AWIC

EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE CARE AND USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS:

Provided by the Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPING INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAMS

Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science
Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
Commission on Life Sciences
National Research Council
1991

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20418

Table of Contents

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) through grants DAMD17-88-2-8016 and DAMD17-87-G-7021. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the committee and should not be construed as an official Department of Army position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other documentation.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals:
 A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs / Committee on
 Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science, Institute of
 Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences,
 National Research Council.
                p.     cm.
           Includes bibliographical references.
           1. Laboratory animals.  2. Animal welfare.   I.
 Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.).  Committee on
 Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science.
      SF406.E38  1990
      636.088■5■dc20     90-49571
           CIP 
      ISBN 0- 309-04382-4
 
 Copyright ■ 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences
 
 Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for
 educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt
 of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101
 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418.
 
 Printed in the United States of America

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE

Gale D. Taylor (Chairman), Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana

Lynn C. Anderson, Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Sharp Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey

David A. Blake, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Lynn Dahm, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources, University of Washington, Seattle

Thomas E. Darby, Lab Products, Inc., Maywood, New Jersey

John E. Harkness, Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State

James F. Harwell, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Staff

Dorothy D. Greenhouse, Senior Program Officer The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Its mission is to provide expert counsel to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of laboratory animals within the context of the interests and mission of the National Academy of Sciences. ILAR promotes the high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals; the appropriate use of laboratory animals; and the exploration of alternatives in research, testing, and teaching.

INSTITUTE OF LABORATORY ANIMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL

Steven P. Pakes (Chairman), The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

June R. Aprille, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

Melvin W. Balk, Charles River Laboratories, Inc., Wilmington, Massachusetts

Douglas M. Bowden, University of Washington, Seattle

Lester M. Crawford, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Thomas J. Gill III, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Alan M. Goldberg, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Jon W. Gordon, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York

Margaret Z. Jones, Michigan State University, East Lansing

Michael D. Kastello, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey

Robert H. Purcell, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland

J. Wesley Robb, School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles

John L. VandeBerg, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Staff: Thomas L. Wolfle, Director

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

Bruce M. Alberts (Chairman), University of California, San Francisco

Bruce N. Ames, University of California, Berkeley

Francisco J. Ayala, University of California, Irvine

J. Michael Bishop, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco

Michael T. Clegg, University of California, Riverside

Glenn A. Crosby, Washington State University, Pullman

Freeman J. Dyson, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

Leroy E. Hood, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Donald F. Hornig, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

Marian E. Koshland, University of California, Berkeley

Richard E. Lenski, University of California, Irvine

Steven P. Pakes, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

Emil A. Pfitzer, Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey

Thomas D. Pollard, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Joseph E. Rall, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Richard D. Remington, University of Iowa, Iowa City

Paul G. Risser, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., Armonk, New York

Richard B. Setlow, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

Carla J. Shatz, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

Torsten N. Wiesel, Rockefeller University, New York, New York

Staff: John E. Burris, Executive Director

Preface

The Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science was appointed in 1988 to "prepare an annotated syllabus [guide] for a course in humane practices of animal care and use to assist institutions in complying with recently enacted federal laws, which mandate that educational programs be provided for personnel who use animals in research, testing, and teaching." The committee met four times between November 1988 and June 1990. During the first meeting, several decisions were made that determined the scope and content of this report. First, to assist the scientific community in meeting its demonstrated commitment to humanely care for and use research animals, it was determined that the report would include more information and in much more depth than is necessary to meet minimal requirements of existing regulations. Second, it was resolved that the intended audience should be anyone who can directly or indirectly influence the well-being of animals. These people include investigators, research technicians, teachers, teaching assistants, people in physical plant maintenance, and administrators and animal care staff, all of whom need an understanding of their responsibilities to make an institution's animal care and use program successful. It was also decided that the report would address primarily the principal species used in biomedical research, with limited inclusion of less commonly used species. The care and use of animals in agricultural research were considered beyond the scope of the committee's charge. The consensus was that the committee would develop a core syllabus appropriate for every institution where animal research is performed. In addition, a number of individual packages would be developed that would allow each institution to adapt this guide to its own unique needs. It was recognized that many of the research facilities that will use this guide are not academic institutions and that some basic guidance on development, presentation, and evaluation of an education and training program should be included.

The committee recognizes that this report reflects only an initial effort to fulfill both the scientific community's need for information and the mandated requirements for education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals. The dynamics of biomedical research and legislation, critical comments by those who use the guide, and the ongoing development of audiovisual programs will almost certainly require that the report be exten- sively revised within a few years. The committee hopes that this guide serves as the first building stone in the development of institutional education and training programs that assist scientists in the conduct of biomedical research, as well as meeting the spirit and intent of federal legislation.

The committee extends its appreciation to Kevin P. Engler and Jean A. Larson of the National Agricultural Library's Animal Welfare Information Center, who prepared the appendix on how to use the center, and to the staff of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, especially Dorothy D. Greenhouse, whose support has made this document possible.

                     Gale D. Taylor, Chairman
                     Committee on Educational Programs in
                     Laboratory Animal Science

Contents

I INTRODUCTION

II COURSE MODULES

III CONTENT OUTLINES

V. RESOURCES

HOW TO DEVELOP, DELIVER, AND EVALUATE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

APPENDIXES


1
Introduction
In 1985, Congress enacted two laws containing provisions concerning the care and use of animals in research, testing, and education: the Health Research Extension Act (Public Law 99-158) and the Food Security Act (Public Law 99-198). The former revised the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 289d) and made compliance with the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals a matter of law for all PHS-funded research. The latter extensively amended the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131-2156). Both laws contain a requirement that institutions provide training for staff who care for or use animals. The regulations that implement the Animal Welfare Act specifically require that institutions provide training in:
     A.   Humane methods of animal maintenance and
 experimentation, including:
        1.  basic needs of each species of animal maintained at
 the institution;
        2.  proper handling and care for various species of
 animals used by the facility;
        3.  proper preprocedural and postprocedural care of
 animals; and
        4.  aseptic surgical methods and procedures.
     B.   The concept, availability, and use of research or
 testing methods that limit the use of animals or minimize animal
 distress;
     C.   Proper use of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers
 or any species of animals used by the facility;
     D.   Methods whereby deficiencies in animal care and
 treatment are reported, including deficiencies in animal care and
 treatment reported by any employee of the facility.
     E.   Utilization of services available to provide
 information:
        1.  on appropriate methods of animal care and use;
        2.  on alternatives to the use of live animals in
 research;
        3.  that could prevent unintended and unnecessary
 duplication of research involving animals; and
        4.  regarding the intent and requirements of the Act.
 
PHS policy requires that PHS-funded institutions file an Animal Welfare Assurance that must include "a synopsis of training or instruction in the humane practice of animal care and use, as well as training or instruction in research or testing methods that minimize the number of animals required to obtain valid results and minimize animal distress, offered to scientists, animal technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment, or use" (PHS, 1986, p. 4).

The Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science (EPLAS) has prepared this guide to aid institutions in implementing an education and training program that will meet the expectations of the PHS Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), which oversees the PHS policy, and the Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC) unit of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, which regulates the Animal Welfare Act. This guide has been designed to fulfill several purposes. First, it is intended to assist institutional officials and institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) in determining the scope and depth of education and training programs that will meet both institutional needs and the requirements of the OPRR and REAC. Second, it is offered as a reference for the person or committee assigned the responsibility for coordinating these programs. Finally, portions of the guide will be useful to those people (content experts) who develop the material to be presented.

The EPLAS committee firmly believes that a strong education program on the care and use of laboratory animals goes beyond the involvement of scientists, research technicians, and animal care personnel. To promote understanding of the scientific process and minimize misunderstandings, the committee suggests that administrators, nonscientific members of IACUCs, support staff, and other nonscientific personnel indirectly involved in activites using live animals be included in the program.

To accomodate the diverse backgrounds and needs of personnel, the committee has developed a multiphase program. Those topics considered essential elements for all personnel have been arranged into a single introductory module (core module). The core module has intentionally been designed as a broad overview that can be presented in 3 to 4 hours. The overall goals are to give personnel an appreciation of the scope and intent of the laws, regulations, and policies and to facilitate compliance by providing them with pertinent information and by directing them to additional skill training and resources.

The IACUC and the course coordinator are responsible for developing clear objectives for each phase of the training program. These objectives must incorporate both federally mandated and institutional requirements. The methods for presenting the material will depend on the audience, the objectives that have been set, the nature of the content, and the resources available.

This committee recognizes that people who provide day-to-day animal care require additional training that goes beyond the scope and content proposed in this document. There is no suggestion that the program proposed in this report should in any way replace existing programs such as those offered by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS).

We also recognize that the approach we have taken will require considerable time and planning by the instructional staff; however, the committee believes that the suggested program provides the necessary information without encumbering scientific personnel with hours of training in species or research techniques inappropriate to their needs. We believe the strategy we have adopted fulfills the requirements of the PHS policy and the regulations of the Animal Welfare Act, while being flexible enough to serve the needs of the wide variety of institutions that must comply with these requirements.

REFERENCE

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Animal welfare assurance. P. 4 in Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892

2

How to Use This Guide

To fully understand this guide, all of the introductory material in Part I should be read before proceeding to Part II. Part II contains four course modules that can be customized to fit the needs of the institution's education and training program. The first of these, the core module, is intended for all personnel involved both directly and peripherally with laboratory animals used in research, education, and testing, and for some of these people, it will satisfy the total educational requirement. The other three modules are intended for select groups of personnel according to their need to know. Species-specific sessions, with hands-on training, should be provided for all people who will be in direct contact with animals. In addition, the pain management and surgery modules should be offered if they are applicable to the institution's needs.

These modules are hierarchical. The species-specific module builds on introductory material in the core. The pain module builds on both the core and the species-specific modules, while the surgery module requires information and skills presented in all three preceding modules. The modules furnish major topic headings and provide a cross-reference to Part III, which contains detailed outlines of the material contained in the modules. This cross-referencing indicates the depth of presentation within the module. For example, both the Core Module and the Pain-Management Module show anesthetics as a topic and refer to the content outline in chapter 6. However, the Core Module draws primarily from the first point in chapter 6 (i.e., 6.1), while the Pain-Management Module recommends covering the entire outline. Content experts asked to deliver information or teach skills should be provided with both the module outline and the corresponding content outlines from Part III. In addition to guiding the speakers, these outlines can also be used to select alternative (e.g., audiovisual, computer-aided, and independent-study) instructional materials. Some sections might also be useful as handouts. Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418.

Part IV lists audiovisual and computer-aided teaching materials and cites organizations that can furnish information on the topics recommended for presentation. It also includes a bibliography. The references that the committee believes are essential for a minimum institutional library have been designated by an asterisk.

The three chapters that make up Part V may be helpful to some IACUCs and course coordinators. They present very basic material on how to approach the task of education and training, how to plan and deliver a lecture-based program, and how to evaluate the institutional program and individual courses.

Three appendixes provide a set of principles adopted by the federal government for the humane care and use of animals, a description of the Animal Welfare Information Center of the National Agricultural Library, and a series of statements that can be used by course coordinators for developing learning objectives or by participants for self-assessment.

1

Core Module

INTRODUCTION

The core module is recommended for all personnel involved both directly and peripherally with animals used in research, education, and testing. It has been designed as an introduction that will enable participants to follow through on subjects that relate to their interests.

A lecture/seminar format is recommended for presenting most of the core material, as this format is well suited for communicating the institutional mandate, is appropriate for groups of any size, and makes the most efficient use of resources. If the number of people requiring training within an institution is very small, consideration might be given to participation in a program offered by a larger institution or to the pooling of resources by several small institutions. A session might include several speakers, each of whom is responsible for an assigned topic. Prepackaged video or slide materials can be used effectively for portions of the presentation, particularly when human resources are limited. Handouts are also useful adjuncts to the presentation. Two of the appendixes to this guide are recommended as handouts in the outline below. It is also recommended that written institutional policies applicable to the topics be distributed. Other handouts should be developed to fit the needs of the speakers and the participants.

The topics contained in the outline below are those considered by the EPLAS committee to be essential elements of an introductory education program on the care and use of laboratory animals. The recommended presentation time is 3 to 4 hours. In this amount of time, it will not be possible to deal with the topics in depth; however, it is important to address the legal and ethical aspects of every topic. Although the committee has estimated a presentation time for each topic in the outline, the actual time will depend on the emphasis to be placed on each topic and depth of coverage required to fulfill the needs of the institution and the participants. In addition, significant time should be allotted for participants to ask questions and discuss the issues.

The recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III, Chapters 1-9, of this guide by the numbers in parentheses following each sentence. The number preceding the decimal point indicates the chapter, and the number(s) following the decimal point indicates the place within the chapter that the information appears. Thus, 1.1 indicates the first entry in chapter 1 of part III, and 1.2.1 indicates the first subentry under the second entry in chapter 1.

OUTLINE FOR THE CORE MODULE

Laws, Regulations, and Policies That Impact on the Care and Use of Animals Estimated Presentation Time: 10-15 minutes Recommended Handout: Written institutional policies related to the care and use of laboratory animals

Briefly describe federal laws, regulations, and policies that have an impact on the care and use of animals (1.1). Describe the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Public Health Service (PHS) methods for ensuring and monitoring compliance, including the consequences of noncompliance to the institution and the individual (1.1). Present in detail the composition and functions of the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) (1.2.1). Describe the records that facilities are required to keep (1.2.3). Describe the reports required by animal welfare regulations and PHS policy (1.2.4). Describe state and local laws that have an impact on the care and use of animals, if applicable (1.3). Present the policies of your institution (1.4).

Ethical and Scientific Issues Estimated Presentation Time: 10-15 minutes Recommended Handout: U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (Appendix I)

Define ethics and applied ethics (2.1). Compare the utilitarian and deontological (relating to moral obligation) methods for making decisions (2.2). Compare the position of people who accept the use of animals in research, testing, and education with that of people who oppose such use (2.3-2.4). Discuss the role played by laws, regulations, and policies in ensuring humane care and use of animals (2.5). Present suggested ethical principles for the use of animals (2.6) and encourage participants to develop a personal code of ethics, the emphasizes animal welfare.

Alternatives Estimated Presentation: 10-15 minutes Recommended Handouts: Reprint of The Animal Welfare Information Center, which can be found in Appendix II; list of names and telephone numbers for consulting veterinary staff, statisticians, and others

Define the "3R's" and discuss their relevance (3.1). Present regulatory, ethical, humane, economic, and scientific reasons for considering alternatives (3.2). Provide examples of nonanimal research methods and models (3.3). Review statistical methods used to determine how many animals will be required for a valid experiment (3.3.8). Review factors that influence the selection of animal models (3.4). Familiarize participants with resources and services that provide information on alternatives (3.5).

Responsibilities of the Institution, the Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Research and Veterinary Staffs Estimated Presentation Time: 25-30 minutes

List and describe responsibilities of the institution (4.1). List and describe responsibilities of the IACUC (4.2). List and describe responsibilities of investigators (4.3). List and describe responsibilities of the attending veterinarian (4.4). Pain and Distress Estimated Presentation Time: 10-15 minutes

Define comfort, discomfort, stress, distress, and pain (5.1). Discuss categories of pain (5.2). Discuss perception of pain and methods of assessing it in animals (5.3-5.4). Discuss sources of stress and the value of adaptation to the animal (5.5.1). Discuss sources of distress and describe signs of maladaptive behavior (5.5.2-5.6). Discuss the ethical and legal obligations of the scientific staff to prevent or minimize pain and distress, and describe the role of the IACUC (5.7-5.8). Discuss adequate veterinary care as it relates to this issue (5.9).

Anesthetics, Analgesics, Tranquilizers, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Estimated Presentation Time: 20-25 minutes

Briefly define and compare anesthetics, analgesics, tranquilizers, sedatives, and neuromuscular blocking agents, including indicators for the use of each (6.1-6.4). Give examples of chemical agents commonly used to achieve general anesthesia, analgesia, sedation, and immobilization (6.1-6.4). Present factors that modify the response of an animal to these agents (6.1.5, 6.5). Describe the stages of general anesthesia and present methods of determining when an animal is sufficiently anesthetized (6.1.6-6.1.7). Describe the indications of an anesthetic overdose and the steps necessary to overcome it (6.1.8). Discuss safety precautions for storing drugs and requirements for recordkeeping (6.6-6.7). Discuss the function of the attending veterinarian, with an emphasis on involving veterinary care staff in drug selection, administration, and monitoring (6.8).

Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care Estimated Presentation Time: 10-15 minutes

Define aseptic technique, survival surgery, major survival surgery, and minor surgical procedures (7.1). Discuss the legal requirements related to performing surgery on animals (7.2). Briefly describe how the surgical team should prepare for aseptic surgery, including preparation of the animal (7.3). Briefly discuss complications of surgery and ways to prevent them (7.5-7.6). Discuss the importance of postsurgical care and the equipment needed to monitor and support the patient (7.7-7.8). Describe the records that should be kept (7.9).

Euthanasia Estimated Presentation Time: 20-25 minutes

Define euthanasia (8.1). Present legal requirements (8.2). Present ethical and humane considerations (8.3). Discuss the need for sensitivity when euthanasia is performed, emphasizing the public's concerns, the importance of professional conduct, and the effect euthanasia may have on personnel (8.4). Give an overview of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options, and provide criteria for selecting a method (8.5-8.7). Discuss health and safety measures associated with handling animal carcasses, particularly those in which the animal is known to have carried a zoonotic agent or to have been exposed to a substance hazardous to personnel (8.8).

Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment Estimated Presentation Time: 20-25 minutes

Discuss legal requirements for husbandry and care (9.1). Discuss the importance of proper husbandry and a stable environment (9.2). Discuss environmental variables that can be controlled, giving examples of variables that can affect animal health and research outcomes (9.3). Describe procedures for emergencies such as power failures (9.4).

Resources Estimated Presentation Time: 10-15 minutes Recommended Handout: The Animal Welfare Information Center (Appendix I)

Discuss the services of the Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library (Appendix I), and other resources (Part IV, section 1). Discuss technical services, reference texts, and audiovisual material available from the laboratory animal resources unit. Provide or explain the mechanism for obtaining copies of pertinent literature.

2

Species-Specific Module

INTRODUCTION
This module should be provided for all people who will be in direct ontact with animals. Only one species or closely related species should be covered in a particular session. The emphasis on each topic will vary according to the needs of the participants and the species of animal considered. The cognitive aspects of the species-specific module can be presented in the form of independent-study materials; therefore, estimated presentation times are not included. Demonstrations and visual aids should not be substituted for the hands-on experience needed by participants to develop their skills, although they can be helpful in introducing a laboratory exercise. Associated skill-building sessions should be done in small groups or in individual laboratory settings.

As in the core module, the recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III. The material will be found primarily in Chapter 10 (Species-Specific Overview), with additional material taken from Chapters 8 (Euthanasia) and 9 (Husbandry, Care, and Importance of the Environment).

OUTLINE FOR THE SPECIES-SPECIFIC MODULE

Selection and Procurement of Animals

Discuss options in selecting appropriate animals for study (10.1). Give sources of information on suppliers of animals (10.2.1). Discuss in detail any legal requirements and institutional policies that relate to procurement of animals (10.2.2).

Husbandry and Care

Review the importance of proper husbandry and a stable environment to research (9.2). Describe in detail laws, regulations, and policies pertaining to husbandry and care, including environmental enrichment (9.1). Review controllable environmental variables (9.3). Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of caging available in your institution (10.3.1.1). Present acceptable population densities for various types of caging and the effects of overcrowding (10.3.1.2). Discuss the use of special caging (10.3.2). Describe available methods of environmental enrichment (10.4). Describe food- and water-delivery methods and diets available in your institution, including information on administering experimental agents in food or water and carrying out approved studies involving food or water deprivation (10.5-10.6).

Handling and Restraint

Explain the importance of proper handling and demonstrate appropriate handling techniques (10.7.1-10.7.2). Compare various methods of restraining animals and give advantages and disadvantages of each (10.7.3). Discuss the following issues related to prolonged restraint, if applicable to the audience: ■ Legal requirements and institutional policies (10.7.4.1). ■ Selection of method, conditioning of animals, and prevention or correction of problems (10.7.4.2).

Identification and Records

Present the legal requirements for identifying animals and recordkeeping (10.8.1). Compare methods of identifying individual animals (10.8.2). Describe different methods of recordkeeping (10.8.3).

Animal Health

Provide normal physiologic and biochemical parameters for the given species (10.9.1). Discuss the importance of health surveillance and the role of the research team (10.9.2). Describe gross, physiologic, and behavioral signs of distress and disease (10.9.3). List common naturally occurring and experimentally induced diseases (10.9.4-10.9.5). Discuss procedures for emergency or special care (10.9.6).

Safety and Health Considerations (Zoonoses)

Discuss naturally occurring and experimentally induced zoonotic diseases, including signs and symptoms in animals and in humans (10.10.1-10.10.2). Demonstrate the use of protective clothing and equipment and appropriate techniques for handling high-risk animals (10.10.3). Discuss the importance of and mechanisms for reporting incidents.

Specific Techniques

Describe in detail acceptable methods for performing common procedures such as measurement of vital signs, injections, specimen collection, and blood withdrawal, including type and care of instruments.

Describe signs of accuracy and of error associated with each procedure and specify what would be done in case of error.

Present humane and safety considerations associated with such procedures as restraint for the animal or protective clothing for the handler, need for anesthetics and/or analgesics, acceptable frequencies or amounts, signs of distress associated with the procedures, and remedies.

Euthanasia

Present legal and ethical indications for euthanasia (8.2-8.3). Present chemical and physical options, indicating preferred methods and unacceptable methods (8.5-8.7). Discuss the emotional effects of euthanasia on personnel (8.4). Describe in detail your institution's procedure for carcass disposal, with emphasis on potential hazards to people handling carcasses (8.8).

Skill Building

Allow sufficient time for every participant to:

 Demonstrate ability to handle and restrain an animal.
        Demonstrate ability to determine an animal's sex.
        Take vital signs and assess health.
        Prepare a syringe for use (e.g., add a needle of
 appropriate gauge for the species and material to be injected).
        Locate structures or landmarks used to guide
 intraperitoneal, intramuscular, and intravenous injections.
        Prepare equipment and locate structures associated with
 blood withdrawal.
        Select a pharmacologic method of euthanasia and calculate
 the required dose.
        Perform specific procedures that will be used in the
 participant's research.
        Demonstrate the appropriate handling technique for sterile
 instruments and equipment.
        Demonstrate use of protective clothing, as applicable to
 the participant's needs.

3

Pain-Management Module

INTRODUCTION
This module builds on information presented in the core and species specific modules. It is intended as an in-depth study for scientists whose protocols involve surgery or other procedures that are associated with pain or distress. As stated in the species-specific module, demonstrations and visual aids can be helpful in introducing a laboratory exercise; however, these should not be substituted for the hands-on experience needed by the participants to develop their skills.

The recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III, as explained in the core module. This module draws on the material in Chapters 5 (Pain and Distress), 6 (Anesthetics, Analgesics, Tranquilizers, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents), and 8 (Euthanasia).

OUTLINE FOR THE PAIN-MANAGEMENT MODULE

Definitions, Mechanisms, and Assessment

Review definitions of discomfort, stress, distress, and pain, and discuss categories of pain (5.1-5.2). Explain mechanisms by which pain is perceived and present signs that are used to assess whether an animal is in pain (5.3-5.4). Review sources of stress and the value of adaptation to the animal (5.5.1). Review sources of distress and signs of maladaptive behavior (5.5.2-5.6).

Legal and Ethical Obligations

Present in detail ethical and legal obligations for management of pain (5.7-5.8). Review the function of the attending veterinarian (5.9, 6.8).

Alleviation of Pain or Distress

Present nonpharmacologic interventions (5.9.3). Differentiate between functions of anesthetics, tranquilizers and sedatives, analgesics, and neuromuscular blocking agents (paralytics) (6.1-6.4). Provide examples of one or more pharmacologic agents used for tranquilization, muscle relaxation, and immobilization (6.2-6.4). Provide guidelines for selecting and using each of these agents (6.2-6.4). List and discuss factors that modify responses of these agents (6.5). Review safety precautions and recordkeeping requirements (6.6-6.7).

Anesthesia

Provide examples of agents commonly used for general anesthesia and for pretreating the patient (6.1.3-6.1.4). Present in detail dosage principles (6.1.5). Describe the stages of anesthesia and how to assess the plane of anesthesia (6.1.6-6.1.7). Discuss signs of overdose and recommended actions in such cases (6.1.8-6.1.9).

Euthanasia

Review the definition of euthanasia (8.1). Present legal requirements and institutional policies in detail (8.2). Discuss ethical and humane considerations in performing euthanasia (8.3). Discuss the effects that euthanasia can have on personnel, and describe ways to cope with euthanasia-associated stress (8.4). Present the criteria for selecting a method of euthanasia (8.5). Review acceptable pharmacologic methods of euthanasia and list drugs that should never be used alone for euthanasia (8.6). Review acceptable physical methods of euthanasia (8.7). Discuss appropriate methods for disposing of carcasses (8.8).

Skill Building

 Every participant should have the opportunity to:
 
        Select appropriate pain-relieving agents for a specific
 animal in a specific case.
        Calculate and prepare the correct dose.
        Simulate administration.
        Simulate monitoring of effectiveness.

4

Surgery Module

INTRODUCTION
This module builds on information presented in the core, species-specific, and pain-management modules. It is intended as an in-depth study for scientists whose protocols involve the performance of surgical procedures. This module should be species- and procedure-specific insofar as possible. The didactic portions can be covered with directed independent study, and portions of the application can be taught through case problems and simulation. Hands-on experience, however, is needed for skill-building.

The recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III, as explained in the core module. This module draws primarily on the material in Chapter 7 (Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care), with additional material taken from Chapter 8 Euthanasia).

OUTLINE FOR THE SURGERY MODULE

Definitions

Define terms necessary for understanding legal requirements for performing surgery on animals (7.1). Legal Requirements for Survival Surgery Cite the legal requirement for training of personnel performing surgery (7.2.1). Discuss the legal requirement for administration of appropriate pain relieving agents, conditions under which withholding of such agents is acceptable, and legal and institutional requirements for justification for withholding such agents (7.2.2). Discuss legal and institutional requirements for pre- and postsurgical care (7.2.3). Discuss approved areas for performing surgery and the surgical facilities available at your institution (7.2.4). Discuss legal limitations for performing multiple major survival surgeries (7.2.5).

Aseptic Technique

Demonstrate preparation of an animal for aseptic surgery (7.3.1). Demonstrate the preparations of a surgical team for aseptic surgery, including scrubbing, gloving, and gowning (7.3.2). Describe preparation of the surgical instruments (7.3.3). Selection and Administration of Anesthetic Review and discuss the types of anesthetics available (6.1.3) and considerations in selecting an anesthetic agent. Review the procedure for inducing anesthesia (6.1.4-6.1.6). Review the stages of anesthesia and criteria for assessing depth of anesthesia (6.1.7-6.1.8). Review the causes of and procedures for dealing with an anesthetic overdose (6.1.9-6.1.10, 7.5.4).

Surgical Complications

Discuss monitoring and control of body temperature and hydration during surgery (7.5.1-7.5.2). Discuss prevention of excess bleeding and how to control hemorrhage if it occurs (7.5.3).

Surgical Techniques

Review pertinent anatomy relevant to common procedures. Introduce surgical instruments and equipment appropriate to given procedures. Discuss important considerations in suturing (7.6).

Postsurgical Care

Describe in detail the care of animals following surgery (7.7). List equipment items that are useful during surgery and in providing postsurgical care (7.8).

Medical Records

Discuss the importance and contents of the surgical records (7.9).

Terminal Surgeries

Review euthanasia options and selected methods (8.5-8.7). Review carcass disposal (8.8).

Skill Building

 Present case problems requiring participants to apply the
 above principles and procedures to normal situations and
 potential crises.
        Provide opportunities to observe and participate in
 surgical procedures pertinent to need.
        Provide opportunities for participants to gain experience
 in postsurgical care and monitoring.

III

CONTENT OUTLINES

Introduction

This section of the guide contains detailed content outlines of the subjects covered in the recommended modules (Part II). The material in the modules is cross-referenced to appropriate subtopics in this section. The number preceding the decimal point indicates the chapter, and the number(s) following the decimal point indicates the place within the chapter that the information appears. Thus, 1.1 indicates the first entry in chapter 1 of part III, and 1.2.1 indicates the first subentry under the second entry in chapter 1.

Content experts asked to deliver information or teach skills should be provided with both the module outline and the corresponding outlines in this section to determine the intended depth of presentation. These outlines can also be used to select alternative instructional materials (e.g., audiovisual, computer-aided, and independent-study). Some sections can also be used as handouts. Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418.


1

Laws, Regulations, and Policies That Impact on the Care and Use of Animals

1.1   Federal Regulations and Policies Affecting the Care and Use
    of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education
 1.1.1   Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs)
 1.1.1.1    Citation: Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9
    (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare),
    Parts 1-4 (9 CFR 1-4)
 1.1.1.2    Law implemented: U.S. Code, Title 7, Sections 2131 et
    seq. (7 USC 2131 et seq.), popularly called the Animal Welfare
    Act; most recently amended in 1985 by Public Law (PL) 99-198
 1.1.1.3    Enforcing Agency:  U.S. Department of Agriculture
    (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),
    Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC)
 1.1.1.4    Research institutions to which AWRs are applicable:
    All research facilities that use or intend to use live animals
    (as defined by the regulations; see 1.1.1.5) in research,
    testing, and education
 1.1.1.5    Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Part 1:
    Definition of Terms
        Amended regulations became effective October 30, 1989
        Includes in the definition of animal any warmblooded
 animal used or intended for use in research, testing, or
 education except birds; rats of the genus Rattus and mice of the
 genus Mus bred for use in research; and horses and other farm
 animals used or intended for use in agricultural research and
 production
 1.1.1.6    Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Part 2
        Amended regulations became effective October 30, 1989
        Subparts A, B, and D-I set rules for dealers, exhibitors,
 and owners of auction sales.  Describe requirements for licensing
 or registration, identification of animals, and recordkeeping;
 detail responsibilities of the attending veterinarian; and
 prohibit the purchase, sale, use, or transportation of stolen
 animals
        Subpart C sets rules for research facilities; requires
 compliance with standards in Part 3
 1.1.1.7    Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Part 3
        Establishes minimum standards for animal husbandry, care,
 treatment, and transportation
        Amended regulations published for guinea pigs, hamsters,
 and rabbits (APHIS, 1990a)
        Proposed rules published for dogs, cats, and nonhuman
 primates (APHIS, 1990b)
    ■   Revise standards for handling, care, treatment, and
 transportation of dogs, cats, and nonhuman primates
    ■   Set standards for exercise and socialization for dogs
    ■   Set standards for environment enhancement to promote
 psychological well-being of nonhuman primates
 1.1.1.8    Penalties
        Animal Welfare Act (7 USC 2143f; 2149)
    ■   The institution can be fined up to $2,500 for each
 violation of the Animal Welfare Act or the AWRs
    ■   An order can be issued that the institution cease and
 desist violations of the act or the AWRs
    ■   REAC can request federal funding agencies to suspend or
 revoke funding for research facilities that are in violation of
 the act or the AWRs
    ■   REAC can temporarily suspend the licenses of dealers,
 exhibitors, or owners of auction sales in violation of the act or
 the AWRs
        Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Part 4:  Rules of
 Practice
    ■   Confers authority for adjudicatory proceedings as defined
 in CFR, Title 7, Subtitle A, Part 1, Subpart H
    ■   Gives additional authority for suspending licenses
 1.1.2   Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use
    of Laboratory Animals (PHS, 1986)
 1.1.2.1  Description
        Intended to ensure that PHS grantees and contractors care
 for and use animals humanely
        Has been in existence since 1971; underwent major revision
 in 1985 and minor revision in 1986
        Implements and supplements the U.S. Government Principles
 for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in
 Testing, Research, and Training (see Appendix I)
 1.1.2.2    Law implemented:  U.S. Code, Title 42, Section 289d
    (42 USC 289d); was amended in 1985 to cover the care and use
    of animals in research by PL 99-158, the Health Research
    Extension Act
 1.1.2.3    Oversight by the PHS Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare 
 (OLAW)
 1.1.2.4    Activities to which policy is applicable:  All
    PHS-conducted or supported activities involving the use of
    animals; an animal is defined as "any live, vertebrate animal
    used or intended for use in research, research training,
    experimentation, or biological testing or for related
    purposes"
 1.1.2.5    Requirements
        Compliance with the AWRs and the Guide for the Care and
 Use of Laboratory Animals, which was revised most recently in
 1985 (NRC, 1985)
        A written statement of Assurance, including
    ■   A description of the animal care and use program
    ■   The qualifications, authority, and responsibility of the
 program's veterinarian(s)
    ■   A list of members of the institutional animal care and
 usecommittee and procedures these members will follow to fulfill
 the requirements of PHS policy
    ■   A summary description of the institution's educational or
 training programs in humane animal care and use
    ■   An assurrance that the institution is accredited by the
 American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care
 or has been evaluated by the institution
 1.1.2.6   Penalty for noncompliance:  Revocation of Assurance and
    loss of PHS support for entire institution
 1.1.3   Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) standards
 1.1.3.1   Prescribes good laboratory practice in several sections
    of the Code of Federal Regulations
      40 CFR 792 concerns studies on health effects, environmental
 effects, and chemical fate testing of substances regulated by the
 Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to 15 USC 2603 et seq.
 (Toxic Substances Control Act)
      40 CFR 160 concerns studies that support or are intended to
 support applications for research or marketing permits for
 pesticides regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency
 pursuant to 7 USC 136a, 136c, 136f, 1136q, 136v(c) (Federal
 Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) and 21 USC 346a, 348
 (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act)
      21 CFR 58 concerns studies that support or are intended to
 support applications for research or marketing permits regulated
 by the Food and Drug Administration pursuant to 21 USC 406,
 408-409, 502-503, 505-507, 510, 512-516, 518-520, 706, 801
 (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) and 42 USC 351, 354-360F
 (Public Health Service Act)
 1.1.3.2    Main concern is with reliability of research results
 1.1.3.3    Subpart C of each of the GLPs
      Requires separate rooms or areas for separation of species,
 isolation of individual projects, quarantine, and routine or
 specialized housing
      Requires, as appropriate, separate rooms or areas for
 diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases
      Requires, as needed, storage areas for feed, bedding,
 supplies, and equipment
 1.1.3.4   Subpart E of each of the GLPs
      Requires written standard operating procedures for housing,
 feeding, handling, and care of animals
      Requires appropriate identification of animals
   ■  21 CFR 58.90, was amended effective May 22, 1989
   ■  Amendment prohibits toe clipping as a means of
 identification
      Requires extensive recordkeeping on the environment of the
 animal rooms
 1.2   Selected Requirements of AWRs and PHS Policy
 1.2.1   Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC)
 1.2.1.1  Membership
      Must be appointed by institution's chief executive officer
      Number of members:  Chairman and at least two additional
 members (9 CFR 2.31); Chairman and at least four additional
 members (PHS, 1986)
      At least one member must be a doctor of veterinary medicine
 with training or experience in laboratory animal science and
 medicine and with direct or delegated program responsibility for
 activities involving animals (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
      At least one member must not be affiliated with the facility
 other than as a committee member and must not be a member of the
 immediate family of anyone affiliated with the institution (9 CFR
 2.31; PHS, 1986)
      At least one member must be a practicing scientist with
 experience in research involving animals (PHS, 1986)
      At least one member must be a nonscientist (PHS, 1986)
 1.2.1.2   Functions (see also content outline section 4.2)
      Reviews semiannually institutional animal facilities and the
 institutional program for humane animal care and use and reports
 on these reviews to the institutional official
      Reviews and approves protocols and modifications to
 protocols
      Reviews concerns about care and use of animals
      Suspends activities found no longer to be in compliance with
 the AWRs and PHS policy
      Makes recommendations to the responsible institutional
 official concerning the animal care and use program, animal
 facilities, or personnel training
 1.2.2   Training and Instruction
 1.2.2.1  Must be made available to all personnel involved in the
    care, treatment, and use of species covered by the AWRs and
    PHS policy
 1.2.2.2   Must include at least the following areas
      Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation
      Methods that limit the use of animals or minimize distress
      Proper use of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers for
 any species used by the facility
      Methods for reporting deficiencies in care and treatment
      Utilization of services, such as the National Agricultural
 Library, that provide information that could prevent unintended
 or unnecessary duplication of animal research and details about
 appropriate methods of animal care and use, alternatives to the
 use of live animals in research, and the intent and requirements
 of the Animal Welfare Act
 1.2.3    Records that facilities must keep
 1.2.3.1  Records of the IACUC
      Minutes of meetings
      Records of applications
      Proposed significant changes in animal care and use and
 whether approval was given or withheld
      Semiannual reports
 1.2.3.2   Records on the description, identification, purchase,
 sale, transportation, and previous ownership of live dogs and
 cats (AWRs)
 1.2.3.3    Records of accrediting body determinations (PHS
 policy)
 1.2.4    Required reports
 1.2.4.1  AWRs (9 CFR 2.31, 2.36)
      Requires annual report to REAC made by the facility and
 certified by the responsible institutional official or the chief
 executive officer
   ■  Must contain assurance that professionally acceptable
 standards were followed in care, treatment, and use; that
 principal investigators have considered alternatives to painful
 procedures; and that the facility is adhering to the standards
 and regulations and has IACUC approval for all exceptions
   ■  Must state the location of all facilities where animals, as
 defined by the AWRs, were housed or used
   ■  Must give the numbers and common names of animals, as
 defined by the AWRs, used in nonpainful or nondistressing
 procedures, painful or distressing procedures in which
 appropriate pain-relieving or tranquilizing drugs were given, and
 painful or distressing procedures in which pain-relieving or
 tranquilizing drugs were withheld because they would have
 interfered with experimental results
   ■  Must give the numbers and common names of animals, as
 defined by the AWRs, bred for use in research, testing, and
 education but not yet used for such purposes
      Requires prompt notification, with a full explanation, of
 any suspended activity
 1.2.4.2   PHS policy (PHS, 1986)
      Requires annual report to OPRR by the IACUC through the
 institutional official
   ■  Must note significant changes in the institution's programs,
 facilities, or animal care and use program
   ■  Must list changes in IACUC membership
   ■  Must provide dates of semiannual IACUC evaluations
      Requires prompt notification with a full explanation of
   ■  Any serious or continuing noncompliance with PHS policy or
 the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
   ■  Any suspension of activity by the IACUC
 1.3   State and Local Regulations Affecting the Care and Use of
    Animals in Research, Testing, and Education (if applicable)
 1.4   Institutional Policies Affecting the Care and Use of
    Animals in Research, Testing, and Education
 1.4.1  Policies that affect research protocols
 1.4.2  Policy on dealing with alleged misconduct
 
 

REFERENCES

APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service). 1990a. 9 CFR Part 3. Animal welfare; guinea pigs, hamsters, and rabbits. Fed. Regist. 55(136):28879-28884.

APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service). 1990b. 9 CRF Part 3. Animal welfare; standards; proposed rule. Fed. Regist. 55(158):33448-33531.

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Available from: Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, APHIS, USDA, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animals Welfare), Amendments to Part 3. 1990a. Fed. Regist. 55(136):28879-28884.

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animals Welfare), Proposed amendments to Part 3. 1990b. Fed. Regist. 55(158):33448-33531.

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892.


2

Ethical and Scientific Issues
2.1   Definitions
 2.1.1   Ethics: A discipline within philosophy concerned with the
    examination and establishment of criteria for making judgments
    concerning value (good and bad) and judgments concerning
    responsibility and duty (right and wrong)
 2.1.2   Applied ethics: Ethical reflection, as defined above,
    applied to a specific area of concern, e.g., the use of
    laboratory animals
 2.2   Conceptual Framework for Ethical Decisions (Robb, 1989)
 2.2.1   A framework provides a method or formal structure for
    making decisions
 2.2.2   Utilitarian or teleological ethical approach to decision
    making
 2.2.2.1  Involves risk/benefit analysis; the best action is
    determined by the effects of the action in a particular
    circumstance or on the effects on all concerned (the social
    utility of the action)
 2.2.2.2    Can be used by both animal-rights and animal-use
    advocates
 2.2.2.3   Is too often based on short-term rather than long-term
    effects
 2.2.3   Deontological ethical approach to decision making
 2.2.3.1  Determines an action by comparison with a highest duty
    (e.g., respect for dignity, beneficience, justice) or with
    universal moral obligations derived from cultural or religious
    principles
 2.2.3.2   Is used primarily by animal-rights advocates
 2.2.3.3   By definition, ignores the short- and long-term
    consequences of an action; however, in actual experience,
    moral principles have exceptions. It is important that the
    person who presents the issues discussed in this chapter
    emphasizes the need for tolerance of differing points of view.
 2.3   Arguments Used by Those Advocating the Humane Use of
    Animals for Human Purposes (Caplan, 1984)
 2.3.1   Research with animals has made possible the advancement
    of knowledge in the medical and veterinary sciences in ways
    that otherwise would not have been possible (NRC, 1988)
 2.3.1.1   Benefits of basic research
 2.3.1.2   Benefits to health and welfare of humans and animals
 2.3.2    Society accepts the idea of a hierarchy of species in
    its attitude toward other animal species (NRC, 1988, p. 16)
 2.3.3   Humankind has the moral responsibility to enhance the
    well-being of other humans and also the moral duty to use
    wisely and prudently all resources that nature provides,
    including the use of animals for good purposes
 2.4   Arguments Used by Animal-Rights Advocates (Singer, 1975;
    Regan, 1983)
 2.4.1   Animals are intelligent and sentient beings, with
    feelings not too unlike our own
 2.4.2   Animals have inherent value and have a right to fulfill
    their destiny as independent beings
 2.4.3   As independent beings, they are "subjects-of-a-life,"
    that is, they have desires and intentions that should be
    respected
 2.4.4   Therefore, humankind has no right to exploit them for
    human purposes because this violates their integrity as
    separate species
 2.5   The Role of Laws, Regulations, and Policies
 2.5.1   Function to prescribe common standards that prevent the
    abuse of humane standards for the care of animals
 2.5.2   Recent policies and guidelines have refined earlier
    standards and have had a salutary effect on the well-being of
    laboratory animals
 2.6   Suggested Ethical Principles (See U.S. Government
    Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals
    Used in Testing, Research, and Training; Appendix I)
 2.6.1   Design procedures relevant to the improvement of health,
    advancement of knowledge, or good of society (Principle II)
 2.6.2   Use appropriate models and consider alternatives
    (Principle III)
 2.6.3   Avoid or minimize pain and distress (Principle IV)
 2.6.4   When painful procedures are necessary, use appropriate
    sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia (Principle V)
 2.6.5   Humanely kill animals that would suffer severe or chronic
    pain (Principle VI)
 2.6.6   If an exception to these principles is necessary, it
    should be assessed and approved by a review group such as the
    institutional animal care and use committee (Principle IX)
 

REFERENCES

Caplan, A.L. 1984. Beastly conduct: Ethical issues in animal experimentation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 406:159-169.

NRC (National Research Council). 1988. Benefits derived from the use of animals. Pp. 27-37 in Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. A report of the Commission on Life Sciences and Institute of Medicine Committee on the Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Regan, T. 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press. 425 pp.

Robb, J.W. 1989. A Medical Ethics Primer. ILAR News 31(4):21-27.

Singer, P. 1975. Animal Liberation. A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. New York: Avon Books. 297 pp.


3

Alternatives

3.1   Definitions
 3.1.1   Alternatives (Russell and Burch, l959)
 3.1.1.1   Replacement: Substitution of insentient material for
    animals or substitution of a lower species, which might be
    less sensitive to pain and distress, for a higher species
 3.1.1.2   Reduction:  Reduction in the numbers of animals used to
    obtain information of a certain amount and precision
 3.1.1.3   Refinement:  Decrease in the incidence or severity of
    pain and distress in those animals that are used
 3.1.2   Biomedical model:  A surrogate system, either animate or
    inanimate, that mimics or is predictive about a biologic
    process or condition of interest
 3.2   Rationale for Considering Alternatives
 3.2.1    Regulatory
 3.2.1.1    AWRs (9 CFR 2)
      Principal investigators must consider alternatives to any
 procedure likely to produce pain or distress
      Assurance that alternatives have been considered must be
 presented in the institution's annual report and when the
 institution is inspected by the USDA
      Training must be provided by the institution on research or
 testing methods that minimize or eliminate the use of animals or
 limit their pain or distress
      The National Agricultural Library, in cooperation with the
 National Library of Medicine, must provide information that could
 prevent unintended duplication of experiments and that could
 reduce or replace the use of animals
 3.2.1.2   PHS policy: Institutions must give assurances
    satisfactory to the director of NIH that they are making
    available to scientists, animal technicians, and other
    personnel instruction or training on availability and use of
    research or testing methods that limit the use of animals or
    limit pain and distress (PHS, 1986)
 3.2.1.3   Institutional policy
      Animal care and use protocol form requirements
      Review and approval of protocols by the institutional animal
 care and use committee
 3.2.2   Ethical
 3.2.2.1   Do the potential results of the project justify its
    likely effects on the animal? (Tannenbaum, 1989)
 3.2.2.2    Is the species endangered or threatened?
 3.2.3    Humane (OTA, 1986)
 3.2.3.1    Can procedures be modified to prevent or minimize pain
    and distress?
 3.2.3.2    Can analgesics, anesthetics, tranquilizers, or
   sedatives be used to provide relief from pain and distress?
 3.2.3.3    Can a less sensitive species be used?
 3.2.4   Economic
 3.2.4.1    What are the costs to purchase, house, and care for
    the animals?
 3.2.4.2    What are the costs for equipment and supplies for a
    nonanimal model?
 3.2.4.3    What is the cost for a noninvasive technique such as
    ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging?
 3.2.4.4    Have nonanimal alternatives been used to screen
    compounds for efficacy, thus reducing the number of compounds
    that require testing in animals?
 3.2.5   Scientific
 3.2.5.1   Does the model reliably and accurately reproduce the
    process or characteristic being studied?
 3.2.5.2   Is the model readily available to other researchers?
 3.2.5.3   Is the model well characterized in the literature?
 3.3   Nonanimal Research Methods and Models
 3.3.1   Literature Search
 3.3.1.1   Can be used to avoid unnecessary duplication of
    research
 3.3.1.2    Can provide a scientific basis for choice of model
 3.3.2   Epidemiological Research:  Can be used to understand the
    frequency, distribution, and cause of disease, both infectious
    and noninfectious, in a given population
 3.3.3   Human Subject Research:  If morally and legally
    acceptable, safe, noninvasive methods to test human subjects
    can replace the use of animals
 3.3.4   Cell, tissue, and organ culture systems:  Systems derived
    from humans or animals and then maintained and propagated
    replace the need to experiment on living animals or reduce the
    number of animals used
 3.3.5   Chemical analysis:  Radiological binding assays and
    radioimmunoassays can be substituted for bioassays
 3.3.6   Microbiological systems
 3.3.6.1    Ames mutagenicity/carcinogenicity test, which uses
    Salmonella typhi murium
 3.3.6.2    Recombinant DNA studies of gene control using
    Escherichia coli
 3.3.7   Plants:  Yeasts, in particular, have been used
    extensively to study basic molecular mechanisms of interest to
    cellular and molecular biologists and virologists
 3.3.8   Mathematical Systems
 3.3.8.1    Statistical design
      Should be applied to all animal research protocols
      Can lead to increases or decreases in the number of animals
 required in a protocol
      Includes consideration of factors such as statistical power,
 randomization, and compounding variables
 3.3.8.2    Computer modeling and analysis
      Computers can be used to study molecular structure and
 activity relationships
      Models are based on in vivo data expressed in a mathematical
 equation where parameters can be manipulated to simulate a
 biological effect
      In vivo systems are required to validate conclusions
 3.4   Factors Influencing Model Selection
 3.4.1   Scientific considerations (Animal Alternatives Study Task
    Force, 1988).
 3.4.1.1   Relevancy:  Models must have one or more features that
   resemble the original system
 3.4.1.2   Reliability:  Models must allow investigators to obtain
    consistent, reproducible results
 3.4.1.3   Simplicity: Simpler models usually provide fewer
    variables than a whole human or animal and reduce the
    complexity that can obsure understanding of a specific process
 3.4.1.4   Accessibility:  Models must be readily available to the
    research community and permit manipulation using contemporary
    technology
 3.4.2   Ethical considerations
 3.4.2.1   Safety of research personnel and human subjects
 3.4.2.2   Conservation of species
 3.4.2.3   Humane care and use of animals
 3.4.3   Economic considerations
 3.4.3.1    Purchase of animals
 3.4.3.2    Animal maintenance (food, caging, labor)
 3.4.3.3    Supplies, equipment, facilities, and labor for the
    conduct of animal research
 3.4.3.4    Time required to perform studies
 3.5   Utilization of Services
 3.5.1   Extramural
 3.5.1.1    National Agricultural Library (see Appendix II)
 3.5.1.2    Centers for alternatives
      Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (see
 Part IV, section 1)
      Rockefeller University Laboratory for In Vitro Toxicologic
 Assay Development
      Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments
 (FRAME)
 3.5.1.3    Publications on alternatives (see Part IV, section 2)
 3.5.2   Intramural
 3.5.2.1    Laboratory animal resources staff
 3.5.2.2    Library

REFERENCES

Animal Alternatives Study Task Force. 1988. Report of the Animal Alternatives Study Task Force. Berkeley, CA: University of California. 54 pp. plus appendixes. Available from: Office of the President, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1986. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Publ. No. OTA-BA-273. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 441 pp.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892

Russell, W.M.S. and R.L. Burch. 1959. Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. 238 pp.

Tannenbaum, J. 1989. The veterinarian and animal research. Pp. 312-341 in Veterinary Ethics. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.


4

Responsibilities of the Institution, the Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Research and Veterinary Staffs

 4.1   Responsibilities of the Institution
 4.1.1   Establishes lines of authority and responsibility
 4.1.1.1   Chief executive officer
 4.1.1.2    Institutional official, if different from the chief
    executive officer (see 9 CFR 1.1; PHS, 1986, part III)
 4.1.1.3    Animal resource director, if different from the
    attending veterinarian
 4.1.1.4    Attending veterinarian (see 9 CFR 1.1, 2.33)
 4.1.1.5    Facility manager:  Clarify reporting relationship to
    institutional official and/or animal resource director
 4.1.1.6    Principal investigator
 4.1.1.7    Research staff
 4.1.1.8    Others, as appropriate to the institution
 4.1.2   Establishes and disseminates institutional policy
 4.1.2.1    Policy on care and use of animals:  Discuss the
    institution's commitment to
      An environment conducive to high-quality research, humane
 treatment of animals, and safety of personnel
      Compliance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations,
 and policies
 4.1.2.2    Policy for dealing with alleged misconduct
 4.1.3   Provides appropriate facilities for animal housing and
    care
 4.1.4   Guarantees sufficient sources of resources to support key
    personnel and facilities
 4.1.5   Appoints the members of the institutional animal care and
    use committee (see also 1.2.1)
 4.1.6   Ensures that all scientists, research technicians, animal
    care technicians, and other personnel involved in the care and
    use of animals are qualified to perform their duties (see 9
    CFR 2.32)
 4.1.6.1    Provides training in the following areas:
      Humane methods of animal care and use
      The concept, availability, and use of research or testing
 methods that reduce the use of animals or minimize pain and
 distress
      Proper use of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers
      Mechanisms by which deficiencies in animal care and
 treatment should be reported
      Use of information services and resources
 4.1.6.2    Periodically reviews qualifications of personnel
 4.1.7   Endeavors to build public confidence in animal research
 4.2   Responsibilities of the Institutional Animal Care and Use
    Committee (IACUC)
 4.2.1   Reviews and approves activities in which animals will be
    used
 4.2.1.1   Ensures that experiments are justifiable on a
    scientific basis
 4.2.1.2   Ensures that new activities and proposed significant
    changes in ongoing activities are in compliance with federal
    regulations and policies (see 9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986, part
    IV-C)
      Procedures must comply with the requirement to avoid or
 minimize pain, discomfort, and distress
      Principal investigators must have considered alternatives to
 procedures that could cause more than momentary or slight pain or
 distress
      Principal investigators must provide written assurance that
 the activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous
 experiments
      Procedures that will cause more than momentary or slight
 pain and distress:
   ■  Must be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesics, or
 anesthetics unless withholding such agents is justified
 scientifically
   ■  Must involve consultation with the attending veterinarian
   ■  Must not include the use of paralytics without anesthesia
      Animals that will experience severe or chronic pain or
 distress that cannot be relieved must be painlessly killed at the
 end of the procedure or, if it will not interfere with research
 results, during the procedure
      Living conditions must be appropriate for the species of
 animal and contribute to the health and comfort of the animals
      Sick animals must receive appropriate medical care provided
 by a qualified veterinarian
      Personnel conducting procedures on animals must be
 appropriately qualified and trained in these procedures
      All survival surgery must be performed using aseptic
 procedures, and appropriate pre- and postoperative care must be
 provided
      Major surgical procedures on all animals except rodents must
 be performed in facilities intended for that purpose
      Animals must not be used in more than one major surgical
 procedure from which they are allowed to recover unless such use
 is
   ■  Justified for scientific reasons in writing
   ■  Required to protect the health or well-being of the animal
 as determined by the attending veterinarian
   ■  A special circumstance approved by the administrator of the
 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of
 Agriculture
    Methods of euthanasia must be in compliance with federal
 regulations and policies
 4.2.1.3   Conducts continuing reviews of ongoing activities at
    appropriate intervals, but not less than annually
 4.2.1.4   Suspends activities not conducted in accordance with
    IACUC-approved protocols
 4.2.2   Evaluates the institutional program for humane care and
    use of animals and inspects all animal facilities at least
    once every 6 months (see 9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986, part IV-B)
 4.2.2.1   Prepares a report on the findings of each evaluation
    and inspection, including all minority opinions, and submits
    its report to the institutional official
      Points out areas in which the institution does not adhere to
 AWRs and distinguishes significant from minor deficiencies
      Includes a plan and schedule for correcting the deficiencies
 4.2.2.2   Reviews and, if warranted, investigates allegations of
    noncompliance
 4.2.2.3    Makes recommendations on the animal program, animal
    facilities, and personnel training to the institutional
    official
 4.3   Responsiblities of the Investigator (The term investigator
    is used broadly to designate those people responsible for the
    scientific aspects of projects that use animals in research,
    testing, or teaching)
 4.3.1   Designs experiments
 4.3.1.1    Selects the appropriate species, model, animal
    quality, and source; consults with a statistician to determine
    the minimum number of animals required for valid data analysis
 4.3.1.2   Considers previous work done in the area of study,
    using resources such as databases of the National Agricultural
    Library and National Library of Medicine
      Considers possible alternatives to living animals as
 subjects
      Ensures that studies will not unnecessarily duplicate
 previous experiments
 4.3.1.3   Establishes procedures and environments that minimize
    internal and external influences on experimental animals
 4.3.1.4   Avoids, prevents, or minimizes animal discomfort,
    distress, and pain, consistent with sound scientific practice
 4.3.1.5   Uses appropriate endpoints for studies and acceptable
    procedures for euthanasia
 4.3.1.6   Conducts all research in accordance with protocols
    approved by the IACUC
 4.3.1.7    Procures all laboratory animals in accordance with
    federal and institutional regulations and policies
 4.3.1.8    Maintains adequate records
 4.3.2    Ensures staff qualifications and training
 4.3.2.1    Recruits personnel qualified by background and
    temperament to work with animals
 4.3.2.2    Orients personnel to the facility and the scientific
    study
 4.3.2.3    Requires that staff members demonstrate skill with the
    techniques and procedures involved; provides training as
    needed
 4.3.2.4    Ensures that staff members are able to recognize signs
    of disease and distress in animals and know to whom to report
    any such signs
 4.3.2.5    Provides or identifies continuing education programs
    for staff and encourages participation in such programs
 4.3.3    Provides for health and safety of personnel
 4.3.3.1    Ensures that staff have had instruction and training
    about zoonotic diseases, allergies to animals, occupational
    health programs, and disease prevention
 4.3.3.2    Ensures that staff have received detailed instructions
    on proper procedures for using hazardous substances, including
    the requirement for protective clothing appropriate for the
    species of animal and the protocol
 4.3.4    Makes provisions for dealing with job-related stress
    (see also 8.4)
 4.3.4.1    Identifies activities and procedures that might be
    stressful to personnel, including euthanasia, long-term
    studies, and studies using animals generally regarded as pets
 4.3.4.2    Provides opportunities for stress-reduction training
    for all employees involved in high-stress activities
 4.3.4.3    Gives particular attention to reducing stress in
    inexperienced, naive, and highly emotional employees before
    and during studies
 4.3.5   Maintains a scholarly, sensitive, and respectful
    environment and behaves in a professional manner
 4.3.6   Endeavors to build public confidence in animal research
 4.3.6.1    Provides a lay-language description of studies and
    procedures for the IACUC and for other institutional purposes
 4.3.6.2    Might participate in community programs to promote
    understanding of the need for and role of animals in research,
    testing, and teaching
 4.4    Responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian (see 9 CFR
    2.33)
 4.4.1   If so designated by the institution, directs the housing,
    feeding, and nonmedical care of experimental animals
 4.4.2   If so appointed by the institution, serves as a voting
    member of the IACUC
 4.4.3   Ensures the provision of adequate veterinary care for
    experimental animals
 4.4.3.1   Establishes appropriate programs to prevent, control,
    diagnose, and treat diseases and injuries
 4.4.3.2   Ensures that appropriate pre- and postprocedural care
    will be provided in accordance with established veterinary
    medical and nursing procedures
 4.4.3.3    Ensures that emergency, weekend, and holiday care will
    be provided
 4.4.3.4    Ensures that animals will be observed daily to assess
    their health and well-being and to ensure that problems are
    reported quickly
 4.4.4    Provides guidance to principal investigators and other
    personnel regarding animal handling, immobilization,
    anesthesia, analgesia, tranquilization, and euthanasia
 

REFERENCES

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892


5

Pain and Distress

 5.1   Definitions
 5.1.1   Comfort:  A state of physiologic and behavioral
    homeostasis in which the animal has adapted to its environment
    and shows normal feeding, drinking, and grooming patterns;
    social interactions; sleep/wake cycles; and reproductive
    activity (NRC, in press)
 5.1.2   Discomfort:  A minimal change in an animal's adaptive
    level or state of homeostasis as a result of changes in its
    environment or because of biologic, physical, social, or
    psychologic alterations (NRC, in press)
 5.1.3   Stress:  The effect produced by external (e.g., physical
    and environmental) events or internal (e.g., physiologic or
    psychologic) factors that are referred to as stressors and
    that induce an alteration in an animal's homeostatic or
    adaptive state (NRC, in press)
 5.1.4   Distress:  An inferred aversive state based on a variety
    of behavioral, physiologic, and psychologic indices of an
    animal's inability to adapt to the effect of stressors and the
    attendant stress (NRC, in press)
 5.1.5   Pain
 5.1.5.1    The sensation (perception) resulting from nerve
    impulses reaching the cerebral cortex via specific neural
    pathways (nociceptive pathways) (AVMA, 1986)
      The term nociceptive is derived from Latin words meaning
 "hurtful stimulus"
      Noxious stimuli damage or destroy tissue or have the
 potential to do so
      Noxious stimuli initiate nerve impulses by acting on a
 specific set of receptors called nociceptors
      Nociceptors respond to excessive mechanical, thermal, or
 chemical stimuli
 5.1.5.2    An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience
    associated with potential or actual tissue damage (Mersky,
    1986)
 5.2   Categories of Pain (AVMA, 1986)
 5.2.1   Sensory-Discriminative:  Provides sensory information
    about the intensity, duration, and location of a stimulus
    causing pain
 5.2.2   Motivational-Affective:  Provides affective information
    about the severity and quality of a stimulus causing pain
 5.3    Pain Perception
 5.3.1   Range:  From pain detection threshold through upper limit
    of pain tolerance
 5.3.1.1   Pain detection threshold:  That point at which pain is
    first perceived during noxious stimulation
      Minimal pain, not associated with stress or distress (Wolff,
 1978)
      Same in animals and in humans (Vierck, 1976; Zimmerman,
 1984; Kitchell, 1987)
 5.3.1.2    Pain tolerance
      Limit of tolerance to noxious stimuli
      Varies between individuals and between species
 5.3.2   Duration
 5.3.2.1    Acute pain
      Short duration
      Occurs after injury or early in illness
      Plays protective role, warning the body about injury
 5.3.2.2   Chronic pain
      Longer duration than acute pain
      Does not serve protective role
 5.3.3   Pain is perceived only if the cerebral cortex and
    subcortical structures are functional; it is not perceived if
    these structures are rendered nonfunctional (e.g., by hypoxia,
    drugs, electrical shock, concussion, surgical intervention)
 5.3.4   Pain can be perceived even though noxious stimuli do not
    elicit body movements (e.g., if a muscle-paralyzing drug such
    as succinylcholine is administered)
 5.4   Assessment of Pain (AVMA, 1986)
 5.4.1   Must be based primarily on observations of abnormal
    behavioral and physiologic responses that demonstrate anxiety
    and fear (e.g., distress vocalization, struggling, stumbling,
    escape activity, defensive aggression or freezing, muscular
    tremors, pupillary dilation, salivation, reflex urination and
    defecation, panting and sweating, tachycardia)
 5.4.2   Stimuli that evoke a pain response in a conscious animal
    might elicit only reflex responses in an unconscious animal;
    therefore, nonpurposeful movements are not reliable indicators
    of pain perception
 5.5   Stress (NRC, in press)
 5.5.1   Stress as an adaptive processs
 5.5.1.1   Stress is not always abnormal or harmful to well-being
      May result from environmental alterations that are not
 harmful and may initiate responses leading to beneficial effects
      Stressors are common in the natural environment; a captive
 animal that has not experienced some stress is quite different
 behaviorally and physiologically from the typical members of its
 species
 5.5.1.2   Response to short-term stress
      Animal attempts to adapt behaviorally and/or physiologically
      Usually no long-term effects
      Introduction of novel stimuli (e.g., exposure to new
 handling techniques) into the laboratory animal's environment may
 teach it to adapt more easily to changes that may occasionally
 occur
 5.5.1.3   Acute stress response
      Generally of shorter duration than maladaptive stress
 (distress) responses
      Causes atypical but not maladaptive behavior under the
 circumstances (e.g., chairing an unadapted nonhuman primate)
      Important from perspective of both animals and research
 5.5.2   Stress as a maladaptive process
 5.5.2.1   Stress becomes harmful when an animal cannot adapt to a
    stressor
 5.5.2.2    Stress leading to maladaptive behavior and distress
      Unrelieved pain (e.g., injury, surgery, experimental)
      Anxiety and fear
      Social deprivation
      Boredom
      Inappropriate housing or husbandry practices
      Experimental design
 5.6   Distress (NRC, in press)
 5.6.1   The relationship between the presence of stress and the
    process by which an animal proceeds from a state of comfort or
    discomfort to one of distress poses the same questions that
    arise whenever one attempts to relate physiologic processes to
    subjective experience
 5.6.2   Response to prolonged stress
 5.6.2.1    Maladaptive behaviors:  Abnormal feeding and
    postprandial grooming, inappropriate interaction with cohorts
    or handlers (e.g., aggression, passivity, withdrawal),
    inefficient reproduction, stereotypic behavior (?)
      May become permanent part of animal's behavioral repertoire
      Become more maladaptive as the state of distress becomes
 more extreme or excessive
 5.6.2.2   Pathologic conditions (e.g., gastric and intestinal
    lesions, hypertension, immunosuppression)
 5.7   Ethical Obligations
 5.7.1   Principle of nonmaleficence:  Cause no unnecessary pain
    or distress
 5.7.2   Principle of beneficence:  Be kind whenever possible
 5.7.3   Procedures selected in designing a study should be based
    on predictibility of outcome
 5.7.4   To predict outcome, use as comparisons examples with
    documented characteristics related to the presence or absence
    of pain and/or distress (Ad Hoc Committee on Animal Research,
    1988)
 5.8   Legal Obligations (Overseen by the Institutional Animal
    Care and Use Committee)
 5.8.1   Scientific procedures must avoid or minimize discomfort,
    distress, and pain (9 CFR 2.31), consistent with sound
    research design (PHS, 1986)
 5.8.2   Principal investigators must have considered alternatives
    to procedures that might cause more than momentary or slight
    pain or distress (9 CFR 2.31)
 5.8.3   Appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia must be
    used for procedures that can cause more than momentary or
    slight pain or distress to the animals, unless withholding
    such agents is justified for scientific reasons and those
    reasons are stated in writing (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
 5.8.4   Potentially painful and distressful procedures must be
    planned in consultation with the attending veterinarian (9 CFR
    2.31)
 5.8.5   Neuromuscular blocking agents (paralytics) must not be
    used without anesthesia when performing painful or distressful
    procedures (9 CFR 2.31, NRC, 1985; PHS, 1986)
 5.8.6   Euthanasia must be performed at the end of a procedure
    or, if possible, during a procedure in which animals
    experience severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be
    relieved (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
 5.9   Adequate Veterinary Care
 5.9.1   Veterinary staff must be able to recognize and advise
    scientific staff on signs of pain or distress in animals
 5.9.2   Veterinary staff must be familiar with and advise
    scientific staff on appropriate interventions for relief of
    pain or distress
 5.9.2.1   Pharmacologic interventions (pain and pain-induced
    distress)
      Chemical interventions vary significantly between species,
 by dose, and by route of administration
      Analgesics temporarily abolish awareness of pain without
 loss of consciousness, although their mechanism of action in
 animals is not yet clearly defined
      Tranquilizers and sedatives can be used to prevent or
 diminish distress
      Anesthetics block perception of pain
      Neurosurgical lesions block perception of pain
 5.9.2.2    Nonpharmacologic interventions (distress not induced
    by pain)
      Rearrangements in social groupings may alleviate stressful
 conditions
      Addition of bedding material might increase physical comfort
      Gentle handling might decrease distress
      Adaptation to experimental situation before start of study
 might decrease stress

REFERENCES

Ad Hoc Committee on Animal Research. 1988. Appendix I: Types of experiments. Pp. Ia-Ic in New York Academy of Sciences Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia. 1986. 1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. J. Am. Vet. Med Assoc. 188:252-268.

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

Kitchell, R.L. 1987. Problems in defining pain and peripheral mechanisms of pain. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1195-1199.

Mersky, H. 1979. Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Pain 6:249-250.

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). In press. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Vierck, C.J. 1976. Extrapolations from the pain research literature to problems of adequate veterinary care. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 168:510-513.

Wolff, B.B. 1978. Behavioural measurement of human pain. Pp. 129-168 in The Psychology of Pain, R.A. Sternbach, ed. New York: Raven Press.

Zimmerman, M. 1984. Neurobiological concepts of pain, its assessment and therapy. Pp. 15-35 in Pain Measurement in Man: Neurophysiological Correlates of Pain, B. Bromm, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier.


6

Anesthetics, Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

6.1   General Anesthetics (Lumb and Jones, 1984)
 6.1.1   Definition:  Substances that produce, in a controllable
   manner, a drug-induced absence of perception of all sensation
   (Marshall and Longnecker, 1990)
 6.1.2   Functional Use:  To produce unconsciousness, analgesia,
   and muscle relaxation sufficient to perform procedures
   painlessly
 6.1.3   Classification
 6.1.3.1   Injectable:  Agents such as the barbiturates (e.g.,
   sodium pentobarbital)
      Effects of these agents cannot be reversed quickly
      Drug must be metabolized, excreted, or counteracted by
 another drug to terminate anesthetic action
 6.1.3.2   Inhalant:  Volatile agents (e.g., methoxyflurane,
   halothane)
      Effects of these agents can be reversed quickly
      Animal's expiration eliminates agent when administration is
 discontinued
 6.1.3.3   Dissociative:  Agents that depress the central nervous
    system (CNS) and produce a state of catalepsy (e.g., ketamine,
    phencyclidine)
      Have strong analgesic properties in some species
      When used alone, procedures are usually limited to minor
 surgery
      Most effective when combined with tranquilizers and
 sedatives (e.g., xylazine, acetylpromazine maleate, diazepam)
 
 
    The report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
 Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals entitled
 Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory
 Animals, which is in press, will provide details on drug actions,
 drug doses, and species variability.
 
      Produce seizures and clonic tonic muscle contractions in
 some species
 6.1.4   Pretreatment of patient
 6.1.4.1   Anticholinergics such as atropine reduce salivation and
    bradycardia
 6.1.4.2   Tranquilizers such as acetylpromazine calm the animal
   and facilitate restraint
 6.1.4.3   Sedatives such as xylazine depress the CNS
 6.1.5   Dosage principles for general anesthesia6.1.5.1    Evaluate the physical condition of the animal to
    ensure the absence of any disease condition that might
    compromise the animal's health during anesthesia
 6.1.5.2    Administer to effect
 6.1.5.3    Calculate dose by body weight, taking animal's age
    into account
 6.1.5.4    Allow for variations in response to agent between
    species and between individuals of the same species because of
    differences that can occur in absorption and biotransformation
 6.1.5.5   Pretreat with tranquilizers or sedatives, when
    appropriate, to decrease the amount of anesthetic needed
 6.1.6   General Considerations
 6.1.6.1    When possible, a new anesthetic regimen should be
    tested in a limited number of animals before depending on it
    for surgical or other painful procedures in a research
    protocol
 6.1.6.2   The health of animal should be considered in selecting
    an anesthetic
 6.1.6.3   The level of CNS depression should be the minimum that
    is necessary to perform the procedure, compatible with the
    animal's welfare
 6.1.6.4   The effect of anesthesia on the validity of
    experimental results and the interaction of anesthesia with
    other drugs in the experimental protocol must be considered
 6.1.6.5   Basic equipment to ensure adequate ventilation should
    be available
 6.1.6.6   Body heat must be conserved, especially in small and
    young animals
 6.1.6.7   Whenever possible, a warm, balanced electrolyte
    solution should be administered by intravenous drip throughout
    the surgical procedure to help maintain normal hemodynamics
 6.1.6.8   The anesthetist is responsibile for the animal's
    welfare until the animal has normal cardiopulmonary function
    and is able to maintain itself in sternal recumbency
 6.1.6.9  Consideration must be given to the safety of personnel
    in the area where anesthetic gases will be administered and,
    if necessary, a gas-scavenging system must be provided
 6.1.7   Stages of general anesthesia
 6.1.7.1   Stage I
      Stage of analgesia or voluntary movement
      Duration:  From onset of administration to loss of
 consciousness
 6.1.7.2   Stage II
      Stage of delirium or involuntary movement
      Duration:  From loss of consciousness to onset of regular
 pattern of breathing
 6.1.7.3   Stage III
      Stage of surgical anesthesia
      Characterized by unconsciousness; a progressive depression
 of cardio pulmonary function; a progressive depression of
 reflexes, including vomiting and swallowing reflexes; and
 muscular relaxation
      Divided into planes 1 through 4, where plane 1 is light,
 planes 2 and 3 are medium, and plane 4 is deep anesthesia
 6.1.7.4   Stage IV
      Characterized by extreme CNS depression
      Death ensues quickly unless resuscitative steps are taken
 6.1.8   Evaluation of effects
 6.1.8.1   Test reflexes (e.g., pedal and palpebral reflexes) and
    the tone of the jaw and anal sphincter muscles (reflexes are
    absent and muscle tone is relaxed during anesthesia)
 6.1.8.2   Monitor depth and rate of respiration (increase in
    depth and decrease in rate signify anesthesia)
 6.1.8.3   Monitor heart rate (slowing indicates anesthesia■an
    increase in rate during the procedure often indicates that the
    depth of anesthesia is not adequate and the animal is feeling
    pain)
 6.1.8.4   Monitor body temperature and maintain at normal levels
    (temperature falls in anesthesia, especially in small species)
 6.1.9   Indications of anesthetic overdose
 6.1.9.1   Pulse is weak to imperceptible
 6.1.9.2   Blood pressure is reduced to shock level
 6.1.9.3   Cardiac dysrhythmias may occur
 6.1.9.4   Capillary refill time progressively slows to 3 or more
    seconds
 6.1.9.5   Respiration is slow and irregular, becomes
    diaphragmatic, or may cease
 6.1.9.6    Mucous membrane and skin colors may be pale to
    cyanotic
 6.1.9.7    Cardiovascular, CNS, musculoskeletal,
    gastrointestinal, and ocular reflexes are greatly diminished
    or cease
 6.1.10    Intervention for anesthetic overdose
 6.1.10.1   Mechanically ventilate with oxygen
 6.1.10.2   Administer isotonic fluids intravenously or
    intraperitoneally
 6.1.10.3   Warm animal to increase body temperature
 6.1.10.4   Administer antidote, if one exists
 6.2   Tranquilizers and Sedatives (Gleed, 1987)
 6.2.1   Definition
 6.2.1.1   Substances that reduce the anxiety and stress that an
    animal may experience when it is handled
 6.2.1.2   Distinction between tranquilizers and sedatives is
    mainly semantic, except that increased doses of tranquilizers
    tend to produce side effects without loss of consciousness,
    whereas increased doses of sedatives produce a profound CNS
    depression resembling anesthesia
 6.2.2   Functional uses
 6.2.2.1    Chemical restraint
 6.2.2.2    Preanesthetic medication to reduce amount of
    anesthetic required
 6.2.3    Functional characteristics
 6.2.3.1    Except for the thiazine derivatives (e.g., xylazine,
    detomidine), there is no significant analgesic activity
 6.2.3.2   Increased stimulation (e.g., noise) usually reverses
    calming effects
 6.2.3.3   When used as preanesthetics:
      Ample time should be allowed to achieve the maximum effect
 before inducing anesthesia
      Recovery from general anesthesia is generally smoother
 6.2.3.4   All share the characteristics listed above, but each
    drug or group of drugs has its own pharmacologic properties
    and contraindications
 6.2.4    Classifications of tranquilizers (ataratics or
    neuroleptics)
 6.2.4.1    Phenothiazines (e.g., acetylpromazine)
 6.2.4.2    Butyrophenones (e.g., azaperone, droperidol)
 6.2.4.3    Benzodiazepines in lower doses (e.g., diazepam,
    zolazepam)
 6.2.5   Classifications of sedatives (hypnotics)
 6.2.5.1    Barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital)
 6.2.5.2    Benzodiazepines in higher doses (e.g., diazepam,
    zolazepam)
 6.2.5.3    Chloral derivatives (e.g., chloral hydrate)
 6.2.5.4    Thiazine derivatives (e.g., xylazine)
 6.2.6   Tranquilizer and sedative effects
 6.2.6.1    Phenothiazines
      Make animals more tractable
      Cause hypotension
      Minimally reduce respiratory rate 
 6.2.6.2   Butyrophenones
      Make animals indifferent to their surroundings
      Decrease motor activity
      Cause hypotension
      Slightly increase respiratory rate
 6.2.6.3    Benzodiazepines
      Cause CNS depression
      Have mild cardiovascular depressant effects at low doses
      Have little effect on respiration
 6.2.6.4   Thiazine derivatives (e.g., xylazine)
      Produce dose-related CNS depression
      Have little effect on respiration
      Cause bradycardia, decreased cardiac output, and increased
 central venous pressure
 6.2.6.5   Barbituates (e.g., sodium pentobarbital)
      High doses produce anesthesia
      At lower doses, sodium pentobarbital can be used as a
 sedative and premedicant before anesthesia, but a suboptimal (low
 dose) may cause involuntary excitement in some species
 6.2.6.6   Chloral derivatives (e.g., chloral hydrate)
      Is a reliable sedative hypnotic
      Has poor analgesic properties, even at anesthetic doses
 6.2.7   Indications for use and monitoring of effects
 6.2.8   Reversal of tranquilizing and sedative effects
 6.2.8.1    No agents available for most tranquilizers and
    sedatives
 6.2.8.2   Yohimbine can be used to reverse xylazine
 6.3   Analgesics
 6.3.1   Definition:  Substances that temporarily alleviate pain
    without causing loss of consciousness
 6.3.2   Functional Uses
 6.3.2.1    Pain control without the use of anesthetics
 6.3.2.2    Preanesthetic to reduce amount of anesthetic required
 6.3.2.3    Postoperative pain relief
 6.3.3   Classifications
 6.3.3.1   Opioids:  Term used to designate all endogenous and
    exogenous substances that bind to a subset of opioid receptors
    and produce analgesia and mild sedation (e.g., morphine,
    meperidine, oxymorphone, pentazocine)
 6.3.3.2   Opiates:  Term no longer used
 6.3.3.3   Nonopioids:  Drugs such as the alpha-2 agonists that
    bind at the adrenoceptor sites (e.g., xylazine, detomidine)
 6.3.4   Opioids (Short, 1987a)
 6.3.4.1    Actions (may vary significantly between species)
      Major effects on the CNS
      Effects include analgesia, sedation, respiratory depression,
 decreased gastrointestinal motility, nausea, vomiting, and
 alterations of endocrine and autonomic nervous system functions
      Act as agonists, interacting with binding sites or receptors
 in the brain and other tissues
      Actions of some compounds have not been determined for some
 laboratory animals
      Dose may vary significantly between species
 6.3.4.2   Antagonists:  Drugs (e.g., naloxone) that can prevent
    or promptly reverse some or all of the effects of opioids by
    competing with them for the same receptor sites
 6.3.5   Neuroleptanalgesics:  Drugs that produce a state of CNS
    depression and analgesia without the use of barbiturates or
    volatile anesthetic agents (Short, 1987b)
 6.3.5.1   Functional use
      Limited applications for minor diagnostic and surgical
 procedures that require minimal analgesia and immobilization
 (e.g., radiography, minor skin suturing, placement of peripheral
 venous catheters)
      Often require supplementation with additional anesthetics to
 increase analgesia and muscle relaxation
 6.3.5.2   Functional characteristics
      Combination of a narcotic (fentanyl) and a tranquilizer
 (droperidol) such as Innovar-Vet, which produces a state of
 analgesia and deep sedation without total unconsciousness 
      States of deep sedation and analgesia adequate for surgical
 intervention have been produced in dogs, rats, and nonhuman
 primates
      A peculiar characteristic of this state in the dog and rat,
 but not in the nonhuman primate, is the capacity to respond to
 auditory stimuli (e.g., dropping an object, crumpling paper)
      Pedal reflex is absent
      Maximum analgesia persists for 30-40 minutes, after which
 there may be a reaction to cutaneous stimulation even though
 generalized sedation and some analgesia are still evident
 6.3.6   Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
 6.3.6.1   Drugs such as phenylbutazone, acetaminophen, and
    aspirin can be useful in special cases
 6.3.6.2   Aspirin
       Most effective for relief of muscular pain
       Minimal effect for relief of visceral pain
 6.4   Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (Paralytics or Immobilizing
    Agents)
 6.4.1   Definition:  Drugs that reduce muscle tone without the
    loss of consciousness by acting on the neuromuscular junction
    (e.g., pancuronium) or on spinal synapses (e.g., mephenesin,
    guaifenesin)
 6.4.2   Functional Use:  Adjuvant in surgical anesthesia to
    increase muscle relaxation for procedures such as bone
    fracture repair in heavily muscled animals
 6.4.3   Effects
 6.4.3.1   Spinal polysynaptic reflexes are depressed
    preferentially over mono synaptic reflexes
 6.4.3.2   Muscle paralysis occurs without loss of consciousness
    or analgesia; these drugs must never be used without general
    anesthesia (9 CFR 2.31; NRC, 1985; PHS, 1986)
 6.4.4   Classification
 6.4.4.1   Depolarizing agents such as decamethonium and
    succinylcholine
 6.4.4.2   Nondepolarizing agents such as tubocurarine USP,
    gallamine, and pancuronium
 6.5   Factors Modifying the Effects of Tranquilizers, Analgesics,
    and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
 6.5.1   Species variation
 6.5.2   Age of animals:  Very young and old animals may require
    adjustments in dose
 6.5.3   Health status
 6.5.3.1   Sick animals may respond differently from healthy
    animals
 6.5.3.2    Pregnant animals may respond differently from
    nonpregnant animals
 6.5.4   Route of drug administration
 6.5.5   Depth of anesthesia modifies effects of neuromuscular
    blocking agents
 6.5.6   Others
 6.6   Safety Precautions
 6.6.1  There must be secure storage for drugs with the potential
    for human abuse
 6.6.2   Drugs under the control of the Drug Enforcement Agency
    must be stored in a locked cabinet in a secure area
 6.7   Recordkeeping Requirements
 6.7.1   A written record is required when barbiturates and other
    drugs under the control of the Drug Enforcement Agency are
    used
 6.7.2   An inventory list of anesthetics, analgesics,
    tranquilizers, sedatives, and other drugs should be kept
 6.7.3   Individual clinical records should be annotated to
    reflect the use of the agents described above, showing the
    date, dose, and any abnormal reactions that occurred
 6.8   Functions of the Attending Veterinarian in Pain Management
 6.8.1   Provides professional advice on the type of agents that
    are appropriate for use and establishes dose ranges for each
 6.8.2   Provides or counsels investigators on appropriate
    physical facilities and equipment to properly administer
    general anesthetics
 6.8.3   Recommends ways to monitor the physical condition of an
    animal while it is under treatment
 6.8.4   Provides the professional expertise to respond
    appropriately to medical emergencies if they occur
 6.8.5   Monitors procedures to assess degree of pain relief
 required

REFERENCES

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

Gleed, R.D. 1987. Tranquilizers and sedatives. Pp. 16-27 in Principles and Practices of Veterinary Anesthesia, C.E. Short, ed. Baltimore: Williams & ilkins.

Lumb, W.V., and E.W. Jones. 1984. Veterinary Anesthesia, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 693 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.

Marshall, B.E., and D.E. Longnecker. 1990. General anesthetics. Pp. 285-310 in The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed., A.G. Gilman, T.W. Rall, A.S. Nies, and T. Taylor, eds. New York: Pergamon Press.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Short, C.E. 1987a. Pain, analgesics, and related medications. Pp. 28-46 in principles and Practices of Veterinary Anesthesia, C.E. Short, ed. Baltimore: illiams & Wilkins.

Short, C.E. 1987b. Neuroleptanalgesia and alpha-adrenergic receptor analgesia. Pp. 47-57 in Principles and Practices of Veterinary Anesthesia, C. E. Short, ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.


7

Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care

7.1   Definitions
 7.1.1   Aseptic technique:  Surgical technique conducted under
    conditions that prevent exposure of the patient to pathogenic
    organisms, including wearing of sterile surgical gloves,
    gowns, caps, and face masks; use of sterile instruments; and
    aseptic preparation of the surgical field (NRC, 1985, p. 37)
 7.1.2   Survival surgery:  Surgery performed on a live animal
    under general anesthesia, from which the animal is expected to
    recover
 7.1.3   Nonsurvival surgery:  The animal is killed at the end of
   the surgical procedure before recovering from anesthesia
 7.1.4   Major operative procedure (9 CFR 2.31) or major survival
   surgery (NRC, 1985, p. 37):  Surgical intervention that
   penetrates a body cavity or could potentially produce a
   permanent handicap in an animal that is expected to recover
 7.1.5   Minor surgical procedure:  Surgical procedure restricted
   to the management of minor problems and injuries (e.g., wound
   suturing, peripheral vessel cannulation)
 7.2   Legal Requirements (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
 7.2.1   Surgery must be performed or directly supervised by
   trained experienced personnel
 7.2.2   Procedures that will cause more than momentary or slight
   pain or distress must be performed with appropriate sedatives,
   analgesics, or anesthetics, unless withholding such agents is
   justified for scientific reasons and that justification is
   provided to the institutional animal care and use committee
   (IACUC) in writing by the principal investigator
 7.2.3   Pre- and postsurgical care must be provided in accordance
   with established veterinary medical and nursing practices
 7.2.4   Survival surgery
 7.2.4.1   AWRs require that aseptic surgical techniques be used
   on all regulated  animals (9 CFR 2.31)
 7.2.4.2   PHS policy requires compliance with the Guide for the
   Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which recommends that
   survival surgery on rodents be conducted using sterile
   instruments, surgical gloves, and aseptic procedure (NRC, 1985;
   PHS, 1986)
 7.2.4.3   Major surgical procedures on nonrodents must be
   conducted only in facilities that are intended for that purpose
   and are maintained under aseptic conditions (9 CFR 2.31; PHS,
   1986)
 7.2.4.4   Non-major operative procedures, operative procedures
   conducted at field sites, and all surgical procedures on
   rodents do not require a dedicated facility but must be
   performed using aseptic procedures (9 CFR 2.31)
 7.2.5   Multiple major surgical procedures on one animal may not
   be performed unless one of the following conditions is met:
 7.2.5.1   The procedures are justified for scientific reasons and
   have been approved by the IACUC; the justification must be
   stated in writing by the principal investigator
 7.2.5.2   The procedures are necessary to protect the health or
   well-being of the animals, as determined by the attending
   veterinarian
 7.2.5.3   There are special circumstances that have been approved
   by the administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection
   Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, on an individual basis
 7.3   Preparation for Surgery
 7.3.1   Animal
 7.3.1.1   Hair should be clipped from the surgical site; special
   care is necessary when electric clippers are used, because the
   skin of most laboratory animals is very thin and easily abraded
   by clipper blades
 7.3.1.2   The operative site should be thoroughly cleaned with a
   skin disinfectant to remove surface bacteria
 7.3.1.3   Tape or lightweight strings should be used to secure an
   animal's limbs and hold the animal in position on the operative
   table or board
 7.3.1.4   The animal should be positioned with the head and neck
   fully extended to ensure a patent airway, and an endotrachial
   tube should be inserted when possible
 7.3.1.5   Surgical drapes should be used to cover the animal's
   body to prevent contamination of the operative site; if a drape
   is used in surgery on rodents and rabbits, the drape must be
   small enough to permit visualization of the animal's
   respiratory movements and peripheral perfusion to avoid
   anesthetic accidents
 7.3.2   Surgeon
 7.3.2.1   A cap and face mask should be donned first
 7.3.2.2   Hands and arms are scrubbed thoroughly with germicidal
   soap prior to donning sterile gloves and, when appropriate, a
   surgical gown
 7.3.3   Surgical instruments
 7.3.3.1   All instruments must be wrapped in packs and sterilized
   prior to surgery
 7.3.3.2   The sterilization date should be written on the outside
   of each pack when it is prepared
 7.3.3.3    Unused, sterilized instruments in packs should be
   resterilized after a period of time appropriate to the type and
   thickness of the material in which the instruments are packed
   and the method of sterilization
 7.4   Anesthesia (see section 6.1)
 7.5   Surgical Complications
 7.5.1   Hypothermia:  Abnormally low body temperature caused by
   inadvertent loss of body heat or purposeful chilling of the
   animal (Lumb and Jones, 1984)
 7.5.1.1   Effects
      Can cause a fall in blood pressure due to decreased cardiac
 output; however, peripheral resistance increases
      Occasionally causes a severe drop in blood pressure due to
 depression of the sinoatrial node and bundle of His
      Can cause ventricular fibrillation, most frequently when the
 temperature of the heart muscle is below 28oC
      In dogs, a fall in in body temperature to between 23oC and
 15oC can cause a cardiac crisis characterized by cessation of
 sinus rhythm, intense bradycardia, ventricular extrasystoles, and
 ventricular fibrillation or standstill
      Prolongs clotting time
 7.5.1.2   Occurrence
      Sooner in small rodents and rabbits than in larger animals
   ■  Small animals have a greater ratio of body surface to body
 mass than do larger animals
   ■  Small animals have efficient heat-dissipation surfaces in
 the ears (rabbits) or in the ears, feet, and tail (rodents)
      When abdominal or thoracic contents are exposed for
 prolonged periods
 7.5.1.3   Prevention■Retaining body heat by using the following:
      Surgical drapes and a pad of insulation placed between the
 animal's body and the surgery table
      Circulating hot water pads; safer than electric pads because
 they are less likely to cause tissue damage from localized
 overheating
      Small, readily sanitizable plastic boards to cover steel
 table surfaces
      Warm, wet lap sponges to cover exposed organs
 7.5.2   Dehydration
 7.5.2.1   Can occur when abdominal or thoracic contents are
    exposed for prolonged periods; therefore, these organs should
    be covered with warm, wet lap sheets or sponges throughout the
    surgical process
 7.5.2.2   Can be controlled by administering isotonic
    electrolyte solutions intravenously to maintain body fluid
    balance
 7.5.3   Hemorrhage
 7.5.3.1   Causes
      Improper use of or inadequate hemostatic techniques during
 surgery (e.g., cautery of small blood vessels or ligatures
 applied to larger vessels)
      Intercurrent disease
      Drugs that prolong bleeding time
 7.5.3.2   Prevention:  Use of proper surgical techniques
 7.5.3.3   Treatment
      Locate source of bleeding and properly seal open end of
 vessel(s)
      If adequate, application of pressure
      Agents that enhance clotting (e.g., vitamin K) may be useful
 in some cases
      Intravenous fluid replacement or blood transfusion may be
 indicated when a large amount of blood has been lost
 7.5.4   Anesthetic overdose
 7.5.4.1   Cause:  Improper dose calculations or administration of
    drug
 7.5.4.2   Prevention
      Knowledge of drugs and animals used
      Careful monitoring during induction phase
 7.5.4.3   Treatment (See 6.1.10)
 7.6   Incisions
 7.6.1   Closure
 7.6.1.1   To facilitate wound healing, it is important to match
    both needle size and suture material type and size to the
    procedure
 7.6.1.2   Multiple layers of sutures placed in an interrupted
    pattern are preferred to a continuous pattern to minimize the
    risk of dehiscense
 7.6.1.3    A subcuticular suture pattern is advantageous for skin
    closure in animals that are inclined to chew or otherwise
    remove stitches
 7.6.1.4   Knots used to join the ends of suture material must be
    tied correctly and securely to prevent spontaneous loosening
    during the healing process
 7.6.1.5   Metal clips can be used in lieu of sutures to close
    skin incisions in thin-skinned animals
 7.6.2   Dehiscense
 7.6.2.1   Causes
      Sutures improperly placed
      Knots improperly tied
      Healing compromised by bacterial infection
 7.6.2.2   Prevention:  Use of good surgical techniques
 7.6.2.3   Treatment
      Thorough cleaning of wound, trimming away of unhealthy
 tissue, and reapplication of sutures
      Use of parenteral antibiotics if infection is present
 7.7   Postsurgical Care
 7.7.1   Trained personnel should observe the animal from the time
    surgery is completed to the time that the animal has recovered
    from anesthesia sufficiently to maintain itself in sternal
    recumbancy
 7.7.2   The animal should be kept warm, quiet, and clean
    throughout the immediate postoperative period to facilitate
    the metabolism of anesthetic and to maximize healing of the
    incision
 7.7.3   Supplemental fluids, analgesics, and other drugs should
    be scheduled in the protocol and administered as needed
 7.7.4   Special diets, housing, and environmental conditions
    (e.g., temperature, humidity) should be considered to maximize
    the rate of healing
 7.7.5   If large volumes of balanced electrolytes or other fluids
    are administered subcutaneously, the injections should be made
    at multiple sites to prevent tissue damage
 7.7.6   Antibiotics should be used only when needed to treat
    postoperative infections; they must be carefully selected to
    avoid specific species intolerances
 7.7.7   Remove sutures at the appropriate time
 7.7.8   Notes on daily monitoring of the animal's progress,
    administration of medicaments, and management of the surgical
    incision up to the time of suture removal should be recorded
    on the clinical record
 7.7.9   The development of the postoperative care protocol should
    be done in consultation with and under the supervision of the
    attending veterinarian
 7.7.10   A kit containing a variety of drugs and equipment that
    may be needed in a medical emergency should be available in
    the immediate postoperative care area
 7.8   Equipment:  Type needed to properly support surgical
    procedures is dependent on a number of variables, including
    the species of animal used, the nature of the procedure, and
    the anesthetic agent used
 7.8.1   Circulating water heating pads and heatlamps are helpful
    for preventing hypothermia
 7.8.2   Nebulized liquids are helpful in relieving pulmonary
    congestion
 7.8.3   Vacuum (suction) equipment is useful for removing
    accumulations of mucus from the respiratory tract and fluid
    from body cavities
 7.8.4   Oxygen administration facilitates the return of normal
    pulmonary function and increases the rate of tissue healing
 7.8.5   A mechanical respirator (ventilator) should be available
    to support respiration when the animal's system is
    compromised, and the animal is unable to breathe normally
 7.8.6   A cardiac monitor is essential for evaluating heart rate
    and pattern
 7.8.7   An electronic thermometer is helpful for monitoring body
    temperature
 7.8.8   A mechanical gas anesthesia machine or an airtight
    chamber is essential for the administration of volatile
    anesthetics, and some form of gas-scavenging system should be
    provided to remove excess gas from the room
 7.8.9   An electrocautery unit is useful for managing hemostasis
    during surgery
 7.8.10   An esophageal stethoscope is useful for monitoring heart
    beat during surgery
 7.9   Recordkeeping
 7.9.1   A permanent record should be established for each animal
    undergoing surgery
 7.9.2   The record should be complete, current, and readily
    accessible
 7.9.3   A brief description of the surgical procedure should be
    recorded and should reflect what was approved by the IACUC
 7.9.4   Any unexpected or abnormal reaction to anesthetics or
    other drugs should be recorded
 7.9.5   Any information that might be of value or assistance for
    maintaining the animal after surgery should be recorded
 7.9.6   All postsurgical care provided should be documented
 

REFERENCES

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

Lumb, W.V., and E.W. Jones. 1984. Veterinary Anesthesia, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 693 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.


8

Euthanasia

8.1   Definition
 8.1.1   A method of killing an animal that ensures minimal
    physical and psychological suffering (AVMA, 1986)
 8.1.2   A process of killing that renders the animal unconscious
    (and thus insensitive to pain) as rapidly as possible, without
    fear and anxiety (CCAC, 1980)
 8.2   Legal Requirements
 8.2.1   AWRs (9 CFR 1.1, 2.31)
 8.2.1.1  Method must produce rapid unconsciousness and subsequent
    death without evidence of pain or distress; or
 8.2.1.2   Method must utilize anesthesia produced by an agent
    that causes painless loss of consciousness and subsequent
    death
 8.2.2   PHS policy (PHS, 1986)
 8.2.2.1   Method must be consistent with the recommendations of
    the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on
    Euthanasia (AVMA, 1986, or succeeding revised editions); or
 8.2.2.2   If method deviates from AVMA recommendations, the
    deviation must be justified scientifically and approved by the
    institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC)
 8.2.3   Animals that would otherwise experience severe or chronic
    pain or distress that cannot be relieved will be painlessly
    killed at the end of the procedure, or if appropriate, during
    the procedure (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
 8.2.4   Attending veterinarians are responsible for providing
    guidance to principal investigators and other personnel (9 CFR
    2.31)
 8.2.5   Institutions must ensure that personnel are appropriately
    trained and qualified in the methods of euthanasia that will
    be used (9 CFR 2.31)
 8.3   Ethical and Humane Considerations
 8.3.1   Euthanasia should be performed quickly and efficiently in
    a nonpublic area but not in rooms in which animals are housed
 8.3.2   Criteria should be developed for deciding when the level
    of pain and distress is such that euthanasia is warranted, and
    the person responsible for making that decision should be
    identified in the experimental protocol (Ad Hoc Committee on
    Animal Research, 1988; Everitt and Griffin, 1988)
 8.3.2.1   Moribund animals:  An acceptable endpoint should be
    determined, consistent with sound research design, so that
    suffering is not prolonged unnecessarily
 8.3.2.2    Animals with solid tumors should be killed when
      The size of the tumor interferes with normal behavior such
 as eating, drinking, and freedom of movement
      The tumor ulcerates or develops necrotic areas
      Clinical signs such as weight loss, lethargy, and
 inappetence appear (for tumors that are not palpable)
 8.3.3   Euthanasia-associated pain and distress should be
    prevented or minimized in nervous or intractable animals by
    skillful handling or by the administration of tranquilizers,
    sedatives, or analgesic drugs
 8.3.4   A person performing euthanasia should demonstrate
    professionalism and sensitivity for the value of animal life
 8.3.5   Death should be confirmed by checking for the absence of
    a heartbeat; the absence of respiration does not always
    indicate death
 8.4   Human Considerations
 8.4.1   Euthanasia is often a stressor to the person performing
    the procedure
 8.4.1.1   To many people, the taking of an animal's life is an
    awesome task
 8.4.1.2   The degree of distress experienced by those people
    observing or performing euthanasia or death in any form is
    dependent on their backgrounds and on their personal
    philosophies and ethical concerns about using animals in
    research (Arluke, 1988)
 8.4.1.3   Because of the kinship between people and higher
    animals, however distant, the unpleasant reaction people have
    to human death is often transferred to the death of animals
 8.4.1.4   The stress of performing euthanasia is magnified when
    there are strong emotional bonds between personnel and
    individual animals or when large numbers of animals are killed
    on a regular basis
 8.4.1.5   The stress experienced by people who regularly perform
    euthanasia may cause a strong sense of work dissatisfaction or
    alienation, which might be expressed by absenteeism,
    belligerence, or careless and callous handling of animals,
    along with a high turnover rate of personnel
 8.4.2   Coping effectively with euthanasia-associated emotional
    stress
 8.4.2.1   Supervisory awareness and sensitivity must be
    developed
 8.4.2.2   Coping skills for employees should be developed
    through institutional and other programs in stress management
    and coping with death and dying
 8.4.2.3   Personnel should be taught the facts about euthanasia
      The effects of various agents and methods are subjective and
 based on professional judgment, experience, and intuition
      Some of the reported disadvantages and controversy about
 certain practices are based on sentiment and aesthetic
 considerations rather than on sound scientific data
      Some physical methods may be aesthetically unpleasant but
 quite humane
      The choice of a method for euthanasia must be based
 primarily on humane concerns rather than on the sensitivities of
 the technician who performs or the people who observe the
 euthanasia
      Involuntary movements and vocalization can occur after an
 animal is unconscious and do not necessarily indicate that the
 animal is feeling pain
 8.5   Criteria for Selection of Method of Euthanasia
 8.5.1   Has a rapid, initial depressive action on the central
    nervous system so that the animal is quickly rendered
    unconscious and insensitive to pain
 8.5.2   Is appropriate for the age, species, and health of the
    animal
 8.5.3   Does not cause fear, anxiety, or panic in the animal
    being killed or in other animals in the room
 8.5.4   Produces nonreversible effects
 8.5.5   Is compatible with the requirements and purpose of a
    study and does not interfere with postmortem evaluation
 8.5.6   Is safe for operators and observers to use, causes
    minimal emotional stress, and has little potential for abuse
 8.5.7   Is availabile and economically feasible to use
 8.6   Pharmacologic Methods
 8.6.1   Inhalant agents
 8.6.1.1   General
      Mode of action:  Air in lungs is displaced by inhalant
 agent, and hypoxia of the brain or anesthesia and loss of
 consciousness follow
      Advantage:  Particularly valuable in animals in which
 venipuncture is difficult (e.g., birds, rodents, cats, small
 dogs)     Disadvantages
   ■  Vapors can be irritating and induce excitement
   ■  Exposure to vapors can be harmful to personnel and to other
 animals (a gas-scavenging system or fume hood is necessary)
   ■  Newborn animals are accustomed to low oxygen and are more
 resistant to inhalant agents
 8.6.1.2   Halothane, methoxyflurane, and nitrous oxide
      Mode of action:  Central nervous system (CNS) depression
      Advantage:  Nonflammable and nonexplosive under ordinary
 environmental conditions
      Disadvantage:  Relatively expensive; impractical for routine
 use
 8.6.1.3   Chloroform:  Not recommended for use
      Mode of action:  CNS depression
      Disadvantages:
   ■  Is a potent hepatotoxin and a suspected carcinogen
   ■  Can produce phosgene gas in the presence of a flame
 8.6.1.4   Nitrogen
      Mode of action:  Displaces oxygen and produces death by
 hypoxia
      Advantage:  Constitutes a minimal hazard to humans because
 it mixes easily with room air
      Disadvantages
   ■  Does not kill very young animals rapidly
   ■  Manner of death may be aesthetically objectionable
 8.6.1.5   Carbon monoxide (CO)
      Mode of action:  Displaces oxygen on hemoglobin and produces
 death by hypoxia of the brain
      Advantages
   ■  Induces rapid death without pain or discernible discomfort
   ■  Acceptable for small animals, including dogs and cats,
 provided that precautions are taken as prescribed by the AVMA
 Panel on Euthanasia (AVMA, 1986)
      Disadvantages
   ■  If generated by gasoline combustion engines, CO must be
 filtered and cooled to prevent discomfort to the animals
   ■  CO gas is hazardous to personnel
 8.6.1.6   Carbon dioxide (CO2):  Not approved for euthanasia in
    some states
      Mode of action:  Hypoxia of the brain
      Advantages
   ■  Well accepted and commonly used for euthanasia
   ■  Discomfort of hypoxia is easily reduced by adding oxygen
 (30% O2, 70% CO2)
   ■  Inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonexplosive
   ■  Presents minimal hazard to personnel when used with properly
 designed equipment
   ■  Causes no accumulation of chemical residues in tissues
   ■  Does not distort cellular architecture
   ■  Is effective for small laboratory animals (e.g., rodents;
 small or young dogs, cats, and swine; poultry)
      Disadvantages
   ■  CO2 is heavier than air so incomplete filling of a
 euthanasia chamber may permit tall or climbing animals to avoid
 exposure to the gas
   ■  Time for euthanasia may be substantially prolonged in
 newborn animals that are more resistant to hypoxia
 8.6.1.7   Ether (diethyl ether)
      Mode of action:  Hypoxia of the brain
      Advantage:  Quick and efficient
      Disadvantages
   ■  Flammable and explosive
   ■  Special precautions are required not only while the agent is
 being used, but also in disposing of dead animals, whose fur and
 tissue retain gas that continues to vaporize and to constitute a
 hazard
 8.6.2   Noninhalant pharmacologic agents
 8.6.2.1   General
      Vary widely in chemical composition
      Death can be induced by multiple routes
   ■  Intravenous administration is preferred because the effect
 is the most rapid and reliable
   ■  Intrapulmonic injection should be avoided because of
 discomfort to the animals
   ■  Oral, rectal, and intraperitoneal routes of administration
 are inadvisable because of prolonged onset of action, wide range
 in lethal doses, and potential irritation of tissues
   ■  Intracardiac route is not recommended except in anesthetized
 or comatose animals
   ■  Intrathecal route is not recommended except in anesthetized
 animals
      Excitable and vicious animals should be pretreated with an
 opioid analgesic, a tranquilizer, or another depressant
 8.6.2.2   Barbiturates
      Mode of action:  Central nervous system depression
      Advantage:  Rapid euthanasia with minimal discomfort,
 depending on the dose of agent and route of injection
 (intravenously is preferred)
      Disadvantage:  Must be used under supervision of personnel
 registered with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency
 8.6.2.3   Chloral hydrate:  Not recommended for use by itself
      Mode of action:  CNS depression
      Disadvantage:  Causes aesthetically objectionable animal
 movements; therefore, is not recommended for dogs, cats, or other
 small animals
 8.6.3   Drugs that should never be used alone for euthanasia
 8.6.3.1   Magnesium sulfate:  Lacks analgesic or anesthetic
    effects
 8.6.3.2   Potassium chloride:  Lacks analgesic or anesthetic
    effects
 8.6.3.3   Curariform drugs:  Animals remain fully conscious
    until they suffocate
 8.6.4   Drugs that should never be used for euthanasia
 8.6.4.1   Strychnine:  Excites the central nervous system; animal
    remains conscious until it dies from suffocation
 8.6.4.2   Nicotine:  Produces serious side effects before death
 8.6.4.3   Hydrocyanic acid:  Extremely hazardous to humans
 8.7   Physical Methods
 8.7.1   General characteristics
 8.7.1.1   Cause immediate loss of consciousness through physical
    trauma to the brain or spinal cord
 8.7.1.2   Users must be thoroughly trained, because improper
    performance of the procedures may cause the animal severe pain
    or distress
 8.7.1.3   Have a high potential for being aesthetically
    displeasing to observers
 8.7.1.4    Are most useful when pharmacologic methods would
    interfere with the purpose of the experiment
 8.7.2   Penetrating captive bolt
 8.7.2.1   Irreversibly damages the cerebral hemisphere and
    brainstem
 8.7.2.2   Advantages
      Does not chemically contaminate tissues
      Causes immediate unconsciousness
      Humane method for use in large animals such as horses,
 ruminants, and swine when followed by exsanguination or pithing
 8.7.2.3   Disadvantages
      Aesthetically displeasing
      Improper technique is highly likely to injure the animal and
 cause pain
 8.7.2.4   Nonpenetrating captive bolt pistols are not recommended
    for use
 8.7.3   Gunshot
 8.7.3.1   Advantage: Death is instantaneous when the method is
    performed by a competent person
 8.7.3.2   Disadvantages
      May be dangerous to personnel
      Aesthetically displeasing■should be used only in
 emergencies; under circumstances where other methods might not be
 readily usable, such as in field studies; or for farm animals in
 rural locations
 8.7.4   Stunning
 8.7.4.1    Humane only when the procedure is properly performed
 8.7.4.2    Must be followed by some other means (e.g.,
    exsanguination, decapita tion, thoracotomy) to ensure death
 8.7.4.3   Difficult to ensure consistency of effect in rabbits,
    rodents, and other small laboratory animals
 8.7.4.4   Should be evaluated by the IACUC on a case-by-case
    basis
 8.7.5   Cervical dislocation
 8.7.5.1   When performed properly, it is a humane technique for
    euthanasia of poultry, mice, and immature rats and rabbits
 8.7.5.2   Recommended that animals be sedated or lightly
    anesthetized before hand, because they may not lose
    consciousness immediately (AVMA, 1986)
 8.7.5.3   Requests to use this method should be reviewed by the
    IACUC on a case-by-case basis
 8.7.6   Decapitation by guillotine
 8.7.6.1   Used most often for euthanasia of rodents and small
    rabbits because they can be restrained without undue stress
 8.7.6.2   Animals should be sedated or lightly anesthetized
    before guillotining or their severed heads should be immersed
    immediately in liquid nitrogen because it is not known whether
    there is immediate loss of consciousness
 8.7.6.3   Advantage:  Facilitates collection of brain tissue that
    is not contaminated with extraneous chemicals
 8.7.7   Pithing
 8.7.7.1   Effective for killing some poikilotherms (e.g.,
    reptiles, amphibia)
 8.7.7.2   Both brain and spinal cord must be pithed
 8.7.7.3   Should be conducted only by trained personnel
 8.7.8   Exsanguination:  Animals should be sedated, stunned, or
    anesthetized because of the anxiety associated with extreme
    hypovolemia
 8.7.9   Focused beam microwave irradiation
 8.7.9.1   Humane for small laboratory rodents if done with a
    special microwave apparatus that focuses the energy on the
    brain to produce immediate unconsciousness
 8.7.9.2   Microwave instrument must provide adequate kilowattage
 8.7.9.3   Microwave ovens designed for domestic and institutional
    kitchens should never be used for euthanasia
 8.7.9.4   Advantage:  Fixes chemical activity of brain tissue
 8.7.10   Rapid freezing by immersion in liquid nitrogen
 8.7.10.1   To be used only for animals weighing 40 gms or less
    because larger animals are not rendered unconscious rapidly
 8.7.10.2   Requires well-trained personnel and appropriate
    equipment
 8.7.10.3   Advantage:  Instantaneously inactivates and fixes
    enzymes in brain tissue
 8.7.11   Air embolism:  Not recommended for routine use
 8.7.11.1   Intravenous injection of 5 to 50 ml/kg of air induces
    rapid death in rabbits
 8.7.11.2   Acceptable method only when animals are anesthetized
 8.7.12    Physical methods not recommended for use
 8.7.12.1   Decompression (hypoxia):  Induces unconsciousness and
    death due to cerebral edema
 8.7.12.2   Electrocution
      Requires special equipment that passes electrical current
 directly through the brain to cause immediate loss of
 consciousness
      Is potentially hazardous to personnel
 8.8   Carcass Disposal
 8.8.1   Conduct the process in a way that demonstrates respect
    for the animal
 8.8.2   Occupational hazards
 8.8.2.1   Evaluate possible hazards to human handlers when
    animals are known to be carrying a zoonotic agent or were
    treated with radioisotopes or toxic chemicals
 8.8.2.2   Ensure that personnel handling such carcasses take the
    necessary precautions to protect themselves and others
 8.8.3   Follow institutional guidelines for packaging carcasses
    and moving them to the incinerator to ensure proper disposal

REFERENCES

Ad Hoc Committee on Animal Research. 1988. Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Arluke, A.B. 1988. Sacrificial symbolism in animal experimentation: Object or pet? Anthrozoos 2(2):98-117.

AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). 1986. 1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 188:2522-268.

CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care). 1980. Euthanasia. Pp. 70-76 in Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, vol. 1. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

Everitt, J.I., and W. Griffon. 1988. Recent laboratory animal legislation and toxicology research and testing. CIIT Activities 8(11):4. Copies available from: Information Services, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, P.O. Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.

PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. Copies available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.


9

Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment

9.1   Legal Requirements for Husbandry and Care
 9.1.1   Animals covered
 9.1.1.1   AWRs:  Any warmblooded animal used or intended for use
    in research, testing, or education except birds, rats of the
    genus Rattus and mice of the genus Mus bred for use in
    research, and horses and other farm animals used or intended
    for use in agricultural research and production (see 9
    CFR 1.1)
 9.1.1.2  PHS Policy: All live vertebrates used in PHS-conducted
    or supported activities
 9.1.1.3   State and local laws, as applicable
 9.1.2   Scope of Coverage
 9.1.2.1   Facilities and operating procedures in facilities,
    including temperature and humidity, lighting, cage
    construction and maintenance, cage size, and waste disposal
 9.1.2.2   Animal health and husbandry, including feeding,
    watering, sanitation, staffing, classification and separation,
    and veterinary care
 9.1.2.3   Transportation, including construction, size, and
    ventilation of transportation cage; identification of animals;
    and care in transit
 9.2   Importance of Proper Husbandry and a Stable Environment
 9.2.1   Improves validity and reliability of experimental data
 9.2.2   Conserves research resources
 9.2.2.1    Reduces number of animals necessary
 9.2.2.2    Reduces time required to complete experiments
 9.2.2.3    Reduces cost
 9.2.3   Improves staff morale and community relations
 9.3   Environmental Variables That Can Be Controlled
 9.3.1   The micro- and macroenvironments
 9.3.1.1   Definitions
      Microenvironment:  The physical environment immediately
 surrounding the animal, for example, temperature and humidity in
 the cage or primary enclosure (NRC, 1985)
      Macroenvironment:  The physical conditions in the room or
 secondary enclosure (NRC, 1985)
 9.3.1.2   Importance of the microenvironment
      Profoundly affects metabolism, behavior, and susceptibility
 to diseases
      May vary greatly from macroenvironment, depending on cage
 design (e.g., ammonia levels will be higher in an enclosed cage
 than in an open one)
      Can be more difficult to monitor and regulate than the
 macroenvironment
 9.3.2   Examples of variables that can affect animal health and
    research outcomes
 9.3.2.1    Temperature and humidity
 9.3.2.2    Ventilation
 9.3.2.3    Population density
 9.3.2.4    Illumination
 9.3.2.5    Noise (frequency, loudness, suddenness of onset)
 9.3.2.6    Food and water
 9.3.2.7    Type of bedding
 9.3.2.8    Sanitation
 9.3.2.9    Handling (age of animal, frequency of handling)
 9.4   Dealing with Emergencies (e.g., power failure, flooding,
    air-handling failure, heating or cooling failure, fire)
 

REFERENCE

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

10

Species-Specific Overview

The following outline is intended as a guide for preparing a series of programs, each designed to provide information on a specific animal (e.g., dogs, nonhuman primates) or group of animals (e.g., rodents). Topics are broken down by animal type only in those instances in which the material to be covered depends on animal type. With the exception of the Specific Techniques section, which is intended to be hands-on training, the material in this section can be presented in a variety of formats, as appropriate to institutional needs and constraints.

OUTLINE

10.1   Factors Associated with Selection of Animals
 10.1.1   Rodents
 10.1.1.1   Types of stocks
      Inbred:  Each animal of the strain is virtually genetically
 identical to all the others of that strain
      Hybrid:  The first generation offspring of two inbred
 strains; known genetic background, but heterozygous at most loci
      Mutant:  Each animal carries an inherited trait or a
 combination of traits that allows the study of a specific
 biologic process or disease
      Outbred:  Genetics unknown; very heterogeneous
      Other specialized stocks (e.g., transgenic animals)
 10.1.1.2   Standardized nomenclature 
      Importance of using standardized nomenclature
      Sources for rules of standardized nomenclature
 (International Committee on Laboratory Animals, 1972; Lyon and
 Searle, 1989; Greenhouse, in press)
 10.1.1.3   Microbiologic status
      Effects of clinical and subclinical infections on research
 outcomes (NRC, in press a,b)
      Definitions of terms describing microbial status (NRC, in
 press a)
   ■  Germfree:  A hysterectomy-derived animal that has been
 reared and maintained in an isolator by germfree techniques and
 demonstrated free of associated forms of life, including viruses,
 bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and other saprophytic or parasitic
 forms
   ■  Gnotobiote:  A hysterectomy-derived animal that has been
 reared and maintained in an isolator by germfree techniques and
 that has one or more associated nonpathogenic agents, all of
 which are known
   ■  Defined flora:  A germfree animal that has been
 intentionally associated with one or more microorganisms and
 maintained continuously in an isolator to prevent contamination
 by other agents (term may be used synonymously with gnotobiote)
   ■  Pathogen free:  An animal free of all demonstrable
 pathogens; proper usage of the term requires that the
 pathogen-free status be supported by current results from a
 battery of tests appropriate for all pathogens of a specific
 species (term differs little from specific pathogen free)
   ■  Specific pathogen free (SPF) or barrier maintained:  An
 animal free of a specified list of pathogens; proper usage of the
 term requires that the absence of the specified pathogens be
 supported by current test results from a battery of tests
 appropriate for those pathogens
   ■  Virus antibody free:  An animal free of antibodies to viral
 pathogens; proper usage requires that the absence of viral
 pathogens be supported by current test results from a battery of
 appropriate serologic tests
   ■  Clean conventional:  An animal housed in a low-security
 barrier and demonstrated to be free of major pathogens
   ■  Conventional:  An animal whose microbial burden is not known
 and not controlled; the animal is generally housed in open rooms
 with unrestricted access
      Animal resource policy
 10.1.2   Rabbits
 10.1.2.1   Breeds
 10.1.2.2   Microbiologic status
 10.1.3   Dogs and cats
 10.1.3.1   Breeds
      Purebred
      Mixed breed
 10.1.3.2   Purpose bred or random source
      Availability
      Health and vaccination history
 10.1.4   Nonhuman primates
 10.1.4.1   Genus and species
 10.1.4.2   Colony-born, wild-caught, or previously used in
 experimentation
      Availability
      History (e.g., date of birth)
      Health records
      Previous experimental procedures
 10.1.5   Other animals (as appropriate to the audience)
 10.2   Procurement of Animals
 10.2.1   Information on sources of animals
 10.2.1.1   Institutional animal resource
 10.2.1.2   Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
 10.2.1.3   Primate Information Clearing House
 10.2.2   Requirements for purchasing animals
 10.2.2.1   Legal requirements
      Dogs and cats
      Threatened or endangered species
 10.2.2.2   Institutional requirements
      Requirement for purchasing only from USDA-licensed dealers,
 if applicable
      Microbiologic status
      Health records
      Quarantine and stabilization
 10.3   Caging
 10.3.1   Types of caging regularly available in the institution
 10.3.1.1   Advantages and disadvantages
      Species needs
      Safety (people and animals)
      Security
      Visibility
      Accessibility
      Disease control
      Sanitation
 10.3.1.2   Maximum population density permitted
      Size of individuals
      Age of individuals
      Aggressive animals
      Physiologic and metabolic signs of overcrowding
   ■  Increased corticosterone levels
   ■  Loss of fertility
      Behavioral effects of overcrowding
   ■  Aggression
   ■  Cannibalism
   ■  Self-mutilation
 10.3.2   Special caging
 10.3.2.1   Metabolic
 10.3.2.2   Intensive care or therapy
 10.3.2.3   Special construction
 10.4   Environmental Enrichment
 10.4.1   Legal requirements
 10.4.1.1   Dogs
 10.4.1.2   Nonhuman primates
 10.4.2   Institutional policies
 10.4.3   Group housing and socialization
 10.4.4   Special equipment
 10.5   Food
 10.5.1   Advantages and disadvantages of food-delivery methods
    available
 10.5.1.1   Appropriateness for age of animal
 10.5.1.2   Appropriateness for health status of animal
 10.5.1.3   Adequate availability for all individuals in a social
    group (subordinates are not food deprived)
 10.5.2   Nutrition
 10.5.2.1   Supplementation of standard diets available
 10.5.2.2   Diet control
      Batch date
      Frequent content assessment
 10.5.2.3   Special dietary needs
      Unusual amounts of food, such as for pregnant and nursing
 animals
      Special types of food
      Caloric restriction
 10.5.2.4   Availability and sources of experimental diets
 10.5.3   Delivery of experimental agents
 10.5.4   Food deprivation carried out under approved experimental
    protocol
 10.6   Water
 10.6.1   Advantantages and disadvantages of available water
    delivery methods
 10.6.2   Delivery of experimental agents
 10.6.3   Water deprivation carried out under approved
    experimental protocol
 10.7   Handling and Restraint
 10.7.1   Regulations and policies
 10.7.2   Importance of proper handling (cite examples)
 10.7.2.1   Avoid injury to animals
 10.7.2.2   Avoid injury to personnel
 10.7.2.3   Minimize stress
 10.7.2.4   Aesthetics
 10.7.3   Techniques for handling
 10.7.4   Methods of restraint
 10.7.4.1   Physical
 10.7.4.2   Chemical
 10.7.4.3   Mechanical
 10.7.5   Prolonged restraint
 10.7.5.1   Regulations and policies
 10.7.5.2   Procedures to reduce stress
      Selection of the least restrictive system compatible with
 research objectives
      Selection of the minimal restraint time needed to accomplish
 the research objectives
      Conditioning of animals to restraint devices before
 beginning research
      Prevention or treatment of problems resulting from
 restraint, including contusions, decubital ulcers, dependent
 edema, weight loss, and traumatic injury
 10.8   Identification and Records
 10.8.1   Legal requirements
 10.8.1.1   PHS policy (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory
    Animals) (NRC, 1985)
 10.8.1.2   Animal welfare regulations (9 CRF 2.35):  Dogs and
    cats
 10.8.1.3   Good Laboratory Practices (21 CFR 58.90)
 10.1.2   Advantages and disadvantages of identification methods:
    Tattoos, color or dye markings, natural markings, ear punch,
    toe clipping, ear tags, collars
 10.8.3   Recordkeeping
 10.8.3.1   Cage card:  Species and strain of animals, sex,
    weights, source, identification number, responsible
    investigator, other pertinent data
 10.8.3.2   Individual identification:  Species and strain or
    breed of animal, source
 10.9   Animal Health
 10.9.1   Normal parameters
 10.9.1.1   Life cycle
 10.9.1.2   Behavior patterns, including reproduction
 10.9.1.3   Physiologic parameters
 10.9.1.4   Clinical chemistry
 10.9.2   Health surveillance
 10.9.2.1  Importance of the health-surveillance program
      Minimizes pain and discomfort associated with disease,
 injury, or distress
      Reduces number of animals required by minimizing loss
      Improves the reliability and validity of experimental data
      Enables early intervention in cases of disease and injury
      Reduces probability of spread of disease
 10.9.2.2   Role of the research team
      Assists in detection of distress and disease through
 frequent observation
      Reports signs of distress and disease to veterinary staff
 and consults on plan of action
 10.9.3  Signs of distress and disease
 10.9.3.1   Gross signs
      Cutaneous:  Alopecia, cutaneous or subcutaneous swelling,
 dermatitis, abnormal hair coat, necrosis, discoloration
      Gastrointestinal:  Diarrhea, constipation, cramping (hunched
 posture), anorexia, ptyalism, rectal prolapse, pendulous abdomen
      Respiratory:  Dyspnea, abnormal respiratory sounds, nasal
 and ocular discharges
      Urinary:  Polydipsia, excessive or reduced volume, content
 or color abnormalities, unusual odor, straining to urinate
      Neuromuscular and skeletal:  Paresis or paralysis, seizures,
 torticollis, incoordination, lameness
      Reproductive:  Infertility, abortions, discharges, still
 births, litter desertion, orchitis, mastitis
      Miscellaneous:  Unexpected deaths, loss of appendages,
 weight loss, anemia, eye lesions
 10.9.3.2   Physiologic signs
      Blood:  Anemia; cell size, count, or type
      Urinary:  Abnormalities in specific gravity, color, content,
 chemistry, volume, odor
      Decreased or elevated body temperature, pulse or respiratory
 rate
      Miscellaneous:  Changes in synovial or cerebrospinal fluids,
 nerve impulse transmission, bone density, liver and pancreatic
 function, endocrine function, mineral and pH balance
 10.9.3.3   Behavioral signs
      Inappetance
      High or low levels of activity
      Withdrawal to a cage corner
      Inter- or intraspecies aggression
      Unusual or repetitive movement patterns
      Excessive self grooming
      Sexual and maternal abnormalities
      Self-mutilation
 10.9.4   Common diseases
 10.9.4.1   Rodents
      Mice:  Acariasis, pneumonias, abscesses, mammary neoplasia,
 subclinical viral infections such as MHV and Sendai
      Rats:  Incisor malocclusion, chronic respiratory disease,
 mammary (benign) neoplasia, nephrosis, sialodacryoademitis,
 chromodacryorrhea, moist dermatitis
      Guinea pigs:  Pneumonia, enteropathies, dermatophytosis,
 hypovitaminosis C, premolar malocclusion, mastitis, pregnancy
 toxemia, pediculosis, urolithiasis, limb fractures
      Hamsters:  Demodecosis, renal amyloidosis, limb fractures,
 enteropathies, cutaneous and adrenal neoplasia
 10.9.4.2   Rabbits:  Otic acariasis, coccidiosis, enteropathies,
    malocclusion, lumbar fracture, moist dermatitis,
    pasteurellosis, ulcerative pododermatitis
 10.9.4.3   Dogs:  Bordetella infection; distemper; parvovirus
    infection; herpesvirus infection; heartworms; intestinal and
    cutaneous parasitism; hepatitis, adenovirus, and parainfluenza
    infections; neoplasia
 10.9.4.4   Cats:  Infectious peritonitis, panleukopenia,
    respiratory disorders, toxoplasmosis, parasitism, leukemia,
    urologic syndrome, otic acariasis
 10.9.4.5   Nonhuman primates:  Enteropathies, tuberculosis,
    trauma, caloric insufficiency, hypovitaminosis C or D3,
    herpesvirus infections
 10.9.4.6   Other animals:  Include as appropriate to audience
 10.9.5   Experimentally produced disorders:  Physical,
    electrophysiologic, microbiologic, or chemical alteration of
    any part so as to produce an abnormal sign; must be
    differentiated (based on history) from signs associated with
    spontaneous diseases
 10.9.6   Institutional procedures for emergency or special care
 10.10   Zoonoses (Describe signs and symptoms in animals and
    humans)
 10.10.1   Types
 10.10.1.1   Naturally occurring
      Rodents:  Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, rat-bite fever,
 Korean hemorrhagic fever and related diseases (animals imported
 from Europe and Asia)
      Dogs:  Rabies, brucellosis, ringworm, endoparasite-induced
 disease
      Cats:  Cat-scratch fever, toxoplasmosis,
 endoparasite-induced disease
      Nonhuman primates:  Tuberculosis, herpesvirus B infection,
 Marburg disease, infectious hepatitis, monkeypox
      Ungulates:  Encephalomyelitis, Q fever, leptospirosis,
 tetanus, contagious ecthyma, cowpox
      Birds:  Psitticosis (ornithosis), salmonellosis,
 encephalomyelitis
      Wild rodents/racoons:  Rat bite fever, tularemia, plague,
 rabies
 10.10.1.2   Experimentally produced (any agent injected, fed, or
    introduced by biotechnology)
 10.10.2   Techniques for handling animals carrying or at high
    risk for carrying zoonotic agents
 10.11   Specific Techniques:  Hands-on training in techniques
    such as blood withdrawal, injections, specimen collection,
    measurement of vital signs, and euthanasia
 

REFERENCES

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3. Copies available from: Animal Care Staff, Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20782.

Greenhouse, D.D., M.F.W. Festing, S. Hasan, and A.L. Cohen. In press. Inbred strains of rats. In Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Strains of Rats. A Manual on Colony Management, Basic Monitoring techniques, and Genetic Variants of the Laboratory Rat, H.J. Hedrich, ed. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.

International Committee on Laboratory Animals (now known as the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science or ICLAS). 1972. International standardized nomenclature for outbred stocks of laboratory animals. A report of the Working Party to prepare an International Nomenclature System for Outbred Animals. ICLA Bull. 30:4-17. Copies available from: Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418.

Lyon, M.F., and A.G. Searle, eds. 1989. Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 876 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

NRC (National Research Council). In press. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. A report of the ILAR Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). In press. Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. A report of the ILAR Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


IV

RESOURCES

1

Sources of Information

The following organizations are useful resources for course coordinators, content experts, and participants.

Animal Welfare Information Center

See Appendix II. Contact: Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library, 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Room 205, Beltsville, MD 20705 (301-504-6212).

National Library of Medicine

Maintains an extensive collection of published source materials and reference works on basic veterinary sciences and clinical veterinary medicine, emphasizing those areas most closely related to human health and health research. Publishes Current Bibliographies in Medicine, including those dealing with pain, anesthesia, and analgesia in laboratory animals; care and use of animals; and laboratory animal welfare. Contact: National Library of Medicine, Coordinator of Veterinary Affairs, Bethesda, MD 20892 (301-496-6308).

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

Provides information on sources of laboratory animals and appropriate animal models for studying physiologic and pathologic processes. Prepares guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals. Contact: Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418 (202-334-2590).

Foundation for Biomedical Research Provides information for the scientific community and the general public on the use of animals in research, testing, and education. Provides a handbook and training materials. Contact: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 818 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006 (202-457-0654).

Center for Alternatives

Disseminates information on alternatives to the use of animals in product safety testing. Publishes a newsletter three times per year on progress in in vitro toxicology, distributes reprints of scientific articles by the director and associate director, and provides technical reports in in vitro toxicology. Contact: Center for Alternatives, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (301-955-3343).

Center for Animals and Public Policy

Analyzes technical and public policy issues relating to the development and application of alternatives to laboratory animals in toxicity testing. Provides a bimonthly technical newsletter containing news and analysis on the latest developments in the search for alternatives; the relevant policy issues; and the roles of government, industry, and the public. Conducts and provides reports of workshops for various interest groups involved with the alternatives issue. Contact: Center for Animals and Public Policy, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 81536 (508-839-5302, Ext. 4750).

2

Selected Bibliography

The following selected bibliography is provided to assist those who present course topics in preparing their material. It can also be used as a resource for participants. The references that the committee believes are essential for a minimum institutional library have been designated by an asterisk.

A publication that summarizes many of the areas covered in this program is as follows:

*Essentials for Animal Research. A Primer for Research Personnel. B.T. Bennett, M.J. Brown, and J.C. Schofield. 1990. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library. 126 pp.

LAWS, POLICIES, AND GUIDELINES

*Animal Welfare Act. 1985. U.S. Code, Title 7, Sections 2131-2157. (Available from: Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20872.)

*Animal Welfare Regulations. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1-3 (9 CFR 1-3) (Available from: Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Federal Building, Room 268, Hyattsville, MD 20872.)

*Good Laboratory Practices Regulations. a. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 (Food and Drugs), Part 58 (Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies), Subparts A-K.

b. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (Protection of Environment), Part 160 (Good Laboratory Practice Standards), Subparts A-J.

c. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (Protection of Environment), Part 792 (Good Laboratory Practice Standards), Subparts A-L.

*Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Research Council. 1985. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.

*Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Public Health Service. 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. (Available from: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.)

ETHICS, ANIMAL WELFARE, AND THE USE OF ANIMALS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND TESTING

Animal Liberation. A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. P. Singer. 1975. New York: Avon Books. 297 pp.

Animal Research and Ethical Conflict. An Analysis of the Scientific Literature: 1966-1986. M.T. Phillips and J.A. Sechzer. 1989. New York: Springer-Verlag. 251 pp.

The animal rights movement: A research perspective. H.A. Pincus, T. Fine, H. Pardes, and F.K. Goodwin. 1986. Am. J. Psychiat. 143:1585-1586 editorial).

Animal welfare considerations in neuroscience research. W. Hodos. 1983. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 406:119-127.

The Case for Animal Rights. T. Regan. 1983. Berkeley: University of California Press. 425 pp.

The enduring animal issue. L. Horton. 1989. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 81:736-743.

Ethics of animal welfare in research: The institution's attempt to achieve appropriate social balance. E.E. Prentice, I.H. Zucker, and A. Jameton. 1986. Physiologist 28:19-20.

The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research. Vol. I: A Survey of Scientific and Ethical Issues for Investigators. B.E. Rollin, ed. 1990. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 464 pp.

Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals. American Psychological Association. 1985. Washington, DC: The American Psychological Association. 8 pp. (Available from: APA, Order Department, 1400 North Uhle Street, Arlington, VA 22201.)

The Importance of Animal Experimentation for Safety and Biomedical Research. S. Garattini and D.W. van Bekkum, eds. 1990. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 246 pp.

Of Mice, Models, & Men: A Critical Evaluation of Animal Research. A.N. Rowan. 1984. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. 323 pp.

The role of animals in biomedical research. J.A. Sechzer, ed. 1983. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 406:1-227.

Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues. H.N. Guttman, J.A. Mench, and R.C. Simmonds, eds. 1989. Bethesda, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. 149 pp. (Available from: SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814.)

Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. The Challenge and Response. American Medical Association White Paper. 1988. Chicago: American Medical Association. 36 pp. (Available from: AMA, 515 North State Street, Chicago, IL 60610.)

*Veterinary Ethics. J. Tannenbaum. 1989. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 358 pp.

ALTERNATIVES

Animals and Alternatives in Toxicity Testing. M. Balls, R.J. Riddell, and A.N. Worden, eds. 1983. London: Academic Press. 550 pp.

Alternatives to animals in toxicity testing. A.M. Goldberg and J.M. Frazier. 1989. Sci. Am. 261(2):24-30.

Alternatives to the use of live vertebrates in biomedical research and testing: Second annual annotated bibliography. Compiled by G.J. Cosmides, R. S. Stafford, and P.Y. Lu. 1990. ILAR News 32(1):A1-A18.

Laboratory Animals in Vaccine Production and Control: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. C.F.M. Hendriksen and J.C. Petricciani. 1988. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 158 pp.

*Models for Biomedical Research. A New Perspective. National Research Council. 1985. A report of the Board on Basic Biology Committee on Models for Biomedical Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 180 pp.

Nonmammalian Animal Models for Biomedical Research. A.D. Woodhead, ed. 1989. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 393 pp.

Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. 1959. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 238 pp.

A statistical approach for calculating the minimum number of animals needed in research. H.N. Erb. 1990. ILAR News 32(1):11-16.

The Use of Alternatives in Drug Research. A.N. Rowan and C.J. Stratmann, eds. 1980. New York: Macmillan. 190 pp.

Utilization of alternative species for toxicity testing: An overview. L.B. Gross and T.D. Sabourin. 1985. J. Appl. Toxicol. 5:193-219.

INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEES

*Recommendations for Governance and Management of Institutional Animal Resources. AAMC-AAU Ad Hoc Committee on the Governance and Management of Institutional Animal Resources. 1985. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges-Association of American Universities. 10 pp. (Available from: AAMC, Division of Biomedical Research, 1 Dupont Circle, NW, #200, Washington, DC 20036.)

Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues. H.N. Guttman, J.A. Mench, and R.C. Simmonds, eds. 1989. Bethesda, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. 149 pp. (Available from: SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814.)

Scientific Perspectives on Animal Welfare. W.J. Dodds and F.B. Orlans, eds. 1982. New York: Academic Press. 131 pp.

Effective animal care and use committees. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. 1987. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37(Special Issue):1-178.

RECOGNITION AND ALLEVIATION OF PAIN AND DISTRESS

Alternatives to Pain in Experiments on Animals. D. Pratt. 1980. New York: Argus Archives. 283 pp.

Analgesia and behavioral effects of butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine in the cat. D.C. Sawyer. 1987. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 23:438-446.

Anesthesia. Canadian Council on Animal Care. 1980. Pp. 62-76 in Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Vol. 1. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Council on Animal Care. (Available from: CCAC, 1105-151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5H3, Canada.)

Anesthesia and surgery of laboratory animals. W.J. White and K.J. Field. 1987. Vet. Clin. N. Am. 17:989-1017.

Anesthesia for rabbits and rodents. C.J. Sedgewick. 1980. Pp. 706-710 in Current Veterinary Therapy VII, R.W. Kirk, ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Animal Anesthesia. C.J. Green. 1979. Laboratory Animal Handbooks 8. London: Laboratory Animals Ltd. 300 pp.

*Animal Pain. Perception and Alleviation. R.L. Kitchell and H.H. Erickson, eds. 1983. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society. 221 pp.

Animal Stress. G.P. Moberg, ed. 1985. New York: Oxford University Press. 332 pp.

Assessment of animal pain in experimental animals. L.R. Soma. 1987. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37:71-74.

Assessment of pain and stress. Canadian Council on Animal Care. 1980. P. 70 in Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Vol. 1. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Council on Animal Care.

*Assessment of pain in animals. R.L. Kitchell and R.D. Johnson. 1985. Pp. 113-140 in Animal Stress, G. Moberg, ed. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.

The challenge of balancing experimental variables: Pain, distress, analgesia, and anesthesia. F.M. Loew. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1193-1194.

Control of animal pain and distress in antibody production and infectious disease studies. H.L. Amyx. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1287-1289.

Control of stress using non-drug approaches. T.L. Wolfle. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1219-1221.

Extrapolations for the pain research literature to problems of adequate veterinary care. C.J. Vierck. 1976. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 168:510-513.

Guidelines for the recognition and assessment of pain in animals. J. Sanford, R. Ewbank, V. Molony, W.D. Tavernor, and O. Uvarov. 1986. Vet. Rec. 118:334-338.

Guidelines for the use of tranquilizers, anesthetics, and analgesics in laboratory animals. H.C. Hughes, W.J. White, and C.M. Lang. 1975. Vet. Anesth. 2:19-23.

Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. W.W. Muir III and J.A.E. Hubbell. 1989. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby. 340 pp.

Ketamine anesthesia in chimpanzees and other great ape species. W.B. Bonner, M.E. Keeling, E.T. Van Ormer, and J.E. Haynie. 1972. The Chimpanzee 5:255-268.

*Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. P.A. Flecknell. 1987. London: Academic Press. 156 pp.

Laboratory animal technicians: Their role in stress reduction and human-companion animal bonding. T.L. Wolfle. 1985. Vet. Clin. North Am. 15:441-454.

Large Animal Anesthesia: Principles and Techniques. T.W. Riebold, D.O. Goble, and D.R. Geiser. 1982. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 154 pp.

Pain and discomfort. How to recognize and manage pain associated with animal research. J.S. Spinelli and R.H. Morrish. 1987. Invest. Radiol. 22:348-52.

*Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia in Common Laboratory Animals. F.P. Gluckstein. 1987. National Library of Medicine Literature Search, No. 86-l7. (Available from: Literature Search Program, Reference Section, National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894.)

Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. H. Mersky. 1979. Pain 6:249-252.

Perioperative analgesia: A surgeon's perspective. S.W. Crane. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1254-1257.

Pharmacologic aspects of analgesic drugs in animals: An overview. W.L. Jenkins. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1231-1240.

Physiologic basis and consequences of distress in animals. R.L. Kitchell. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1212-1215.

The Practice of Small Animal Anesthesia. D.C. Sawyer. 1982. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 256 pp.

Preanesthesia, anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia. D.H. Clifford. 1984. Pp. 527-562 in Laboratory Animal Medicine, J.G. Fox, B.J. Cohen, and F.M. Loew, eds. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

*Principles and Practices of Veterinary Anesthesia. C.E. Short, ed. 1987. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 669 pp.

Problems in defining stress and distress in animals. G.P. Moberg. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1207-1211.

*Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. National Research Council. In press. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

*Recognition and alleviation of pain in animals. P.A. Flecknell. 1985. Pp. 61-77 in Advances in Animal Welfare Science. Boston: Martinus Nijholt.

The relief of pain in laboratory animals. P.A. Flecknell. 1984. Lab. Anim. 18:147-160.

Research on pain mechanisms in animals. R. Dubner. 1987. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:1273-1276.

Restraint, venipuncture, endotracheal intubation, and anesthesia of miniature swine. H.A. Ragan and M.F. Gillis. 1975. Lab. Anim. Sci. 25:409-419.

Small Animal Anesthesia: Mosby's Fundamentals of Animal Health Technology. R.G. Warren, ed. 1983. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby. 367 pp.

*Veterinary Anesthesia. 2nd ed. W.V. Lumb and E.W. Jones. 1984. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 693 pp.

*Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 6th ed. N.H. Booth and L.E. McDonald, eds. 1988. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 1,227 pp.

SURGERY

*Anesthesia and surgery of laboratory animals. W.J. White and K.J. Field. 1987. Vet. Clin. N. Am. 17:989-1017.

Animal Physiologic Surgery. 2nd ed. C.M. Lang, ed. 1982. New York: Springer-Verlag. 180 pp.

*Basic Surgical Exercises Using Swine. M.M. Swindle. 1983. New York: Praeger. 237 pp.

Canine Surgery: A Text and Reference Work. 2nd ed. J. Archibald, ed. 1974. Wheaton, IL: American Veterinary Publications. 1,172 pp.

*Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery. 3rd ed. M.J. Bojrab, ed. 1990. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 950 pp.

Experimental Surgery: Including Surgical Physiology. 5th ed. J. Markowitz, J. Archibald, and H.G. Downie. 1964. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 659 pp.

*Experimental and Surgical Technique in the Rat. H.B. Waynforth. 1980. New York: Academic Press. 269 pp.

Orthopedic procedures for laboratory animals and exotic pets. D.A. Rickards, P.J. Hinco, E.M. Morse. 1972. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 161:728-732.

*Small Animal Surgical Nursing: Mosby's Fundamentals of Animal Health Technology. D.L. Tracy, ed. 1983. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby. 347 pp.

Surgery of the Digestive System in the Rat. R. Lambert. 1965. (Translated from the French by B. Julien.) Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 501 pp.

*Techniques in Large Animal Surgery. 2nd ed. A.S. Turner and C.W. McIlwraith. 1989. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 381 pp.

EUTHANASIA

Euthanasia agents and methods. D.C. Sawyer. 1988. Pp. 219-223 in Euthanasia of the Companion Animal, W.J. Kay, S.P. Cohen, C.E. Fudin, A.H. Kutscher, H.A. Nieburg, R.E. Grey, and M.M. Osman, eds. Philadelphia: The Charles Press.

Euthanasia of Amphibians and Reptiles. Joint UFAW/WSPA Working Party. 1989. Herts, England: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) and London: World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA). 35 pp.

*1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia. 1986. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 188:252-266.

BIOLOGY, HUSBANDRY, AND CARE

General References (Concerning more than one species or subject)

*American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Training Manual Series. D.M. Stark and M.E. Ostrow, eds. Vol. I: Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician, 1989, 186 pp.; Vol. II: Laboratory Animal Technician, 1990, 214 pp.; Vol. III: Laboratory Animal Technologist, in press. Cordova, TN: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. (Available from: AALAS, 70 Timbercreek Drive, Cordova, TN 38018.)

*Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 4th ed. J.J. Kaneko, ed. 1989. San Diego: Academic Press. 932 pp.

*The Clinical Chemistry of Laboratory Animals. W.F. Loeb and F.W. Quimby, eds. 1989. New York: Pergamon. 579 pp. Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals. Rev. ed. Animal Welfare Institute. 1979. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute. 108 pp.

*Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Research Council. 1985. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.

*Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. Canadian Council on Animal Care. Vol. 1, 1980, 112 pp.; Vol. 2, 1984, 208 pp. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Council on Animal Care. (Available from: CCAC, 1105-151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5H3, Canada.)

*Laboratory Animal Housing. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Laboratory Animal Housing. 1978. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 220 pp.

Laboratory Manual for Animal Technicians. V. Solberg. 1985. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 173 pp.

Laboratory Manual for Basic Biomethodology of Laboratory Animals. R. Hitzelberg, E. Lundgren, and J. Phillips. Vol. I: Mice, Rats, Guinea Pigs and Rabbits, 1985; Vol. II: Dog, Cat, Primate, 1987. Silver Spring, MD: MTM Associates, Inc.

Methods in Animal Physiology. Z. Deyl and J. Zicha, eds. 1988. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 448 pp.

Principles of Proper Laboratory Animal Use in Research. G.R. Novak and R. Hitzelberg. 1989. Silver Spring, MD: MTM Associates, Inc. 171 pp.

The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals. 5th ed. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Staff, ed. 1976. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 635 pp.

Species-Specific References

Carnivores

*Anatomy of the Dog. M.E. Miller, C. Christensen, and H.E. Evans. 1964. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 941 pp.

*Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. J.G. Fox. 1988. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 345 pp.

Canine Research Environment. J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch, eds. 1990. Bethesda, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. 82 pp. (Available from: SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814.)

Laboratory animal management: Cats. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Cats. 1978. ILAR News 21(3):C1-C20.

Domestic Animals

*The Biology of the Pig. W.G. Pond and K.A. Houpt. 1978. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing. 371 pp.

The Calf. Management and Feeding. 3rd ed. J.H.B. Roy. 1970. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 183 pp.

The Calf. Nutrition and Health. 3rd ed. J.H.B. Roy. 1970. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 164 pp.

The Care and Management of Farm Animals. 2nd ed. W.N. Scott, ed. 1978. London: Bailliere Tindall. 254 pp.

Essentials of Pig Anatomy. W.O. Sack. 1982. Ithaca, NY: Veterinary Textbooks. 192 pp.

Guide to Ruminant Anatomy Based on the Dissection of the Goat. P.D. Garrett. 1988 ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 102 pp.

Horse Behavior: The Behavioral Traits and Adaptations of Domestic and Wild Horses, Including Ponies. G.H. Waring. 1983. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications. 292 pp.

Ruminants: Cattle, Sheep, and Goats. Guidelines for the Breeding, Care, and Management of Laboratory Animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Subcommittee on Standards for Large (Domestic) Laboratory Animals, Committee on Standards. 1974. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 72 pp.

Nonhuman Primates

The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta). C.G. Hartman and W.L. Strauss, Jr., eds. 1933. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. 383 pp. (Reprinted in 1970 by Hafner, New York).

An Atlas of Comparative Primate Hematology. H.J. Huser. 1970. New York: Academic Press. 405 pp.

Behavior and Pathology of Aging in Rhesus Monkeys. R.T. Davis and C.W. Leather. 1985. New York: Alan R. Liss. 380 pp.

Captivity and Behavior■Primates in Breeding Colonies, Laboratories and Zoos. J. Erwin, T.L. Maple, and G. Mitchell, eds. 1979. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 286 pp.

Effects of environmental conditions on the psychological well-being of primates: A review of the literature. W.L. oolverton, N.A. Ator, P.M. Beardsley, and M.E. Carroll. 1989. Life Sci. 44:901-917.

A Handbook of Living Primates: Morphology, Ecology, and Behavior of Nonhuman Primates. J.R. Napier and P.H. Napier. 1967. London: Academic Press. 456 pp.

Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates. E.F. Segal, ed. 1989. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications. 544 pp.

Laboratory animal management: Nonhuman primates. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Subcommittee on Care and Use, Committee on Nonhuman Primates. 1980. ILAR News 23(2-3):P1-P44.

Laboratory Primate Handbook. R.A. Whitney, Jr., D.J. Johnson, and W.C. Cole. 1973. New York: Academic Press. 169 pp.

Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini). Vol. 1. P. Hershkovitz. 1977. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 117 pp.

Macaca mulatta. Management of a Laboratory Breeding Colony. D.A. Valerio, R.L. Miller, J.R.M. Innes, K.D. Courtney, A.J. Pallotta, and R.M. Guttmacher. 1969. New York: Academic Press. 140 pp.

Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Vols. 1-7. W. C. O. Hill, ed. 1953-1974. New York: Interscience Publishers.

The Squirrel Monkey. L.A. Rosenblum and R.W. Cooper, eds. 1968. New York: Academic Press. 451 pp.

Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates in Research. J.A. Mench and L. Krulisch, eds. 1990. Bethesda, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. 86 pp. (Available from: SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814.)

Rabbits

Atlas d'Anatomie du Lapin [Atlas of Rabbit Anatomy]. 1973. Paris: Masson. 219 pp.

Atlas d'Histologie du Lapin [Histological Atlas of the Rabbit]. 1975. Paris: Librairie Maloine. 310 pp.

The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 3rd ed. J.E. Harkness and J.E. Wagner. 1989. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 230 pp.

*The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. S.H. Weisbroth, R.E. Flatt, and A.L. Kraus, eds. 1974. New York: Academic Press. 496 pp.

Laboratory Anatomy of the Rabbit. 2nd ed. C.A. McLaughlin and R.B. Chiasson. 1979. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown. 68 pp.

A Laboratory Guide to the Anatomy of the Rabbit. 2nd ed. E.H. Craigie. 1966. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 115 pp.

Necropsy Guide: Rodents and the Rabbit. D.B. Feldman and J.C. Seely, eds. 1988. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 176 pp.

The Rabbit: A Model for the Principles of Mammalian Physiology and Surgery. H.N. Kaplan and E.H. Timmons. 1979. New York: Academic Press. 167 pp.

Rabbit Feeding and Nutrition. P.R. Cheeke. 1987. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 376 pp.

Rodents

Anatomy of the Guinea Pig. G. Cooper and A.L. Schiller. 1975. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 417 pp.

Anatomy of the Laboratory Rat. R. Hebel and M.W. Stromberg. 1976. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. 173 pp.

Anatomy of the Rat. E.C. Greene. Reprinted 1970. New York: Hafner. 370 pp.

The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 3rd ed. J.E. Harkness and J.E. Wagner. 1989. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 230 pp.

The Biology of the Guinea Pig. J.E. Wagner and P.J. Manning, eds. 1976. New York: Academic Press. 317 pp.

Biology of the House Mouse. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. No. 47. R.J. Berry, ed. 1981. London: Academic Press. 715 pp.

A Colour Atlas of the Rat■Dissection Guide. R.J. Olds and J.R. Olds. 1979. London: Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd. 112 pp.

The Golden Hamster: Its Biology and Use in Medical Research. R.A. Hoffman, P.F. Robinson, and H. Magalhaes, eds. 1968. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 545 pp.

Handbook on the Laboratory Mouse. C.G. Crispens, Jr. 1975. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 267 pp.

Histological Atlas of the Laboratory Mouse. W.D. Gude, G.E. Cosgrove, and G.P. Hirsch. 1982. New York: Plenum. 151 pp.

*Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Husbandry, and Use. National Research Council. 1989. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Immunologically Compromised Rodents. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 246 pp.

*Laboratory animal management: Rodents. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Rodents. 1977. ILAR News 20(3):L1-L15.

Laboratory Hamsters. G.L. Van Hoosier, Jr. and C.W. McPherson, eds. 1987. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 400 pp.

*The Laboratory Rat. H.J. Baker, J.R. Lindsey, and S.H. Weisbroth, eds. Vol. I, Biology and Diseases, 1979, 435 pp.; Vol. II, Research Applications, 1980, 276 pp. New York: Academic Press.

Long-term holding of laboratory rodents. Institute of boratory Animal Resources Committee on Long-Term Holding of Laboratory Rodents. 1976. ILAR News 19(4):L1-L25.

*The Mouse in Biomedical Research. H.L. Foster, J.D. Small, and J.G. Fox, eds. Vol. I, History, Genetics, and Wild Mice, 1981, 306 pp.; Vol. II, Diseases, 1982, 449 pp.; Vol. III, Normative Biology, Immunology, and Husbandry, 1983, 447 pp.; Vol. IV, Experimental Biology and Oncology, 1982, 561 pp. New York: Academic Press.

Necropsy Guide: Rodents and the Rabbit. D.B. Feldman and J.C. Seely, eds. 1988. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 176 pp.

Research Techniques in the Rat. C. Petty. 1982. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. 382 pp.

Other Animals

Laboratory Anatomy of the Turtle. L.M. Ashley. 1955. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 50 pp.

Laboratory Animal Management: Marine Invertebrates. National Research Council. 1981. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Marine Invertebrates. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 382 pp.

*Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Subcommittee on Birds, Committee on Standards. 1977. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 116 pp.

Mammals of the Sea. S.H. Ridgway, ed. 1972. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 830 pp.

Physiology and Behaviour of the Pigeon. M. Abs, ed. 1983. London: Academic Press. 360 pp.

The Pigeon. W.M. Levi. 1974 (reprinted 1981). Sumter, SC: Levi Publishing. 667 pp.

GENETICS AND NOMENCLATURE

Genetics and Probability in Animal Breeding Experiments. E.L. Green. 1981. New York: Oxford University Press. 271 pp.

Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Strains of Rats. A Manual on Colony Management, Basic Monitoring Techniques, and Genetic Variants of the Laboratory Rat. H.J. Hedrich, ed. In press. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.

Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. 2nd ed. M.F. Lyon and A.G. Searle, eds. 1989. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 876 pp.

Holders of inbred and mutant mice in the United States. Including the rules for standardized nomenclature of inbred strains, gene loci, and biochemical variants. D.D. Greenhouse, ed. 1984. ILAR News 27(2):1A-30A.

Inbred and Genetically Defined Strains of Laboratory Animals. P.L. Altman and D.D. Katz, eds. 1979. Part 1, Mouse and Rat, 418 pp.; Part 2, Hamster, Guinea Pig, Rabbit, and Chicken, 319 pp. Bethesda, MD: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Available from: Pergamon Press, Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523.)

Inbred Strains in Biomedical Research. M.F.W. Festing. 1979. London: Macmillan. 483 pp.

International standardized nomenclature for outbred stocks of laboratory animals. International Committee on Laboratory Animals (now called International Council for Laboratory Animal Science or ICLAS). 1972. A report of the Working Party to prepare an International Nomenclature System for Outbred Animals. ICLA Bull. 30:4-17. (Available from: ILAR, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418.)

Laboratory animal management: Genetics. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 1979. ILAR News 23(1):A1-A16.

Origins of Inbred Mice. H.C. Morse, ed. 1978. New York: Academic Press. 719 pp.

NUTRITION

Control of diets in laboratory animal experimentation. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. 1978. ILAR News 21(2):A1-A12.

Effect of Environment on Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. National Research Council. 1981. A report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Environmental Stress, Committee on Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 152 pp.

Feeding and Nutrition of Nonhuman Primates. R.S. Harris, ed. 1970. New York: Academic Press.310 pp.

Feeds and Feeding. 3rd ed. A.E. Cullison. 1981. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing. 600 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 6th rev. ed. National Research Council. 1984. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. A report of the Board on Agriculture Subcommittee on Beef Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 90 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Cats. Rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Panel on Cat Nutrition, Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1978. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 49 pp. (See also Taurine Requirement of the Cat.)

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 5th rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1978. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 76 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. Rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Dog Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1974. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 71 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Goats: Angora, Dairy, and Meat Goats in Temperate and Tropical Countries. National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. A report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Goat Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 84 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Horses. 4th rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1978. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 33 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. 3rd rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1978. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 96 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Panel on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition, Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1978. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 83 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 8th rev. ed. National Research Council. 1984. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. A report of the Board on Agriculture Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 71 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits. 2nd rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Rabbit Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1977. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 30 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. 5th rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Sheep Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1975. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 72 pp.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 8th rev. ed. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 52 pp.

Nutrition and Disease in Experimental Animals. W.D. Tavernor, ed. 1970. London: Bailliere, Tindall and Cassell. 165 pp.

Rabbit Feeding and Nutrition. P.R. Cheeke. 1987. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 376 pp.

Taurine Requirement of the Cat. National Research Council. 1981. A report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Ad Hoc Panel on Taurine Requirement of the Cat, Committee on Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 4 pp.

United States■Canadian Tables of Feed Composition. 3rd rev. ed. National Research Council. 1982. A report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Subcommittee on Feed Composition, Committee on Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 148 pp.

Vitamins in Animal Nutrition. Comparative Aspects to Human Nutrition. L.R. McDowell. 1989. San Diego: Academic Press. 486 pp.

OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND LABORATORY SAFETY

Allergy to laboratory animals in laboratory technicians and animal keepers. G. Agrup, L. Belin, L. Sjostedt, and S. Skerfving. 1986. Brit. J. Indust. Med. 43: 192-198.

Biohazards and Zoonotic Problems of Primate Procurement, Quarantine and Research. M.L. Simmons, ed. 1975. Cancer Research Safety Monograph Series, Vol. 2. DHEW Pub. No. (NIH) 76-890. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 137 pp.

Biological Safety Manual for Research Involving Oncogenic Viruses. National Cancer Institute. 1976. DHEW Pub. No. 76-1165. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

*Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 2nd ed. Centers for Disease Control and National Institutes of Health. 1988. DHHS Pub. No. (NIH) 88-8395. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 139 pp. Classification of Etiologic Agents on the Basis of Hazard. 4th ed. U.S. Public Health Service Ad Hoc Committee on the Safe Shipment and Handling of Etiologic Agents. 1974. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

*Control of biohazards associated with the use of experimental animals. W.E. Barkley and J.H. Richardson. 1984. Pp. 595-602 in Laboratory Animal Medicine, J.G. Fox, B.J. Cohen, and F.M. Loew, eds. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Design Criteria for Viral Oncology Research Facilities. National Cancer Institute. 1975. DHEW Pub. No. (NIH) 76-891. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 24 pp.

Diseases Transmitted From Animals to Man. 6th ed. W.T. Hubbert, W.F. McCulloch, and P.R. Schnurrenberger, eds. 1975. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 1,206 pp.

Guidelines for Carcinogen Bioassay in Small Rodents. J.M. Sontag, N.P. Page, and U. Saffiotti. 1976. DHEW Pub. No. (NIH) 76-801. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 65 pp.

Handbook of Laboratory Safety. 3rd ed. A.K. Furr, ed. 1990. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 704 pp.

Laboratory Acquired Infections. 2nd ed. C.H. Collins. 1988. Boston: Butterworth. 288 pp.

Laboratory safety for arboviruses and certain other viruses of vertebrates. Subcommittee on Arbovirus Safety, American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses. 1980. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29:1359-1381.

National Cancer Institute Safety Standards for Research Involving Oncogenic Viruses. National Cancer Institute. 1974. DHEW Pub. No. (NIH) 78-790. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 20 pp.

*NIH Guidelines for the Laboratory Use of Chemical Carcinogens. National Institutes of Health. 1981. NIH Pub. No. 81-2385. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 15 pp.

An Outline of the Zoonoses. P.R. Schnurrenberger and W.T. Hubbert. 1981. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 157 pp.

Potential for accidental microbial aerosol transmission in the biological laboratory. R.L. Dimmick, W.F. Vogl, and M.A. Chatigny. 1973. Pp. 246-266 in Biohazards in Biological Research, A. Hellman, M.N. Oxman, and R. Pollack, eds. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Safe Laboratories: Principles and Practices for Design and Remodeling. P. Ashbrook and M. Renfrew, eds. 1990. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers. 135 pp.

Selected zoonoses and other health hazards. J.G. Fox, C.E. Newcomer, and H. Rozmiarek. 1984. Pp. 614-648 in Laboratory Animal Medicine, J.G. Fox, B.J. Cohen, and F.M. Loew, eds. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Man. J.P. Dubey and C.P. Beattie. 1988. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 220 pp.

PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY

General References

Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians. D.M. McCurnin. 1985. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 511 pp.

Color Atlas of Comparative Veterinary Hematology. C.M. Hawkey and T.B. Dennett. 1989. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 192 pp.

Color Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of the Pig. W.J. Smith, D.J. Taylor, and R.H.C. Penny. 1990. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 192 pp.

Color Atlas of Veterinary Histology. W.J. Bacha, Jr. and L.M. Wood. 1990. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 269 pp.

Comparative Neuropathology. J.R.M. Innes and L.Z. Saunders, eds. 1962. New York: Academic Press. 839 pp.

Current Veterinary Therapy. VIII. Small Animal Practice. 6th ed. R.W. Kirk, ed. 1983. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 1,267 pp.

Handbook of Veterinary Drugs: A Compendium for Research and Clinical Use. I.S. Rossoff. 1975. New York: Springer Publishing. 730 pp.

An Introduction to Comparative Pathology: A Consideration of Some reactions of Human and Animal Tissues to Injurious Agents. G.A. Gresham and A.R. Jennings. 1962. New York: Academic Press. 412 pp.

Introduction to Veterinary Pathology. N.F. Cheville. 1988. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 537 pp.

Laboratory Profiles of Small Animal Diseases. C. Sodikoff. 1981. Santa Barbara, CA: American Veterinary Publications. 215 pp.

Nutrition and Disease in Experimental Animals. W.D. Tavernor, ed. 1970. Proceedings of a symposium organized by the British Small Animal Veterinary Association, the British Laboratory Animal Veterinary Association, and the Laboratory Animal Scientific Association. London: Bailliere, Tindall and Cassell. 165 pp.

Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 3rd. ed. M.M. Benjamin. 1978. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 352 pp.

Parasites of Laboratory Animals. R.J. Flynn. 1973. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 884 pp.

Pathology of Aging Rats. J.D. Burek. 1975. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 230 pp.

Pathology of Laboratory Animals. 2 Vols. K. Benirschke, F.M. Garner, and T.C. Jones. 1978. New York: Springer Verlag. 2,171 pp. plus indexes.

The Pathology of Laboratory Animals. W.E. Ribelin and J.R. McCoy, eds. 1965. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. 436 pp.

The Problems of Laboratory Animal Disease. R.J.C. Harris, ed. 1962. New York: Academic Press. 265 pp.

Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. 2 Vols. S.J. Ettinger, ed. 1983. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 2,260 pp.

Veterinary Clinical Parasitology. 5th ed. M.W. Sloss and R.L. Kemp. 1978. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 276 pp.

Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 3rd ed. E.H. Coles. 1980. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders. 562 pp.

Veterinary Pathology. 5th ed. T.C. Jones and R.D. Hunt. 1983. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 1,792 pp.

Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5th ed. L.M. Jones, N.H. Booth, and L.E. McDonald. 1982. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1,134 pp.

Species-Specific References

Carnivores

Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. J.G. Fox. 1988. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 345 pp.

Domestic Animals

Current Veterinary Therapy. Food Animal Practice. J.L. Howard, ed. 1981. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 1,233 pp.

Diseases of Poultry. 8th ed. M.S. Hofstad, B.W. Calnek, C.F. Helmboldt, W.J. Reid, and H.W. Yoder, Jr., eds. 1984. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 832 pp.

Diseases of Sheep. R. Jensen. 1974. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 389 pp.

Diseases of Swine. 5th ed. A.D. Leman, R.D. Glock, W.L. Mengeling, R.H.C. Penny, E. Scholl, and B. Straw, eds. 1981. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 844 pp.

Nematode Parasites of Domestic Animals and of Man. N.D. Levine. 1968. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing. 600 pp.

Pathology of Domestic Animals. 3rd ed. K.V.F. Jubb and P.C. Kennedy. 1985. Vol. 1, 593 pp.; Vol. 2, 613 pp.; Vol. 3, 527 pp. New York: Academic Press.

Fishes

Diseases of Fishes. 1971. Book 2A, Bacterial Diseases of Fishes, G.L. Bullock, D.A. Conroy, and S.F. Snieszko, 151 pp.; Book 2B, Identification of Fish Pathogenic Bacteria, G.L. Bullock, 41 pp. Neptune, NJ: T.F.H. Publications.

Diseases of Fishes. Book 4, Fish Immunology. D.P. Anderson. 1974. Neptune, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. 240 pp.

Diseases of Fishes. Book 5, Environmental Stress and Fish Diseases. G.A. Wedemeyer, F.P. Meyer, and L. Smith. 1976. Neptune, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. 192 pp.

Fish Pathology. R.J. Roberts, ed. 1978. London: Bailliere Tindall. 328 pp.

Parasites of Freshwater Fishes: A Review of Their Treatment and Control. G.L. Hoffman and F.P. Meyer. 1974. Neptune, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. 224 pp.

The Pathology of Fishes. W.E. Ribelin and G. Migaki, eds. 1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin. 1,004 pp.

Systemic Pathology of Fish. A Text and Atlas of Comparative Tissue Responses in Diseases of Teleosts. H.W. Ferguson. 1989. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 263 pp.

Nonhuman Primates

Comparative Pathology in Monkeys. B.A. Lapin and L.A. Yakovleva. 1963. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 272 pp.

Diseases of Laboratory Primates. T.C. Ruch. 1959. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 600 pp.

Pathology of Simian Primates. R.N.T.W. Fiennes, ed. 1972. Part I, General Pathology; Part II, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. Basel: S. Karger.

The Primate Malarias. G.R. Coatney, W.E. Collins, M.W. Warren, and P.G. Contacos. 1971. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 366 pp.

Zoonoses of Primates. The Epidemiology and Ecology of Simian Diseases in Relation to Man. R.N.T.W. Fiennes. 1967. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. 190 pp.

Rabbits and Rodents

Color Atlas of Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Lesions in Aging Mice. C.H. Hrith and J.M. Ward. 1988. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 109 pp.

Common Parasites of Laboratory Rodents and Lagomorphs. Laboratory Animal Handbook. D. Owen. 1972. London: Medical Research Council. 140 pp.

A guide to infectious diseases of guinea pigs, gerbils, hamsters, and rabbits. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Laboratory Animal Diseases. 1974. ILAR News 17(4):ID1-ID16.

Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Research Council. In press. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (An abbreviated guide entitled Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats is also available.)

Pathology of Aging Syrian Hamsters. R.E. Schmidt, R.L. Eason, G.B. Hubbard, J.T. Young, and D.L. Eisenbrandt. 1983. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 272 pp.

Pathology of Laboratory Mice and Rats. P.L. Altman, ed. 1985. Biology Databook Series. Aberdeen: Pergamon. 700 pp.

Pathology of Laboratory Rats and Mice. E. Cotchin and F.J.C. Roe, eds. 1967. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. 848 pp.

Pathology of the Syrian hamster. F. Homburger, ed. 1972. Progr. Exp. Tumor Res. 16:1-637.

Other Animals

Disease Diagnosis and Control in North American Marine Aquaculture. C.J. Sindermann. 1977. New York: Elsevier. 329 pp.

Pathology of Zoo Animals. L.A. Griner. 1983. San Diego, CA: Zoological Society of San Diego. 608 pp.

The Principal Diseases of Lower Vertebrates. H. Reichenbach-Klinke and E. Elkan. 1965. New York: Academic Press. 600 pp.

DESIGN OF EDUCATIONAL COURSES

*Design of a course to introduce research personnel in the care and use of laboratory animals. D.R. Faulkner. 1989. Lab Anim. 18(1):21-25.

An employee training program in research animal care and use. J.G. Hamner, B. Miller, and F. Ali. 1987. Lab Anim. 16(6):53-57.

*A pilot program on principles of animal experimentation for research technicians. G.L. Van Hoosier, Jr., B. Hammond, D. Johnson, and M.B. Dennis, Jr. 1985. Lab. Anim. Sci. 35:541.

Principles of Instructional Design. 3rd ed. R.M. Gagne, L.J. Briggs, and W.W. Wager. 1987. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 384 pp.

Training for animal welfare. J. Larson. 1988. J. Am. College Toxicol. 7(4):441-446.

USDA's Perspective on Education. J.W. Glosser and P.H. York. 1988. J. Am. College Toxicol. 7(4):429-433.


3

Audiovisual Materials

No single reference includes all audiovisual materials that might in some way relate to the care and use of laboratory animals. The following organizations, however, publish catalogs that provide information on content, format, and costs of most programs available:

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). Publishes a catalog of slide-tape, film, and computer disc programs on all aspects of laboratory animal care and use. Maintains slide programs, primarily for training postdoctoral veterinary students, which are loaned free to members and for a fee to nonmembers. Contact: AALAS, 70 Timber Creek Drive, Cordova, TN 38018 (901-754-8621).

American Venterinary Association (AVMA). Publishes the Veterinary audiovisual Catalog, which lists programs relevant to veterinary medicine. Maintains library of films and videotapes that are loaned to members free of charge. Contact: AVMA, 930 North Meacham Road, Schaumburg, IL 60196 (800-248-2862).

Atlantic Provinces Council on the Sciences, Animal Care Committee. Published a catalog, compiled by William Threlfall (1989), entitled Audiovisual Materials Concerning the Care, Use, Behavior and General Biology of Animals, which contains a reading list and a list of audiovisual materials on a wide variety of subjects and on a large number of animal species. Contact: Dr. William Threlfall, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Canada (709-737-7498).

The following institutions maintain and lend or sell audiovisual programs on animal care and use:

Animal Welfare Institute. Has books and reprints expressing animal welfare advocate views on animal use and a film on humane care and housing of dogs in an experimental surgery laboratory. Contact: Animal Welfare Institute, P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007 (202-337-2333).

Center to Study Human-Animal Relationships and Environments. Has videotapes on interrelationships between people and animals, including animal behavior, domestication, human-animal bond, and research use. Contact: CEN/SHARE, University of Minnesota Media Distribution, Box 734 Mayo Building, 420 Delaware Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (612-624-7906).

Foundation for Biomedical Research. Has videotapes, posters, books, and brochures on the human health benefits of using animals in research. Contact: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 818 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20006 (202-457-0654).

Interactive Teleducation Corporation. Has image-based, computer-assisted interactive training programs on various laboratory animal topics. Contact: Innovative Medical Marketing Associates, 226 Sunny Jim Drive, Medford, NJ 08055 (609-654-5561).

Iowa State University. Has a slide programs, videotapes, and films on a variety of topics, including gross and microscopic anatomy and surgical techniques. A catalog is available. Contact: Biomedical Communications, 2261 College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (515-294-6988).

Laboratory Animal Training Association. Has videotapes, manuals, and a program that uses both computer programs and videotapes on the humane care and use of laboratory animals and on specific techniques. Contact: Laboratory Animal Training Association, 54 Remington Drive, Suite 301, Highland Village, TX 75067 (800-262-5282).

MTM Associates, Inc. Has videotapes and computer programs on basic biomethodology for laboratory animals. Contact: MTM Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 1606, Manassas, VA 22110 (Maryland phone number, 301-731-7360).

National Agricultural Library. Has slides, films, and videotapes on care and use of laboratory animals. For a catalog, contact: Animal Welfare Information Center, NAL, Room 205, Beltsville, MD 20705 (301-344-3212). To borrow audiovisual materials, contact: Lending Branch, NAL, Beltsville, MD 20705 (301-344-3755).

North Carolina State University. Has two slide/audiotape programs on anatomy, one on mice and rats and another on rabbits. Contact: Dr. James E. Smallwood, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Radiology, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606 (919-829-4223). Also has videotapes on a variety of surgical and other techniques in animals. Contact: Biomedical Communications, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606 (919-829-4489).

Pennsylvania State University. Has audiovisual programs on ethology of primates, hamsters, and other species. Contact: Audio-Visual Services, Pennsylvania State University, Special Services Building, University Park, PA 16802 (800-826-0132).

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Has videotapes on the ethics and use of animals in research. Contact: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 19230, Springfield, IL 62794 (217-782-3318).

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. Has videotapes on the use of animals in research. Contact: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, UV Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430 (806-743-2288).

University of California, Davis. Has slide programs and videotapes on techniques using laboratory animals. Contact: Office of the Dean, Instruction, University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (916-752-6521).

University of Florida. Has videotapes on diseases of rabbits and rodents. Contact: Learning Resources Center Television, University of Florida, Box J16, Health Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32610-0016. (Make initial contact by phone at 904-392-4143).

University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources. Has slide sets with audiotapes and manuals on laboratory animal science and medicine and on performing a variety of techniques in the common laboratory species. A catalog is available. Contact: HSCER, University of Washington, T-281 Health Sciences SB-56, Seattle, WA 98195 (206-685-1186).

Wisconsin Regional Primate Center. Has slides, audiocassettes, films, and videotapes on nonhuman primate-related topics. Contact: Audio-Visual Services, University of Wisconsin, 1223 Capital Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 (608-263-3512).

V

HOW TO DEVELOP, DELIVER, AND EVALUATE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

1

How to Approach the Task of Education

EDUCATIONAL GOALS

The goal of education and training in laboratory animal care and use goes far beyond meeting stated requirements of regulating agencies. The intent of the requirement for education is to stimulate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that will ensure humane care of animals used in teaching, testing, and research. The education and training methods you select will depend on your audience, the objectives that have been set, and the resources you have available.

Desirable changes in behavior do not automatically follow introduction of information. To help translate knowledge into performance, be sure the learner:

knows concepts well enough to integrate them into a complex
 behavioral pattern;
      develops confidence in skills associated with desired
 behaviors;
      connects rules and associated behaviors with a personal
 benefit;
      connects principles and rules with practical situations;
      understands when and how to apply information;
      knows the risks of noncompliance;
      has access to services and resources available locally and
 nationally; and
      receives positive feedback or rewards for the desired
 behaviors.
 
    Changes in attitudes are stimulated by acquiring information
 and increasing skills, but they are reinforced by interaction
 with peers.  Therefore, to facilitate a change in attitude the
 education program for investigators should:
      publicize both institutional and peer support for attending
 educational programs and for complying with legal requirements;
      encourage questions and discussions;
      build networks; and
      provide a forum for exchanging ideas and expressing
 concerns.
 
    A final goal of the program should be to document the
 effectiveness of the institution's approach to training
 scientists, technicians, and others involved with animal care and
 use.
 

SETTING OBJECTIVES

Objectives must be established with a particular audience in mind. A measurable objective is a statement of what the learner should be able to do on completion of a particular educational or training experience. For example, at the end of a lecture, an appropriate goal would be for the learner to demonstrate recall, verbally or in writing. (Note: writing assumes a higher level of competence with language.) A higher level objective would be to ask the participant to apply information to a stated situation or case or to discriminate between situations as to whether a concept applies. Following a lecture and a hands-on laboratory, an appropriate goal would be for the participant to carry out a procedure acceptably, incorporating information and skills. There are three important considerations in setting objectives. First, they must be in line with the outcomes desired. Second, they should be consistent with real-life applications. Finally, the training must provide both the information and the skills to enable the learner to meet the objectives. Desired outcomes are generally increased knowledge or skills to enable performance of a task or changes in attitude that will be reflected in changes in behaviors.

SELECTING METHODS

Once specific subjects are identified for presentation, a variety of educational methods should be considered. Approaches should match the course content to the needs of the learners and to the available resources. Recommended methods include:

lectures, seminars;
      interactive sessions ■ discussions with peers: listening
 teams, problem solving, case studies;
      workshops
      demonstrations, wet labs;
      individualized study ■ readings, videorecordings for home
 viewing, audiotapes, computerized teaching modules or reviews,
 audio programs; and
      assessment tools
      self-assessment, self-reporting.
 

Lectures/Seminars

A lecture/seminar format is recommended for presenting most of the introductory, core block of material. This format is suitable for groups of ny size, communicates the institutional mandate well, and makes the most efficient use of resources. A session might include several speakers who provide an introduction to the various topics listed. Prepackaged video or slide programs can be used effectively for portions of the presentation, particularly if the number of content experts is limited.

Interactive Sessions

Provide some interactive experiences during the presentation of the core block, if at all possible. Suggestions for the presentation include the following:

Provide a panel of experts to address an issue and respond to questions raised by participants (Example: how to write a research protocol that meets the review needs of the institutional animal care and use committee).

Break a large group into smaller groups for a follow-up discussion of an issue presented (Example: responsibility of the investigator for health and safety of research associates).

Break a large group into smaller groups in accordance with an interest expressed or a commonality of their work (Example: people whose protocols include pain management or postsurgical monitoring in a particular species).

Have a structured refreshment break during which participants are asked to introduce themselves to someone they have not met and to discuss an issue (Example: what would you do if you observed another investigator who you felt was not complying with guidelines).

Workshops/Laboratories

A workshop/laboratory is an opportunity to gain hands-on experience. Insofar as possible, labs should be species- or technique-specific, and groups should be kept small. The sessions should provide opportunities for each individual to participate in skill-building activities such as methods of handling animals and performing necessary procedures.

Adult learners, particularly those in a profession, tend to avoid situations in which they cannot demonstrate competence. Therefore, it is usually helpful to introduce the lab with a demonstration, slide show, or video presentation to provide background information. Demonstration with models is also highly recommended prior to hands-on experience. However, media is not a substitute for the hands-on experience needed for developing skills. The facilitator must be encouraging, positive, and patient toward learners who have little or no prior experience with a particular species of animal or procedure.

Individualized Study

Adult learners appreciate individualized, independent study. A variety of individualized study approaches should be used, including:

recommended texts;
      reprint files (computerized);
      videotapes, slides, and print visuals;
      computer simulations;
      newsletters to update information, introduce new resources
 and equipment, and provide reminders of policies;
      checklists and protocols posted in prominent places;
      a "buddy system" in which new investigators are introduced
 to  more experienced researchers, particularly for highly
 specialized procedures; and
      special-interest or study groups.
 

Self Assessment

Self-assessment tools are a form of individualized independent study. They provide an investigator with an instrument to test his or her knowledge in a confidential way. This self-assessment tool could be a pencil-and-paper instrument or a computerized program. The essential characteristics are that the results are strictly for the benefit of the person completing the program and that the program identifies areas of weakness.

Self-assessment can be combined with self-reporting: a statement that the person has completed the program.

OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

Some investigators may resent a requirement for education or give the program a low priority. Steps must be taken to overcome potential resistance. Some suggestions are as follows:

Obtain an endorsement of the program from the highest institutional official and send out letters announcing the program over his/her signature.

Involve several key people in planning the educational offerings, for example, people at the institution who represent the needs and views of the researchers, people who have the respect of investigators, or a person from whom resistance is anticipated. Explain the requirements, available resources, and limitations to those people, and encourage them to problem-solve and incorporate their ideas into an action plan. Name these people in publicity about the courses.

Make compliance with institutional goals as personalized and as easy as possible.

Develop packets containing species-specific information relating to requirements and guidelines.

Ensure access to information. Develop reading lists and catalog books and reprint files in the resource library by species and subject for easy access. If a major institutional library will be used as the resource library, arrange for a demonstration on how to locate relevant materials. Develop a "reference bank" of local investigators who have experience with exotic species or are experts in performing advanced techniques.

Find out from researchers what obstacles to implementation they perceive and develop a mechanism for reducing difficulties in changing behaviors.

Reward and encourage compliance by acknowledging investigators for their cooperation following successful inspections or accreditation visits. Build a positive image with an active public relations program, such as by displaying articles about research accomplishments.

CONCLUSIONS

A complete education program for researchers and their assistants will:

disseminate required information
      increase awareness
      improve skills
      affect behaviors
      change attitudes

A well-organized educational program will conserve time and resources, be customized to the content needs of the learners, and be flexible enough to encourage enthusiastic participation.


2

How to Plan and Implement a Training Course

Careful planning and preparation are required to provide informative, well-organized courses. Attention to detail cannot be overemphasized. Up to 6 months should be allowed to organize and implement the first offering of each course.

IDENTIFYING THE TARGET AUDIENCE

Each course must be designed for a specific audience to encourage active participation and achieve desired results. The audience should be defined on the basis of job responsibilities, educational level, experience, motivation, and training needs. This audience profile will help the trainer establish program goals, objectives, content, and presentation method. For example, a program for people who support animal research efforts peripherally, such as security, janitorial, or equipment maintenance personnel, will be designed differently from a program for scientific staff. Likewise, a course for newly hired research staff will include introductory information that may be inappropriate or redundant for staff members who have been employed by the institution for several years.

ALLOCATING A BUDGET/FUNDING

A course budget should be allocated to include honoraria and travel expenses for guest speakers; duplication of handout materials; rental, purchase, or development of audiovisual support materials; room and equipment rental; and costs of publicity.

DETERMINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals and learning objectives must be defined clearly during the early phases of course development. As Kemp (1971) has stated, "A good goal is a nonambiguous statement. It means exactly the same thing to all other teachers who use it." Each speaker or course facilitator should be given specific instructional goals for his/her section, which may be communication of information, motivation, or skill building. From these goals, specific learning objectives can be developed that reflect the institution's mission, the scope of the laboratory animal research projects, and the audience profile. In traditional academic settings, selected learning objectives would become the basis of test questions. In most adult education settings, the learning objectives are shared with course participants, who can use them to structure their learning experience or, after the course, to assess their retention of course content. Sample objectives or self-assessment statements are shown in Appendix III for the Core, Species-Specific, Pain-Management, and Surgery modules.

SCHEDULING THE COURSE

The frequency with which training programs are given and their scheduling depends on the total number of people who will receive training, the approximate number who will attend each session, and the availability of facilities and other resources. Mandatory training, which includes the core material required by federal regulations and institutional policy, is likely to be offered more frequently than are training opportunities for special topics or skill development. Offering multiple options for the dates and time of training will better enable scientists to participate with minimal disruption to their research and teaching efforts.

RESERVING FACILITIES

The training facility or facilities should be identified and evaluated before final scheduling is begun. Selection of a location convenient to the participants should be a primary consideration. The size of the room, the acoustics, and the lighting must be appropriate for the teaching format.

IDENTIFYING AND CONTACTING LECTURERS

Once the schedule is established and time is allocated for each content area, speakers for each segment of the program should be identified and contacted. The choice of speakers might include members of the laboratory animal resource staff; investigators with expertise in a topic area; members of the institutional animal care and use committee; and personnel from public affairs, safety, or occupational health departments. Guest speakers might be desirable for certain topics. The selection criteria for speakers should include not only professional qualifications, but also their level of enthusiasm, oral presentation skills, commitment to the training effort, and ability to speak at the level of the participants.

OBTAINING AND REVIEWING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS

Audiovisuals are effective teaching tools and will help reinforce what is being said. Research has shown that people remember only 10% of what they hear, but will retain 50% of what they both hear and see. The materials and the equipment should be identified and reserved. The equipment must, of course, be compatible with the slides, videotapes, or films that are to be used.

All audiovisual aids should be previewed for content and technical quality. It may be appropriate to show only part of a film or slide program or to add slides to supplement the program. Slides or overheads should be uncluttered and easy to understand. It is better to use several slides than to crowd too much information on a single slide. Dark backgrounds and colors are more effective than are black on white.

Audiovisual resources can be borrowed from a number of sources, including the National Agriculture Library, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, and the Foundation for Biomedical Research. Part IV furnishes more detailed information on ordering and purchasing audiovisual programs. In most instances, orders must be placed at least 4 weeks in advance.

ASSEMBLING REFERENCE MATERIALS

A large amount of information can be provided to participants as reference materials. These materials must be identified and ordered or duplicated. They might include sections from reference texts, institutional manuals, reprints, or copies of resources such as the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC, 1985) and the 1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia (AVMA, 1986). A bibliography has been provided in Part IV to assist in the selection of appropriate literature. Reference material should relate directly to course material presented to the participants.

PUBLICIZING THE COURSE

The program must be well publicized beginning approximately 6 to 8 weeks before the program is offered. This requires producing, duplicating, and mailing the announcement. Inclusion of all or part of the institutional commitment letter might encourage participation. A statement of the program's purpose and a brief outline of the topics and speakers should also be included.

Investigators should be asked to indicate which session(s) they plan to attend to ensure adequate seating and allow preparation of an appropriate number of handouts. Confirmation of attendance or program reminders should be distributed approximately 2 weeks before the program starting date.

REFERENCES

AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). 1986. 1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 188:252-268.

Kemp, J.E., 1971. The Instructional Design Process. Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers.

NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Pub. No. 86-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 83 pp.


3

Evaluation

EVALUATING THE INSTUTIONAL PROGRAM

Evaluation of a program charts progress toward institutional goals and also measures changes in attitudes and behaviors of the entire target population. To measure success in reaching the target audience, it is necessary to obtain baseline data, such as estimates of the size of the target audience at present plus estimates of the annual influx of new people. This information can be used to determine the percentage of the target audience who have participated in the education and training program.

Improvements in level of knowledge at an institutional level can be documented by comparing responses of groups that have attended courses with those that have not. It is important to gather baseline data before the first course is offered, as people who attend are likely to share information and demonstrate skills to others who have not yet attended, thus raising the knowledge and skill level for personnel taking subsequent courses. To evaluate success at an institutional level, course results should be compared with data obtained before the first course was given.

An attitude is an internal state that can be inferred from a behavior; therefore, attitudes can be measured by the choices an individual makes (Gagne and Briggs, 1979). To document changes in attitude, identify behaviors that indicate undesirable attitudes and behaviors that would result if attitudes were changed. For example, if an emphasis of the program is to increase cooperation between researchers and veterinary care staff, the number of contacts could be documented over a period of several weeks before the course is given and compared with the number of contacts after the course has been given. Other possibilities are to measure the number of people who attend education and training sessions voluntarily or changes in the use of animals. Consideration must be given to all elements that will be measured. For example, if the comparison is between personnel voluntarily attending at the beginning of the education program and those voluntarily attending later, it must be remembered that with each course given, a smaller pool of untrained people may remain, and this pool will contain the personnel who are most resistant to participating in the program. Likewise, a simple change in the number or species of animals used may be a misleading measure, since animal use must correlate with the number and type of projects and the effectiveness of research data obtained.

EVALUATING THE COURSE

Courses should be evaluated routinely to monitor their effectiveness and identify those portions that require modification. Program participants should be surveyed immediately following each training session to gather specific information about the course organization and content and quality of instruction (see Table 3.1).

The methods and instruments used to elicit responses should be consistent, so that the training coordinator can use both historical and current information to evaluate programs and recommend changes. The most common method of evaluation is a check list of topics, with a choice of descriptive responses ranging on a scale from "1" to "10" (see Table 3.2). Statistical analyses usually require a variance of three points to distinguish differences in responses. Open-ended questions are more difficult to collate and quantitate but might provide insight that cannot be elicited from form questions. Forced-choice (yes or no) questions are often used, particularly when the questions involve value judgments or opinions.

A follow-up survey, conducted 6-12 months later, should be used to evaluate the impact training has had on the participant's planning and conduct of research, testing, and teaching (see Table 3.3). Qualified members of the laboratory animal medical staff may also observe actual research procedures that involve animal handling to ensure that the training has been effective and correct technique is being practiced. The institutional animal care and use committee might want to develop its own set of guidelines for evaluating the investigator's training and ability to conduct animal research.

REFERENCE

Gagne, R.M. and L.J. Briggs. 1979. Principles of Instructional Design. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 384 pp.

TABLE 3.1 Suggested Items for Immediate Course Evaluation

Course Organization
   Allocation of time
       Overall
       Individual sections Content
       Appropriateness of level
       Applicability to job requirements
 
 Individual Presentations
   Quality of instruction for each major presentation
       Preparation of speaker(s)
       Clarity and conciseness of presentation(s)
       Discussion encouraged
       Questions handled well
   Effectiveness of format
       Lecture
       Audiovisual
       Printed materials
       Small-group discussions 
       Wet-labs
 
 Satisfaction with the Course
      Which topic was most beneficial?
      What changes would you recommend?
      What topics should be added or deleted?
      Would you recommend this program to your colleagues?
 

TABLE 3.2 Examples of Evaluation Instrument Form

Position and Job Category
 
 Course Title                                      Date           
 
 
 
                                    Strongly             Strongly
                                    Agree                Disagree
 
 The course was well organized.     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 
 The time devoted to each topic was 
    appropriate.                    1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 
 The program content was appropriate for
    my job responsibilities.        1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 
 Instructor John Doe's material was well
    organized.                      1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 
 Instructor John Doe presents the material
    well.                           1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 
 I have a new level of understanding of
    the issues as a result
    of this course.                 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 
 

TABLE 3.3 Examples of Items for Follow-up Course Evaluation

Position and Job Category
 
 Course Title                                  Date
 
       Did the course help you to [for example] prepare animal
       care and use procedure statements?
       Did the course provide you with resources that were helpful
       in planning and conducting your research?
       What have you done differently as a result of this course?
 

APPENDIXES

I

Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training

U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee

The development of knowledge necessary for the improvement of the health and well-being of humans as well as other animals requires in vivo experimentation with a wide variety of animal species. Whenever U.S. Government agencies develop requirements for testing, research, or training procedures involving the use of vertebrate animals, the following principles shall be considered; and whenever these agencies actually perform or sponsor such procedures, the responsible institutional official shall ensure that these principles are adhered to:

I. The transportation, care, and use of animals should be in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) and other applicable Federal laws, guidelines, and policies.

II. Procedures involving animals should be designed and performed with due consideration of their relevance to human or animal health, the advancement of knowledge, or the good of society.

III. The animals selected for a procedure should be of an appropriate species and quality and the minimum number required to obtain valid results. Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation, and in vitro biological systems should be considered.

IV. Proper use of animals, including the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain when consistent with sound scientific practices, is imperative. Unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain and distress in other animals.

V. Procedures with animals that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia. Surgical or other painful procedures should not be performed on unanesthetized animals paralyzed by chemical agents.

VI. Animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be relieved should be painlessly killed at the end of the procedure or, if appropriate, during the procedure.

VII. The living conditions of animals should be appropriate for their species and contribute to their health and comfort. Normally the housing, feeding, and care of all animals used for biomedical purposes must be directed by a veterinarian or other scientist trained and experienced in the proper care, handling, and use of the species being maintained or studied. In any case, veterinary care shall be provided as indicated.

VIII. Investigators and other personnel shall be appropriately qualified and experienced for conducting procedures on living animals. Adequate arrangements shall be made for their in-service training, including the proper and humane care and use of laboratory animals.

IX. Where exceptions are required in relation to the provisions of these Principles, the decisions should not rest with the investigators directly concerned but should be made, with due regard to Principle II, by an appropriate review group such as an institutional animal research committee. Such exceptions should not be made solely for the purpose of teaching and demonstration.

II

The Animal Welfare Information Center Kevin P. Engler and Jean A. Larson

ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER ESTABLISHED

In 1985, Congress amended the Animal Welfare Act (PL 99-198). This amendment authorized the establishment of an information service at the National Agricultural Library (NAL) that would, ". . . in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine, provide information (1) pertinent to employee training; (2) which could prevent unintended duplication of animal experimentation as determined by the needs of the research facility; and (3) on improved methods of animal experimentation, including methods which could reduce or replace animal use and minimize pain and distress to animals, such as anesthetic and analgesic procedures." The information service, established at NAL in 1986, was designated the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC). NAL houses 13 such information centers covering a variety of important agricultural topics.

Appropriations of $750,000 per year for fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988 to fund the new information center were directed to the library through the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Funding for FY 1989 was added to NAL's base budget. The funding has been used to provide services to patrons, develop information products, purchase reference materials, and hire staff. Presently, the staff includes a coordinator and three technical information specialists.

SERVICES AND INFORMATION RESOURCES AVAILABLE THROUGH AWIC
NAL currently houses over 2 million volumes, including books, journals, newsletters, proceedings, reports, microforms, slides, videorecordings, films, and computer software. It also coordinates a national information delivery network of state land-grant universities and USDA field libraries. The substantial resources of the NAL enable the AWIC staff to supply information on a broad array of subjects. Materials commonly accessed for AWIC's clientele cover important technical, ethical, political, and legal issues related to the welfare of animals. The publication Animal Welfare Information Center Scope Notes for Indexers outlines the animals and subject areas considered to be within the scope of the AWIC collection. Subjects that are indexed for use by AWIC include alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education; euthanasia; analgesia; anesthesia; training and education of technicians and investigators; transportation and acquisition of animals; species husbandry; animal behavior; environmental factors affecting animals; laboratory animal management; institutional animal care and use committees; regulations and legislation concerning the humane treatment of animals; and philosophies of animal welfare or animal rights.

As directed by Congress, the AWIC staff emphasizes the acquisition of new aterials related to the welfare of laboratory animals. Literature dealing with the welfare of farm animals and wild animals, however, represents a significant portion of the present NAL collection. Literature that involves the use of research animals as experimental units but does not address the welfare of the animals is generally not indexed. This type of information is collected by the National Library of Medicine. Also, because the Primate Information Center, University of Washington, has an extensive collection of primate-related materials, literature involving the use of laboratory primates is generally not indexed by NAL.

To access its extensive information resources, the NAL provides computerized bibliographic retrieval services through its in-house database Agricultural On-Line Access (AGRICOLA). This and other databases enable the staff to develop customized bibliographies tailored to the specific information needs of the patron. Established in 1970, AGRICOLA contains nearly 2.5 million citations covering aspects of agriculture and related subjects such as plant and animal production, food and nutrition, forestry, entomology, biotechnology, and rural development. While there is currently no database specifically for animal welfare, approximately one-fifth of the AGRICOLA database is devoted to citations on animal production, laboratory animal science, veterinary medicine, and animal welfare. AGRICOLA is currently available through the database vendors DIALOG Information Retrieval Service (in files 10 and 110) and theBibliographic Retrieval Service (BRS) (in file CAIN), or commercially on compact disc. AGRICOLA/CAIN can be accessed from these vendors using standard dial-up computer terminals. The publication Searching AGRICOLA for . . . Animal Welfare details strategies and techniques for efficiently searching the database for animal welfare topics on both DIALOG and BRS. Other databases commonly utilized by the AWIC staff include the DIALOG files CRIS (60), MEDLINE (154,155), EMBASE (72,172,173), BIOSIS PREVIEWS (5,55), and CAB ABSTRACTS (50,53).

The staff also maintains vertical files of subjects and organizations related to animal care and use. These provide an excellent source of contact people and information about related organizations, as well as quick reference to current events and popular animal-related topics. The files contain records of acquisitions and clippings from current newspapers and magazines. They also include information about the history of animal welfare, legislation and guidelines pertaining to animal care and use, and organizations involved in animal welfare or animal research. Other files are devoted to specific subject-related topics such as laboratory ferrets, computer simulations, guidelines for animal care in the United Kingdom, the Draize test, laboratory animal identification, and technician training.

The staff has developed an extensive network of subject experts and organizations active in the area of animal care and use. Referrals to individuals and groups may be provided on request.

A table-top exhibit describing the purpose and functions of AWIC is available for loan to interested groups. The display is sent by overnight mail, and copies of AWIC publications can be included. Return shipment must be arranged and paid for by the requestor.

AWIC services are available to USDA employees; federal, state or local government staff; academic and private institution staff; industry staff; students; and the general public. Under some circumstances, non-USDA personnel may be billed for services. Materials held in the collection can be obtained on interlibrary loan through institutional, business, academic, or public libraries. The information sheet Document Delivery Services to Individuals details the photo, duplication and loan services to patrons for requested information. Information can be obtained by phone or mail request or by visiting AWIC in person.

AWIC REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS

To fill patron requests as quickly and thoroughly as possible, a number of bibliographic reference publications have been developed on specific topics in the area of animal welfare. These bibliographies address subjects that have been identified as critical animal welfare issues. For example, bibliographies are available on the Draize and LD50 tests, alternatives to the use of live animals for research and education, euthanasia, legislation, training materials for technicians and investigators, ethical and moral issues, transgenic animals, reference materials for members of institutional animal care and use committees, toxoplasmosis in laboratory animals, sources of simulation software, and laboratory animal housing and management. All AWIC bibliographies are distributed without charge. Many of these bibliographies are routinely updated to reflect new developments in each area, and efforts will continue to be directed toward developing new reference publications.

PROJECTS SUPPORTED BY AWIC

Since 1987, AWIC has supported a number of projects, either financially or through active participation, that promote the mandates of the Animal Welfare Act. The following projects were funded with grant monies provided by AWIC:

An annotated bibliography of important literature relating to animal welfare entitled Laboratory Animal Welfare Bibliography, compiled by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW). (Available from SCAW and AWIC). An updated bibliography, also supported by AWIC, is in preparation.

A handbook, partially funded by AWIC, produced by the National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, entitled Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals.

An educational videotape program, Alternatives in Animal Research, produced by Texas University Health Sciences Center, which will survey past and present ethical issues relating to animal research and discuss the concepts of reduction, refinement, and replacement in the context of experimental design and planning.

Proceedings of a conference held June 22-25, 1988, by the Sientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) entitled Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues, covering various aspects of animal experimentation. (Available for purchase from SCAW at $25.00 per copy.)

Two updated guidelines documents, Laboratory Animal Management: Rodents and Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs, to be produced by the National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources.

Two publications on alternative animal toxicology testing methods entitled Benchmarks: Alternative Methods in Toxicology and A Predictive Model for Estimating Rat Oral LD50 Values, which were produced by the Princeton Scientific Publishing Company (Available for purchase from Princeton Scientific.)

Twenty slide programs on care of animals to be produced by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

Intelligence query assistance software in animal welfare produced by TOME Associates. (Available from AWIC.)

AWIC has also participated in formal cooperative agreements with several groups. The following joint projects have been implemented:

An animal care training manual for principal investigators produced in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Two reference volumes produced with the Agricultural Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign entitled Laboratory Animal Welfare Training Resource Directory and Laboratory Animal Welfare Research Guide.

An expert software system for anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals to be developed in association with the Central Animal Resource Facility of the University of Maryland.

A videotape documenting normal and abnormal behavior of farm animals to be developed in association with Jack Albright, Purdue University.

A Spanish language training videotape entitled The Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to be produced in association with the Laboratory Animal Training Association.

Publication of the proceedings of the SCAW-sponsored conference entitled Agricultural Animals in Research, which was held in September 1990.

Additional activities recently undertaken by AWIC, in cooperation with other groups, include:

Distribution of Chick Embryo Biology Information System (CEBIS), a bibliography prepared by John Bowen, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine.

Establishment of guidelines with the National Library of Medicine for the cooperative acquisition of materials relating to animal welfare.

Assumption of printing costs and distribution of the publication Animal Care and Use in Behavioral Research: Regulations, Issues and Applications. These proceedings of the invited papers session of the 1988 Animal Behavior Society meeting were prepared by the University of Colorado at Denver.

UPDATES REGARDING AWIC AND NAL

Patrons are welcome to visit AWIC and other NAL offices on weekdays from 8:00 am to 4:30 pm. A tour of the NAL facilities is available by appointment. For current updates regarding AWIC and NAL, the monthly newsletter Agricultural Libraries Information Notes is available free-of-charge. The Agricultural Library Forum (ALF), an electronic bulletin board system, also provides current information about new and existing products and services of AWIC and NAL and serves as a forum for the exchange of agricultural information between libraries, information centers, and other users. A "Brief Guide" to ALF has been prepared to introduce the major features of the system and to help callers get started.

For additional information please contact Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library, 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Room 205, Beltsville, MD 20705 (301-504-6212).

PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE THROUGH AWIC

Quick Bibliographies
    Animal Models of Disease (QB 89-07)
    Animal Welfare Legislation and Regulation (QB 89-23)
    Ethical and Moral Issues Relating to Animals (QB 89-03)
    Stress in Swine (QB 89-09)
    Welfare of Experimental Animals (QB 89-18)
 
 Annotated Bibliographies:
    An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Materials Concerning
 the Philosophy of Animal Rights
    Laboratory Animal Welfare Bibliography (Scientist Center for
 Animal Welfare/National Agricultural Library)
 
 Search Tip Series
    Searching AGRICOLA for . . . Animal Welfare (STS 88-01)
 
 Special Reference Briefs
    Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Research and Education
 (SRB 88-11)
    Animal Care and Use Committees (SRB 89-06)
    Animal Euthanasia (SRB 88-12)
    Biotechnology:  Methodologies Involved in the Production of
 Transgenic Animals (SRB 88-10)
    The Draize Eye-Irritancy Test 1979-1988 (SRB 89-02)
    The LD50 (Median Lethal Dose) Toxicity Test 1980-1988 (SRB
 89-04)
    Salmonella in Laboratory Animals (SRB 89-01)
 
 Miscellaneous
    ALF (Agricultural Library Forum):  The National Agricultural
 Library's Electronic Bulletin Board System:  A Brief Guide
    The Animal Welfare Information Center Brochure
    Animal Welfare Information Center Scope Notes for Indexers
 
 Animal Welfare Information Center:  Serials List
    Animal Welfare Legislation:  Bills and Public Laws
 1980-October 1988
    Animal Welfare Legislation:  Bills and Public Laws November
 1988-January 1989.  Bills Submitted to the 101st Congress
    Animal Welfare Legislation: February 1989-April 1989.  Bills
 Submitted to the 101st Congress
    Audio-Visuals in the Collections of the National Agricultural
 Library Relating to Animal Welfare
    Reference Materials for Non-Affiliated Members of Animal Care
 and Use Committees
    Training Materials in the Collections of the National
 Agricultural Library Relating to Animal Welfare

III

Sample Objectives or Self-Assessment Statements

INTRODUCTION

The following are samples of learning objectives or self-assessment statements that coordinators may want to use or adapt for use at their institutions. Additional statements should be developed as necessary.

CORE MODULE

Laws, Regulations, and Policies That Impact on the Care and Use of Animals State the primary sources of regulations and policies affecting the care and use of laboratory animals.

State the major provisions of the Animal Welfare Act regulations and PHS policy.

Describe the composition and functions of the IACUC.

Outline the required contents of your institution's PHS Assurance Statements and annual reports to the USDA and the PHS Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.

Describe the possible penalties for noncompliance with federal regulations and policies.

Describe the policies of your institution that affect research protocols.

Ethical and Scientific Issues

Compare key elements of the deontological and the utilitarian positions on the use of animals in research, education, and testing.

List six ethical principles suggested in the U.S. government's Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training.

Discuss what you might do differently in the future in response to concerns over use of animals in research.

Alternatives

Define the "3R's".

Cite examples of nonanimal research methods and models that might aid you in your research goals.

Discuss how regulations and policies on the use of alternatives affect your present and future projects.

Cite the factors that influence animal model selection.

List services that you can use to gather information on alternatives and indicate how you have access to these services.

Responsibilities of the Institution, Animal Care and Use Committee, and Research and Veterinary Staffs

State three major institutional responsibilities.

List the mandated responsibilities of the IACUC.

Discuss how delegating authority to the IACUC provides protection to the institution, individual investigators, and research animals.

State six major categories of investigator responsibility and describe how these might be delegated among the principal investigator, co-investigators, and technical staff.

If your institution has policies relating to the major categories of institutional responsibility, state where copies of these policies can be obtained.

Pain and Distress

Define pain, stress, and distress.

State the principles of nonmalficence and beneficence.

Describe situations in which pain can be present when reflex responses are absent and absent when reflex responses are present.

Describe physiologic and behavioral signs that may indicate the presence of pain and distress.

Discuss steps taken by your institution in carrying out its legal obligations to minimize and control pain in animals.

Discuss the concept of adequate veterinary care as it relates to relief of pain.

Anesthetics, Analgesics, Tranquilizers, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

Give an example of a pharmacologic agent that can produce each of the following: general anesthesia, analgesia, tranquilization, sedation, and chemical immobilization.

List factors that are major determinants for calculating drug doses and drug effectiveness.

List physiologic functions that should be monitored during general anesthesia.

Describe how an anesthetic overdose is diagnosed, and what you would do if an overdose occurred.

Describe requirements for recordkeeping associated with the use of pharmacologic agents, including special records required for procuring and storing controlled drugs.

Survival Surgical and Postsurgical Care

Define major, minor, survival, and nonsurvival surgeries.

Describe the facility and equipment requirements for performing survival surgery on rodents and on mammals other than rodents.

Describe the major considerations for aseptic surgery.

List the most common complications of survival surgery, and describe the environment and care that is necessary to prevent morbidity and pain.

Describe in detail the records that must be kept for an animal on which a surgical procedure is performed.

Euthanasia

Discuss the legal requirements for performing euthanasia on laboratory animals and cite the sources of laws, regulations, policies, and guidelines.

List several examples of chemical methods of euthanasia and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

List several examples of nonchemical methods of euthanasia and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Cite reasons for selecting the method of euthanasia that was chosen for use in your research protocol.

Discuss ways in which professional and support staff may respond to the performance of euthanasia.

Describe in detail your institution's protocol for disposal of animal carcasses, including any special considerations that may apply to your project.

Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment

Discuss benefits to animal research derived from control of environmental variables.

Describe in detail the measures you have taken to ensure that the animals used for your research, teaching, or testing program are housed and cared for at all times in conformance with USDA regulations and PHS policy.

Describe the measures that will be taken to protect your animals in case of emergencies, such as a power failure.

Resources

Give examples of where you can find information regarding alternatives to use of animals.

Describe where you can find information on earlier studies related to your work.

Describe the resources available to you within your institution or community.

SPECIES-SPECIFIC

MODULE
Selection and Procurement of Animals

For your specific project(s), discuss the reasons for your choice of animal(s) to be studied.

Discuss any legal requirements and institutional policies related to procurement of the animal(s) you have chosen for study.

Husbandry and Care

Discuss who is responsible for ensuring good husbandry practices and appropriate handling of the animals used in your project.

For the animals selected, state the size and construction materials of the cages you will be using, the population density that is appropriate, and the food and water delivery systems that will be used.

Discuss factors in the macroenvironment that are important to the particular species used in your research.

Animal Health

For the given species:

  State normal physiologic paramenters.
    Describe physiologic and behavioral signs associated with pain
 and distress.
    List the signs of common diseases or conditions that require
 veterinary intervention.
 

Safety and Health Considerations (Zoonoses)

For a given species, indicate routine precautions that should be taken to prevent transmission of disease.

State recommended precautions for handling known high-risk animals.

Specific Techniques

Assemble all instruments and material for performing a given procedure.

Indicate the structures or landmarks that will guide performance of the technique, including any structures that must be avoided.

State how you will know if the procedure is progressing as planned and how to respond to an error.

Euthanasia

Indicate the method of euthanasia to be used in a given project, and give the reasons for selecting that method.

PAIN-MANAGEMENT MODULE


Definitions, Mechanisms, and Assessment

Discuss the potentially painful aspects of your project and ways in which you will monitor subjects for pain and distress.

Legal and Ethical Obligations

Discuss what you are required to do to meet your legal and ethical obligations.

Discuss how the attending veterinarian can assist you.

Alleviation of Pain or Distress

Suggest several ways that research staff and caregivers can reduce pain and distress in research animals without using pharmacologic agents.

Give examples of situations in which you might choose to use a tranquilizer, an analgesic, or a neuromuscular blocking agent.

For a specific animal and drug, calculate dosage and give details of administration.

Explain "dosage to effect" for anesthetics, and list factors that influence effectiveness.

Anesthestics

Write out instructions for preanesthesia, initial dose of anesthetic, and follow-up dosage, as necessary, specifying time intervals and methods of monitoring effectiveness.

Describe signs of overdose, and state what interventions you would initiate.

Euthanasia

Discuss conditions under which you would be required to kill an animal before completion of the experiment and the procedure you would follow.

SURGERY MODULE

Legal Requirements for Survival Surgery

Write a proposal for survival surgery on the species of your choice, providing sufficient information to demonstrate compliance with legal and institutional requirements.

Aseptic Technique

For a specific procedure on the species of your choice, describe in detail all areas of preparation for aseptic surgery, indicating who on the surgical team is involved in each action.

Selection and Administration of Anesthetic

For a specified animal and surgical protocol, write a pain-management protocol, stating dosage and assessment of effectiveness.

Animal Monitoring

For a specified animal, give the range of vital signs that you would consider acceptable during the surgical procedure and methods of monitoring vital signs during and immediately after surgery.

Surgical Techniques

Describe the surgical procedure(s) you are using in your research, including equipment and instruments needed.

Describe the suture material preferred for the surgical procedure of your choice and state what precautions you would take to prevent dehiscence and infection.

Postsurgical Care

For a specific animal and a specific procedure, write a protocol for routine postsurgical monitoring, including indicators of when the animal can be returned to normal caging.

Describe the signs of shock and state what interventions you would initiate in the presence of these signs.

Medical Records

List and describe all pertinent and required items that should be entered into the medical record of an animal subjected to surgery.

Terminal Surgeries

For a given animal, elect a method of euthanasia and indicate the exact procedure, including confirmation of death, and disposal method that you would use.

AWIC

Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library

USDA Cooperative Agreement No. 58-0520-5-076 - July, 1995