutinelli, F.; Marangon, S.; Terregino, C.  Newcastle disease outbreaks in Italy during 2000.  The Veterinary Record. May 4, 2002. v. 150 (18) p. 565-568.  ISSN: 0042-4900

NAL call no:  41.8 V641

Descriptors: poultry, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, epidemics, clinical aspects, histopathology, epidemiology, pathogenicity, disease susceptibility, geographical distribution, Italy.


Chen, J.P.; Wang, C.H. Clinical epidemiologic and experimental evidence for the transmission of Newcastle disease virus through eggs.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2002. v. 46 (2) p. 461-465. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note:  Summary in Spanish. 

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Sporadic outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) occurred in Taiwan during 1998-2000. In some cases, the disease occurred in broilers less than 2 wk old that originated in a broiler breeder farm, so spread of the ND virus (NDV) from the infected breeder farm to broiler ranches was suspected. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility of the transmission of NDV through eggs. Both clinical and experimental evidence were used to prove that this is possible. From epidemiological investigation, the possibility of transmission through eggs was suggested in two separate ND cases from a breeder farm and its progeny because two identical NDVs were isolated from both cases. In order to clarify the possibility of the transmission through eggs, one mean egg lethal dose (ELD50) of NDV was inoculated into the allantoic cavity of 155 9-to-11-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryos. Seventy-one hatching chicks from the inoculated embryos were raised for 14 days. The cloacal swabs from those chicks at the ages of 1, 4, and 7 days and the tissues after necropsy at the ages of 14 days were taken for virus isolation. The same NDV was reisolated from three hatching chicks. This experiment confirms that a few chicken embryos infected in ovo with a low titer of NDV can hatch and contain NDV after hatching, which results in NDV spreading through eggs.

Descriptors: broilers, experimental infections, Newcastle disease virus, ova, disease transmission through eggs, vertical transmission, shedding of virus, cloaca swabs.


Kommers, G.D.; King, D.J.; Seal, B.S.; Carmichael, K.P.; Brown, C.C. Pathogenesis of six pigeon origin isolates of Newcastle disease virus for domestic chickens. Veterinary Pathology. May 2002. v. 39 (3) p. 353-362. ISSN: 0300-9858

NAL call no:  41.8 P27

Descriptors:  pigeons, chickens, Newcastle disease virus, pathogenesis, strains, strain differences, hosts, disease course, paramyxovirus, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, DNA hybridization, messenger RNA, genes, viral proteins, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, heart, brain.


Landman, W.J.M.; Post, J.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Buyse, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Koch, G.  Effect of an in-ovo infection with a Dutch avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate on the growth and immunological performance of SPF broiler chickens. Avian Pathology. Feb 2002. v. 31 (1) p. 59-72. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no: SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  The effect of an in ovo infection with a Dutch isolate of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) on the growth of specific pathogen free (SPF) broiler chickens was analysed. During this study, possible immune suppressive effects of ALV-J were assessed by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), natural killer (NK) cell activity, the production of radicals of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages, humoral immune response against Newcastle and infectious bursal disease vaccine viruses, and automated total and differential leukocyte counts. In an attempt to elucidate the underlying causal mechanisms of the induced growth retardation, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in serum were measured. Four experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, ALV-J-injected birds were compared with ALV subgroup A (ALV-A)-injected and negative control chickens. In experiment 2, ALV-J-injected birds were only compared with negative controls. Finally, in experiments 3a and 3b, ALV-J-injected chickens were compared with negative controls and a group of chickens in which only 10% of birds had been injected with ALV-J. Birds were injected in ovo at day 7 of incubation with 10(4) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) ALV-J or ALV-A, except in experiment 3a where 10(2) TCID50 ALV-J was injected. Significant growth suppression was found in all 100% of ALV-J-infected groups. The average growth retardation of ALV-J-infected birds compared with negative controls at 6 weeks of age was approximately 8, 11, 2.5 and 6% for the four successive experiments performed. The delayed-type hypersensitivity test against KLH of ALV-J-infected birds showed a tendency towards lower wattle thickness; however, the difference with controls was not significant (P > 0.05). The same was true for NK cell activity and NO production by macrophages, although the difference was not significant. The total and differential leukocyte counts performed on blood samples from birds at 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age as well as the humoral immune response against Newcastle and infectious bursal disease vaccine viruses did not show significant differences between treatment groups either. Only the number of basophils were significantly higher (P = 0.02) in ALV-J-infected birds at 3 weeks of age. No significant lower T3 levels were found in ALV-J-infected birds in weeks 2 and 3 (experiment 2) and weeks 3 and 5 (experiment 3b); however, at 4 weeks (experiment 2) and 6 weeks (experiment 3b) of age, T3 levels were significantly lower suggesting mild hypothyroidism in these broilers. In conclusion, the present experiments show the occurrence of significant growth retardation in SPF broilers after an ALV-J in ovo infection. The various studies performed to assess the immune competence of ALV-J-infected chickens did not show significant differences in immune responsiveness. The assays on cellular immunity showed a tendency to a lower response in ALV-J-infected birds, but these differences were not statistically significant.

Descriptors:  broilers, avian leucosis, avian oncovirus, infections effects on growth, performance,  immune system response, hypersensitivity, natural killer cells, nitric oxide, free radicals, vaccines, macrophages, humoral immunity Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, blood chemistry, leukocyte count, triiodothyronine.


Lin, H.; Wang, L.F.; Song, J.L.; Xie, Y.M.; Yang, Q.M. Effect of dietary supplemental levels of vitamin A on the egg production and immune responses of heat-stressed laying hens.  Poultry Science. Apr 2002. v. 81 (4) p. 458-465. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no:  47.8 Am33P

Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation of a commercial layer diet on the laying performance and immune function of heat-stressed hens. In Experiment 1, two different levels of vitamin A supplementation (3,000 and 9,000 IU/kg) were used to investigate the laying performance and antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of heat-stressed hens. Results showed that the high level of vitamin A supplementation (9,000 IU/kg) had a beneficial effect on the feed intake and laying rate of heat-stressed hens (P < 0.05), compared with the control group (3,000 IU/kg). The antibody titers were not influenced by the level of vitamin A (P > 0.05). In Experiment 2, the effect of four levels of vitamin A (3,000, 6,000, 9,000, and 12,000 IU/kg) on the antibody titer to NDV and T lymphocyte proportion was studied. The experimental birds were exposed to a high temperature (31.5 C) 15 d after NDV vaccination (Treatment 1) or immediately (Treatment 2). The results showed that the egg weight was increased (P < 0.01) by the high levels of vitamin A supplementation (6,000 and 9,000 IU/kg), but feed intake, laying rate, and body weight loss were not (P > 0.05). In Treatment 1, vitamin A had no significant effect on antibody titers against NDV in normal or hot environments but increased (P < 0.01) the proportion of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE)-positive cells. Vitamin A supplementation had a significant effect on NDV antibody titer and ANAE-positive cell proportion in Treatment 2 (P < 0.01). The results of the present study suggested that vitamin A supplementation in commercial layer diets to layer chickens under heat stress was beneficial to laying performance and immune function.

Descriptors:  hens, heat stress, antibody titers, vitamin supplements, antibody formation, feed-intake, laying performance, egg weight and mass, feed conversion, T lymphocytes.


Mase, M.; Imai, K.; Sanada, Y.; Sanada, N.; Yuasa, N.; Imada, T.; Tsukamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, S. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease virus genotypes isolated in Japan. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Oct 2002. v. 40 (10) p. 3826-3830. ISSN: 0095-1137

NAL call no:  QR46.J6

Descriptors: nucleotide sequences, genes, viral proteins, phylogenetics, fusion protein, molecular sequence data.


Peroulis-Kourtis, I.; O'Riley, K.; Grix, D.; Condron, R.J.; Ainsworth, C. Molecular characterisation of Victorian Newcastle disease virus isolates from 1976 to 1999. Australian Veterinary Journal. July 2002. v. 80 (7) p. 422-424. ISSN: 0005-0423

NAL call no: 41.8 Au72

Descriptors: Newcastle disease virus, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, genes, genetic diversity, signal peptide,Victoria, Australia isolate, F gene, HN gene.


Ramanujam, P.; Tan, W.S.; Nathan, S.; Yusoff, K. Novel peptides that inhibit the propagation of Newcastle disease virus. Archives of Virology. 2002. v. 147 (5) p. 981-993. ISSN: 0304-8608 

NAL call no: 448.3 Ar23

Descriptors: bacteriophages, amino acid sequences, binding proteins, envelope glycoproteins.


Saif, Y.M.; Nestor, K.E. Increased mortality in turkeys selected for increased body weight following vaccination with a live Newcastle disease virus vaccine.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2002. v. 46 (2) p. 505-508.  ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Summary in Spanish.

NAL call no:  41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Candidate male and female breeders from nine genetic lines of turkeys that were reared intermingled, with the sexes housed in different buildings on the same farm, were vaccinated with a live Newcastle disease virus vaccine (B1 type, LaSota) just prior to the commencement of egg production. In 1999, an average mortality for all lines of 5.8% occurred during the 10 days immediately following vaccination and the level of mortality varied among lines. Mortality was, in general, greater in large-bodied lines than in small-bodied lines. Affected birds exhibited gross multiple areas of focal necrosis in the liver and spleen and congestion of the heart and lungs. The percentage mortality occurring following similar vaccination in 2000 averaged 2.6 for the 10 days following vaccination and mortality was greater (P less than or equal to 0.05) in one line (F line) than the other genetic groups and higher in females than in males. Mortality in the F line, selected for increased body weight and known to be susceptible to various diseases, averaged 15.1% for both years. Attempts failed in both years to isolate Pasteurella multocida or other bacteria. There was a positive correlation between increased body weight and increased mortality following vaccination with the live LaSota vaccine.

Descriptors:  turkeys, liveweight, vaccination, live vaccines, Newcastle disease virus, mortality, genotypes, oviposition, necrosis, spleen, symptoms, histopathology, clinical aspects, heart, lungs.


Santin, E.; Paulillo, A.C.; Maiorka, P.C.; Alessi, A.C.; Krabbe, E.L.; Maiorka, A.  The effects of ochratoxin/aluminosilicate interaction on the tissues and humoral immune response of broilers.  Avian Pathology. Feb 2002. v. 31 (1) p. 73-79. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no:  SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, on the histology of the bursa of Fabricius, liver and kidneys, and on the humoral immune response of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. The exposure of birds to 2 p.p.m. ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, reduced their humoral immune response and the number of mitotic cells in the bursa. The relative weight of the livers of the birds exposed to this toxin was increased and, microscopically, there was hepatocyte vacuolation and megalocytosis with accompanying hyperplasia of the biliary epithelium. The kidneys showed hypertrophy of the renal proximal tubular epithelium, with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Aluminosilicate did not ameliorate the deleterious effects of the ochratoxin.

Descriptors: broilers, ochratoxins, silicates, interactions, humoral immunity, immune response,  histology, bursa Fabricii, liver, kidneys, Newcastle disease virus, vaccination, mitosis, weight, vacuoles.


Shengqing, Y.; Kishida, N.; Ito, H.; Kida, H.; Otsuki, K.; Kawaoka, Y.; Ito, T. Generation of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses from a nonpathogenic waterfowl isolate by passaging in chickens. Virology. Sept 30, 2002. v. 301 (2) p. 206-211. ISSN: 0042-6822

NAL call no: 448.8 V81

Descriptors:  velogenic Newcastle disease virus, virulence, passaging virus through chickens.


Turpin, E.A.; Perkins, L.E.L.; Swayne, D.E.  Experimental infection of turkeys with avian pneumovirus and either Newcastle disease virus or Escherichia coli.  Avian Diseases. Apr/June 2002. v. 46 (2) p. 412-422. ISSN: 0005-2086  Note: Summary in Spanish

NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

Abstract:  Avian pneumoviruses (APVs) are RNA viruses responsible for upper respiratory disease in poultry. Experimental infections are typically less severe than those observed in field cases. Previous studies with APV and Escherichia coli suggest this discrepancy is due to secondary agents. Field observations indicate APV infections are more severe with concurrent infection by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In the current study, we examined the role of lentogenic NDV in the APV disease process. Two-week-old commercial turkey poults were infected with the Colorado strain of APV. Three days later, these poults received an additional inoculation of either NDV or E. coli. Dual infection of APV with either NDV or E. coli resulted in increased morbidity rates, with poults receiving APV/NDV having the highest morbidity rates and displaying lesions of swollen infraorbital sinuses. These lesions were not present in the single APV, NDV, or E. coli groups. These results demonstrate that coinfection with APV and NDV can result in clinical signs and lesions similar to those in field outbreaks of APV.

Descriptors:  turkeys, Escherichia coli, Paramyxoviridae, Newcastle disease virus, mixed infections, field experimentation, morbidity, outbreaks, symptoms.


Waihenya, R.K.; Mtambo, M.M.A.; Nkwengulila, G.  Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extract of Aloe secundiflora in chickens experimentally infected with Newcastle disease virus.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Mar 2002. v. 79 (3) p. 299-304. ISSN: 0378-8741

NAL call no: RS160.J6

Descriptors:  medicinal plants, veterinary products, experimental infections.


Wilks, C.R. Molecular diagnosis of Newcastle disease.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  June 2002. v. 80 (6) p. 352. ISSN: 0005-0423

NAL call no: 41.8 Au72

Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, diagnosis, outbreaks, clinical aspects, vaccination, Victoria.


Wunderwald, C.; Hoop,R.K. Serological monitoring of 40 Swiss fancy breed poultry flocks. Avian Pathology. Apr 2002. v. 31 (2) p. 157-162. ISSN: 0307-9457

NAL call no: SF995.A1A9

Abstract:  Rapid serum agglutination, haemagglutination inhibition and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to screen Swiss fancy breed chicken flocks for antibodies against 12 avian infectious agents. For this purpose, 1002 blood samples from 40 flocks were collected and tested. Ten percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and 62.5% of the flocks were affected. More than 75% of the flocks had antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum/Mycoplasma synoviae, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, avian encephalomyelitis, infectious chicken anaemia and reoviral arthritis. Low prevalence of antibodies was recorded for Salmonella enteritidis, avian influenza, avian leukosis and Newcastle disease (2.0 to 4.0%).

Descriptors: chickens, serological surveys, disease monitoring, hemagglutination inhibition test, ELISA, poultry disease prevalence, incidence.


Yu, M.; Wang, E.; Liu, Y.; Cao, D.; Jin, N.; Zhang, C.W.H.; Bartlam, M.; Rao, Z.; Tien, P.; Gao, G.F.  Six-helix bundle assembly and characterization of heptad repeat regions from the F protein of Newcastle disease virus.   The Journal of General Virology.  Mar 2002. v. 83 (pt.3) p. 623-629.  ISSN: 0022-1317

NAL call no:  QR360.A1J6

Abstract:   Paramyxoviruses may adopt a similar fusion mechanism to other enveloped viruses, in which an antiparallel six-helix bundle structure is formed post-fusion in the heptad repeat (HR) regions of the envelope fusion protein. In order to understand the fusion mechanism and identify fusion inhibitors of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, we have developed an E. coli system that separately expresses the F protein HR1 and HR2 regions as GST fusion proteins. The purified cleaved HR1 and HR2 have subsequently been assembled into a stable six-helix bundle heterotrimer complex. Furthermore, both the GST fusion protein and the cleaved HR2 show virus-cell fusion inhibition activity (IC50 of 1.07-2.93 micromolar). The solubility of the GST-HR2 fusion protein is much higher than that of the corresponding peptide. Hence this provides a plausible method for large-scale production of HR peptides as virus fusion inhibitors.

Descriptors: viral proteins, GST-HR2 fusion protein, F protein, NDV, virus fusion inhibitors.


Yunis, R.; Ben-David, A.; Heller, E.D.; Cahaner, A. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between antibody responses to Escherichia coli, infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), in broiler lines selected on antibody response to Escherichia coli.  Poultry Science. Mar 2002. v. 81 (3) p. 302-308. ISSN: 0032-5791

NAL call no: 47.8 Am33P

Abstract:  The genetic control of antibody (Ab) response to Escherichia coli (EC), infectious bursa disease virus, and Newcastle disease virus and the genetic and phenotypic correlation between these Ab responses, were evaluated under farm conditions in which chicks were simultaneously exposed to these antigens. The experimental population comprised five groups: two lines divergently selected for high (HH) or low (LL) Ab response to EC vaccination; a commercial broiler dam-line (CC), from which HH and LL had been derived; and the HH x CC and LL x CC hybrid groups (HC and LC, respectively). Lines LL and HH expressed similar symmetric divergence to all three antigens. The ranking of the LL, LC, CC, HC, and HH genetic groups according to their mean Ab responses and their very high linear correlation with the LL vs. HH genomic scale clearly indicate the additive nature of the genetic divergence between these lines. Several estimates of correlation were calculated between Ab responses of each pair of antigens and between BW and Ab to each antigen. The high correlation between group means, the near-zero within-group correlation, and the low phenotypic correlation indicate the strongly positive genetic correlation between Ab responses and no correlation with BW. The results of this study suggest that overall immunocompetence of commercial broilers can be improved by selection for high Ab response of young chicks to controlled immunization with a single antigen, without counteracting further selection for high BW.

Descriptors: broilers, genetic variation, genetic correlation, phenotypic correlation, antibody formation, Escherichia coli, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, line differences, crossbred progeny, selection criteria, genetic resistance, disease resistance.


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