Animal Welfare Information Center
D'Anna J.B. Jensen
Animal Welfare Information Center, Information Centers Branch
Reference and User Services Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351
Jensen, D'Anna J.B. Housing, husbandry, and welfare of sheep and goats. (Special reference briefs ; 97-07) 1. Sheep--Bibliography. 2. Goats--Bibliography. 3. Sheep--Housing-- Bibliography. 4. Goats--Housing--Bibliography. 5. Sheep--Nutrition-- Bibliography. 6. Goats--Nutrition--Bibliography. 7. Sheep-- Behavior--Bibliography. 8. Goats--Behavior--Bibliography. 9. Cloning--Bibliography. I. Chapman, Susan, 1933-. II. Title. aS21.D27S64 no.97-07
S1 16126 (sheep or ovin? or ewe or ewes or ram or rams or wether? or goat? or lamb? or kid or kids or kidding) in de,ti S2 39268 (house? or facilit? or struct? or pen or pens or crate? or confin? or corral? or handl?) in de,ti S3 42460 transport? or behavio?r? or barn or barns or fence? or fencing or stress? or distress? or welfare or well being or human) in de,ti,id S4 70637 (diet? or nutrit? or husbandry or rais? or farm?) in de,ti S5 144214 S2 or S3 or S4 S6 28078 (L100 or L300 or L500 or N100) in CC S7 20311 (LL100 or LL110 or LL120 or LL140 or LL190 or LL300 or LL810) S8 48389 S6 or S7 S9 21604 S5 or S8 S10 1550 S1 and S9 S11 9154 (clone or clones or cloning) in de,ti,id S12 103 S11 and S1 S13 1652 S12 or S10 S14 603 S13 not (py <1995)
The 1996 B.S.D.A. study tour. Sheep dairying in Tuscany.
Mills O Sheep-Dairy-News v.13(1): p.3-7 (1996)
Descriptors: ewe-milk; massese; animal-health; sheep-farming; farming-systems; dairy-farms; ewes; sheep-breeds; comisana; delle-langhe
2 NAL Call No.: QP33.J681
Absorption of short-chain fatty acids across ruminal epithelium of sheep.
Kramer, T.; Michelberger, T.; Gurtler, H.; Gabel, G. J-comp-physiol,-B-Biochem-syst-environ-physiol v.166(4): p.262-269. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; rumen-epithelium; short-chain-fatty-acids; digestive-absorption; propionic-acid; nutrient-transport; ph; sodium; hydrogen-ions; chloride; nitrate; metabolic-inhibitors; cation-exchange; anion-exchange; carbon; anions; in-vitro; bicarbonate
Abstract: Investigations on the absorption of short-chain fatty acids across ruminal epithelium of sheep were performed both in vitro (Ussing chamber technique, using propionic acid representatively for short-chain fatty acids) and in vivo (washed, isolated reticulorumen). A pH-induced, nearly tenfold increase in the concentration of undissociated propionate led to an only twofold increase in mucosal-to-serosal flux of propionate (in vitro). Neither amiloride (1 mmol.l-1, in vitro) nor theophylline (10 mmol.l-1, in vivo), inhibitors of the ruminal Na+/H+ exchanger, exerted and significant influence on propionate fluxes or short-chain fatty acids absorption, respectively. Total replacement of luminal Na+ (by choline) did not alter short-chain fatty acids absorption (in vivo). Mucosal 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2'2'-disulfonic acid (0.1 mmol.l-1) or mucosal nitrate (40 mmol.l-1) markedly reduced propionate net flux (in vitro). Increasing mucosal Cl- concentration brought about a significant drop in mucosal-to-serosal flux of propionate (in vitro) and in short-chain fatty acids net absorption (in vivo), respectively. The results obtained suggest that short-chain fatty acids are absorbed both as anions and as undissociated acids across ruminal epithelium of sheep. It is concluded that short-chain fatty acids anions either compete with Cl- for binding sites at a common anion-exchange mechanism or that they are absorbed by an short-chain fatty acids anion/HCO3(-) exchanger indirectly coupled to a Cl-/HCO3(-) exchanger via intracellular bicarbonate.
3 NAL Call No.: 382-So12
Acacia saligna as a fodder tree for desert livestock and the interaction of its tannins with fibre fractions.
Degen, A. A.; Becker, K.; Makkar, H. P. S.; Borowy, N. J-sci-food-agric v.68(1): p.65-71. (1995 May)
Descriptors: livestock-farming; tannins; acacia-saligna; nitrogen; fiber; fodder; deserts; sheep; goats
Abstract: Acacia saligna was examined as potential fodder for sheep (27.4 kg) and goats (14.8 kg) raised in arid and semi-arid areas. This leguminous tree remains green all year and can be grown in deserts using only runoff water. Phyllodes collected in March had a crude protein content of 12.5% dry matter (DM) and high tannin content (tannins as tannic acid equivalent to 11.3% and condensed tannins as leucocyanidin equivalent to 8.3% DM). DM intake was low, amounting to 0.80% and 1.05% body mass daily for sheep and goats, respectively. Sheep lost 227 g day-1 and goats 196 g day-1 while on this diet. Dry matter, organic matter and energy digestibilities were low in both species but were higher for goats than for sheep, and negative digestibilities were measured for acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). Metabolisable energy intake for goats was 121.9 kJ kg -0.75 day-1 and for sheep was 78 6 kJ kg -0.75 day-1. Apparent N digestibility was 17.5% and 0.9% for goats and sheep, respectively, and both species were in negative N balance of 0.25-0.30 g kg-0.75 day-1. Total water intake and output were higher in sheep than in goats. Extractable tannins were virtually absent in faeces in both species however, output of condensed tannins and protein in the ADF and ADL fractions were substantially higher. This showed the presence of tannin-protein complexes in these fractions which explained the negative digestibilities of ADF and ADL. It was concluded that Acacia saligna could not be used as a sole dietary source for small ruminants because of low intake and negative nitrogen balance. This was due mainly to the high tannin content. However, the tree might have a potential as a supplementary fodder due to its high crude protein content.
4 NAL Call No.: SB111.A2T72
Adapted livestock management in the tropical rain forest of Latin America. Angepasste Tierhaltung im tropischen Regenwald von Lateinamerika. Erfahrungen bei der einfuhrung von afrikanischen Haarschafen in kleinbauerliche Betriebe in Ecuador.
Kaiser D; Klinge E Tropenlandwirt v.96(October): p.207-219; 17 ref (1995)
Descriptors: rain-forests; tropical-rain-forests; tropical-forests; agroforestry-systems; development-projects; sheep-feeding; grazing; crop-residues; plantations; bananas; pawpaws; grasslands; animal-husbandry; lambing-rate; birth-weight; economics; management; coffee; cocoa; farms; peasantry; agroforestry; agrosilvopastoral-systems
5 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Administration in suspension-form of n-alkane external markers for dry matter intake and diet selection studies.
Marais, J. P.; Figenschou, D. L.; Escott Watson, P. L.; Webber, L. N. J-agric-sci v.126(pt.2): p.207-210. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: sheep; rumen-digestion; pennisetum-clandestinum; hay; particle-size; dry-matter; feed-intake; alkanes; suspensions; xanthan; markers; feeding-preferences; dosage-effects; feces-composition
6 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
Age at tail docking affects physiology and behaviour of lambs.
Rhodes RC; McAndrews K; Nippo MM; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD(ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: docking; animal-behaviour; lambs; tail
7 NAL Call No.: SF85.A1R32
Albania's range and pasture lands.
George, M. R. Rangelands v.17(6): p.194-198. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: agricultural-land; private-ownership; land-use; land-management; rangelands; pastures; quercus; fuelwood; coppice; water-erosion; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; forage; fodder; albania
8 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Ammoniation of moldy and nonmoldy prairie hay and its feeding value for sheep.
Khan, M. F.; Smith, G. S.; Rankins, D. L. Jr. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.209-216. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; hay; ammoniated-feeds; fungi; fiber-content; nitrogen-content; feed-intake; digestibility; body-weight; dry-matter; organic-matter; nitrogen-balance; blood-serum; blood-chemistry; enzyme-activity; blood-sugar; poisoning; liver; enzymes; kidneys; nutritive-value; elymus-smithii
9 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Amount of experience and prior illness affect the acquisition and persistence of conditioned food aversions in lambs.
Burritt EA; Provenza FD Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.48(1-2): p.73-80; 15 ref (1996)
Descriptors: lithium-chloride; learning; behaviour; feeding; lambs; oats; wheat; rice; learning-ability; feed-intake; feeding-preferences; toxic-substances; food-intake; feeding-behaviour
10 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Anaemia in housed newborn lambs.
Bassett, J. M.; Borrett, R. A.; Hanson, C.; Parsons, R.; Wolfensohn, S. E. Vet-rec v.136(6): p.137-140. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: lambs; newborn-animals; anemia; mineral-supplements; iron; intramuscular-injection; disease-prevention; growth-rate; age-differences; hematocrit
Analysis of biomass balance and stocking rate in cattle and sheep production systems in Mediterranean areas.
Pulina G; Masala G; Zanda A; Enne G Medit v.6(1): p.27-30; 22 ref (1995)
Descriptors: environmental-impact; environmental-degradation; livestock-farming; models; stocking-rate; soil-degradation; grassland-management; grasslands; Mediterranean-grasslands; grazing; overgrazing; erosion
12 NAL Call No.: QL55.J55
Analysis of sexual behavior in rams (Ovis aries).
Odagiri, K.; Matsuzawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, Y. Exp-anim v.44(3): p.187-192. (1995 July)
Descriptors: sheep; rams; sexual-behavior; behavior-patterns; movement
13 NAL Call No.: 60.19-B773
Animal production evaluation of herbage varieties. 2. Comparison of Aberystwyth S184, AberEndura and Grasslands Huia white clovers.
Davies DA; Fothergill M; Daniel GJ; Morgan CT Grass-and-Forage-Science v.50(3): p.227-240; 36 ref (1995)
Descriptors: herbage; grasslands; clovers; liveweight-gain; cultivars; sheep-feeding; persistence; cutting; lamb-production; legumes; nutritive-value; fodder-legumes
14 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
Animal production under a series of Pinus radiata-pasture agroforestry systems in south-west Victoria, Australia.
Bird, P. R.; Kellas, J. D.; Kearney, G. A.; Cumming, K. N. Aust-j-agric-res v.46(6): p.1299-1310. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; agroforestry-systems; pinus-radiata; pastures; plant-density; grazing; browsing-damage; liveweight-gain; wool-production; victoria
15 NAL Call No.: TS1950.M433
Animal trade, welfare regulations.
Gregory NG Meat-Focus-International v.4(12): p.504-508 (1995)
Descriptors: european-union; beef; gatt; meat-hygiene; lambs; international-trade; animal-welfare; trade-in-animals; legislation; EU
16 NAL Call No.: RA639.M44
Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae chromosomal inversion polymorphism, feeding and resting behaviour in relation to insecticide house-spraying in Tanzania.
Mnzava AEP; Rwegoshora RT; Wilkes TJ; Tanner M; Curtis CF Medical-and-Veterinary-Entomology v.9(3): p.316-324; 25 ref (1995)
Descriptors: chromosome-inversion; feeding-behaviour; pyrethroids; organochlorine-insecticides; cytogenetics; resting-places; disease-vectors; chemical-control; vector-control; DDT; lambda-cyhalothrin; control; insecticides; dwellings; genetics; inversion-polymorphism
17 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
Apparent digestibility of minerals by lactating cows from a total mixed ration supplemented with poultry litter.
Ben Ghedalia, D.; Miron, J.; Yosef, E. J-dairy-sci v.79(3): p.454-458. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: dairy-cows; poultry-manure; digestibility; dietary-minerals; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; potassium; bioavailability; drinking-water; chemical-composition; intake; trace-elements; sheep; israel
Abstract: Apparent digestibility of minerals by lactating cows from a multiple-component, conventional Israeli TMR (control) and from a TMR containing 10% poultry litter (DM basis) was examined. Ten cows in early lactation were divided into two groups of similar performance (39 kg of milk/d) and fed for ad libitum intake the two TMR for 28 d. Poultry litter contributed, as a percentage of total requirements, 44.4% of Ca, 41.0% of P, 32.0% of S, 22.8% of Mg, and 25.9% of K. Apparent digestibility of the macroelements was higher for cows fed the TMR supplemented with poultry litter than for those fed the control TMR. Apparent digestibility of the control TMR was 22.3% for Ca, 29.4% for Mg, 39.1% for P, and 62.2% for S; the apparent digestibility of the treatment TMR was 30.1% for Ca, 45.6% for Mg, 45.3% for P, and 65.6% for S. Poultry litter contributed the entire requirements of Zn, Mn, and Co; 56% of Cu; and 32% of Se. The apparent digestibility of the control TMR was 15.6% for Cu, 39.6% for Zn, 8.51% for Mn, 42.8% for Co, and 41.6% for Se, and the apparent digestibility of the treatment TMR was 27.9% for Cu, 54.0% for Zn, 17.8% for Mn, 37.0% for Co, and 63.9% for Se. Poultry litter is a good source of macro- and microelements for lactating cows and, at 10% of the TMR, could ensure against mineral deficiencies.
18 NAL Call No.: 280.8-J822
Approximating farm-level returns to incremental advertising expenditure: methods and an application to the Australian meat industry.
Piggott, R. R.; Piggott, N. E.; Wright, V. E. Am-j-agric-econ v.77(3): p.497-511. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: beef; lamb-meat; pigmeat; farmers; returns; uncertainty; advertising; expenditure; domestic-markets; economic-impact; decision-making; profitability; production-costs; meat-and-livestock-industry; elasticities; statistical-analysis; mathematical-models; australia; export-markets; cross-commodity-impacts
Abstract: Equilibrium displacement modeling is used to analyze the effects of incremental advertising expenditure by the Australian beef, lamb, and pork industries in domestic and export markets. The effects on prices, quantities traded, revenues, producer surpluses, and profits net of advertising expenditure are reported. Cross-commodity impacts of advertising are highlighted, including how one industry has to adjust its advertising expenditure to preserve profit levels in the face of increased advertising by another industry. The procedures used are useful when decisions about advertising expenditure need to be made quickly.
19 NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Arena behaviour of ewes selected for superior mothering ability differs from that of unselected ewes.
Kilgour RJ; Szantar Coddington MR Animal-Reproduction-Science v.37(2): p.133-141; 20 ref (1995)
Descriptors: behaviour; mothering-ability; ewes; selection
20 NAL Call No.: S671.R5
Artificial lighting criteria in intensive lamb breeding barns. [Criteri di illuminazione nei fabbricati per l'allevamento intensivo dell'agnello da carne.]
Mugnozza GS; Fiume G; Russo G Rivista-di-Ingegneria-Agraria v.27(3): p.155-161; 23 ref (1996)
Descriptors: lighting; lambs; animal-housing; animal-physiology; breeding
Aspects of 'factor-factor' economic analysis of sheep production.
Georgiev I; Slavov R; Videv V; Yarkova Yu Zhivotnov'dni-Nauki v.32(1-2): p.38-41; 13 ref (1995)
Descriptors: economic-analysis; animal-production; ewes; milk-production; feeding; animal-health; dairy-farms; economics; factor-analysis; ewe-milk; yields; feeds
22 NAL Call No.: SF85.4.A8A97
Assessing options for farming systems transitions in New Zealand 's mountainlands.
Foran, B.; Allan, B. Rangeland-j v.17(2): p.166-185. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; sustainability; mountain-grasslands; controlled-grazing; production-costs; transitional-farming; new-zealand
23 NAL Call No.: 41.8-On1
Attachment preferences of Hyalomma truncatum and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks
Fourie LJ; Kok DJ Onderstepoort-Journal-of-Veterinary-Research v.62(3): p.211-213; 15 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ectoparasites; feeding-behaviour; feet; anus; genitalia; Dorper; sheep-breeds; sheep-diseases; attachment; Merino
24 NAL Call No.: 41.8-N483
Basal and stress response cortisol levels and stress avoidance learning in sheep (Ovis ovis).
Cook CJ New-Zealand-Veterinary-Journal v.44(4): p.162-163; 8 ref (1996)
Descriptors: stress-response; ewes; animal-behaviour; limbs; blood-plasma; shock-waves; animal-experiments; stress; avoidance-conditioning; hydrocortisone
25 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Behavior of the Murciano-Granadina goat in the hour before parturition.
Ramirez, A.; Quiles, A.; Hevia, M.; Sotillo, F. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.44(1): p.29-35. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: goats; prepartum-period; reproductive-behavior; kidding; behavior-patterns; udders; size; twinning
26 NAL Call No.: QP351.B45
Behavioral responses of the chronically instrumented sheep fetus to chemosensory stimuli presented in utero.
Robinson, S. R.; Robertson, S. S.; Nathanielsz, P. W.; Wong, C. H.; Smotherman, W. P. Behav-neurosci v.109(3): p.551-562. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; fetus; prenatal-period; animal-behavior; stimuli; taste; stimulation; responses; gustatory-stimulation
27 NAL Call No.: 448.8.J824
Behaviors associated with egg and parasite deposition by gravid and Lambornella clarki-infected Aedes sierrensis.
Yee WL Journal-of-Parasitology v.81(5): p.694-697; 16 ref (1995)
Descriptors: oviposition; behaviour; aquatic-insects; parasitism; reproduction; host-parasite-relationships; pathology; entomopathogenic-protozoa; hosts; pathogens; parasites
28 NAL Call No.: SF604.63.N45S87
The behaviour and welfare of male lambs transported by sea from New Zealand to Saudi Arabia.
Black H Surveillance-Wellington v.22(4): p.14-15; 13 ref (1995)
Descriptors: lambs; animal-welfare; transport-of-animals; animal-behaviour
29 NAL Call No.: S13.P69
Behaviour of lambs grazing mixed clover-grass pasture sward. [Zachowanie sie jagniat na pastwisku o runi koniczynowo-trawiastej.]
Rogalski M; Armstrong RH Prace-z-Zakresu-Nauk-Rolniczych. 1995, 79: 127-130; 10 ref
Descriptors: grazing; selective-grazing; legumes; grazing-behaviour
30 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Behavioural and cortisol response of pigs and sheep during transport.
Bradshaw, R. H.; Hall, S. J. G.; Broom, D. M. Vet-rec v.138(10): p.233-234. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: pigs; sheep; transport-of-animals; road-transport; roads; acceleration; animal-welfare; animal-behavior; hydrocortisone; saliva; species-differences
31 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
Behavioural and physiological changes of goats after tethering.
Sato S; Uemo N; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD (ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: animal-behaviour; physiology; stress; tethered-housing
Body condition during pregnancy in transhumant Arles Merino ewes. Relationship with lamb birth weight and preweaning growth. [Etat corporel pendant la gestation chez la brebis Merinos d'Arles en systeme transhumant. Relations avec le poids a la naissance des agneaux et les performances d'allaitement.]
Teyssier J; Lapeyronie P; Vincent M; Molenat G Options-Mediterraneennes.-Serie-A,-Seminaires-Mediterraneens. 1995, No. 27, 43-51; 7 ref
Descriptors: Arles-Merino; ewes; transhumance; extensive-husbandry; body-condition; twinning; dams; birth-weight; growth; progeny; Body-condition-of-sheep-and-goats
33 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Botanical composition and diet quality of goats grazing natural and grass reseeded shrublands.
Lopez Trujillo, R.; Garcia Elizondo, R. Small-rumin-res v.16(1): p.37-47. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; diet; botanical-composition; chemical-composition; digestibility; feces-collection; sown-grasslands; semiarid-grasslands; shrubs; xerophytes; seasonal-fluctuations; dry-season; rain; wet-season; nutrient-intake; mexico
A brief overview of sheep dairying down under.
Mills O Sheep-Dairy-News v.12(3): p.49-51 (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; milk; milk-production; cheeses; ewe-milk; cheesemaking; dairy-farming; sheep-breeds
British Society of Animal Science Winter Meeting Spa Complex, Scarborough, UK, 20-22 March 1995. Programme and summaries.
UK, British Society of Animal Science. 1995, 210 pp
Descriptors: cows; milk-yield; reproduction; feeding; animal-behaviour; feed-formulation; animal-husbandry; ewes; sows; poultry; physiology; British-Society-of-Animal-Science
Brousse du Rove [cheese]. La Brousse du Rove.
Florio J di; Di Florio J Chevre. 1995, No. 207, 40-42
Descriptors: cheesemaking; farm-dairies; cheeses; goat-milk; manufacture; marketing; Provence-Alpes-Cote-d`Azur; fresh-cheese; Brousse-du-Rove
37 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Butylsoyamide protects soybean oil from ruminant biohydrogenation: effects of butylsoyamide on plasma fatty acids and nutrient digestion in sheep.
Jenkins, T. C. J-anim-sci v.73(3): p.818-823. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: sheep; dietary-fat; soybean-oil; amides; triacylglycerols; butylamine; rumen-digestion; protected-fat; blood-plasma; blood-lipids; feed-intake; dry-matter; digestibility; volatile-fatty-acids
Abstract: Based on previous results showing partial resistance of fatty acyl amides to ruminal biohydrogenation, butylsoyamide was added to sheep diets in an attempt to increase unsaturation of plasma fatty acids. Twelve wethers averaging 34 +/- 3.2 kg BW were randomly assigned to three diets containing either no added fat (control), 5% soybean oil, or 5% butylsoyamide. Dry matter intake was greater (P < .05) for sheep fed butylsoyamide than for sheep fed soybean oil (740 and 581 g/d, respectively), but neither fat supplement differed from the control diet (680 g/d). The soybean oil supplement reduced (P < .05) total VFA concentration (59.0 and 38.7 mM) and acetate:propionate (4.10 and 2.56) in ruminal samples compared with the control diet. Butylsoyamide had no effect (P > .05) on total VFA (54.4 mM) or acetate: propionate (2.96). Total tract ADF digestibility was not affected (P > .05) by either fat supplement. Relative to the control diet, soybean oil increased (P < .05) plasma linoleic acid concentration 22% compared with a 58% increase from feeding butylsoyamide (26.7, 32.6, and 42.1% of total fatty acids, respectively). Linoleic acid concentration in plasma neutral lipids, relative to the control diet, increased 15.8% (P < .05) for soybean oil compared with 64.9% (P < .05) for butylsoyamide (31.6, 36.6, and 52.1% of total fatty acids, respectively). Converting soybean oil triglycerides to fatty acyl amides substantially reduces negative effects of the oil on ruminal fermentation and increases unsaturated fatty acids in plasma. The increase in plasma unsaturated fatty acids demonstrates at least partial resistance of fatty acyl amides to ruminal biohydrogenation and their and their digestion and absorption postruminally.
Catching up in the Saone et Loire. Saone et Loire, un printemps tardif.
Chamba JN Chevre. 1995, No. 207, 27-28
Descriptors: cheesemaking; dairy-farms; dairy-farming; cheeses; goat-milk; production
39 NAL Call No.: QP501.E8
cDNA cloning, overexpression in Escherichia coli, purification and characterization of sheep liver cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase.
Jagath Reddy J; Ganesan K; Savithri HS; Datta A; Appaji Rao N European-Journal-of-Biochemistry v.230(2): p.533-537; 38 ref (1995)
Descriptors: characterization; cytosol; liver; gene-expression; purification; serine; folic-acid; glycine; enzymes; nucleotide-sequences; biotechnology; glycine-hydroxymethyltransferase
40 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Changes in live-weight gain, blood constituents and worm egg counts in Thai native and cross-bred goats raised in village environments in Southern Thailand.
Kochapakdee, S.; Pralomkarn, W.; Choldumrongkul, S.; Saithanoo, S. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(3): p.241-247. (1995 June)
Descriptors: goats; anglo-nubian; crossbreds; goat-breeds; grazing; feed-supplements; growth-rate; liveweight-gain; helminth-ova; feces; anthelmintics; blood-serum; blood-protein; blood-composition; globulins; hematocrit; thailand
Changes in the behavioral parameters following the lipopolysaccharide administration in goats.
Takeuchi Y; Kikusui T; Mori Y Journal-of-Veterinary-Medical-Science v.57(6): p.1041-1044; 19 ref (1995)
Descriptors: lipopolysaccharides; grooming; animal-behaviour; infection; models; behaviour; stereotypies
42 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
Changes in the release of amino acid neurotransmitters in the brains of calves and sheep after head-only electrical stunning and throat cutting.
Cook, C. J.; Maasland, S. A.; Devine, C. E.; Gilbert, K. V.; Blackmore, D. K. Res-vet-sci v.60(3): p.255-261. (1996 May)
Descriptors: calves; sheep; stunning; throat; cutting; glutamic-acid; aspartic-acid; brain; release; synergism; consciousness; animal-welfare
Abstract: In calves aged two to five months, throat cutting resulted in an increase in the concentration of the amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate in the brain. Electrical head-only stunning by itself also increased the concentrations of these two neurotransmitters. The levels induced by stunning resulted in a seizure state characterised by epileptiform-like activity in the electroencephalograph. Combing head-only stunning with throat cutting within 10 seconds of the stun had a synergistic effect upon glutamate and aspartate, increasing their concentration by a greater amount and more quickly than either procedure on its own. An irreversible loss of brain function also occurred more quickly than after throat cutting alone. The administration of glutamate and aspartate receptor antagonists before the throat cutting lengthened the time to the loss of brain function in a dose dependent manner. Similar changes were observed in sheep but they occurred much more quickly than in cattle.
43 NAL Call No.: 49-N62
Changes in the serum, urinary and milk concentrations calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in ewes during the perinatal period.
Shiga A; Tsuchiya Y; Nagamine S Animal-Science-and-Technology v.66(3): p.267-273; 27 ref (1995)
Descriptors: lactation; parturition; milk; mineral-metabolism; urine; serum; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; ewes; pregnancy; milk-composition; minerals; hypomagnesaemia; blood; ewe-milk; ewe-lactation; lactation-stage; nutritional-state
44 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7
Characteristics of the extensive Greek sheep production systems.
Apostolopoulos C; Rogdakis E; Zervas NP (ed.); Hatziminaoglou J The optimal exploitation of marginal Mediterranean areas by extensive ruminant production systems. Proceedings of an international symposium organized by HSAP and EAAP and sponsored by EU(DGVI), FAO and CIHEAM, Thessaloniki, Greece, 18-20 June, 1994. 1996, 51-53; EAAP Publication No. 83
Descriptors: sheep-farming; extensive-livestock-farming; production-structure; productivity- ID: optimal-exploitation-of-marginal-Mediterranean-areas-by-extensive-ruminant-production-system
45 NAL Call No.: HD1405.E97 1995
Characterization of the spatial diversity of sheep concentration in relation to agricultural resources of the middle valley of the Ebro.
Olaizola A; Vidal D de L; Teruel A; Manrique E; Bernues A; Albisu LM (ed.); Romero C Environmental and land use issues: an economic perspective. Proceedings of the 34th EAAE Seminar held in the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, February 7-9, 1994, Spain. 1995, 439-447; 26 ref
Descriptors: land-use; sheep-farming; regions; classification; Environmental-and-land-use-issues
46 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh and ensiled carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) by-product.
Ceron, J. J.; Hernandez, F.; Madrid, J.; Gutierrez, C. Small-rumin-res v.20(2): p.109-112. (1996 May)
Descriptors: goats; dianthus-caryophyllus; silage; chemical-composition; feed-intake; digestibility; dry-matter; crude-protein; metabolizable-energy; organic-matter; crude-fiber; ether-extracts; spain
47 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Chevon characteristics of goats fed diets with water washed neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake.
Verma, A. K.; Sastry, V. R. B.; Agrawal, D. K. Small-rumin-res v.19(1): p.55-61. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: kids; neem-seed-cake; kid-feeding; washing; mustard-protein-concentrate; oat-hay; slaughter-weight; carcass-yield; meat-cuts; dressing-percentage; meat-yield; offal; goat-meat; chemical-composition; sensory-evaluation; bitterness; triterpenoids
48 NAL Call No.: 26-T754
Chlorophyll-derived faecal pigment of an indicator of feed selection in dry-season tropical pastures.
Lowry, J. B.; Schlink, A. C. Trop-agric v.72(4): p.303-307. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: sheep; tropical-grasslands; dry-season; feeding-preferences; poaceae; fabaceae; feed-intake; feces; feces-composition; digestibility; chlorophyll; fodder-legumes; animal-nutrition; australia; chromogen
49 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Choice of sheep and cattle between vegetative and reproductive cocksfoot patches.
Dumont, B.; Petit, M.; D'Hour, P. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.43(1): p.1-15. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: ewes; heifers; grazing-behavior; plant-height; feeding-preferences; feed-intake; fasting; grazing-time; plant-composition; vegetative-period; reproduction; dactylis-glomerata; france
Classification and composition of the carcass of pre-ruminant kid goats of the Granadina breed.
Sanz MR; Ruiz I; Gil F; Boza J Options-Mediterraneennes.-Serie-A,-Seminaires-Mediterraneens. 1995, No. 27, 197-202; 14 ref
Descriptors: bucks; fattening-performance; animal-nutrition; carcasses; carcass-grading; carcass-composition; growth; energy-intake; Body-composition-of-sheep-and-goats; Body-condition-of-sheep-and-goats
51 NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Clausens choose Romanovs.
Fyksen, J. Small-farm-today v.13(2): p.42-44. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; romanov; small-farms
52 NAL Call No.: QH442.A1G4
Cloning and characterisation of an ovine interleukin-10-encoding cDNA.
Martin, H. M.; Nash, A. D.; Andrews, A. E. Gene v.159(2): p.187-197. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep; complementary-dna; interleukins; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; structural-genes; macrophages; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u11421; ovil-10-gene
Abstract: Expression of the interleukin 10-encoding (IL-10) mRNA by ovine (ov-) cells, in response to mitogenic stimulation, was assessed by Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses using a human (hu) IL-10 cDNA probe and oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers based on homologous regions of the human and murine IL-10 cDNA sequences. A 31 5-bp cDNA generated by the PCR analysis was cloned and used to screen a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated alveolar ov-macrophage cDNA library. The full-length ov-cDNA sequence isolated translates to a protein of 177 amino acids (aa) with a predicted 18-aa leader sequence and molecular mass of 20165 Da. Expression in a mammalian system demonstrated that the ov-cDNA encoded a protein with the expected IL-10 biological activity. Both recombinant huIL-10 and supernatants from COS cells transfected with an expression vector containing the ovIL-10 cDNA inhibited production of IL-1 and tumour necrosis factor-x by ov-alveolar macrophages. Genomic DNA analysis indicated ovIL-10 exists as a single gene within the ov-genome.
53 NAL Call No.: QH442.A1G4
Cloning and characterization of multiple acetyl-CoA carboxylase transcripts in ovine adipose tissue.
Barber, M. C.; Travers, M. T. Gene v.154(2): p.271-275. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep; complementary-dna; acetyl-coa-carboxylase; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; gene-expression; messenger-rna; adipose-tissue; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; x80045; open-reading-frames; untranslated-region
Abstract: A full-length ovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-encoding cDNA (ACC) has been cloned from adipose tissue and completely sequenced. The open reading frame of 7041 nucleotides (nt) is highly homologous to the previously cloned human, rat, chicken, yeast and algal ACC (85, 89, 82, 54 and 54% identity, respectively). Transcript heterogeneity was found in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) resulting in ACC transcripts in the range of 9.0 kb to 9.4 kb. Heterogeneity at the 5' end was generated by the insertion of a 47-nt sequence, resulting in transcripts with either 272 or 319 nt in the 5'-UTR. Heterogeneity at the 3' end was the result of the use of different polyadenylation signals. RNase protection analysis demonstrated that shorter transcripts containing 1635 nt predominated over longer transcripts of 2065 nt in the 3'-UTR.
54 NAL Call No.: 381-B522
Cloning and expression analysis of a cytochrome P-450 11 beta cDNA in sheep.
Boon, W. C.; Roche, R. J.; Hammond, V. E.; Jeyaseelan, K.; Crawford, R. J.; Coghlan, J. P. Biochim-biophys-acta v.1260(1): p.109-112. (1995 Jan.)
Descriptors: sheep; adrenal-cortex; cytochrome-p-450; complementary-dna; cloning; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; l34337; embl; l34337
Abstract: A full length ovine steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (cytochrome P-450(11 beta)) cDNA clone from a sheep adrenal cortex cDNA library was isolated. Sequence analysis indicates that this cDNA clone resembles bovine P-450(11 beta) cDNA (95% nucleotide sequence homology) more closely than rat P-450 (11 beta) cDNA (69% nucleotide sequence homology). Although the levels of nucleotide sequence homology of this cDNA clone to the rat P-450(11 beta) cDNA and the rat P-450(aldo) cDNA are similar, the putative amino acid sequence shows a closer resemblance to rat P-450(aldo) protein. Northern blot analysis shows that there are three sizes of transcript and they are expressed throughout the adrenal cortex.
55 NAL Call No.: QH442.A1G4
Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding ovine interleukin 7.
Barcham, G. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Nash, A. D. Gene v.154(2): p.265-269. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep; complementary-dna; interleukins; cloning; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; polymerase-chain-reaction; thymocytes; immune-response; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u10089
Abstract: Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primers based on regions of homology between the human and murine interleukin 7 (IL-7)-encoding cDNAs, we have amplified an ovine (ov) IL-7 cDNA from reverse-transcribed RNA extracted from concanavilin A (Con A)-activated ovine lymph-node cells. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA and the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence showed significant homology to those of the human and murine molecules. The ovIL-7 cDNA encodes a 176-aa polypeptide that, based on analysis of murine IL-7, is processed to a protein of 151 aa. The cDNA was demonstrated to encode a protein with IL-7 biological activity. Supernatants from COS or CHO-K1 cells transfected with an expression vector containing the ovIL-7 cDNA were able to synergise with a suboptimal level of Con A to induce proliferation of ovine thymocytes. In addition, both supernatants were able to induce thymocyte proliferation, albeit at a reduced level, in the absence of Con A. Further experiments demonstrated that for induction of ovine thymocyte proliferation, recombinant (re)-ovIL-7 was able to synergise with re-human (h) IL-2 but not re-hIL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (re-hTNF alpha).
56 NAL Call No.: 448.8-V81
Cloning and expression of the nucleoprotein of peste des petits ruminants virus in baculovirus for use in serological diagnosis.
Ismail TM; Yamanaka MK; Saliki JT; El Kholy A; Mebus C; Yilma T Virology-New-York v.208(2): p.776-778; 22 ref (1995)
Descriptors: recombination; gene-expression; laboratory-diagnosis; nucleoproteins; ELISA; production; cell-lines; diagnosis; viral-diseases; biotechnology; sheep-diseases
57 NAL Call No.: QP251.R47
Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding an ovine oestrus-associated oviducal protein.
Marshall, J. T. A.; Nancarrow, C. D.; Brownlee, A. G. Reprod-fertil-dev v.8(2): p.305-310. (1996)
Descriptors: nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u17988
58 NAL Call No.: 444.8-G28
Cloning and sequencing of an equine insulin-like growth factor I cDNA and its expression in fetal and adult tissues.
Otte, K.; Rozell, B.; Gessbo, A.; Engstrom, W. Gen-comp-endocrinol v.102(1): p.11-15. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: horses; fetus; adults; insulin-like-growth-factor; complementary-dna; clones; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; comparisons; gene-expression; transcription; biological-development; animal-tissues; man; sheep; rats; evolution; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u28070; sequence-homology; sequence-alignment
Abstract: A cDNA for equine insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) has been isolated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and subsequently sequenced. The sequenced fragment contained 465 bp including the coding regions for the signal peptide, the entire mature protein, and 4 amino acids into the E-peptide. Like its human counterpart, the mature equine IGF I peptide contains 70 amino acids and was 100% homologous between horse and man. The 49-amino-acid signal peptide had the threonine in position 26 of the human signal peptide substituted by isoleucine. The nucleotide homology across the entire clone was 96.3% between horse and man and 91.6% between horse and rat. The isolated cDNA hybridized to the same transcripts in fetal and adult tissues.
59 NAL Call No.: QL757.M6
Cloning, expression and characterization of an unusual guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from Giardia lamblia.
Sommer JM; Ma H; Wang CC Molecular-and-Biochemical-Parasitology v.78(1-2): p.185-193; 38 ref (1996)
Descriptors: cloning; hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyltransferase; xanthine; guanine; molecular-genetics; biochemistry; amino-acid-sequences; genes; enzymes; parasites; guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase
60 NAL Call No.: 448.8-EN2
Cloning of a receptor for prostaglandin F2alpha from the ovine corpus luteum.
Graves PE; Pierce KL; Bailey TJ; Rueda BR; Gil DW; Woodward DF; Yool AJ; Hoyer PB; Regan JW Endocrinology-Philadelphia v.136(8): p.3430-3436; 37 ref (1995)
Descriptors: corpus-luteum; cloning; prostaglandins; receptors; DNA; biotechnology
61 NAL Call No.: QH442.A1G4
Cloning, sequencing and expression of the bovine CD3 epsilon and TCR-zeta chains, two invariant components of the T-cell receptor complex.
Hagens, G.; Galley, Y.; Glaser, I.; Davis, W. C.; Baldwin, C. L.; Clevers, H.; Dobbelaere, D. A. E. Gene v.169(2): p.165-171. (1996)
Descriptors: cattle; receptors; t-lymphocytes; lymphocyte-antigens; complementary-dna; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; cloning; polymerase-chain-reaction; biochemical-techniques; species-differences; sheep; gene-expression; messenger-rna; rapid-amplification-of-the-ends; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u25687; genbank; u25688 < /P>
Abstract: CD3 epsilon and the zeta-chain of the bovine T-cell receptor (TCR) are two invariant molecules with an important role in signal transduction via the TCR/CD3 complex. The nucleotide sequence of a bovine CD3 epsilon cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence was determined and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence compared to that of other species. The cytoplasmic domains of the different CD3 epsilon clearly show a higher degree of conservation than the extracellular domains. Bovine CD3 epsilon produced in Escherichia coli using different bacterial expression vectors was recognised by antibodies (Ab) directed against the intracytoplasmic domain of human CD3 epsilon. A partial bovine TCR zeta-chain cDNA was generated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that were based on sequences that are conserved between different species; 3' and 5' RACE-PCR were carried out to obtain the complete TCR zeta-chain cDNA sequence. A comparison of the predicted TCR zeta-chain aa sequence reveals that the GDP/GTP-binding motif, which is conserved in other species, shows marked differences in the bovine and ovine TCR zeta-chains. In contrast to CD3 epsilon, the short extracellular domain of the TCR zeta-chain is 100% conserved between the different species and the transmembrane domain also shows a high degree of identity. Ab were raised against the TCR zeta-chain, produced as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in E. coli, and were used in Western blot analysis to further characterise TCR zeta-chain expression in T-cells. These reagents provide valuable tools for the study of signal transduction pathways in normal and transformed bovine T-cells.
62 NAL Call No.: QP251.R47
A cloning strategy for G-protein-coupled hormone receptors: the ovine beta1-adrenergic receptor.
Padbury JF; Tseng YT; Waschek JA Reproduction,-Fertility-and-Development v.7(3): p.521-525; 23 ref (1995)
Descriptors: hormone-receptors; cloning; hormones; receptors; dna
63 NAL Call No.: HV4890.4.A3C63--no.3-1996
Code of recommendations and minimum standards for the welfare of sheep. Rev.
New Zealand. Animal Welfare Advisory Committee. Code of animal welfare, 1171-090X ; no. 3. Wellington, New Zealand : Animal Welfare Advisory Committee,  40 p. : ill., "July 1996."
64 NAL Call No.: 275.29-IO9PA
Colostrum and health of newborn lambs.
Morrical, D.; Hartwig, N. R.; Youngs, C. PM-Iowa-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service. June 1995. (989-12,rev.) 2 p.
In the subseries: Sheep management.
Descriptors: lambs; sheep-farming; colostrum; lamb-feeding; colostral-immunity; supplemental-feeding-programs; tube-feeding
65 NAL Call No.: RA639.M44
Colour discrimination by the sheep blowfly Lucilia sericata.
Wall R; Smith KE Medical-and-Veterinary-Entomology v.10(3): p.235-240; 30 ref (1996)
Descriptors: vision; colour; discrimination; smell; liver; sodium-sulfide; behaviour; host-seeking-behaviour
66 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
Comparative digestion in cattle and sheep fed wheat silage diets at low and high intakes.
Sudekum, K. H.; Roh, H.; Brandt, M.; Rave, G.; Stangassinger, M. J-dairy-sci v.78(7): p.1498-1511. (1995 July)
Descriptors: sheep; steers; wheat-silage; crude-protein; feed-intake; body-weight; maturity-stage; unrestricted-feeding; digestibility; chemical-composition; species-differences; starch; fiber-content; hemicelluloses
Abstract: Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), harvested at late milk, early dough, and hard dough stages of maturity was ensiled for nutritive comparisons. Diets were adjusted to 13% CP with a soy protein concentrate and fed to six ruminally fistulated growing steers and nine adult wethers in a repeated 3 X 3 Latin square design to study the effects of maintenance and ad libitum intakes on digestibility of different feed fractions. At both intakes, digestion values for the steers were greater than or equal to those for the sheep for all feed fractions except CP. Wethers achieved greater intake per unit of BW than steers during ad libitum intake. Voluntary OM intakes of steers only differed between the milk stage diet and the dough stage diets. At low intake, the diets containing the more mature silage were more digestible. At high intake, the OM of diet containing the early dough stage silage was most digestible. Increased intake caused a depression in digestibility of different feed fractions. The magnitude of the depression varied among diets and fractions. Data indicated that the nutritive value of diets based on whole crop wheat silage is affected by stage of maturity, animal species, and amount of intake. The assessment of the nutritive value of diets based on whole crop wheat silage should therefore be made with the animal species and at the amount of intake for which the diets are intended.
67 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Comparative foraging strategies of sheep and goats in a T-maze apparatus.
Hosoi E; Swift DM; Rittenhouse LR; Richards RW Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.44(1): p.37-45; 10 ref (1995)
Descriptors: foraging; comparisons; species-differences; feeding-behaviour; learning-ability
68 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Comparative performance of Damascus goats and Chios ewes in Oman.
El Hag, M. G.; Azam, A. H.; Al Habsi, R. S. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(5): p.419-425. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: goats; ewes; damascus; chios; age-at-first-mating; species-differences; age-at-first-kidding; age-at-first-lambing; age-at-first-conception; female-fertility; litter-weight; twinning; birth-weight; sex-differences; litter-size; weaning-weight; kids; lambs; mortality; milk-yield; lactation-duration; nutrient-requirements; body-weight; goat-milk; ewe-milk; milk-fat-percentage; feed-conversion; feed-intake; growth-rate; diet; oman
69 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Comparative performance of Omani goats and sheep.
Al Nakib, F. M. S.; Al Shukaily, E. S. S.; Al Hanai, S. S. S.; Al Nabhani, S. A. M. J-agric-sci v.127(pt.1): p.117-121. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: goats; sheep; goat-breeds; animal-husbandry; breed-differences; breeding-efficiency; sexual-reproduction; diets; chemical-composition; female-fertility; lambing-rate; kidding-rate; oman; batinah-goats; dhofari-goats; jabal-akhdar-goats
70. NAL Call No.: 49-AR23
A comparative study of performance of Egyptian goat breeds II. Growth performance and productivity.
Laes Fettback C; Peters KJ Archiv-fur-Tierzucht v.38(5): p.563-575; 28 ref (1995)
Descriptors: goat-breeds; growth; performance; productivity; birth-weight; breed-differences; sex-differences; litter-size; body-weight; dams; progeny; tropics; plane-of-nutrition; intensive-husbandry; extensive-husbandry; kids; compensatory-growth
71 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Comparison between reconstituted sheep faeces and rumen fluid inocula and between in vitro and in sacco digestibility methods as predictors of intake and in vivo digestibility.
Nsahlai, I. V.; Umunna, N. N. J-agric-sci v.126(pt.2): p.235-248. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: sheep; feces-composition; roughage; chemical-composition; dry-matter; quantitative-analysis; rumen; digestion; inoculum; in-vitro-digestibility; digestibility; feed-intake; prediction; rumen-gases; filtration; centrifugation; nylon; bags; animal-nutrition; mathematical-models; ethiopia
72 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Comparison of alpha-tocopherol acetate preparations given as single intraperitoneal or subcutaneous doses for increasing plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol in sheep fed a low vitamin E diet.
Smith, G. M.; Fry, J. M.; Ilett, K. F. Aust-j-exp-agric v.36(4): p.421-428. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; alpha-tocopherol; formulations; intraperitoneal-injection; subcutaneous-injection; oral-administration; blood-plasma; liver; concentration; supplementary-feeding; pharmacokinetics
73 NAL Call No.: S539.5.J68
A comparison of sheep grazing with herbicides for weed control in seedling alfalfa in the irrigated Sonoran Desert.
Bell, C. E.; Guerrero, J. N.; Granados, E. Y. J-prod-agric v.9(1): p.123-129. (1996 Jan.-1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: medicago-sativa; seedlings; irrigated-stands; chemical-vs; -cultural-weed-control; eptc; 2,4-db; sethoxydim; sheep; grazing; grazing-effects; mowing; crop-yield; yields; feeding-preferences; weeds; plant-density; nutritive-value; crop-density; crop-quality; california; weed-management; weed-yield; weed-density
Abstract: A three year study was conducted in the irrigated Sonoran Desert to compare the effect of different weed management methods in seedling alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on crop stand and yield. Treatments included; grazing with sheep (Ovis aries L.) when the crop was ready for the first harvest, a combination of preemergence and postemergence herbicides, postemergence herbicides only, and an untreated control where weeds were harvested with the hay. Weed management practice did not affect alfalfa yield in the first season, although the herbicide treatments reduced total forage (alfalfa plus weeds) yield compared with the grazed treatments and the untreated control. Crop density was not different between treatments. Herbicide treatments lowered forage yields at the first harvest by eliminating of weeds and because of crop injury in 2 of the 3 yr. At the third and subsequent harvests, there were no differences in forage yield for treatments. Plots were weed free after the second harvest. Lamb grazing selectivity in weedy seedling alfalfa was also quantified by analyzing esophageal extrusa. The lambs were selecting the weeds over the alfalfa as grazing progressed. This preference was consistent between lambs and plots, although there were year differences. Forage quality of the winter annual broadleaf weeds present in this study was comparable with the alfalfa. We concluded that grazing lambs are a good weed control method in seedling alfalfa during the winter grazing season in the irrigated Sonoran Desert.
74 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Comparison of the behaviour of goats and sheep on an eroded hill pasture.
Greaves, L. A.; Wedderburn, M. E. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.42(3): p.207-216. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; sheep; eroded-soils; hill-grasslands; spring; summer; female-animals; ewes; kids; lambs; animal-behavior; grazing; erosion; new-zealand
75 NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
A comparison of wooden slats and straw bedding on the behaviour of sheep.
Gordon GDH; Cockram MS Animal-Welfare v.4(2): p.131-134; 3 ref (1995)
Descriptors: sheep-housing; floors; straw; animal-welfare; slatted-floors; animal-behaviour; litter; lairage
A complementary sheep flock at a dairy farm. Development of a production system at an experimental farm. [Dans une exploitation laitiere, un troupeau ovin complementaire. Mise au point d'un systeme de production en ferme experimentale.]
Rouel J; Laignel G; Bony J; Theriez M; Lienard G Productions-Animales v.8(5): p.341-352; 16 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; sheepmeat; feed-supplements; profitability; economics; dairy-farms; reproduction; lamb-production; management; mixed-farming
77 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Composition, digestibility and rumen degradability of crab meal.
Nicholson, J. W. G.; McQueen, R. E.; Allen, J. G.; Bush, R. S. Can-j-anim-sci v.76(1): p.89-94. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: calves; sheep; crab-waste; meal; nutritive-value; digestibility; rumen; protein-degradation; chemical-composition; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; soybean-oilmeal; rape
Abstract: The nutritive value of dried shellfish waste (referred to as crab meal) produced in New Brunswick in the mid-1980s was evaluated by physical, chemical and biological assays. Typically, the crab meal was high in ash content (about 50%), consisting mainly of calcium carbonate and contained about 20% chitin, 25% crude protein (CP) and less than 2% lipid material. The meal could be separated by screening into a coarse fraction high in ash and chitin and a fine fraction lower in ash and higher in CP. Although the reactivity rate of crab meal ash was not as high as that of similar sized limestone particles (42 vs. 30.4 min for particles that passed a 500-micrometers screen but were retained on a 300-micrometers screen), it was high enough to suggest crab meal could be a useful rumen buffer. The CP of crab meal was highly resistant to degradation in the rumen in sacco. Less than 18% of the crab meal CP disappeared from bags suspended in the rumen for 24 h, compared with more than 87% for soybean meal and full-fat canola seed. The digestibility of crab meal dry matter by sheep was only 34.3 +/- 3.7%, but the CP digestibility was 69.6 +/- 4.1%. The chemical and physical attributes assayed and the results of the in sacco and sheep digestibility trials all suggest that crab meal should be a useful supplement for diets low in digestible undergraded protein. However, its inclusion in a supplement for beef calves fed legume silage resulted in lower feed consumption and rate of gain (P < 0.01). Feeding soybean meal or full-fat canola resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in feed efficiency, compared with calves fed the control and crab meal supplements. It was concluded that crab meal produced in New Brunswick would be a useful supplement for beef cattle if problems of palatability could be overcome.
78 NAL Call No.: SF95.I47
Composition of diet selected by grazing sheep on natural rangeland.
Sankhyan SK; Shinde AK; Karim SA; Patnayak BC Indian-Journal-of-Animal-Nutrition v.12(3): p.183-185; 8 ref (1995)
Descriptors: botanical-composition; feeding-habits; wet-season; semiarid-climate; feeding-preferences; rangelands; grazing; grasslands; selective-grazing; intake
79 NAL Call No.: SF371.R47
Composition of milk fat from ewes fed a diet supplemented with calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids.
Appeddu LA; Ely DG; Aaron DK; Deweese WP; Fink E Sheep-and-Goat-Research-Journal v.12(1): p.11-18; 35 ref (1996)
Descriptors: ewes; milk; dry-matter; saturated-fatty-acids; unsaturated-fatty-acids; lucerne-hay; maize; soyabean-oilmeal; lambs; milk-fat; fatty-acids; composition; ewe-milk; ewe-feeding; supplements; milk-composition; palm-oils; milk-yield; protected-fat
Consequences of a low aluminium nutrition in the goat. 2. Milk yield, life expectancy, plasma variables, aluminium content of selected organs. [Die Auswirkungen einer aluminiumarmen Ernahrung bei der Ziege. 2. Mitteilung: Milchleistung, Lebenserwartung, Plasmaparameter, Aluminiumgehalt ausgewahlter Organe.]
Muller M; Anke M; Gurtler H; Illig Gunther H; Anke M (ed.); Bergmann H (ed.); Bitsch R (ed.); Dorn W (ed.); Flachowsky G (ed.); Glei M (ed.); Groppel B (ed.); Grun M (ed.); Gurtler H (ed.); Lombeck I (ed.); Luckas B (ed.); Meissner D (ed.); Merbach W (ed.); Muller M(ed.); Schneider HJ Mengen- und Spurenelemente: 15. Arbeitstagung, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, 8-9 Dezember 1995. 1995, 613-620; 14 ref
Descriptors: trace-elements; minerals; deficiency; mortality; tissues; bones; milk-yield; milk-fat-yield; milk-protein-yield; goat-feeding; aluminium; Major-and-trace-elements
81 NAL Call No.: 44.8.In28
Constraints in the adoption of improved sheep and goat practices by the small and marginal farmers of diversified farming.
Sivanaryana G; Reddy SJ Indian-Journal-of-Dairy-Science v.48(4): p.306-308; 4 ref (1995)
Descriptors: goat-keeping; sheep-farming; innovation-adoption; constraints; small-farms
82 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
Constraints to the modelling of diet selection and intake in the grazing ruminant.
Dove, H. Aust-j-agric-res v.47(2): p.257-275. (1996)
Special Issue: Ruminant Nutrition.
Descriptors: cattle; sheep; grazing; herbage; browse-plants; feeding-preferences; botanical-composition; feed-intake; organic-matter; digestibility; nutritional-state; simulation-models; australia; grazfeed-simulation-model; model-validation
83 NAL Call No.: S544.3.N9C46
Controlling leafy spurge using goats and sheep.
Sedivec, K.; Hanson, T.; Heiser, C. NDSU-Ext-Serv. Fargo, N.D. : The University. May 1995. (R-1093) 4 p.
Descriptors: euphorbia-esula; pastures; biological-control; sheep; goats; leases; mixed-grazing; cattle; nutritive-value; stocking-rate; 2,4-d
84 NAL Call No.: SF81.F3
Cotton seed for milch animals. A review.
Tewatia BS; Paliwal VK International-Journal-of-Animal-Sciences v.11(1): p.85-90; 46 ref (1996)
Descriptors: cows; ewes; milk-yield; milk-composition; antinutritional-factors; gossypol; toxicity; nutritional-disorders; cottonseed; lactation; reviews; feeding
85 NAL Call No.: 410-J827
Coyote movements in relation to the spatial distribution of sheep.
Shivik, J. A.; Jaeger, M. M.; Barrett, R. H. J-wildl-manage v.60(2): p.408-416. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; spatial-distribution; coyotes; movement; behavior-patterns; predator-prey-relationships; california
86 NAL Call No.: S631.A8 No.405
Crop-livestock farming in the uplands of Taiwan.
Chen HsinHao; Chen HH Extension-Bulletin -ASPAC,-Food-and-Fertilizer-Technology-Center. 1995, No. 405, 7 pp.; 12 ref
Descriptors: dairy-farming; goat-keeping; deer-farming; grazing-systems; livestock; performance; soil-conservation; extension; constraints; livestock-farming; sloping-land; dairy-farms; upland-areas; silvopastoral-systems; forests; agroforestry-systems
87 NAL Call No.: 45.9-Sv2
Crossbreeding or breeding for combined breeds?. [Korsningsavel eller avel for kombinerade raser?]
Nasholm A Farskotsel v.75(9): p.4-5 (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; rams; lambs; performance-testing; progeny-testing; pelts; body-weight; growth; carcasses; female-fertility; genetic-improvement; maternal-behaviour; breeding-value; selection; crossbreeding; meat-production
88 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
D-glucose transport and glycolytic enzyme activities in erythrocytes of dogs, pigs, cats, horses, cattle and sheep.
Arai, T.; Washizu, T.; Sagara, M.; Sako, T.; Nigi, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Sasaki, M.; Tomoda, I. Res-vet-sci v.58(2): p.195-196. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: dogs; pigs; cats; horses; cattle; sheep; erythrocytes; blood-sugar; nutrient-transport; hexokinase; pyruvate-kinase; enzyme-activity; insulin
Abstract: The activities of D-glucose transport (D-GT) and the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), were measured in the erythrocytes of dogs, pigs, cats, horses, cattle and sheep. The erythrocytes of dogs had the highest activities of D-GT, HK and PK, significantly higher than the activities in the erythrocytes of the herbivores. The activities of D-GT and HK in cat erythrocytes were significantly lower than in those of dogs. The differences between the activities of D-GT in the erythrocytes of the different species followed the differences in activities of HK but not those in the activities of PK or in the blood glucose concentrations. It is considered that the activity of HK provides a convenient measurement of the relative rates of glucose oxidation in erythrocytes.
89 NAL Call No.: SF1.K7
Dairy and animal husbandry institute for Sardinia. [Instytut zootechniki i serowarstwa na Sardynii.]
Drozdz A Biuletyn-Informacyjny -Instytut-Zootechniki v.33(1): p.65-69; 3 ref (1995)
Descriptors: cows; cheeses; ewes; ewe-milk; cheesemaking; legislation; dairy-research; research-institutes; breeding; milk-production; milk-processing; milk-quality; research; dairy-performance; Fiore-Sardo-cheese; Pecorino-Romano-cheese; Pecorino-Sardo-cheese
Dairy goats in France. [Milchziegen in Frankreich.]
Jurkschat M Neue-Landwirtschaft. 1995, No. 10, 87-88
Descriptors: French-Alpine; French-Saanen; milk-yield; milk-fat-yield; milk-protein-yield; management; animal-nutrition; flockbooks; dairy-performance; milk-recording; artificial-insemination
91 NAL Call No.: SF375.D38--1996
Detection and treatment of mineral nutrition problems in grazing sheep.
Masters, D. G. D. G.; White, C. L. C. L. 1.; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. ACIAR monograph series ; no. 37. Canberra : Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 1996. iv, 117 p. : ill., Papers presented at a workshop held in Oct. 1995, Beijing, China.
Descriptors: Sheep-Nutrition-Congresses; Minerals-in-animal-nutrition-Congresses
92 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Development of a mechanistic model of intake and chewing activities of sheep.
Sauvant, D.; Baumont, R.; Faverdin, P. J-anim-sci v.74(11): p.2785-2802. (1996 Nov.)
Descriptors: sheep; feeding-behavior; biting-rates; rumen-digestion; particle-size; digesta; models; transit-time; fiber-content; forage; cell-walls; equations; energy-balance; decision-analysis; sheep-rumination; dry-matter; voluntary-intake; alfalfa-hay; palatability
Abstract: A mechanistic model of intake and chewing activities was developed using data from confined sheep in order to integrate the relationships between feeding behavior and digestive processes. The model consists of two interconnected submodels. The ruminal digestion submodel describes flows of nutrients and is based on differential equations to simulate the dynamic evolution of particulate matter and volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the reticulorumen. The diet is characterized by cell wall content and its potential digestibility, by the proportion of large particles (LP) retained on a 1-mm mesh sieve, and by an index of palatability. Particle comminution occurs during eating and ruminating. Intake is determined from attributes of the diet, animal live weight, and satiety status. Particulate outflow is calculated from a description of the activity of the reticulo-omasal orifice. Microbial digestion rates vary with lag phase, chemical fraction, size of particles, and ruminal pH. The VFA are aggregated into one compartment. The feeding decision submodel distinguishes among eating, ruminating, and resting. The choice among these activities is decided at each minute of simulation according to the relative values of functions of intake motivation (FMI) and of satiety (FSAT). The FMI function is based on diet palatability, energy balance, and the diurnal cycle. The FSAT function is determined by rumen load signals and energy balance. When the animal does not eat, the decision between ruminating and resting is related to the proportion of long particles in the rumen. Sensitivity analysis and validations indicate that the overall behavior of the model is adequate.
93 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Development of sheep fattening schemes in highland Balochistan, Pakistan.
Rodriguez, A.; Mayer, L. Small-rumin-res v.18(3): p.193-200. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: sheep; lamb-fattening; fattening-performance; development-projects; cooperative-farm-enterprises; concentrates; cereal-byproducts; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; selling-prices; fluctuations; agropastoral-systems; agricultural-credit; cooperative-credit
94 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Diet-induced variation in acetate metabolism of ovine perirenal adipose tissue in vitro.
Scollan, N. D.; Jessop, N. S. J-agric-sci v.125(pt. 3): p.429-436. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: lambs; acetates; metabolism; blood-plasma; blood-chemistry; renal-function; adipose-tissue; diet; pulps; protein-content; glucose; insulin; carbon-dioxide; lipids; chemical-composition; carbohydrates; quantitative-analysis; oxidation; dosage-effects; digestible-energy; nutrient-balance; rumen-digestion; slaughter; lamb-meat; food-composition; barley-pulp; sugarbeet-pulp
Diet of feral goats and feral pigs on Auckland Island, New Zealand.
Chimera C; Coleman MC; Parkes JP New-Zealand-Journal-of-Ecology v.19(2): p.203-207; 18 ref (1995)
Descriptors: conservation; botanical-composition; diets; grasses; browse; forbs; wild-animals; Anisotome-antipode; Durvillea-antarctica
96 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Diet selection by goats in the sagebrush steppe of eastern Oregon.
Richman, L. M.; Johnson, D. E. Small-rumin-res v.18(1): p.7-17. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: goats; feeding-preferences; artemisia-tridentata; rangelands; diet; botanical-composition; seasonal-fluctuations; age-differences; range-management; browsing; brush-control; biomass; kids; oregon
Diet selection by sheep and goats in the arid Karoo.
Toit PCV du; Blom CD; Immelman WF; Du Toit PCV African-Journal-of-Range-and-Forage-Science v.12(1): p.16-26; 26 ref (1995)
Descriptors: grassland-management; diets; seasonal-variation; grasslands; arid-grasslands; grazing-systems; grazing; selective-grazing; mixed-grazing; feeding-habits
Diet selection by sheep and goats in the Noorsveld.
Toit PCV du; Blom CD; Du Toit PCV African-Journal-of-Range-and-Forage-Science v.12(1): p.27-37; 26 ref (1995)
Descriptors: grassland-management; diets; seasonal-variation; grazing; selective-grazing
99 NAL Call No.: 389.8-B773
Diet selection in sheep: the role of the rumen environment in the selection of a diet from two feeds that differ in their energy density.
Cooper, S. D. B.; Kyriazakis, I.; Nolan, J. V. Br-j-nutr. Cambridge [England] : Cambridge University Press ; Chicago, Ill. : Agent for U.S.A., The University of Chicago Press, 1947-. July 1995. v. 74 (1) p. 39-54.
Descriptors: sheep; diet; feeding-preferences; rumen-contents; energy-content; experimental-diets; feed-formulation; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; metabolizable-energy; feed-conversion-efficiency; digestive-tract; infusion; fistulation; ph; osm o tic-pressure; acid-treatment; alkali-treatment; dosage-effects
Abstract: The effect of the energy density (ED) of feeds offered as a choice on the diet selection of sheep, and the relationship between the rumen environment and the diet selected from feeds of different ED were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment two feeds, L and H, and their mixture M (3:1 w/w) were formulated. All feeds had similar calculated metabolizable
100 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Dietary habits and social interactions affect choice of feeding location by sheep.
Scott, C. B.; Provenza, F. D.; Banner, R. E. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.45(3/4): p.225-237. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: lambs; feeding-preferences; food-preferences; sorghum; wheat; novel-foods; foraging; avoidance-conditioning; spatial-distribution
Abstract: Individuals often occur in subgroups that differ in their choice of forage and habitat, even within the same environment. Different foods occur in disparate locations and thus differences in dietary habits could provide one explanation for the formation of subgroups and their use of the environment. In addition, subgroups may form as a result of social interactions. We conducted experiments to study the effects of food preference and social interactions on choice of feeding location by lambs. In 1992, 12 lambs that had been reared together were separated into two groups of six lambs. Groups were conditioned to prefer one of two grains, either milo (Sorghum bicolor) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) by feeding milo or wheat for 14 days. Lambs were conditioned to avoid the other grain by following its ingestion with a mild dose of the toxin lithium chloride (LiCl) on 3 consecutive days. During testing, milo and wheat were placed at opposite ends of a 0.25 ha pasture. Lambs were first allowed to feed as groups consisting of three lambs that preferred milo and three lambs that preferred wheat, and then allowed to feed as groups in which one lamb preferred milo with three lambs that preferred wheat, and vice versa. Under both conditions, lambs always foraged on their preferred food, even when the locations of the foods were switched. In 1993, we repeated the study from 1992 in a larger pasture (1 ha) and without the use of LiCl. Lambs were reared in three different groups and fed either milo (Group 1), wheat (Group 2), or half of the lambs were fed milo and the other half were fed wheat (Group 3) for 4 months to condition a preference for either milo or wheat. When we combined lambs that preferred milo from Group I with lambs that preferred wheat from Group 2 to form subgroups of strangers, lambs fed in different locations. Conversely, social interactions and food preferences both affected choice of foraging location when lambs were reared together (companions). For instance, some lambs that preferred wheat grazed in the vicinity while peers ate milo, whereas lambs that preferred milo grazed in the vicinity while peers ate wheat. In other cases, one or two lambs separated from the rest of the group and ate their preferred grain. We conclude that food preference had a primary influence on choice of foraging location when lambs were reared separately (strangers) and preferred different foods. Food preferences and social interactions both influenced choice of foraging location for companions unless animals were made averse to one of the foods with LiCl, in which case dietary preferences overrode social influences.
101 NAL Call No.: QH540.A8
The dietary overlap between red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in the arid rangelands of Australia.
Edwards, G. P.; Dawson, T. J.; Croft, D. B. Aust-j-ecol v.20(2): p.324-334. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; macropus-rufus; feeding-preferences; diet; paddocks; animal-competition; interspecific-competition; shrubs; grasses; rangelands; arid-regions; grazing-experiments; new-south-wales
102 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Diets of the Philippine indigenous sheep: its comparison to indigenous goats diets and influence of sampling methods.
Serra, A. B.; Serra, S. D.; Serra, F. B.; Domingo, I. J.; Cruz, L. C.; Fujihara, T. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(2): p.163-169. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; goats; selective-grazing; diet; proximate-analysis; mineral-content; sampling; upland-areas; lowland-areas; crude-protein; crude-fiber; species-differences; philippines
103 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Differences in ewe and wether behavior when bonded to cattle.
Anderson DM; Estell RE; Havstad KM; Shupe WL; Libeau R; Murray LW Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.47(3-4): p.201-209; 27 ref (1996)
Descriptors: grazing; predation; animal-behaviour; ewes; wethers; mixed-grazing; social-behaviour; bonding
104 NAL Call No.: 45.9-Sv2
Different concentrate strategies around kidding. [Olika kraftfoderstrategier kring killningen.]
Bernes G Farskotsel v.75(6): p.12-13 (1995)
Descriptors: goat-milk; yields; birth-weight; kids; plane-of-nutrition; reproduction; concentrates; intake; composition; pregnancy
105 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Differential effects of plane of protein or energy nutrition on visceral organs and hormones in lambs.
Wester, T. J.; Britton, R. A.; Klopfenstein, T. J.; Ham, G. A.; Hickok, D. T.; Krehbiel, C. R. J-anim-sci v.73(6): p.1674-1688. (1995 June)
Descriptors: lambs; plane-of-nutrition; dietary-protein; liver; mass; undernutrition; refeeding; body-weight; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; dry-matter; energy-intake; protein-intake; feed-conversion; digestive-tract; lungs; heart; blood-plasma; somatotropin; oxygen-consumption; hormone-secretion; insulin-like-growth-factor; insulin; blood-serum; triiodothyronine; thyroxine
Abstract: Modulation of somatotrophic and homeorhetic hormones, along with changes in visceral mass and metabolic activity, were measured in growing lambs restricted in energy (ER) or metabolizable protein (PR) to maintain BW for 7 wk and then repleted for 2 wk. Control lambs were fed an adequate diet for 9 wk. Serum IGF-I decreased more rapidly in PR, but both ER and PR were 70% of controls by wk 7 of restriction (P < .05) and increased above controls by d 14 of repletion. Somatotropin, increased by PR, returned to control levels upon repletion (P < .05). Insulin was decreased by PR (P < .02) but was transiently elevated above controls by repletion in ER and PR at d 2 (P < .01). Serum triiodothyronine, reduced to 70% of controls by PR and ER, returned to control levels after d 6 of repletion (P < .05). Thyroxine declined gradually to 65% of controls in ER and PR (P < .07) but did not respond to repletion. By wk 7 of restriction, liver mass in ER and PR was decreased to 50% of controls (P < .05). Return of liver mass, on an empty body weight basis, occurred by d 2 of repletion (P < .01). In vitro O2 consumption per gram of liver tissue was increased to 125% of controls by ER and PR (P < .05). Calculated whole liver O2 consumption in ER and PR was 68% of controls at wk 7 of restriction (P < .10). Protein restriction had a more immediate impact on hormones but not on visceral mass or activity compared with energy restriction. Elevated IGF-I levels, as observed in previously restricted lambs, may mediate compensatory growth in ruminants.
106 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Direct observation of biting for studying grazing behavior of goats and llamas on garrigue rangelands.
Dumont, B.; Meuret, M.; Prud'hon, M. Small-rumin-res v.16(1): p.27-35. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; llamas; feeding-preferences; garrigue; feed-intake; dry-matter; spring; summer; grazing-behavior; browse-plants; browsing; botanical-composition; biting-rates; france
107 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7
The diversification of lamb production in extensive farming systems. How do producers adapt their technical systems? A case study of Causse Mejan (France, Southern Massif Central). Diversification de la production de viande ovine en elevage extensif. [Comment les eleveurs adaptent-ils leurs systemes techniques? Le cas du Causse Mejan (France, sud du Massif Central).]
Lhuillier C; Lardon S; Osty PL; Flamant JC (ed.); Portugal AV (ed.); Costa JP (ed.); Nunes AF (ed.); Boyazoglu J Animal production and rural tourism in Mediterranean Regions. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Animal Production and Rural Tourism in Mediterranean Regions organized by EAAP, FAO, CIHEAM and SNFEZ of Portugal, Evora, Portugal, 10-13 October 1993. 1995, 73-77; EAAP Publication No. 74; 5 ref
Descriptors: quality; demand; diversification; farm-income; employment; technical-progress; lamb-meat; production; tourism-development; less-favoured-areas; food-consumption; Animal-production-and-rural-tourism
108 NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Dorper: a hardy meat sheep.
Mitcham, S. Small-farm-today v.13(4): p.32. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: sheep; dorper; intensive-livestock-farming; grazing
Dry matter consumption of Bengal goats under deep litter system of management in West Bengal.
Samanta AK; Senapati PK; Roy SP Environment-and-Ecology v.13(2): p.351-353; 10 ref (1995)
Descriptors: management; feeding-behaviour; deep-litter-housing; environmental-temperature; feed-intake; housing
110 NAL Call No.: 100-C12Cag
Early sexual experience improves ram breeding.
Price, E. O.; Dally, M. R.; Borgwardt, R. Calif-agric v.50(4): p.37-40. (1996 July-1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: sheep; rams; reproductive-performance; evaluation; age-at-first-mating; ejaculation; performance-testing; mating-behavior; sexual-development
111 NAL Call No.: 49.9-H19
Eating and rumination behavior in goats receiving rye hay with unchopped or chopped forms harvested at two stages of growth.
Moon SH; Jeon BT; Hirota H Korean-Journal-of-Animal-Science v.37(2): p.136-144; 14 ref (1995)
Descriptors: processing; feeding-behaviour; mastication; rumination; rye; forage; hay; maturity-stage; particle-size
112 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 No.83
Economic diversity of mountain sheep farms and complementarity strategies in land use.
Manrique E; Olaizola A; Bernues A; Revilla R; Zervas NP (ed.); Hatziminaoglou J The optimal exploitation of marginal Mediterranean areas by extensive ruminant production systems. Proceedings of an international symposium organized by HSAP and EAAP and sponsored by EU(DGVI), FAO and CIHEAM, Thessaloniki, Greece, 18-20 June, 1994. 1996, 61-66; EAAP Publication No. 83; 13 ref
Descriptors: classification; sheep-farming; farming-systems; transhumance; mountain-areas ID: optimal-exploitation-of-marginal-Mediterranean-areas-by-extensive-ruminant-production-system
113 NAL Call No.: 60.18-J82
Economic feasibility of grazing sheep on leafy spurge-infested rangeland in Montana.
Williams, K. E.; Lacey, J. R.; Olson, B. E. J-range-manage v.49(4): p.372-374. (1996 July)
Descriptors: sheep; euphorbia-esula; selective-grazing; carrying-capacity; ranching; cattle-farming; stocking-rate; farm-budgeting; fencing; profits; cost-benefit-analysis; montana
Abstract: Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a noxious weed on rangelands throughout the Northern Great Plains. Most of these ranges are grazed by cattle which do not use leafy spurge as forage. Although sheep graze leafy spurge, most land managers are reluctant to use sheep to control this noxious weed, which may be related to economic uncertainties regarding their profitability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of implementing a sheep enterprise to control leafy spurge on cattle ranches. The physical characteristics of a typical Northern Great Plains ranch, recommended stocking rates for cattle and sheep on native and leafy spurge-infested rangelands, and a sheep enterprise budget were developed using information from the literature. A LOTUS spreadsheet was developed to calculate returns over total costs of implementing various sheep enterprises. Annual returns from implementing sheep grazing on 520 ha of leafy spurge on a 4,905 ha ranch exceeded total costs by $4,675. Given the ownership costs and returns of our ranch, the breakeven lamb price would be $1.16 kg-1. Returns per head and per unit of land will vary with the distribution and size of a leafy spurge infestation, and sheep production costs and returns. Returns from sheep grazing were higher when leafy spurge was concentrated in fewer rather than in many pastures. Returns were positive when as little as 4% of the ranch was infested with leafy spurge. The availability and utility of our model will allow land managers to assess the feasibility of developing sheep enterprises to control leafy spurge.
114 NAL Call No.: HD1930.S4E4
Economic report on Scottish agriculture.
UK, Scottish Office, Agriculture and Fisheries Department. 1995, vi + 67 pp
Descriptors: arable-farming; cereals; oilseeds; land-diversion; mixed-farming; dairy-farming; sheep-farming; cattle-farming; farmers'-income; prices; livestock-numbers; employment; agricultural-manpower; agricultural-censuses; agricultural-situation; farm-surveys; farm-income; cows; dairy-farms
115 NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
Economic returns from improved technology for livestock production on rangelands in Mendoza, Argentina.
Guevara, J. C.; Estevez, O. R.; Christensen, J. H.; Paez, J. A. J-arid-environ. London, New York, Academic Press. Jan 1995. v. 29 (1) p. 115-122.
Descriptors: cattle; sheep; goats; rangelands; free-range-husbandry; cattle-husbandry; returns; break-even-point; economic-evaluation; cost-benefit-analysis; improvement; range-management; argentina; net-present-value
An economic review of farming in the North West 1994/95.
Farrar J Bulletin -Centre-for-Agricultural,-Food-and-Resource-Economics,-School-of-Economic-Studies,-Univers ity-of-Manchester. 1996, No. 234-FBS 80, v + 106 pp
Descriptors: arable-farming; dairy-farming; livestock-farming; sheep-farming; cattle-farming; farm-income; costs; returns; gross-margins; profitability; farm-surveys; farm-results; dairy-farms
117 NAL Call No.: TX341.F3
Economics of hill sheep production.
Connolly L Farm-and-Food v.6(1): p.30-32 (1996)
Descriptors: costs; returns; farm-results; subsidies; support-measures; sheep-farming; profitability; upland-areas
118 NAL Call No.: 281.9-C332
The economics of sheep farming in Slovakia and forecasts for the year 2000. [Ekonomika chovu oviec na Slovensku a jej predikcia v roku 2000.]
Vlacil R Zemedelska-Ekonomika v.42(7): p.315-319; 12 ref (1996)
Descriptors: sheepmeat; wool; cheeses; production; supply; prices; sheep-farming; profitability; ewe-milk; animal-production; censuses; meat-production; wool-production
119 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effect of amount offered on intake, digestibility and value of Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala for west African Dwarf goats.
Bosman, H. G.; Versteegden, C. J. G. M.; Odeyinka, S. M.; Tolkamp, B. J. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.247-256. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; west-african-dwarf; gliricidia-sepium; leucaena-leucocephala; leaves; chemical-composition; feed-intake; dry-matter; voluntary-intake; goat-feeding; digestibility; plane-of-nutrition; liveweight-gain; feed-conversion; nigeria; refusal-rate
120 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on the nutritive value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) fed to sheep.
Waghorn, G. C.; Shelton, I. D. J-agric-sci v.125(pt.2): p.291-297. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: sheep-feeding; tannins; lotus-uliginosus; nutritive-value; lolium-perenne; feed-evaluation; nitrogen-content; dry-matter; digestibility; rumen-digestion; rumen-metabolism; metabolites; growth; wool; liveweight-gain
121 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Effect of condensed tannins upon the performance of lambs grazing Lotus corniculatus and lucerne (Medicago sativa).
Wang, Y.; Douglas, G. B.; Waghorn, G. C.; Barry, T. N.; Foote, A. G.; Purchas, R. W. J-agric-sci v.126(pt.1): p.87-98. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: lambs; wool-production; carcass-yield; growth; feed-intake; nutritive-value; grazing; lotus-corniculatus; medicago-sativa; leaves; stems; plant-composition; tannins; feed-evaluation; rumen-digestion; digestibility; metabolites; chemical-composition; new-zealand
122 NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
The effect of diet in late pregnancy of progesterone concentration and colostrum yield in ewes.
O'Doherty, J. V.; Crosby, T. F. Theriogenology v.46(2): p.233-241. (1996 July)
Descriptors: ewes; pregnancy; plane-of-nutrition; blood-serum; progesterone; colostrum; grass-silage; beet-pulp; silage; soybean-oilmeal; feed-supplements; lambing; postpartum-period; igg; yields; energy-intake; protein-intake; crude-protein
Abstract: In the ewe, high level feeding is associated with low levels of circulating progesterone and that progesterone withdrawal is a prerequisite for lactogenesis and the onset of copious milk secretion. A total of 108 ewes was allocated to a 3 X 2 factorial experiment to determine the effect of diet on serum progesterone (P4) concentration and colostrum yield. On D 96 of pregnancy, the ewes were offered either grass silage, molassed sugar beet pulp (beet pulp) silage or grass silage supplemented with beet pulp. A ewes were given ad libitum access to silage. From D 126 of pregnancy, half the diets were supplemented with soybean meal with the aim of achieving a total crude protein intake of 220 g/ewe/day. Blood samples were taken on D 142 of pregnancy and at 1, 10 and 18 h post lambing for P4 determination. Metabolizable energy intakes (Mega Joules/ewe/day) of 9.1, 11.2 and 12.1 (SEM 0.37) and crude protein intakes (g/ewe/day) of 142.8, 167.4 and 162.0 (SEM 3.46) were recorded for grass silage, beet pulp ensiled and beet pulp supplemented silages, respectively, from D 126 to D 147 of pregnancy. Soybean meal supplementation increased the crude protein intake from 97.1 to 217.0 g/ewe/day (SEM 2.86) and Metabolisable Energy intake from 9.0 to 12.6 Mega Joules/ewe/day (SEM 0.31). Supplementation with soybean meal decreased P4 concentration (ng/ml)on D 142(p < 0.05)and at 1 h(P <0.01), 10h (P <0.01)and 18h post lambing(P < 0.01). Ewes offered grass silage had higher P4 concentrations on D 142 (P < 0.01) and at 1 h after lambing (P < 0.05) than the beet pulp-supplemented ewes. There were negative linear relationships between P4 concentration at D 142 and colostrum yield at 1 h (P < 0.01) and between P4 concentration at 1 h and colostrum yield at 1 h (P < 0.001) and total yield at 18 h (P < 0.001). In conclusion, ewes which were underfed had higher P4 concentrations at all times, and there were negative linear relationships between colostrum yield and P4 concentrations on D 142 of pregnancy and at 1 h post lambing.
123 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effect of dietary protein level on thermoregulation, digestion and water economy in desert sheep.
Ahmed, M. M. M.; Abdellatif, A. M. Small-rumin-res v.18(1): p.51-56. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: sheep; dietary-protein; body-temperature; environmental-temperature; water-balance; nitrogen-balance; crude-protein; feed-intake; dry-matter; liveweight-gain; water-intake; respiration-rate; rumen-contents; ph; ammonia; volatile-fatty-acids; blood; metabolites; sudan
124 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
Effect of dietary protein on the regulation of populations of Nematodirus battus by lambs.
Israf, D. A.; Coop, R. L.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, E. Res-vet-sci v.60(3): p.276-277. (1996 May)
Descriptors: lambs; nematodirus-battus; dietary-protein; protein-supplements; nematode-larvae; experimental-infections; nutritional-state; immunity; susceptibility; nematode-control
Abstract: Two groups of seven and two groups of six lambs were offered either a complete basal ruminant diet (13.2 per cent crude protein [CP]) (groups 2 and 4) or the same diet supplemented with fish meal (18.3 per cent CP) (groups 1 and 3). Groups 1 and 2 were infected daily for seven weeks with Nematodirus battus larvae (L3) and groups 3 and 4 served as uninfected challenge controls. All the groups were treated with anthelmintic in the eighth week, challenged with a single dose of 30,000 N battus L3 one week later and killed nine days after the challenge. Although protein supplementation tended to enhance the regulation of the population of N battus in the lambs which had been infected continuously, the effect was not statistically significant. The worm burdens in both the groups of previously infected lambs were significantly reduced both in number and size (P<0.001) and they had a lower proportion of male worms than the uninfected challenge controls. The lambs could be segregated into high or low responders on the basis of their worm burdens, and there was a significant reduction in worm burdens (P<0.001) and size (P<0.01) in parallel with the lambs' responsiveness. The identification of high and low responders shows that when the dietary protein supply is adequate the predominant effect of the host on the pathogenicity of its parasites is the host's genetically-determined susceptibility.
125 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
Effect of dietary protein supplementation on the development of immunity to Ostertagia circumcincta in growing lambs.
Coop, R. L.; Huntley, J. F.; Smith, W. D. Res-vet-sci v.59(1): p.24-29. (1995 July)
Descriptors: lambs; teladorsagia-circumcincta; protein-supplements; casein; immunity; development; supplementary-feeding; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; growth-rate
Abstract: Thirty four-and-a-half-month-old worm-free lambs were used to determine whether the rate of development of immunity to Ostertagia circumcincta infection in growing lambs could be influenced by the addition of a by-pass protein supplement. Sixteen lambs (groups 1 and 2) were fitted with an abomasal catheter and infected daily with 2000 O circumcincta L3 for eight weeks. Group 1 lambs received 45 g of crude protein day 1 (sodium caseinate) as a continuous infusion into the abomasum from week -1 to week 8. At week 9, groups 1 and 2, together with eight naive controls (group 3), were treated with anthelmintic and challenged one week later with 50,000 O circumcincta L3 and killed after a further 10 days. An additional six worm-free lambs provided feed intake and growth rate data. All the lambs were offered a complete ruminant ration (167 g crude protein kg-1) ad libitum. The cumulative liveweight gain of both the trickle-infected groups was less than that of the controls. The mean faecal egg counts were lower in group 1 from day 39 after infection and the mean worm burdens were significantly lower than in group 2. Total Ostertagia populations did not differ significantly between group 3 and either group 1 or 2 lambs. Early L4 stages constituted a greater percentage of the total worm population in group 1 (79.5) and group 2 (48.5) than in the challenge controls (group 3) (20.4). The trickle-infected lambs also had higher concentrations of gastric mast cell protease which correlated positively with the proportion of early L4 stages and negatively with the total worm burden. The provision of by-pass protein supplement accelerated the development of immunity to O.
126 NAL Call No.: 41.8-N483
The effect of electro-ejaculation on aversive behaviour and plasma cortisol concentration in rams.
Stafford KJ; Spoorenberg J; West DM; Vermunt JJ; Petrie N; Lawoko CRO New-Zealand-Veterinary-Journal v.44(3): p.95-98; 17 ref (1996)
Descriptors: hydrocortisone; animal-behaviour; rams; shearing; electroejaculation; stress; animal-welfare
127 NAL Call No.: QL750.E82
Effect of ewe age and high population density on the early nursing behaviour of mouflon.
Reale D; Bousses P Ethology,-Ecology-and-Evolution v.7(4): p.323-334; 47 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; lambs; suckling; age; wild-animals
128 NAL Call No.: QP251.A1T5
Effect of exogenous melatonin and plane of nutrition after weaning on estrous activity, endocrine status and ovulation rate in Salz ewes lambing in the seasonal anestrus.
Forcada, F.; Zarazaga, L.; Abecia, J. A. Theriogenology v.43(7): p.1179-1193. (1995 May)
Descriptors: ewes; melatonin; blood-plasma; controlled-release; estrous-cycle; ovulation-rate; body-weight; body-condition; weaning; hormone-secretion; lh; spain
Abstract: Forty-nine Spanish Salz ewes lambing in the second fortnight of March (20 March +/- 15 d) were used to determine the effects of exogenous melatonin and postweaning nutrition on endocrine status, date of first estrus and ovulation rate. Experimental design was a factorial defined by 2 postweaning planes of nutrition, 1.80 (high) and 1.35 (low) times the maintenance requirements, and treatment with a single 18-mg subcutaneous implant of melatonin (M) 32 d after lambing or no treatment control (C). Mean weaning to first estrus interval was shorter in treated than in control ewes (50.8 +/- 4.2 vs 87.6 +/- 6.3 d; P < 0.01). Considering both the treated and control animals together, the ratio between mean night and daytime plasma melatonin levels was significantly correlate with the implant insertion-first estrus interval on Day 5 (0.67; P <0.01) and Day 35 (0.63; P < 0.05) after implantation. Melatonin implants induced a significant increase of mean LH concentrations at Days 14 and 33 after implantation (P < 0.01) without any significant influence of plane of nutrition. Ovulation rate was higher for treated than control ewes the second estrus (P < 0.05). An interaction between plane of nutrition and exogenous melatonin on ovulation rate at the second cycle after weaning was detected (P < 0.01), being close to the significance in the first, fourth and fifth cycles (P < 0.1). These result suggest that exogenous melatonin in April may be an effective way of advancing the breeding season and enhancing ovulation rate associated with a low rather than a high plane of nutrition.
129 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effect of feeding on Leucaena leucocephala supplemented rations on thyroid hormones and fasting heat production in Jamunapari goats.
Haque, N.; Varshney, V. P.; Khan, M. Y.; Lal, M. Small-rumin-res v.19(1): p.29-33. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: goats; leucaena-leucocephala; thyroid-function; triiodothyronine; thyroxine; heat-production; fasting; dietary-protein; peanut-oilmeal; diet; oat-hay; maize; feed-intake; dry-matter; respiratory-quotient; body-weight; oxygen-consumption; carbon-dioxide; methane-production
130 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Effect of flock size on the performance of goats fed gliricidia-supplemented diet in dryland farming in Bali, Indonesia.
Sukanten IW; Nitis IM; Uchida S; Putra S; Lana K Asian-Australasian-Journal-of-Animal-Sciences v.9(3): p.271-279; 17 ref (1996)
Descriptors: feed-conversion-efficiency; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; carcass-quality; group-size
131 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effect of genotype and plane of nutrition on carcass characteristics of Thai native and Anglo-Nubian X Thai native male goats.
Pralomkarn, W.; Saithanoo, S.; Kochapakdee, S.; Norton, B. W. Small-rumin-res v.16(1): p.21-25. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; goat-breeds; anglo-nubian; crossbreds; plane-of-nutrition; feed-intake; carcass-weight; dressing-percentage; muscle-weight; body-fat; bone-weight
132 NAL Call No.: RA639.M44
The effect of host nutrition on itch mite, Psorergates ovis, populations and fleece derangement in sheep.
Johnson, P. W. Med-vet-entomol v.10(2): p.121-128. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; psorobia-ovis; infestation; population-density; nutritional-state; diet; fleece; damage; fleece-weight; skin; histology; australia; skin-scurf
Abstract: A group of thirty-two Merino sheep infested with itch mites (Psorergates ovis) and fed a maintenance diet which imposed moderate nutritional stress had a significantly higher mite population, significantly more skin scurf, and significantly more fleece damage or derangement (P < 0.05) than a second group of thirty-two infested sheep fed a diet designed for unrestricted body weight gain and wool growth. Histologically there were no significant differences between the groups in the numbers of mast cells, neutrophils or eosinophils observed in skin sections, but sheep that had high mite counts (> 10 per 200 cm2 of skin area) in both groups, had more dermal mast cells than sheep with fewer mites irrespective of the plane of nutrition. Skin thickness and greasy fleece weight in the group maintained on the low plane of nutrition were significantly less (P < 0.05) than in the well-nourished group, reflecting the difference in protein and energy content of the two diets. Within the nutritionally stressed group, the sheep with low mite counts had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) greasy fleece weight and a shorter mean staple length than the sheep with high mite counts. There was no significant difference in greasy fleece weight between sheep with low or high mite counts in the group fed on the high plane of nutrition.
133 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Effect of increasing level of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. inermis) on intake and digestion by sheep given straw-based diets.
Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaoui, A.; Abdouli, H.; Orskov, E. R. Anim-sci v.62(pt.2): p.293-299. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; opuntia-ficus-indica; wheat-straw; urea; feed-supplements; protein-content; water-intake; voluntary-intake; digestibility; feed-intake; dry-matter; crude-protein; fiber-content; rumen-fermentation; ammonium-nitrogen; volatile-fatty-acids; rumen-protozoa; cellulose-digestion; enzyme-activity; ph; diurnal-variation; tunisia
134 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effect of intravenous glucose infusion on metabolism of portal-drained viscera in sheep fed a cereal/straw-based diet.
Balcells, J.; Seal, C. J.; Parker, D. S. J-anim-sci v.73(7): p.2146-2155. (1995 July)
Descriptors: sheep; blood-sugar; glucose; infusion; intestinal-absorption; hematocrit; blood-flow; rumen-fermentation; volatile-fatty-acids; nitrogen-content; feed-intake; straw; barley; wheat; soybean-oilmeal; pelleted-feeds; rumen-fluid; metabolites; blood-plasma; insulin; amino-acids
Abstract: This experiment investigated the effect of intrajugular infusion of glucose on whole-body glucose metabolism and the absorption of nutrients by the portal-drained viscera of four Suffolk-cross sheep average BW 46 +/- 7 kg, fed a cereal/straw-based pelleted diet. Each sheep received by random allocation 0 (control), 1.0, or 2.0 mg of glucose kg BW-1.min-1 for 8 h infused into the jugular vein. Glucose irreversible loss rate, measured by simultaneous infusion of 6-[3H]-glucose, increased approximately stoichiometrically during glucose infusion (.51, .75, and 1.09 error mean square [EMS] .032 mmol/min for control, 1.0, and 2.0 mg of glucose infused kg BW-1.min-1, respectively). Utilization of glucose increased in portal tissues (P = 0.89) as a result of glucose infusion (.17, .18, and .33 EMS .008 mmol/ min) and was a constant proportion of glucose irreversible loss (.28). Portal blood flow was not affected by glucose infusion (overall mean 1.13 L/min EMS .034). Net portal absorption of acetate increased during glucose infusion although ruminal VFA concentrations were not affected. In contrast, net free amino acid absorption by portal-drained tissues was reduced during glucose infusion (291, 115, and 4 EMS 33,816 micromoles/min, P = .054). These results show that metabolism of nutrients across the gut wall is influenced by glucose availability to gastrointestinal tissues and affects the pattern of nutrients available to the liver and peripheral tissues.
135 NAL Call No.: 26-T754
Effect of legume supplements on cassava peel silage utilization by West African Dwarf goats.
Adejumo, J. O. Trop-agric v.72(2): p.175-177. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: west-african-dwarf-goat-breed; goat-feeding; silage; cassava-peel; leucaena-leaf-meal; gliricidia-sepium; leaf-meal; protein-supplements; nutritive-value; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; growth-rate; ratios; feed-conversion-efficienc y ; nutrition-physiology
136 NAL Call No.: SF15.P7A62
The effect of management and the way of productive use of sheep on the health status of their udders.
Charon KM; Skolasinski W; Swiderek WP Annals-of-Warsaw-Agricultural-University,-Animal-Science. 1995, No. 31, 75-81; 16 ref
Descriptors: animal-husbandry; hygiene; sheep-housing; mastitis; ewes
137 NAL Call No.: 41.8In22
Effect of management systems on growth performance and behaviour of crossbred goat of Assam.
Khound S; Saikia S; Bora JR Indian-Journal-of-Animal-Sciences v.66(3): p.307-308; 6 ref (1996)
Descriptors: management; systems; growth; performance; behaviour; body-weight; tropics
138 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
The effect of nutrition and exercise on carcass parameters and the level of glycogen in skeletal muscle of Merino sheep.
Pethick, D. W.; Rowe, J. B. Aust-j-agric-res v.47(4): p.525-537. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; feed-intake; exercise; glycogen; ph; skeletal-muscle; carcass-quality; carcass-weight; fat-thickness
139 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
Effect of nutritional level on bodyweight, degree of anaemia and carcase composition of sheep infected with Trypanosoma congolense.
Katunguka Rwakishaya, E. Res-vet-sci v.60(1): p.29-32. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: sheep; trypanosoma-congolense; plane-of-nutrition; trypanosomiasis; body-weight; hematocrit; anemia; carcass-composition; growth-rate; protein-content; diet; experimental-infections
Abstract: The influence of nutritional level on the bodyweight, degree of anaemia and carcase composition of 24 sheep infected experimentally with Trypanosoma congolense was investigated. The infection caused a marked retardation of growth in the animals fed a low protein ration whereas the infected and control animals fed a high protein ration grew at similar rates. Both groups of infected animals developed similar degrees of anaemia but the infected group fed the high protein diet tended to sustain a higher intensity of parasitaemia than the group fed the low protein diet. The infection was also associated with low killing out percentages and a general reduction of total carcase protein, energy and fat. The decline in these carcase components was greater in the animals fed the low protein diet than in those receiving the high protein diet.
140 NAL Call No.: 389.8-B773
The effect of protein degradation products in grass silages on feed intake and intake behaviour in sheep.
Os M van; Dulphy JP; Baumont R; Van Os M British-Journal-of-Nutrition v.73(1): p.51-64; 45 ref (1995)
Descriptors: protein-degradation; silage-quality; feed-intake; feeding-behaviour; grass-silage; ammonia; amines
141 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effect of roasting on site and extent of digestion of soybean meal by sheep. I. Digestion of nitrogen and amino acids.
Demjanec, B.; Merchen, N. R.; Cremin, J. D. Jr.; Aldrich, C. G.; Berger, L. L. J-anim-sci v.73(3): p.824-834. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: sheep; soybean-oilmeal; roasting; duration; digestibility; solubility; protected-protein; diet; amino-acids; rumen-metabolism; volatile-fatty-acids; ph; flow; ammonium-nitrogen; nitrogen-metabolism; small-intestine; duodenum
Abstract: Six mature wethers (BW 72 kg) with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were fed a control (no added soybean meal [SBM]) diet or diets containing unheated SBM or SBM roasted at 165 degrees C for 75, 150, 180, or 210 min in a 6 X 6 Latin square experiment. Concentrations of indicators of heat exposure (ADIN, ADF, NDF) in SBM increased with increasing roasting time. Duodenal flows of total N, non-bacterial N, and SBM N increased (P < .05) linearly with increased roasting time. Small intestinal (SI) digestibility (percentage entering SI) of total N and SBM N was influenced quadratically (P < .05) by roasting time; SI digestibilities were modestly increased by heating SBM to 150 min, then declined dramatically when SBM was heated for 180 and 210 min. These responses resulted in a quadratic (P < .05) increase in quantity of total and SBM N disappearing in the SI; quantities increased as SBM was heated to 150 min and remained unchanged when SBM was heated for 180 and 210 min. These responses resulted in a quadratic (P < .05) increase in quantity of total and SBM N disappearing in the SI; quantities increased as SBM was heated to 150 min and remained unchanged when SBM was heated for 180 and 210 min. Duodenal flows and SI digestibilities of total and non-bacterial amino acids (AA) and of most individual AA followed patterns similar to those observed for N. Maximum quantities of total and individual AA disappeared from the SI when wethers were fed SBM roasted at 165 degrees C for 150 min. Evaluation of the effects of heat treatment on the nutritive value of a protein source for ruminants should include considerations for both ruminal protein escape and SI availability of escaped protein and for the nature of the AA supply absorbed from the SI.
142 NAL Call No.: 23-N4892
Effect of sire breed (Southdown, Suffolk), sex, and growth path on carcass composition of crossbred lambs.
Kirton AH; Bennett GL; Dobbie JL; Mercer GJK; Duganzich DM New-Zealand-Journal-of-Agricultural-Research v.38(1): p.105-114; 31 ref (1995)
Descriptors: suffolk-sheep-breed; carcass-composition; southdown; sex; growth; lambs; cryptorchidism; nutrition; crossbreeding; sex-differences
143 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Effect of space allowance during transport on the behavioural and physiological responses of lambs during and after transport.
Cockram, M. S.; Kent, J. E.; Goddard, P. J.; Waran, N. K.; McGilp, I. M.; Jackson, R. E.; Muwanga, G. M.; Prytherch, S. Anim-sci v.62(pt.3): p.461-477. (1996 June)
Descriptors: lambs; transport-of-animals; stress-response; space-requirements; floor-area; heart-rate; hydrocortisone; blood-sampling; posture; blood-plasma; restricted-feeding; water-deprivation; animal-welfare; creatine-kinase; aspartate-amin o transferase; enzyme-activity; body-weight; water-intake; animal-behavior; sheep-rumination; blood-protein; lying; feed-deprivation
144 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Effect of species composition and sward structure on dietary quality in cattle and sheep grazing South African sourveld.
O'Reagain, P. J.; Owen Smith, R. N. J-agric-sci v.127(pt.2): p.261-270. (1996 Sept.)
Descriptors: grasslands; grass-sward; species-diversity; stand-structure; plant-height; biomass; grazing; cattle-feeding; sheep-feeding; feed-evaluation; in-vitro-digestibility; seasonal-variation; soil-water; fire-effects; dormancy; grassland-management; crop-quality; south-africa
145 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Effect of species composition and sward structure on the ingestive behaviour of cattle and sheep grazing South African sourveld.
O'Reagain, P. J.; Goetsch, B. C.; Owen Smith, R. N. J-agric-sci v.127(pt.2): p.271-280. (1996 Sept.)
Descriptors: grasslands; grass-sward; species-diversity; stand-structure; plant-height; biomass; grazing; cattle-feeding; sheep-feeding; feed-intake; feed-evaluation; grassland-management; crop-quality; south-africa
146 NAL Call No.: SF1.Z6
Effect of stocking density on productive performance and behaviour of artificially reared female kids. [Effetto della densita di allevamento sulle prestazioni produttive e sul comportamento di caprette allattate artificialmente.]
Sevi A; Muscio A; Campanaro G Zootecnica-e-Nutrizione-Animale v.21(2): p.111-117; 28 ref (1995)
Descriptors: performance; kids; animal-welfare; housing; behaviour; feed-conversion-efficiency; stocking-density; artificial-rearing
147 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Effects of activated carbon on growth, ruminal characteristics, blood profiles and feed digestibility in sheep.
Garillo, E. P.; Pradhan, R.; Tobioka, H. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(1): p.43-50. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; activated-carbon; diet; roughage; concentrates; feed-intake; dry-matter; liveweight-gain; feed-conversion; rumen; ph; rumen-protozoa; blood-chemistry; blood-picture; digestibility
148 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
The effects of agonistic behaviour and nutritional stress on both the success of pregnancy and various plasma constituents in Angora goats.
Conway MLT; Blackshaw JK; Daniel RCW Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.48(1-2): p.1-13; 19 ref (1996)
Descriptors: nutrition; aggression; stress; pregnancy; Angora; body-weight; pregnancy-toxaemia; abortion; behaviour; restricted-feeding; glucose; hydrocortisone; blood; agonistic-behaviour
149 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effects of blood meal, fish meal, soybean meal or casein on rumen protein metabolism in lambs.
Urbaniak, M. Small-rumin-res v.18(3): p.207-212. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: lambs; blood-meal; soybean-oilmeal; casein; fish-meal; rumen-digestion; protein-digestibility; ammonia; dietary-protein; duodenum; flow; amino-acids; feed-intake; dry-matter
150 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Effects of castration on fear reactions of male sheep.
Vandenheede M; Bouissou MF Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.47(3-4): p.211-224; 67 ref (1996)
Descriptors: sex-differences; wethers; rams; castration; effects; behaviour; androgens; hormones; fearfulness; animal-behaviour; fright
151 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Effects of clover and milk in the diet of grazed lambs on meat quality.
Vipond, J. E.; Marie, S.; Hunter, E. A. Anim-sci v.60(pt.2): p.231-238. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: lambs; weaning; sown-grasslands; botanical-composition; grasses; lamb-meat; sensory-evaluation; meat-quality; flavor; cooking-losses; trifolium-repens
152 NAL Call No.: 23-N4892
Effects of contrasting sward heights within forage species on short-term ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing grasses and legumes.
Gong Y; Lambert MG; Hodgson J New-Zealand-Journal-of-Agricultural-Research v.39(1): p.83-93; 20 ref (1996)
Descriptors: feeding-behaviour; grazing; plant-height; intake; grasses; legumes
153 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Effects of crude protein content, protein degradability and energy concentration of the diet on growth and carcass characteristics of market lambs fed high concentrate diets.
Beauchemin, K. A.; McClelland, L. A.; Jones, S. D. M.; Kozub, G. C. Can-j-anim-sci v.75(3): p.387-395. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: lambs; lamb-feeding; diet; protein-content; energy-content; protein-supplements; growth-rate; carcass-composition; fish-meal; rapeseed-oilmeal; barley; undegradable-protein-supplements
Abstract: Weaned lambs (186 females and 141 castrated males) of various genotypes averaging 16.2 kg were used in an experiment to determine the effects on growth of altering protein and energy content of the diet, and supplementing concentrate diets with undegradable protein. Dietary effects on carcass leanness were assessed using male lambs slaughtered at a live weight of 41 kg. Lambs were fed one of five barley and canola meal based diets: (1) high energy, 15% CP, no fishmeal, (2) high energy, 15% CP, added fishmeal, (3) high energy, 18% CP, no fishmeal, (4) high energy, 18% CP, added fishmeal, and (5) moderate energy, 18% CP, added fishmeal. Canola meal contained 42.3% CP with a rumen degradability of 48.1%, while fishmeal contained 76.2% CP with a degradability of 15.2%. Diet 5 reduced growth rate, increased days on test, decreased feed efficiency, decreased dressing percentage, reduced internal fat and marginally decreased subcutaneous fat deposition, compared with a higher energy diet. Level of CP and protein degradability had little effect on growth and carcass characteristics. Dietary regime has limited potential to alter carcass leanness of feedlot lambs except by feeding for reduced growth rate which may increase production costs. Genetic selection and use of low input production systems may be more promising methods of improving carcass leanness.
154 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Effects of dietary cation-anion concentrations on performance and acid-base balance in growing lambs.
Fauchon, C.; Seoane, J. R.; Bernier, J. F. Can-j-anim-sci v.75(1): p.145-151. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: lambs; experimental-diets; ion-balance; cations; anions; balance-studies; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; digestibility; nutrients; blood-chemistry; urine; acid-base-equilibrium
Abstract: Twenty-four castrated lambs (32.4 +/- 4.1 kg BW) were used to study the effect of varying dietary cation-anion concentration [C-A] on performance and acid-base balance. The diets contained approximately 100, 300, 500 and 700 mequiv Na+K-Cl kg-1 of feed. Each group of six lambs was fed one of the diets ad libitum during a 6-wk test. Increasing the [C-A] of the diets resulted in higher feed intake and higher daily gains (P < 0.01) without affecting feed efficiency. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the dietary treatments but a negative relationship was found between intake and energy digestibility (P < 0.01). Blood pH was lower in lambs receiving the 100 [C-A] diet (P < 0.05). Blood bicarbonate and base excess increased as [C-A] in the diet increased from 300 to 700 mequiv (P < 0.05). Plasma Mg concentration decreased with increasing dietary [C-A] (P < 0.01). Urinary pH and urine volume increased as [C-A] in the diet increased (P < 0.01). The results indicate that diets containing between 500 and 700 mequiv Na+K-Cl kg-1 stimulated growth by allowing greater feed intake and greater daily gains with little effect on nutrient digestibility. Blood profile showed a systemic response to dietary changes in [C-A], but indicated that lambs were able to adapt to cation loads since the values obtained for acid-base balance were within physiological range for lambs.
Effects of dietary fibre and protected fats on goat milk composition. [Effets des fibres et des matieres grasses protegees sur la composition du lait de chevre.]
Rousselot MC; Broqua CB; Araujo C de; Borgida LP; De Araujo C 2emes rencontres autour des recherches sur les ruminants, Paris, France, 13-14 decembre 1995. 1995, 225-229; 12 ref
Descriptors: goat-milk; lipids; goat-feeding; fibre; fats; protected-fat; milk-yield; milk-fat-yield; milk-protein-yield; yields; composition; supplements; 2emes-rencontres-autour-des-recherches-sur-les-ruminants
156 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Effects of dietary hydroxides on intake, digestion, rumen fermentation and acid-base balance in sheep fed a high-barley diet.
Boukila, B.; Seoane, J. R.; Bernier, J. F. Can-j-anim-sci v.75(3): p.359-369. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: wethers; sheep-feeding; calcium-hydroxide; hydroxides; feed-intake; digestibility; rumen-fermentation; acid-base-equilibrium; metabolites; barley; magnesium-hydroxide
Abstract: Eight mature wethers fitted with rumen cannulae were used in a double 4 X 4 Latin square feeding trial to study the effect of dietary alkalis on digestive physiology of sheep fed a high-barley diet. The treatments were: C = control diet composed of 17% alfalfa meal and 83% concentrate, on as-fed basis; CA = control plus 1% Ca(OH)2; MG = control plus 0.79% Mg(OH)2; CAMG = control plus 0.5% Ca(OH)2 and 0.39% Mg(OH)2. Dry matter intake averaged 1.91, 2.54, 2.79, and 2.72% of BW for diets C, CA, MG and CAMG, respectively (P < 0.01). Digestible DM intake was also affected by the treatments and averaged 0.97, 1.26, 1.35 and 1.37 kg d-1 for C, CA, MG, and CAMG diets, respectively (P < 0.01). Apparent DM digestibility was higher in sheep fed the C diet than in those fed the other diets (P < 0.03) and it was inversely related to intake (P < 0.01). Total VFA concentration was lower in sheep fed C than in those fed the hydroxides (P < 0.01). Proportions of individual VFA were not altered by the diet except for isobutyrate which was higher in sheep fed the C diet (P < 0.01). Rumen NH3-N concentration was lower in sheep fed the hydroxide-containing diets than in animals fed the control diet (P < 0.01). Plasma urea nitrogen was lower for the C diet (P < 0.01). Plasma glucose tended to be lower for the C diet than for the other diets (P < 0.06). The control diet induced a mild form of systemic acidosis as indicated by the decrease in blood pH, HCO3- and base excess (P < 0.01). Addition of Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 to the diet, alone or in combination, improved the systemic acid-base status of sheep and was associated with increased DM intake.
157 NAL Call No.: DISS--F1995279
Effects of dietary level of fat from a combination of full-fat soybeans and calcium soaps on physiologic digestive parameters in the rumen and cecum of the sheep. [Auswirkungen steigender Gaben von Fett aus einer Kombinatin von Sojavollbohnen und Ca-verseiften Fettsauren auf verdauungsphysiologische Parameter im Pansen und Caecum des Schafes.]
Bartetzko, B. Hannover : [s.n.], 1995. 166 p. : ill., Thesis (doctoral)--Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, 1995.
158 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Effects of dietary maize level on net flux across splanchnic tissues of oxygen and nutrients in wethers consuming ad libitum different forages.
Goetsch, A. L.; Ferrell, C. L. Anim-sci v.61(pt.1): p.43-55. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: sheep; unrestricted-feeding; alfalfa; cynodon-dactylon; hay; ryegrass-hay; maize; portal-circulation; liver; oxygen-consumption; feed-intake; energy-intake; blood; urea; ammonium-nitrogen; digestibility; blood-flow; portal-vein; veins; arteries; nutrient-uptake; hepatic-vein; hepatic-artery
159 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Effects of dietary phosphorus deficiency in pregnant and lactating ewes.
Ternouth, J. H.; Budhi, S. P. S. Aust-j-exp-agric v.36(2): p.137-144. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; ewes; pregnancy; ewe-lactation; barley-straw; unrestricted-feeding; phosphorus; nutrient-deficiencies; feed-intake; blood-plasma; lambs; liveweight; bones; concentration; calcium; milk; milk-production; kinetics
160 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effects of dietary protein level on performance of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats.
Jia, Z. H.; Sahlu, T.; Fernandez, J. M.; Hart, S. P.; Teh, T. H. Small-rumin-res v.16(2): p.113-119. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: goats; cashmere; angora; dietary-protein; crude-protein; blood-plasma; urea; nitrogen-retention; feed-intake; dry-matter; liveweight-gain; triiodothyronine; thyroxine; fleece-weight; feed-conversion
161 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of dietary protein percentage and beta-agonist administered to prepubertal ewes on mammary gland growth and hormone secretions.
Zhang, J.; Grieve, D. G.; Hacker, R. R.; Burton, J. H. J-anim-sci v.73(9): p.2655-2661. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: ewes; dietary-protein; puberty; mammary-glands; milk-yield; beta-adrenergic-agonists; soybean-oilmeal; concentrates; blood-plasma; somatotropin; insulin; insulin-like-growth-factor; depot-fat; ewe-milk; milk-yield; tissues; weight; dna; rna; mammary-gland-fat-pad
Abstract: The effects of dietary protein and beta-agonist, (L-644,969) on mammary growth from weaning to puberty, hormone secretions, and milk yield were studied. Twelve lambs were assigned to each treatment in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with dietary protein at 15 or 20% and beta-agonist at 0 or 1 ppm of concentrate. Lambs were fed pelleted concentrate to achieve a target weight gain of 260 g/d. The treatment period continued for 102 d, with protein starting on d 1 and beta-agonist on d 20. Five lambs in each group were slaughtered at the end of treatment to investigate mammary growth before puberty. The remainder were maintained, and, after lambing, daily milk yield was recorded for 7 wk and ewes were then slaughtered. In prepubertal lambs, compared with control, the 20% protein diet had no effect on any variable measured in the mammary glands, whereas beta-agonist increased (P < .05) RNA:DNA ratio. In lactating ewes, the 20% protein diet enhanced mammary gland weight, parenchyma, parenchymal dry fat-free tissue (P < .05), and parenchymal fat (P < .01). The beta-agonist reduced mammary gland weight (P < .01), parenchyma, parenchymal dry fat-free tissue (P < .05), and parenchymal fat (P < .01). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased milk yield for ewes fed the 20% protein diet and decreased milk yield for beta-agonist. The beta-agonist increased somatotropin concentration, but there was no evidence that increased somatotropin concentration induced mammogenesis in lambs. In conclusion, increased dietary protein may play a role in stimulating mammogenesis in rapidly growing lambs before puberty.
162 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on storage and caselife properties of lamb retail cuts.
Wulf, D. M.; Morgan, J. B.; Sanders, S. K.; Tatum, J. D.; Smith, G. C.; Williams, S. J-anim-sci v.73(2): p.399-405. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: lambs; vitamin-e; vitamin-supplements; lamb-meat; meat-cuts; lipid-peroxidation; liveweight-gain; body-weight; dressing-percentage; carcass-weight; fat-thickness; color; keeping-quality; storage-life
Abstract: Thirty wether lambs were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of a control (C) and two vitamin E-supplemented treatments (VE), one fed 500 IU of vitamin E.lamb-1.d-1 (E500) and the other fed 1,000 IU of vitamin E.lamb-1.d-1(E1000). After a 56-d feeding period, lambs were slaughtered and carcass traits were evaluated. Wholesale legs and loins were vacuum-packaged, stored at 4 degrees C for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, fabricated into retail cuts, and packaged and displayed to simulate retail industry conditions. The E1000 lambs gained less (P < .05)(kg/d; total gain) and had lower (P < .05) carcass weights than the E500 lambs. Alpha-tocopherol levels in the longissimus lumborum were higher (P < .05)(5.79 vs 3.50 microgram/g of tissue) for VE than for C; however, there was no difference in alpha-tocopherol level in longissimus lumborum between E500 and E1000. Leg retail cuts experienced greater (P < .05) lipid oxidation and received lower (P < .05) lean color scores than did loin retail cuts. Less (P < .05) lipid oxidation occurred from 1 to 7 d of display in VE retail cuts than in C retail cuts. Longer storage periods before retail display resulted in greater (P < .05) lipid oxidation at both 1 and 7 d of display and a higher (P < .05) rate of lipid oxidation during the display period. Supplementing vitamin E had the greatest effect in reducing lipid oxidation when cuts were stored for longer periods before retail display. Subjective scores for lean color and overall appearance were more (P < .05) desirable for VE cuts than for C cuts at all retail display periods. Lean discoloration scores and fat color scores for VE and C cuts were not different at 0 d of display but were more (P < .05) desirable for VE cuts during subsequent display. Supplementing vitamin E extended the caselife of lamb approximately 4 d; supplementing with 1,000 IU did little to improve storage/caselife attributes of lamb cuts beyond that achieved by supplementing 500 IU/d.
163 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effects of different RDP and UDP ratios on voluntary intake, milk production and feed conversion efficiency in lactating goats.
Mishra, S.; Rai, S. N. Small-rumin-res v.20(1): p.31-38. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: goats; dietary-protein; protected-protein; voluntary-intake; crude-protein; feed-intake; dry-matter; milk-yield; goat-milk; milk-fat-percentage; feed-conversion; body-weight; fodder; concentrates; milk-protein-percentage; production-costs; cottonseed-oilmeal; india
164 NAL Call No.: SF207.B442
Effects of energy intake and protein level in all concentrate diets.
Fluharty, F. L.; McClure, K. E.; Lowe, G. D.; Clevenger, D. D. Animal Science departmental series. Ohio-beef-cattle-res-ind-rep (95-1): p.57-69. (1995)
Descriptors: lambs; feeding; trials; organs; protein-efficiency-ratio; growth-rate; liver; kidneys; slaughter-weight
165 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of energy source and food flavor on conditioned preferences in sheep.
Ralphs, M. H.; Provenza, F. D.; Wiedmeier, R. D.; Bunderson, F. B. J-anim-sci v.73(6): p.1651-1657. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; flavor; feeding-preferences; behavior; responses; energy-intake; glucose; novel-foods; propionates; rumen-fermentation; rumen-bacteria; ph; volatile-fatty-acids; palatability; operant-conditioning; nutrient-loading
Abstract: Livestock and range managers would have a powerful tool to direct utilization and modify plant communities if animals could be conditioned to eat specific foods or plants. We attempted to condition preferences for a low-quality forage through nutrient loading. Sheep were fed licorice or orange-flavored straw pellets then were gavaged with glucose or propionate (.381 Mcal, which amounted to approximately 13% of the daily maintenance energy requirement) or water. Four groups of ewes (n = 4) were arranged in a cross-blocked design such that each group received a unique energy/flavor combination: 1) propionate + licorice, 2) propionate + orange, 3) glucose + licorice, or 4) glucose + orange. On alternate days, each group received the other flavor plus water to create an internal control. At the end of 8 d of conditioning, preference for the two flavors was measured by two-choice preference tests. A second trial was conducted for 4 d in which the energy level was doubled to .762 Mcal. Low energy levels of either glucose or propionate did not create significant preferences. Propionate at the low-level caused satiety but at the high level conditioned an aversion to both flavors. This high level of propionate apparently caused malaise that was then associated with the taste of the flavors. The high level of glucose conditioned a preference. The high glucose treatment increased rumen microbial mass, the nutrients of which would have been absorbed in the lower gastrointestinal tract, and may have indirectly provided the positive nutrient feedback required to form a preference. There was a flavor preference for orange that was independent of the energy supplements.
166 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of feeding a high-grain diet at a restricted intake on lactation performance and rebreeding of ewes.
Susin, I.; Loerch, S. C.; McClure, K. E. J-anim-sci v.73(11): p.3199-3205. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: ewes; sheep-breeds; body-weight; body-condition; ewe-lactation; hay; alfalfa-hay; maize; soybean-oilmeal; zero-grazing; feed-intake; dry-matter; crude-protein; protein-intake; energy-intake; milk-yield; ewe-milk; milk-protein-percentage; milk-protein-yield; milk-fat-percentage; milk-fat-yield; lambs; liveweight-gain; creep-feeding; blood-plasma; insulin; blood-sugar; fatty-acids; polypay
Abstract: Fifty-six mature Polypay ewes were used in two experiments to examine the effects of feeding a high-grain diet at a restricted intake on milk production and composition, lamb performance and out-of-season breeding. Ewes were fed either a high-grain diet (85% concentrate and 15% forage) or a high-forage diet. The high-forage diets were 68% forage and 32% concentrate in Experiment 1 and 80% forage and 20% concentrate in Experiment 2. Forage source was orchardgrass hay (Experiment 1) or alfalfa cubes (Experiment 2). Feed intake of the high-grain diet was restricted by 20% (compared with ewes fed high forage) so that intake of energy was similar for both dietary groups. Daily milk production was 19% higher (P < .05) in Exp. 1 and 8% higher (P < .10) in Exp. 2 for ewes fed high grain than for those fed high forage (2.71 vs 2.28 kg/d and 3.18 vs 2.95 kg/d in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Milk protein percentage and daily amount of milk protein were higher (P < .05) and the percentage of milk fat was lower (P < .03) for ewes fed the high-grain diet than for those fed the high-forage diet. Diet did not affect milk fat production (grams/day) or lamb growth rate. In both experiments blood insulin concentration was higher for ewes fed the high-grain diet than for those fed the high-forage diet; however, no improvements in reproductive performance were observed. Limit feeding high-grain diets is an effective alternative to forage for lactating ewes.
167 NAL Call No.: S539.5.A37
Effects of feeding system and different feeds on milk production and quality in Comisana ewes. 1. Use of a dry complete diet.
Lanza A; Pennisi P; Biondi L; Lanza M; Keshtkaran AN Agricoltura-Mediterranea v.126(1): p.22-31; 34 ref (1996)
Descriptors: ewes; grazing; lucerne; ewe-feeding; ewe-milk; yields; composition; quality; complete-feeds; milk-yield; milk-composition
168 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of feeding wash-water solids on health and performance of ewes and lambs.
Williams, J. E.; Belyea, R. L.; Gieseke, L.; Clevenger, T. E.; Tumbleson, M. E. J-anim-sci v.73(12): p.3552-3561. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: ewes; lambs; dairy-wastes; bacterial-protein; diet; chemical-composition; body-weight; liveweight-gain; survival; blood-picture; dietary-minerals
Abstract: Diets containing 0, 10, or 20% dried wash-water solids (WWS) from a milk processing plant were fed to 48 Hampshire crossbred ewes (average weight 58.1 kg) for 3 yr. Data were obtained on BW gains, hematology, tissue elements, and survival for ewes and BW gains, tissue elements and survival for their lambs. Ewes fed 20% WWS gained less (P < .05) BW during gestation and lactation in yr 1 and had lower BW (P < . 05) in yr 2 and 3 than those fed O or 10% WOOS. Lambs from ewes fed 20% WWS gained less (P < .05) BW in yr 2 and 3. Hematology variables of ewes, survival of ewes and survival of lambs were not affected by diet. Although WWS-containing diets contained high concentrations of Ca, P, Mn, and Fe and moderate concentrations of Mo, Mg, and Zn, diets had few effects on tissue elements in ewes and lambs. Concentrations of some tissue elements were less (P < .05) in lambs in yr 2 and 3 than in yr 1. Wash-water solids can be incorporated into ruminant diets, providing a disposal alternative that recycles and conserves nutrients. Long-term feeding posed only minor or negligible health or safety problems. Because of low energy and N availability and high ash content, WWS probably should be limited to 10% or less of conventional diets.
169 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Effects of feeding, watering and resting intervals on lambs transported by road and ferry to France.
Knowles, T. G.; Warriss, P. D.; Brown, S. N.; Kestin, S. C.; Edwards, J. E.; Perry, A. M.; Watkins, P. E.; Phillips, A. J. Vet-rec v.139(14): p.335-339. (1996 Oct.)
Descriptors: lambs; transport-of-animals; road-transport; transport; lorries; food-deprivation; water-deprivation; rest; animal-welfare; blood-composition; environmental-temperature; relative-humidity; liveweight; england; france; ferry-transport
170 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Effects of handling during temporary isolation after early weaning on goat kids' later response to humans.
Boivin X; Braastad BO Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.48(1-2): p.61-71; 26 ref (1996)
Descriptors: weaning; early-weaning; effects; handling; isolation; kids; animal-welfare; animal-behaviour; husbandry; animal-husbandry; behaviour
171 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Effects of immediate and early post-partum separation on maintenance of maternal responsiveness in parturient multiparous goats.
Ramirez A; Quiles A; Hevia ML; Sotillo F; Ramirez MC Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.48(3-4): p.215-224; 25 ref (1996)
Descriptors: parental-behaviour; effects; separation; maintenance; maternal-behaviour
172 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of limit feeding a high-grain diet on puberty and reproductive performance of ewes.
Susin, I.; Loerch, S. C.; McClure, K. E.; Day, M. L. J-anim-sci v.73(11): p.3206-3215. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: ewes; ewe-feeding; targhee; sheep-breeds; forage; alfalfa-hay; maize; soybean-oilmeal; body-condition; breeding-season; restricted-feeding; digestibility; feed-intake; dry-matter; protein-intake; liveweight-gain; puberty; age-at-fi r st-lambing; breed-differences; nitrogen-retention; lambing-rate; birth-weight; weaning-weight; age-at-weaning; blood-plasma; insulin; blood-sugar; ph; rumen-fermentation; volatile-fatty-acids; polypay
Abstract: In Exp. 1, 39 ewe lambs (initial BW 29 +/- .1 kg) were used in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement with two breeds (Polypay and Targhee) and two diets (high-forage and high-grain) to examine the effects of restricting intake of a high-grain diet on onset of puberty and lamb performance. The experimental diets were fed from 13 to 40 wk of age. The high-forage diet was composed of 80% alfalfa cubes and 20% supplement. The high-grain diet was 90% concentrate and 10% alfalfa cubes. Feed intake of the diets was controlled so that lambs fed the high-grain diet had the same growth rate as those fed the high-forage diet. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P < .001) for lambs fed the high-grain diet than for those fed the high-forage diet. However, no diet effect on age at puberty was observed. In Exp. 2, 88 mature Targhee ewes were used to determine the effects of limiting intake of a high-grain diet on pregnancy and number of lambs born per ewe. Intake of the high-grain diet was restricted to achieve similar ME intake between diets. There were no diet effects on number of lambs born per ewe or subsequent lamb performance. Ewes fed the high-forage diet had a lower (P < .001) weight gain than those fed the high-grain diet. It was concluded that restricting intake of high-grain diets is an effective alternative to feeding high-forage diets for meeting the nutrient requirements of ewe lambs and gestating ewes; however, no improvements on reproductive performance were observed.
173 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Effects of microbial inoculant and moisture content on preservation and quality of round baled alfalfa.
Mir, Z.; Jan, E. Z.; Robertson, J. A.; Mir, P. S.; McCartney, D. H. Can-j-anim-sci v.75(1): p.15-23. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: alfalfa; round-bales; lactobacillus-plantarum; moisture-content; storage-quality; proximate-analysis; dry-matter; nutritive-value; steers; digestibility; wethers; feed-intake; feed-conversion; liveweight-gain; alfalfa-silage; silage-fermentation; preservation
Abstract: The effects of microbial inoculant and moisture content of alfalfa, stored as large round bales, on preservation and quality were examined in a 3-yr study. Alfalfa was round baled at 18, 45 and 60% moisture with 45 and 60% moisture bales stored in 23-m-long plastic tubes. At each moisture level, half the bales were treated with a microbial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) during baling. All bales were weighed and sampled prior to storage (into storage) and prior to feeding (out of storage) with a core sampler. Field recovery and crude protein content of forage at 18% moisture were significantly lower than for forage at 45 and 60% moisture levels. ADF contents were decreased (P < 0.01) by moisture content in year 1, while the NDF contents were affected similarly in all the 3 yr. Storage recoveries were not affected by either moisture content or inoculant. Nutritive value of forages was evaluated, using completely randomized designs, in feeding trials with 96 steers and digestibility trials with 36 wethers. Dry matter intake by steers and nutrient digestibility in sheep were not affected (P < 0.05) by either moisture level or inoculant treatment. Feed conversion efficiencies and average daily gain of steers receiving 45 and 60% moisture forage were higher than for those fed 18% moisture forage. Results from this study indicated that harvesting alfalfa at 45 and 60% moisture as silage produced a better-quality product for steers than at 18% moisture dry hay and that treatment with microbial inoculant was not beneficial in preserving high moisture forage.
174 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Effects of nutrition in utero and in early life on the subsequent lifetime reproductive performance of Scottish Blackface ewes in two management systems.
Gunn, R. G.; Sim, D. A.; Hunter, E. A. Anim-sci v.60(pt.2): p.223-230. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: ewes; scottish-blackface; plane-of-nutrition; ewe-feeding; pregnancy; lactation-stage; grazing; upland-areas; hill-grasslands; body-weight; body-condition; embryo-mortality; ovulation-rate; litter-size
175 NAL Call No.: QD415.A1J6
Effects of organic solvent extracts from herbage on feeding behavior in goats.
Dohi H; Yamada A; Fukukawa T Journal-of-Chemical-Ecology v.22(3): p.425-430; 18 ref (1996)
Descriptors: herbage; feed-intake; hay; grasses; extracts
176 NAL Call No.: SB202.K6H352
Effects of pasture type on behavior pattern, change of body type and daily gain of Korean native goat.
Baek IC; Lee SM; Moon SH; Jeon BT Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Grassland-Science v.16(3): p.235-244; 25 ref (1996)
Descriptors: somatotype; korean-native; permanent-grasslands; scrublands; grazing; selective-grazing; liveweight-gain; grasses; browse; palatability; chemical-composition; crude-protein; fibre; minerals; growth; pastures; botanical-composition; grazing-behaviour; Rhododendron-mucronulatum; Rhododendron-schlippenbachii
177 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
The effects of physical form of feed, carbohydrate source, and inclusion of sodium bicarbonate on the diet selections of sheep.
Cooper, S. D. B.; Kyriazakis, I.; Oldham, J. D. J-anim-sci v.74(6): p.1240-1251. (1996 June)
Descriptors: sheep; feeding-preferences; alfalfa-hay; alfalfa-pellets; nutrient-density; nutritive-ratio; energy-intake; chop-length; barley; sugarbeet-pulp; pelleted-feeds; sodium-bicarbonate; rumen-fermentation; digestibility; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; feed-conversion
Abstract: We proposed an hypothesis that ruminants attempt to select a diet that promotes high levels of feed intake by maintaining optimal ruminal conditions. Three tests of the hypothesis considered whether the diet selection of sheep given either a choice of two high energy density (ED) feeds or a choice between a high and a low ED feed is affected by 1) sodium bicarbonate inclusion (NaHCO3; 1, 2, and 4% [wt/wt]) in the high [ED] feed); 2) dietary carbohydrate source (barley-based, B and sugar beet/ barley, S) of the high ED feed; or 3) physical form (alfalfa: pelleted, ALFP and long chop, ALFL) of the low ED feed. To conduct these, 42 lambs were used in seven 6 x 6 Latin squares, which were either foods ALFL and ALFP offered alone and paired with feed B or S and their NaHCO3 derivatives as a choice, or foods B and S offered alone and paired with their NaHCO3 derivatives as a choice. Each Latin square period lasted for 3 wk. For the choices between a NaHCO3-supplemented high ED feed and either a high or a low ED one, the inclusion of NaHCO3 increased feed intake. Its level of inclusion had a marked effect on the proportion of unsupplemented high ED feed selected (P < .05) but not on the proportion of low ED feed (alfalfa) selected. More alfalfa was selected when the high ED feed was based on barley (B) rather than sugar beet/barley (S) (P < .05). The physical form of the alfalfa affected diet selection because its selection was greater (P < .001) when ALFP (pelleted) was offered in the feed choice rather than ALFL (long-chop). The significant effects of NaHCO3 level, dietary carbohydrate, and physical form on the diet selection and feed intake of the sheep are consistent with the proposed experimental hypothesis.
178 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effects of protein source and level on performance of lactating Damascus goats in negative energy balance.
Hadjipanayiotou, M.; Photiou, A. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.257-263. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; damascus; protein-concentrates; goat-feeding; crude-protein; soybean-oilmeal; formaldehyde; treatment; rumen-digestion; protected-protein; chemical-composition; digestibility; milk-yield; goat-milk; milk-composition; body-weight; weight-losses; rumen-metabolism; volatile-fatty-acids; ammonium-nitrogen; ph; dietary-protein; barley-hay; barley-straw; feed-conversion; feed-intake
179 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Effects of restraint and isolation stress and epidural blockade on endocrine and blood metabolite status, muscle glycogen metabolism, and incidence of dark-cutting longissimus muscle of sheep.
Apple, J. K.; Dikeman, M. E.; Minton, J. E.; McMurphy, R. M.; Fedde, M. R.; Leith, D. E.; Unruh, J. A. J-anim-sci v.73(8): p.2295-2307. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: lambs; restraint-of-animals; stress-factors; conduction-anesthesia; lidocaine; lamb-meat; dark-cutting-meat; meat-quality; glycogenolysis; muscle-contraction; ph; blood-serum; metabolites; epinephrine; norepinephrine; insulin; fatty-acids; lactic-acid; postmortem-changes; shear-strength; cooking-losses
Abstract: Crossbred lambs (47.3 kg BW) were used to study the effects of restraint and isolation stress on endocrine status and blood metabolites, antemortem glycogenolysis, and incidence of the dark-cutting condition (DCC) in the longissimus muscle (LM) and to determine the role of muscle contraction in the formation of the DCC in sheep. Lambs were assigned randomly to three treatments: unstressed controls (C); a single 6-h period of restraint and isolation stress (RIS); and a single 6-h period of RIS following epidural blockade (RISEB) with lidocaine. Blood was collected immediately before lambs were subjected to RIS and RISEB and at 12-min intervals during the 6-h period. Serum concentrations of glucose, lactate, and insulin were higher (P < .01 ) in RIS and RISEB lambs than in C lambs. Serum free fatty acid concentrations were higher (P < .01 ) in stressed lambs only during the first 4 h of stress. Plasma epinephrine and cortisol concentrations also were higher ( P < .01) in RIS and RISEB lambs than in C lambs. Lambs were slaughtered within 30 min after completion of stress. Immediately after stunning and at .75. 3, 6, 12, and 24 h postmortem, samples were removed from the LM in the hindsaddle and foresaddle for glycogen, lactate, and pH determinations. Muscle pH was elevated (P < .01) by RIS and RISEB; ultimate pH exceeded 6.0. The LM from carcasses of RIS and RISEB lambs had lower (P < .01) glycogen and lactate concentrations in both regions than the LM of C lambs. Subjecting sheep to a single 6-h period of RIS was an effective animal model to induce the DCC. Failure of the epidural blockade to inhibit antemortem glycogen metabolism and formation of the DCC indicates that muscle contraction was not requisite to those processes in sheep.
Effects of simulated jet aircraft noise on heart rate and behavior of desert ungulates.
Weisenberger ME; Krausman PR; Wallace MC; Young DW de; Maughan OE; De Young DW Journal-of-Wildlife-Management v.60(1): p.52-61; 48 ref (1996)
Descriptors: wild-animals; wild-sheep; effects; ungulates; animal-welfare; aircraft; noise; heart-rate; behaviour; animal-behaviour; stress
181 NAL Call No.: 49-N62
The effects of simulated transportation on plasma levels of catecholamines, cortisol and glucose and eosinophil count in the goat.
Nwe TM; Hori E; Nakanishi Y; Manda M; Watanabe S Animal-Science-and-Technology v.66(10): p.841-848; 25 ref (1995)
Descriptors: transport; hydrocortisone; effects; blood; catecholamines; glucose; eosinophils; animal-behaviour; metabolism; sympathetic-nervous-system; adrenal-medulla; adrenal-cortex; transport-of-animals; blood-chemistry; behaviour; simulation
182 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release in diets with a similiar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.
Sinclair, L. A.; Garnsworthy, P. C.; Newbold, J. R.; Buttery, P. J. J-agric-sci v.124(pt.3): p.463-472. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-feeding; rumen-fermentation; rumen-fluid; nitrogen-cycle; carbohydrate-metabolism; biodegradation; microbial-proteins; protein-synthesis; ph; metabolizable-energy
183 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Effects of tethering management on feed intake and behaviour of Tanzanian goats.
Romney, D. L.; Sendalo, D. S. C.; Owen, E.; Mtenga, L. A.; Penning, P. D.; Mayes, R. W.; Hendy, C. R. C. Small-rumin-res v.19(2): p.113-120. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; tethering; grazing; brachiaria; feed-intake; digestibility; tanzania
184 NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Effects of the type and level of supplementation on grazing behaviour of lactating ewes in a Mediterranean natural pasture.
Avondo M; Licitra G; Bognanno M; Keshtkaran AN; Marletta D; D' Urso G Livestock-Production-Science v.44(3): p.237-244; 38 ref (1995)
Descriptors: selective-grazing; ewes; milk-production; liveweight; rangelands; supplements; grazing; carbohydrates; sources; intake; milk-yield
185 NAL Call No.: SF1.Z6
Effects of type of pasture and supplementation level on grazing behaviour of lactating ewes. [Effetti del tipo di pascolo e del livello di integrazione sul comportamento alimentare di pecore in lattazione.]
Avondo M; Marletta D; Bordonaro S; Bognanno M; D' Urso G Zootecnica-e-Nutrizione-Animale v.22(3): p.127-138; 31 ref (1996)
Descriptors: grazing; ewes; lactation; ewe-lactation; milk-yield; ewe-milk; yields; digestibility; pastures; botanical-composition; concentrates; intake; grazing-behaviour
186 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Effects of underfeeding and of fish meal supplementation on forage digestion in sheep.
Kabre, P.; Doreau, M.; Michalet Doreau, B. J-agric-sci v.124(pt.1): p.129-137. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; forage; animal-nutrition; protein-supplements; fish-meal; underfeeding; feed-intake; rumen-fermentation; digestibility
187 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Effects on eating and rumination behaviour in sheep of formic acid and formaldehyde treatment and methionine-supplementation to ladino clover fibrous residue silage.
Fujihara, T.; Ichinohe, T.; Nakao, T. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(5): p.477-480. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: sheep; formic-acid; formaldehyde; methionine; clover-silage; feeding-behavior; sheep-rumination; mastication; duration
188 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Effects on sheep of transport by road for up to 24 hours.
Knowles, T. G.; Brown, S. N.; Warriss, P. D.; Phillips, A. J.; Dolan, S. K.; Hunt, P.; Ford, J. E.; Edwards, J. E.; Watkins, P. E. Vet-rec v.136(17): p.431-438. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; road-transport; transport-of-animals; transit-time; liveweight; heart-rate; animal-behavior; blood-composition; stress
189 NAL Call No.: S494.5.S86S8
The efficiency of protein utilization from various sources of crude protein fed to lambs consuming a barley-based feedlot diet.
Hill, T. M.; Christen, S. D.; Davis Dentici, K. J-sustain-agric v.7(4): p.35-44. (1996)
Descriptors: lambs; lamb-feeding; crude-protein; sources; protein-utilization; efficiency; fish-meal; blood-meal; feather-meal; mixtures; soybean-oilmeal; urea; protein-supplements; feed-intake; protein-digestibility; feed-conversion-efficiency < /P>
190 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Efficiency of utilization of absorbed amino acids in growing lambs given forage and forage:barley diets.
MacRae, J. C.; Bruce, L. A.; Brown, D. S. Anim-sci v.61(pt.2): p.277-284. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: lambs; lamb-feeding; forage; barley; amino-acids; intestinal-absorption; retention; digestibility; plane-of-nutrition; feed-conversion
191 NAL Call No.: SF604.63N45S87
Electroejaculation: a welfare issue?
Stafford KJ Surveillance-Wellington v.22(2): p.15-17; 28 ref (1995)
Descriptors: rams; bulls; electric-current; stress; glucocorticoids; anaesthesia; neuroleptics; electroejaculation; animal-welfare
192 NAL Call No.: 41.8-N483
Electroencephalographic studies on the nape shooting of sheep.
Blackmore DK; Daly CC; Cook CJ New-Zealand-Veterinary-Journal v.43(4): p.160-163; 13 ref (1995)
Descriptors: electroencephalography; spinal-cord; central-nervous-system; destruction-of-animals; animal-welfare; euthanasia; stunning
193 NAL Call No.: HD9000.1.J6
An empirical examination of U.S. lamb-related import and domestic market relationships near the farmgate.
Babula, R. A. J-int-food-agribus-mark v.8(2): p.65-82. (1996)
Descriptors: lamb-meat; wool-production; meat-and-livestock-industry; domestic-markets; economic-impact; imports; market-prices; simulation-models; econometric-models; domestic-production; usa; vector-autoregressive-model
194 NAL Call No.: QL876.B5
Endocrine correlates of partner preference behavior in rams.
Resko, J. A.; Perkins, A.; Roselli, C. E.; Fitzgerald, J. A.; Choate, J. V. A.; Stormshak, F. Biol-reprod v.55(1): p.120-126. (1996 July)
Descriptors: rams; mating-preferences; homosexuality; testes; steroidogenesis; progesterone; testosterone; brain; oxygenases; enzyme-activity; blood-serum; androstenedione; estrone; estradiol; hormone-secretion; aromatase; 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone; dihydrotestosterone
Abstract: We studied a unique group of rams that would not mate with estrous ewes during extensive testing for sexual behavior. The same rams courted males in preference to females in 30-min sexual preference tests and were classified as male-oriented (n = 6). We compared the following endocrine profiles: systemic steroid concentrations, the capacity of the testes to biosynthesize 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone from 3H-progesterone in vitro, and the levels of brain aromatase activity (AA) in male-oriented rams vs. rams that were proven breeders and designated as female-oriented (n = 7). After the last behavioral test, sera were collected, and males in each experimental group were killed. Brains and testes were obtained for subsequent determinations of AA and measurements of steroidogenic enzyme activity. All dissections and subsequent assays were performed without knowledge of experimental group assignments. Serum concentration of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol-17beta (E2) were determined by RIA. AA was quantified by a 3H2O assay validated for neural tissue of the ram. We studied frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, septum, amygdala, infundibulum-median eminence, and preoptic area (POA). Serum T, E1, and E2 concentrations of female-oriented subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in m a le-oriented subjects (SEM: 1559 +/- 228, 46 +/- 2, and 15 +/- 3 pg/ml vs. 874 +/- 196, 40 +/- 2, and 8 +/- 1 pg/ml serum, respectively). DHT and androstenedione concentrations in the systemic circulation did not differ between groups. Likewise, biosynthesis of labeled T and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone from 3H-progesterone by testicular homogenates in vitro was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in female-oriented than in male-oriented subjects (28.8 +/- 8.1 vs. 12.1 +/ - 2.3 micromole.h-1.mg protein-1 for T and 416.9 +/- 100.8 vs. 186.3 +/- 30.7 micromole.h-1.mg protein-1 for 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). The highest level of AA was found in the POA, which was significantly greater in female-oriented than in male-oriented rams (472 +/- 34 vs. 296 +/- 24 fmol 3H2O.h-1.mg protein-1, p < 0.05). AA in other brain areas did not differ between experimental groups. Our data suggest that the testes of the male-oriented ram have reduced capacity for T production. In other species, T controls in situ estrogen formation not only by providing substrate for aromatization but also by up-regulating P450arom mRNA in the POA. Because the POA is part of a neural circuitry that mediates male sexual behavior in many species, we hypothesize that the capacity for aromatization influences sexual orientation of these rams.
195 NAL Call No.: 280.8-J822
Estimation of Australian wool and lamb production technologies under uncertainty: an error-components approach.
O'Donnell, C. J.; Woodland, A. D. Am-j-agric-econ v.77(3): p.552-565. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: lamb-production; wool-production; production-costs; technology; farm-inputs; risk; stochastic-processes; outturn; production-functions; uncertainty; multivariate-analysis; econometric-models; errors; estimation; australia; input-cost-share; cost-functions; multivariate-error-components-model
Abstract: A model of producer behavior, which explicitly accounts for both output price and production uncertainty, is formulated and estimated. If the production technology is multiplicatively separable in its deterministic and stochastic components, then the expected utility maximization problem implies cost minimization for planned or expected output. Consequently, our empirical model of three lamb- and wool- producing sectors in Australia involves the estimation of a system of input cost share and cost equations whose disturbances have an error-components structure. The empirical results are evaluated in terms of input demand elasticities, and estimates of the stochastic components of production are presented.
196 NAL Call No.: 60.18-J82
Estimation of botanical composition of esophageal extrusa samples using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
Volesky, J. D.; Coleman, S. W. J-range-manage v.49(2): p.163-166. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: sheep; cattle; andropogon-gerardii; botanical-composition; infrared-spectroscopy; grasses; diet; digesta; esophagus; sampling; forbs; oklahoma
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for estimating botanical composition of esophageal extrusa samples. Spectral data were collected on 361 samples from fistulated sheep and cattle grazing native tallgrass range. Principal components analysis was used to identify a subset of 73 samples with spectral dissimilarity. These samples were microhistologically analyzed to determine botanical composition and were considered 'actual' for regression and calibration purposes. Thirty-six species (12 grasses, 22 forbs, and 2 sedges) were identified in the microhistologically analyzed samples. However, most accounted for less than 5% of the total diet. Additional pure calibration samples were obtained by feeding individual species to confined fistulated sheep. Initial regression analyses and predictions were made on 13 major species or species groups. Satisfactory prediction equations could only be developed for big bluestem andropogon gerardii Vitman) (r2 =0.61), and the total grasses (r2= 0.79) and total forbs (r2 = 0.79) groups. Addition of spectra from pure samples into the calibration set was beneficial. In general, valid predictions could not be made for individual species that constituted less than 10% of the sample and/or had a low frequency of occurrence in the calibration samples. The NIRS method offered acceptable precision and accuracy in the prediction of major botanical components and it would be practical and efficient because it reduces the number of samples that would have to be microhistologically analyzed.
197 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Estimations of pasture and grain intake of prepartum single- and twin-bearing ewes.
Holst, P. J.; Hall, D. G.; Nolan, J. V. Aust-j-exp-agric v.36(5): p.529-532. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; ewes; pregnancy; prepartum-period; lupins; pastures; oats; mixtures; feed-supplements; feed-intake; supplementary-feeding; litter-size; twinning; animal-nutrition; new-south-wales
198 NAL Call No.: QL876.B5
Estrogen enhances endometrial estrogen receptor gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism in the ovariectomized ewe.
Ing, N. H.; Spencer, T. E.; Bazer, F. W. Biol-reprod v.54(3): p.591-599. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: ewes; ovariectomized-females; endometrium; estrogen-receptors; hormone-receptors; structural-genes; gene-expression; autoregulation; estradiol; messenger-rna; transcription; complementary-dna; cloning; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; progestesterone; progesterone-receptors; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u30299; genbank; u30300
Abstract: Prior influence of estrogen is required for many physiological effects of steroid hormones. This study addresses positive autoregulation of estrogen receptor gene expression in endometrium. Groups of ovariectomized ewes (n = 6) were treated with a single i.m. injection of 50 pg 17 beta-estradiol for 6, 12, 24, or 48 h or of vehicle for 24 h (control) prior to collection of endometrium. Three ewes received a regimen of estradiol-progesterone-estradiol (EPE) designed to mimic the estrous cycle. Northern analysis of endometrial RNA using an ovine estrogen receptor complementary RNA probe indicated that estradiol increased (p < 0.0001) estrogen receptor messenger RNA abundance over time to be 5-fold greater at 24 h postinjection. This effect also occurred after a period of progesterone dominance in EPE ewes (p < 0.05). Ribonuclease protection assays with a complementary RNA probe for the ovine progesterone receptor demonstrated that estradiol treatment increased progesterone receptor messenger RNA abundance at 48 h (p < 0.005). Nuclear runoff analyses indicated that whereas estradiol enhanced the transcription rates of progesterone receptor (p < 0.1) and 28S ribosomal RNA genes (p < 0.002), activity of the estrogen receptor gene was unchanged (p > 0.25). These results suggest that a physiological dose of estradiol, similar to the preovulatory surge of estrogen, up-regulates endometrial estrogen receptor gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism.
Evaluation of crossbreeding programme in sheep in Rajasthan. 3. Factors affecting adoption of crossbreeding programme in sheep.
Dharma SC; Riyazuddin; Rawat PS Wool-and-Woollens-of-India v.32(1): p.39-52 (1995)
Descriptors: animal-nutrition; profitability; socioeconomic-status; economics; crossbreeding; wool-production; mortality
200 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
An evaluation of the impact of long-range climate forecasting on the physical and financial performance of wool-producing enterprises in Victoria.
Bowman, P. J.; McKeon, G. M.; White, D. H. Aust-j-agric-res v.46(4): p.687-702. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; stocking-rate; animal-husbandry; weather-forecasting; drought; simulation-models; victoria
Evolution of ewe body condition and the production of lamb and milk in different productive strategies.
Lopez F; Espejo M; Villar A Options-Mediterraneennes.-Serie-A,-Seminaires-Mediterraneens. 1995, No. 27, 53-58; 7 ref
Descriptors: ewes; concentrates; feed-supplements; body-condition; milking; lambing; frequency; management; intensive-husbandry; meat-production; milk-yield; Spanish-Merino; feeding; reproduction; Merino; Body-condition-of-sheep-and-goats
202 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Ewe colostrum and subsequent lamb suckling behaviour.
Holst, P. J.; Hall, D. G.; Allan, C. J. Aust-j-exp-agric v.36(6): p.637-640. (1996)
Descriptors: ewes; colostrum; lambs; newborn-animals; sucking; twins; behavior-patterns; birth-weight; body-temperature; postpartum-period
203 NAL Call No.: S544.3.S8E9
Ewe flock sharing arrangements for central South Dakota.
Pflueger, B.; Madsen, L. Ext-extra. Brookings, SD : Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University. Feb 1995. (5025) 3 p.
In the subseries: Ag Economics.
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-farming; cooperative-farm-enterprises; production-costs; farm-income
204 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J824
Exogenous sources of Listeria contamination in raw ewe's milk.
Garcia E; Paz M de; Rodriguez JL; Gaya P; Medina M; Nunez M; De Paz M Journal-of-Food-Protection v.59(9): p.950-954; 30 ref (1996)
Descriptors: microbial-contamination; feeds; water; milking-machines; environment; faeces; ewes; litter; soil; dairy-farms; ewe-milk; milk-production; incidence; poultry
205 NAL Call No.: QP501.C6
Exon skipping in the ovine alpha s1-casein gene.
Passey, R.; Glenn, W.; Mackinlay, A. Comp-biochem-physiol-Part-B,-Biochem-mol-biol v.114B(4): p.389-394. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: sheep; alphas-casein; complementary-dna; cloning; nucleotide-sequences; exons; reverse-transcription; messenger-rna; molecular-conformation; structure; molecular-sequence-data; rna-conformation; secondary-structure
Abstract: The reported cDNA sequences for the bovine (Bos taurus) and ovine (Ovis aries) alpha(s1)-caseins display a high degree of identity with the exception that a 24 bp region, corresponding to bovine exon 16, is absent in the ovine sequence. Here we show that the ovine gene for alpha (s1)-casein contains a sequence block displaying 23/24 identity to bovine exon 16, indicating that the absence of this block from ovine mRNA is due not to genomic deletion but to exon skipping. Analysis of the products obtained by reverse transcription of ovine alpha(s1)-casein mRNA followed by amplification, demonstrated the presence of mRNA species containing the exon 16 sequence as well as the species in which it had been spliced out. It was estimated that the latter constitutes 20% of the total ovine alpha(s1)-casein mRNA. We propose that a substitution within the donor splice site is responsible for the partial skipping of exon 16, possibly through the formation of an inhibitory RNA secondary structure.
206 NAL Call No.: S441.S855
Expanding profits for Vermont sheep production through intensive pasture management.
Duesterberg, K. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE research projects Northeast Region. [1988-. 1995. 9 p.
SARE Project Number: LNE94-47. Record includes floppy disk. Reporting period for this report is July 1994 to November 1995. This is a final report.
Descriptors: lamb-production; lamb-feeding; pastures; markets; farming-systems-research; profitability; vermont; pasture-finished-lambs
207 NAL Call No.: SF604.63.N45S87
The export of live sheep for slaughter from New Zealand.
Davis GB Surveillance-Wellington v.22(2): p.26-28; 22 ref (1995)
Descriptors: trade-in-animals; animal-welfare; pneumonia; anorexia; heat-stress; stress; diarrhoea; transport-of-animals; sheep-diseases
208 NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
Expression, biological activity and kinetics of production of recombinant ovine TNF-alpha.
Seow, H. F.; Rothel, J. S.; Pepin, M.; David, M. J.; Wood, P. R. Vet-immunol-immunopathol v.44(3/4): p.279-291. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; tumor-necrosis-factor; macrophages; complementary-dna; cloning; genetic-vectors; gene-expression; cytotoxicity; leukemia; cell-lines; lymphocyte-transformation; kinetics; messenger-rna; recombinant-tumor-necrosis-factor
Extracellular domain of prolactin receptor from bovine mammary gland: expression in Escherichia coli, purification and characterization of its interaction with lactogenic hormones.
Tchelet A; Staten NR; Creely DP; Krivi GG; Gertler A Journal-of-Endocrinology v.144(3): p.393-403; 47 ref (1995)
Descriptors: cows; proteins; SDS-PAGE; hormones; nucleic-acids; complementary-DNA; chromatography; cloning; ewes; prolactin; receptors; purification; characterization; mammary-glands; gene-expression; somatotropin
210 NAL Call No.: SF967.M3N32
Factors affecting somatic cell count of goat milk: breed and farm.
Zeng, S. S.; Escobar, E. N. Annu-meet-Natl-Mastitis-Counc-inc (34th): p.168-170. (1995)
Meeting held on February 20-22, 1995, Fort Worth, Texas.
Descriptors: goats; somatic-cell-count; goat-milk; goat-breeds; farm-management; arkansas; oklahoma
Farm business survey in Wales: statistical results for 1994/95.
UK, University of Wales, Welsh Institute of Rural Studies. 1995, 119 pp
Descriptors: dairy-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; livestock-farming; farm-income; gross-margins; farm-surveys; farm-results; dairy-farms
Farm incomes in South West England 1994/95.
Turner M; Robbins K Report -Agricultural-Economics-Unit,-University-of-Exeter. 1996, No. 245, 79 pp
Descriptors: dairy-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; livestock-farming; crops; arable-farming; farm-income; costs; returns; profitability; farm-surveys; farm-results; dairy-farms
Farm incomes in the United Kingdom 1994/95.
UK, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1996, vi + 128 pp
Descriptors: balance-sheets; gross-margins; dairy-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; livestock-farming; cereals; mixed-farming; horticulture; arable-farming; farm-income; non-farm-income; farm-surveys; farmers'-income; agricultural-structure; dairy-farms
214 NAL Call No.: S562.G7F37 1996
Farm management handbook.
UK, University of Exeter, Agricultural Economics Unit. 1996, vi + 129 pp
Descriptors: gross-margins; production-costs; returns; capital; labour-requirements; farm-planning; dairy-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; livestock-farming; crops; arable-farming; handbooks; farm-management; dairy-farms
Farm sector exchange rates, production, financial trends and aggregate output.
Davison RM Paper -NZ-Meat-and-Wool-Boards'-Economic-Service. 1995, No. G2079, 28 pp
Descriptors: beef-cattle; livestock-numbers; value-added; economic-situation; interest-rates; terms-of-trade; profitability; returns; fiscal-policy; taxes; inflation; monetary-parity; sheep-farming; farm-results; beef; production; food-animals
216 NAL Call No.: HD2151.F37
Farm surveys report: financial performance of Australian farms 1993-94 to 1995-96.
Australia, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 1996, vi + 126 pp
Descriptors: farm-income; profitability; returns; costs; dairy-farming; livestock-farming; sheep-farming; cattle-farming; beef; crops; wheat; production; agricultural-households; farm-families; productivity; irrigated-farming; drought; management; farm-surveys; farm-results; dairy-farms
217 NAL Call No.: 26-T756
Farmers' response to a package of innovations in goat production in south-western Nigeria.
Bosman, H. G.; Ayeni, A. O.; Koper Limbourg, H. A. G. Trop-sci v.36(2): p.92-100. (1996)
Descriptors: goats; animal-production; animal-health; animal-nutrition; goat-keeping; adaptation; innovations; adoption; nigeria
218 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C475
Fattening experiments on Dorset and indigenous crossbred sheep.
Zhang RuLei; Wang XueZhong; Huang HuanMin; Han ZhaoMing; Zhang RL; Wang XZ; Huang HM; Han ZM Chinese-Journal-of-Animal-Science v.31-32(2): p.31 (1995)
Descriptors: sheep-feeding; concentrates; supplementary-feeding; grazing; energy; protein; plane-of-nutrition; intake; fattening-performance; growth; carcasses; crossbreeding; crosses; feedlots; breed-differences; sheep-breeds; Dorset
Fattening procedures for lambs. Mastverfahren fur Fleischlammer.
Grumbach S; Nurnberg K Neue-Landwirtschaft. 1996, No. 8, 70-72
Descriptors: lambs; males; fattening-performance; feed-supplements; carcass-composition; dressing-percentage; extensive-farming; intensive-husbandry; body-fat; age; crossbreeding; breed-differences; management; growth; carcasses; meat-quality; crosses; German-Blackheaded-Mutton; Texel; Bleu-du-Maine; finishing; carcass-weight; carcass-yield; plane-of-nutrition; sheep-breeds; Merino-Longwool
220 NAL Call No.: QL750.B4
Fear reactions of domestic sheep confronted with either a human or a human-like model.
Bouissou MF; Vandenheede M Behavioural-Processes v.34(1): p.81-92; 21 ref (1995)
Descriptors: methodology; behaviour; adaptation; animal-behaviour; fearfulness
221 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Fecal NIRS equations to assess diet quality of free-ranging goats.
Leite, E. R.; Stuth, J. W. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.223-230. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; free-range-husbandry; diet; crude-protein; digestibility; forage; feces; infrared-spectroscopy; reflectance; equations; accuracy; texas; near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
222 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Feed intake, utilization of nutrients and growth of Assamese X Beetal goats fed three levels of energy.
Saikia, G.; Baruah, K. K.; Buragohain, S. C.; Saikia, B. N.; Pathak, N. N. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.279-282. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; crossbreds; goat-feeding; body-weight; energy-value; brachiaria-mutica; forage; dry-matter; concentrates; feed-conversion; digestibility; chemical-composition; plane-of-nutrition; liveweight-gain; diet; goat-breeds; beetal; nutritive-value; india
223 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Feeding behaviour, feed intake, chemical and botanical composition of the diet of indigenous goats raised on natural vegetation in a semi-arid region of Zimbabwe.
Nyamangara, M. E.; Ndlovu, L. R. J-agric-sci v.124(pt.3): p.455-461. (1995 June)
Descriptors: goats; grazing; feeding-behavior; feed-intake; chemical-composition; botanical-composition; liveweight-gain; physical-activity; zimbabwe
224 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Au72
Feeding of feral goats before live export by ship.
Gherardi SG; Johnson TJ Australian-Veterinary-Journal v.72(11): p.429-430; 8 ref (1995)
Descriptors: feeding-behaviour; pellets; chaff; hay; feeding; transport-of-animals; mortality; feed-intake; feedlots
225 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Feeding of water washed neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake to growing goats.
Verma, A. K.; Sastry, V. R. B.; Agrawal, D. K. Small-rumin-res v.15(2): p.105-111. (1995 Jan.)
Descriptors: goats; neem-seed-cake; washing; mustard-oilmeal; crude-protein; protein-content; bitterness; protected-protein; rumen-fermentation; triterpenoids; chemical-composition; digestibility; nutrient-balance; liveweight-gain; feed-conversion; plane-of-nutrition; volatile-fatty-acids; blood-chemistry; india; triterpenol-derivatives
Abstract: To mitigate chronic shortage of feeds for livestock in developing countries, neem seed kernel cake (34-40% CP, bitter in taste, unsuitable for livestock feeding) was waterwashed (WWNSKC) and fed to 5-6-month-old male, growing goats for 180 days as a major source of protein by incorporating it at 15% (group II) and 25% (group III) in the concentrate mixtures. Their performance was compared with goats fed 15% deoiled mustard (Brassica sp.) cake (group I). CP content of group I, II and III concentrate mixtures was 16.7, 15.9 and 17.8%, respectively. Average daily DMI (g), BW gain (g/d) and feed conversion efficiency (unit DM intake/unit gain) on group I, II and III diets were 307.3 +/- 23.27, 324.0 +/- 26.78 and 325.6 +/- 25.57; 22.6 +/- 3.64, 28.9 +/- 3.34 and 25.2 +/- 2.89; 14.6 +/- 1.68, 11.4 +/- 0.63 and 13.1 +/- 0.62, respectively. Goats on all diets digested most nutrients similarly and were on positive N, Ca and P balance. Lowered total as well as NH3-N levels in rumen liquor of WWNSKC-fed goats due to residual neem bitters was indicative of passage of more by-pass protein for digestion in the lower gut. Intake of protein and energy increased linearly with level of WWNSKC incorporation and was within stipulated NRC standards. Among blood and plasma constituents, glucose (P < 0.01) (maybe because of residual neem bitters which exert antihyperglycemic effects), urea-N (P < 0.01) and total protein (P < 0.05) were lower in both experimental groups. Rumen fermentation pattern, urinary creatine and creatinine were comparable among the groups. Thus, WWNSKC can be incorporated in diets of growing goats up to 25% without deleterious effects on nutrient utilisation and metabolism.
226 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Feeding system of sheep in a mountainous area of Greece.
Zervas, G.; Fegeros, K.; Papadopoulos, G. Small-rumin-res v.21(1): p.11-17. (1996 June)
Descriptors: ewes; milk-yielding-animals; feeds; chemical-composition; roughage; concentrates; grazing; milk-yield; ewe-milk; dietary-minerals; blood-serum; lactation-stage; ewe-lactation; crop-residues; highlands; extensive-livestock-farming; greece
227 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
A feral goat rumen fluid inoculum improves nitrogen retention in sheep consuming a mulga (Acacia aneura) diet.
Miller, S. M.; Brooker, J. D.; Blackall, L. L. Aust-j-agric-res v.46(8): p.1545-1553. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep; goats; rumen-fluid; wild-goats; inoculum; acacia-aneura; leaves; protein-digestibility; nitrogen-metabolism; feed-intake; nitrogen-balance; wool; growth; liveweight
Financial factors affecting the sheep and beef farm sector: 1995-96 end of season report.
New Zealand, NZ Meat & Wool Boards' Economic Service. Paper -NZ-Meat-and-Wool-Boards'-Economic-Service. 1996, No. G2102, 23 pp
Descriptors: inflation; interest-rates; foreign-exchange; profitability; livestock-numbers; beef-cattle; beef; wool; production; monetary-situation; sheep-farming; farm-results
229 NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Polachic, D. Small-farm-today v.13(1): p.20. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: shetland-sheep-breed; characterization; small-farms; wool-production; saskatchewan
230 NAL Call No.: 501-L84B
Fluctuating trade-offs favour precocial maturity in male Soay sheep.
Stevenson, I. R.; Bancroft, D. R. Proc-R-Soc-Lond-Ser-B-Biol-sci v.262(1365): p.267-275. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: sheep; sexual-maturity; male-animals; reproductive-performance; survival; life-history; traits; population-structure; mortality; simulation-models; survival-cost
231 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Food preference and acceptance of novel foods by lambs depend on the composition of the basal diet.
Wang, J.; Provenza, F. D. J-anim-sci v.74(10): p.2349-2354. (1996 Oct.)
Descriptors: lambs; feeding-preferences; barley; alfalfa-meal; novel-foods; wheat; pelleted-feeds; unrestricted-feeding; feed-intake; flavor; nutrient-requirements; aversions; rabbit-pellets
Abstract: Ruminants eat a variety of foods, varying in toxins and nutrients, but no hypotheses adequately explain this behavior. We offer an explanation, one which encompasses avoidance of toxins and acquisition of nutrients. A key concept in this hypothesis is aversion, the decrease in preference for food just eaten as a result of sensory input (taste, odor, texture, i.e., a food's flavor) and postingestive effects (of toxins and nutrients on chemo-, osmo-, and mechano-receptors) unique to each food. On the basis of this hypothesis, we predicted lambs would prefer familiar and novel foods that complemented the macronutrient composition of their basal diet. To assess the validity of this prediction, we fed 10 lambs in each of three treatments different levels of ground barley (high in energy) and alfalfa (high in protein) as a basal diet. We then offered them daily a meal of three ground foods differing in proportions of barley and alfalfa (familiar foods) or wheat and rabbit pellets (novel foods). We found that lambs fed a basal diet high in energy (barley) preferred food lower in energy and higher in protein (alfalfa); those fed a diet high in alfalfa preferred food high in barley (P < .01). In addition, the higher the barley or alfalfa content of the basal diet, the greater the acceptance of novel foods high in alfalfa (i.e., rabbit pellets) or grain (i.e., wheat), respectively (P < .01). All lambs preferred foods high in wheat to rabbit pellets or alfalfa (P < 0.01), evidently because wheat is high in energy and it differs in flavor from barley, which was eaten repeatedly as part of the basal diet. On the basis of these results, we contend that lambs preferred familiar and novel foods that complemented the flavors and macro-nutrient contents of their basal diet.
232 NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
Food selection by domestic goats in Mediterranean arid shrublands.
Barroso FG; Alados CL; Boza J Journal-of-Arid-Environments v.31(2): p.205-217; 63 ref (1995)
Descriptors: feeding-behaviour; availability; browse-plants; composition; feeding-preferences; shrubs; arid-climate; Launea
233 NAL Call No.: 1.98-Ag84
For the midsouth--a hardy, hairy sheep.
Hays, S. M. Agric-res v.44(5): p.7. (1996 May)
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-breeds; hybrids; crossing; agricultural-research; wool-production; sheep-farming; arkansas
Foraging behaviour of cattle and goats in the grazing-lands of forested zone of Indian Central Himalaya.
Joshi M; Singh SP; Rawat YS Oecologia-Montana v.5(1): p.1-12; 49 ref (1996)
Descriptors: calves; feed-intake; species-diversity; grazing; selective-grazing; intake; grasses; browse; rangelands; forests
235 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Free-ranging angora goats: left- or right-handed tendencies while grazing.
Ganskopp, D. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.43(2): p.141-146. (1995 May)
Descriptors: goats; grazing-behavior; foraging; behavior-patterns
From Angora to dairy goats. Des Angoras aux chevres laitieres.
Jaouen JC le; Le Jaouen JC Chevre. 1995, No. 207, 22-23
Descriptors: Angora; mountain-areas; dairy-farms; profitability; dairy-farming; farm-dairies; cheesemaking
237 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J8293
Functional characterisation of an ovine endometrial oxytocin receptor cDNA transiently expressed in COS-7 cells.
Riley PR; Abayasekara DRE; Stewart HJ; Flint APF Journal-of-Endocrinology v.149(3): p.389-396; 47 ref (1996)
Descriptors: complementary-dna; oxytocin; cells; biochemistry; cloning; receptors; nucleotide-sequences; endometrium; DNA; nucleotides; kinetics; biotechnology
238 NAL Call No.: QP901.A33-v.395
Functional properties of a cloned ovine endometrial oxytocin receptor cDNA.
Riley, P. R.; Stewart, H. J.; Abayasekara, D. R. E.; Flint, A. P. F. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, v. 395. Oxytocin cellular and molecular approaches in medicine and research /. New York : Plenum Press, c1995.. p. 341-342.
Proceedings of a Hanseatic Endocrine Conference on Oxytocin: Cellular and Molecular Approaches in Medicine and Research, April 30-May 4, 1995, Stade, Germany.
Descriptors: ewes; endometrium; oxytocin; hormone-receptors; complementary-dna; clones; properties
239 NAL Call No.: QH442.A1G4
The gene encoding the ovine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor: cloning and initial characterization.
Campion, C. E.; Turzillo, A. M.; Clay, C. M. Gene v.170(2): p.277-280. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; structural-genes; hormone-receptors; gnrh; cloning; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; exons; introns; comparisons; mice; man; complementary-dna; promoters; tata-box; species-differences; 5'-untranslated-region; exon-intron-boundaries; transcription-start-points; gnrhr-gene; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; l42937; genbank; l43841; genbank; l43842
Abstract: We have isolated four lambda clones, which, in their aggregate, contain the entire coding sequence of the ovine gene encoding the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR). Like its human and murine counterparts, ovine GnRHR exists as a single-copy gene and is comprised of three exons and two introns. Furthermore, the locations of all exon-intron boundaries are perfectly conserved among the human, ovine and murine genes. The most striking difference among these genes is the location of the transcription start points (tsp) and, thus, the length of 5' untranslated region (UTR). This variation in size of the 5' UTR between the murine, human and ovine genes raises the possibility that different mechanisms have evolved for cell-specific expression of this gene. Isolation of the ovine GnRHR and its associated 5' flanking region is the essential first step in defining the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-specific and hormonal regulation of its expression in ruminants.
240 NAL Call No.: 442.8-Z35
Genetic structure of Greek sheep breeds. [Untersuchungen zur genetischen Struktur der wichtigsten Schafrassen Griechenlands.]
Rogdakis E; Kutsuli P; Surdis I; Panopulu E Journal-of-Animal-Breeding-and-Genetics v.112(4): p.255-266; 26 ref (1995)
Descriptors: genetic-equilibrium; structure; greek; biochemical-polymorphism; gene-frequency; breed-differences; breeds; genetic-distance; milk-yield; genetic-polymorphism; ewes; sheep-breeds
Genetic structure of the Karakalpak population of Karakul sheep for blood protein and enzyme polymorphisms.
Abilova GM; Ochilov KD Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya-Biologiya. 1995, No. 6, 65-71; 9 ref
Descriptors: genetic-polymorphism; haemoglobin; blood-proteins; enzymes; biochemical-polymorphism; gene-frequency; colour; pelts; Karakul
242 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat breeding systems in southern Spain. [Systemes d'elevage dans le sud de l'Espagne.]
Falagan A; Guerrero JE; Serrano A; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 38-50; EAAP Publication No. 71; 22 ref
Descriptors: semiarid-zones; animal-husbandry; milk-yield; meat-production; growth; grazing; animal-nutrition; livestock; farming-systems; extensive-husbandry; animal-production; management; reproduction; goat-milk; milk-production
A goat centre at Linazay. Un centre de la chevre a Linazay.
Thomas T Chevre. 1995, No. 208, 9
Descriptors: goat-milk; dairy-farming; animal-production; economics; research-institutes
244 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat farming systems in Morocco.
El Aich A; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 202-220; EAAP Publication No. 71; 3 ref
Descriptors: goat-meat; goat-milk; cheesemaking; hair; grazing; mortality; feed-conversion-efficiency; marketing; economics; dairy-performance; husbandry; animal-production; management; reproduction; tropics; cheeses; milk-production; production
245 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat farming systems in the French Mediterranean.
Santucci PM; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 51-67; EAAP Publication No. 71; 45 ref
Descriptors: grazing; extensive-husbandry; dairy-performance; meat-production; animal-production; management; crossbreeding; reproduction; goat-milk; milk-production
246 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Goat feeding practices and options for improvement in six villages in southwestern Nigeria.
Bosman, H. G.; Ademosun, A. A.; Koper Limbourg, H. A. G. Small-rumin-res v.19(3): p.201-211. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; traditional-farming; goat-feeding; feeds; cassava-peel; tubers; breadfruits; tropical-rain-forests; savanna-woodlands; maize-byproducts; hay; panicum-maximum; zero-grazing; farm-surveys; crude-protein; browse; leucaena-leucocephala; gliricidia-sepium; feed-intake; dry-matter; nigeria
247 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat husbandry and production systems in Israel.
Landau S; Perevolotsky A; Carasso Y; Rattner D; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 136-159
Descriptors: history; goat-keeping; breeds; body-weight; litter-size; milk-yield; milk-composition; breeding-season; grazing; browsing; animal-health; milk-products; meat-production; hair; marketing; economics; animal-production; reproduction; m anagement; goat-milk; milk-marketing; milk-production
248 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat husbandry systems in southern Italy.
Rubino R; Claps S; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 68-81; EAAP Publication No. 71; 25 ref
Descriptors: animal-husbandry; grazing; meat-production; milk-composition; cheeses; cheesemaking; animal-production; management; reproduction; goat-milk; milk-production
Goat keeping by small farmers in Burundi. Ziegenhaltung bei Kleinbauern in Burundi.
Jacob U 1995, 209 pp.; Sozialokonomische Schriften zur Ruralen Entwicklung Vol. 113, Diss. Humboldt-Univ., 11 pp. of ref
Descriptors: farm-results; crossbreds; performance; animal-breeding; farm-comparisons; projects; goat-keeping; small-farms; crossbreeding; economics; goat-breeds; crosses; Small-East-African; mountain-areas
Goat production and management in rural Zimbabwe.
Chifamba IK; Prasad VL; Arora LK Journal-of-the-Zimbabwe-Society-for-Animal-Production. 1995, 7: 195-198; 7 ref
Descriptors: farming-systems; animal-production; tropics; goat-diseases; animal-diseases; young-animal-diseases
251 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat production system study methods.
Bourbouze A; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 6-19; EAAP Publication No. 71; 8 ref
Descriptors: farming-systems; environmental-factors; animal-production; systems; evaluation
252 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat production systems in Algeria and particularly in the Kabylie region.
Taferrant H; Ben Youcef MT; Khemici E; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A(ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P .Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean 1995, 184-201; EAAP Publication No. 71; 20 ref
Descriptors: Berber; Maltese; goat-meat; goat-milk; management; animal-husbandry; farming-systems; grazing; marketing; economics; socioeconomics; goat-breeds; hides-and-skins; arid-zones; semiarid-zones; animal-production; tropics; milk-product i on
253 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat production systems in Egypt.
Galal ESE; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 161-165; EAAP Publication No. 71; 9 ref
Descriptors: farming-systems; extensive-husbandry; transhumance; intensive-livestock-farming; meat-production; animal-production; management; reproduction; tropics
254 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat production systems in the Mediterranean: a comparative study.
El Aich A; Landau S; Napoleone M; Bourbouze A; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 222-237; EAAP Publication, No. 71; 12 ref
Descriptors: goat-milk; goat-meat; hair; hides-and-skins; animal-husbandry; marketing; feeding; farming-systems; animal-production; milk-production; dairy-farms
255 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.71
Goat production systems in the Mediterranean area: the case of Greece.
Hatziminaoglou J; Zervas NP; Boyazoglu J; El Aich A (ed.); Landau S (ed.); Bourbouze A (ed.); Rubino R (ed.); Morand Fehr P Goat-production-systems-in-the-Mediterranean. 1995, 82-109; EAAP Publication No. 71; 50 ref
Descriptors: milk-yield; milk-composition; cheesemaking; cheeses; extensive-husbandry; intensive-husbandry; transhumance; labour-requirements; production-costs; profits; animal-production; reproduction; management; goat-milk; milk-production; production
Goat rearing in the humid and sub-humid region of Bizerte. [Caracterisation des systemes d'elevage caprin dans la region humide et subhumide de Bizerte.]
Salem HB; Hammouda MB Medit v.6(2): p.59-61; 10 ref (1995)
Descriptors: feasibility-studies; research; small-farms; returns; goat-keeping; farming-systems
257 NAL Call No.: HM206.A1H8
Goats and garbage in Khartoum, sudan: a study of the urban ecology of animal keeping.
Richardson, G. M.; Whitney, J. B. R. Hum-ecol v.23(4): p.455-475. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: goats; municipal-refuse-disposal; household-surveys; urban-areas; animal-husbandry; linear-models; sudan; loglinear; logit-models
258 NAL Call No.: 41.8-M463
Goats in Poland and their utilization. [Kozy w Polsce i ich uzytkowanie.]
Ryniewicz Z Medycyna-Weterynaryjna v.51(2): p.61-66; 31 ref (1995)
Descriptors: goat-milk; breeds; animal-husbandry; utilization; dairy-goats; meat-goats
259 NAL Call No.: S605.5.O74
Grass-mowing fertilizer factories.
Stephens, M. Org-gard v.42(5): p.60-62, 64-67. (1995 May-1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-breeds; sheep-farming
Grassland farm systems for sheep production.
Sheath GW; Theriez M; Caja G; Journet M (ed.); Grenet E (ed.); Farce MH (ed.); Theriez M (ed.); Demarquilly C Recent developments in the nutrition of herbivores: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Clermont-Ferrand, France, September 11-15, 1995. 1995, 527-550; 72 ref
Descriptors: forage; production; milk-production; meat-production; sheepmeat; ewe-milk; systems; feeding; farms; grasslands; sheep-feeding; reviews; 4th-International-symposium-on-the-nutrition-of-herbivores
Grazing behaviour of alpaca and sheep.
Sharp P; Knight TW; Hodgson J Proceedings-of-the-New-Zealand-Society-of-Animal-Production. 1995, 55: 183-185; 7 ref
Descriptors: grazing; behaviour; feed-intake; diurnal-variation; pastures; intake; botanical-composition; selective-grazing; New-Zealand-Society-of-Animal-Production; grazing-behaviour
Grazing in the future: Dutch dairy, beef and sheep production in the year 2005.
Muller J; Koning K de; Wever C; Hiemstra SJ; Havinga H; De Koning K; Schoute JFT(ed.); Finke PA (ed.); Veeneklaas FR (ed.); Wolfert HP Scenario studies for the rural environment: selected and edited proceedings of the symposium Scenario Studies for the Rural Environment, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 12-15 September 1994. 1995, 651-656; Environment & Policy Vol. 5; 2 ref
Descriptors: dairy-farming; sheep-farming; production-structure; livestock-numbers; projections; beef; milk-production; quotas; ewes; cows; dairy-farms; forecasts; Scenario-studies-for-the-rural-environment
263 NAL Call No.: S542.A8A34 no.64
Grazing sheep on improved pasture under double hedgerow rubber planting systems in Malaysia.
Chong DaiThai; Tajuddin I; Stur WW; Chong DT; Mullen BF (ed.); Shelton HM Integration of ruminants into plantation systems in southeast Asia: Proceedings of a workshop at Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 9-13 September 1994. 1995, 68-71; ACIAR Proceedings No. 64; 2 ref
Descriptors: pastures; production; liveweight-gain; animal-health; animal-production; crop-yield; growth; grasses; legumes; mixtures; rubber-plants; spacing; planting; patterns; grassland-improvement; silvopastoral-systems; fodder-plants; agrof o restry-systems; farming-systems; agroforestry; systems; tropical-crops; Integration-of-ruminants-into-plantation-systems-in-southeast-Asia
264 NAL Call No.: 286.81-F322
Growing popularity results in large comeback for small ruminants.
Eng, K. Feedstuffs v.67(8): p.11, 25. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goat-breeds; animal-production; ruminants; performance; animal-nutrition; usa; boer-goats; spanish-goats
265 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Growth and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in lambs grazing either lucerne (Medicago sativa) or sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) which contains condensed tannins.
Niezen, J. H.; Waghorn, T. S.; Charleston, W. A. G.; Waghorn, G. C. J-agric-sci v.125(pt.2): p.281-289. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: lambs; trichostrongylus-colubriformis; nematode-infections; growth; disease-resistance; gastrointestinal-diseases; grazing; medicago-sativa; hedysarum-coronarium; tannins; feed-evaluation; nutritive-value; protein-content; dry-matter; new-zealand
266 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
Handling of sheep at markets and the incidence of bruising.
Jarvis, A. M.; Cockram, M. S. Vet-rec v.136(23): p.582-585. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; bruises; incidence; handling; carcasses; markets; movement; loading; unloading; carcass-quality; uk
Health status and resistance of Bach Thao goats reared in northern Vietnam. A 3-year study. [Tinh hinh suc khoe va kha nang chong chiu benh cua dan de bach thao sau hon 3 nam nuoi o mien bac Viet Nam.]
Nguyen Quang Suc; Nguyen The Hung Khoa-Hoc-Ky-Thuat-Thu-Y v.2(3): p.74-79 (1995)
Descriptors: skin-diseases; mastitis; enteritis; helminthoses; management; nutrition; climate; stress; diseases; goat-diseases; bach-thao-goats
268 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Heterosexual experience differentially affects the expression of sexual behavior in 6- and 8-month-old ram lambs.
Price, E. O.; Borgwardt, R.; Dally, M. R. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.46(3/4): p.193-199. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: rams; puberty; ewes; estrus; body-weight; age-differences; copulation; stimulation
Abstract: The sexual performance of 6- and 8-month-old ram lambs (175 and 26 subjects, respectively) was quantified when individually exposed to four estrous ewes for 30 min on four occasions 7 days apart. In addition, half of the animals in each age class (experimental subjects) were exposed to 16 estrous females for 6, 16 or 24 h after testing on Test Days 1, 2 and 3. Control subjects received no additional exposure to females. Sexual performance improved for all groups over the 4 weeks of testing. However, 6-month control rams improved at a slower rate than 6-month experimental rams. By the fourth weekly test, 58% of the control rams and 85% of the experimental rams had attained ejaculatory competence. Treatment did not affect the sexual performance of the 8-month-old subjects; both control and experimental groups had attained 100% ejaculatory competence by the fourth week. Length of the extended exposure to females did not affect the results. It was concluded that the sexual responsiveness of ram lambs toward females is sufficiently undeveloped at 6 months (i.e. puberty) that extended exposure to sexually receptive ewes is needed for many males to exhibit adult levels of sexual performance. At 8 months, the sexual development of ram lambs has sufficiently matured so that relatively brief encounters with estrous females releases the full expression of adult sexual behaviors. These findings may be of benefit to sheep breeders who wish to use ram lambs in their breeding programs.
Histological structure of the skin in Mountain Corriedale purebred and crossbred lambs.
Slavov R Zhivotnov'dni-Nauki v.32(1-2): p.89-92; 13 ref (1995)
Descriptors: crosses; Soviet-Mutton-Wool; Tsigai; skin; wool-production; crossbreeding; sheep-breeds
270 NAL Call No.: SF85.4.A8A97
Home range responses of feral goats.
Holt C; Pickles G Rangeland-Journal v.18(1): p.144-149; 4 ref (1996)
Descriptors: cooperation; grasslands; rangelands; pest-control; wild-animals; control; grazing; grazing-behaviour
271 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V643
Hormonal and physiological effects of a 15 hour road journey in sheep: comparison with the responses to loading, handling and penning in the absence of transport.
Broom, D. M.; Goode, J. A.; Hall, S. J. G.; Lloyd, D. M.; Parrott, R. F. Br-vet-j v.152(5): p.593-604. (1996 Sept.)
Descriptors: sheep; road-transport; transport-of-animals; animal-welfare; hydrocortisone; prolactin; creatine-kinase; lactate-dehydrogenase; isoenzymes; osmotic-pressure; hematocrit; body-weight; weight-losses; heart-rate; hormone-secretion
Abstract: A controlled study was carried out to investigate the physiological effects of road transport on sheep. Animals (n = 10; body weight 38.9 +/- 1.3 kg), previously with catheters in their jugular veins, were rounded up and loaded onto a vehicle where they were held in a communal pen with eight other lambs. Blood samples were taken at 30 min intervals during the next 15 h while the vehicle remained stationary or was driven a distance of 548 miles (876 km). Measurements were made of plasma concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, creatine phosphokinase and lactase dehydrogenase isozymes and also of plasma osmolality, haematocrit and body weight; heart rate was also recorded in one animal. Loading and the start of driving produced large increases in cortisol and prolactin concentrations. Heart rate also increased whereas osmolality and haematocrit decreased. The major changes in hormone release occurred in the first 3 h period while, during the remaining 12 h, the stimulatory effect of transport was present but small. Body weight loss was similar under both stationary and driven conditions.
272 NAL Call No.: SF95.A9
Hormonal and sensory control of maternal behaviour in ewes. [Comportamiento maternal en la oveja: influencia hormonal y de los sentidos.]
Ramirez de la Fe AR; Hevia Mendez ML Avances-en-Alimentacion-y-Mejora-Animal v.35(1): p.29-32; 26 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; animal-behaviour; reproduction; hormones; prolactin; progestogens; estradiol; sense-organs; olfactory-organs; smell; maternal-behaviour; estrogens
273 NAL Call No.: SF1.L53
Housing of goat for increased productivity and profit.
Yadav BL; Siddiqui Livestock-Adviser v.20(12): p.8-14 (1995)
Descriptors: goat-keeping; goat-housing; animal-husbandry; loose-housing; barns; floor-space
274 NAL Call No.: QP501.B64
Identification of two cDNA clones encoding small proline-rich proteins expressed in sheep ruminal epithelium.
Wang, L.; Baldwin, R. L.; Jesse, B. W. Biochem-j v.317(pt.1): p.225-233. (1996 July)
Descriptors: sheep; rumen; rumen-epithelium; animal-proteins; complementary-dna; cloning; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; animal-tissues; distribution; histochemistry; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; l77968; genbank; l77967; localization
Abstract: Small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins are markers frequently associated with squamous cell differentiation. They have been proposed to be a novel group of precursor polypeptides for the cornified envelope in epidermal keratinocytes. A plus/minus screening procedure was used to identify cDNA clones expressed in mature but not in neonatal sheep ruminal epithelium. Two clones encoding SPRR proteins were identified and are reported here. Clone 27 encodes an ovine SPRR protein corresponding to the human type-II SPRR protein. Clone 26 encodes an ovine SPRR protein similar to human type-II SPRR protein, but which also contains an N-terminal His-Pro repeat similar to the paired repeats found in the Drosophila paired proteins. The unique combination of a paired domain and an SPRR protein has not been reported prior to this study. The tissue distribution indicates that specific expression of the genes corresponding to these two clones occurs in the epithelium of the ruminant forestomach, and to a lesser extent in skin epithelium. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the SPRR mRNA for both clones were localized in the stratum granulosum, in support of their putative physiological function, i.e. formation of the cornified envelope. Based on Northern blot analysis, mRNA complementary the two clones appears in the ruminal epithelium by 1 week of age, corresponding to the formation of the stratum granulosum during ruminal epithelial development. The different patterns of changes in amount of mRNA corresponding to these clones during rumen epithelial development indicate that they play different roles in rumen epithelial development.
275 NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Immunisation of goat bucks against GnRH to prevent seasonal reproductive and agonistic behaviour.
Godfrey SI; Walkden Brown SW; Martin GB; Speijers EJ Animal-Reproduction-Science v.44(1): p.41-54; 30 ref (1996)
Descriptors: behaviour; lh; testosterone; agonistic-behaviour; bucks; gnrh; castration; semen-production; immunization; breeding-season; pheromones; males; aggression; testes; dimensions; FSH; blood; androgens
The impact of CAP reform on animal production systems: dairy and beef cattle, sheep and goats. Complete results of surveys and farmers' accounts of animal production networks. [Impact de la reforme de la PAC sur les systemes d'elevage: lait et viande bovine, ovine, caprine resultats complets d'enquetes et de temoignages d'eleveurs des reseaux d'elevage.]
France, Institut de l'Elevage. 1995, 316 pp
Descriptors: sheep-farming; dairy-farming; cattle-farming; structural-change; trends; livestock-farming; CAP; economic-impact; economics
277 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
The impact of sheep trampling and stocking rate on the physical properties of a red duplex soil with two initially different structures.
Proffitt, A. P. B.; Jarvis, R. J.; Bendotti, S. Aust-j-agric-res v.46(4): p.733-747. (1995)
Descriptors: red-soils; topsoil; soil-structure; infiltration; soil-water-content; sheep; trampling; soil-compaction; stocking-rate; grazing-effects; western-australia
278 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Impact of veterinary treatments on goat mortality and offtake in the semi-arid area of Mali.
Ba, S. B.; Udo, H. M. J.; Zwart, D. Small-rumin-res v.19(1): p.1-8. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: goats; traditional-farming; kids; mortality; vaccination; semiarid-zones; helminths; anthelmintics; yields; age-differences; sex-differences; body-weight; pasteurellosis; pest-of-small-ruminants-virus; anthrax; mali
Impacts of farm size and equity on sheep and beef farm performance.
New Zealand, NZ Meat & Wool Boards' Economic Service. Paper -NZ-Meat-and-Wool-Boards'-Economic-Service. 1996, No. G2106, 13 pp
Descriptors: sheep-farming; farm-size; farm-indebtedness; farm-results; beef-cattle; cattle-farming
280 NAL Call No.: GB500.M68
Impacts on mixed mountain agriculture in the Rupal Valley, Nanga Parbat, northern Pakistan.
Nusser, M.; Clemens, J. Mt-res-dev v.16(2): p.117-133. (1996 May)
Descriptors: mountain-areas; mixed-farming; mixed-grazing; alpine-vegetation; irrigation; seasonal-variation; sheep; goats; social-change; population-pressure; off-farm-employment; pastoralism; subsistence-farming; pakistan
281 NAL Call No.: SF384.5.P43--1996
Improving goat production in the tropics : a manual for development workers.
Peacock, C. P.; Oxfam. Oxford : Oxfam in association with FARM-Africa, 1996. xx, 387 p. : ill., Includes bibliographical references and index.
Descriptors: Goats-Breeding-Tropics; Goats-Nutrition-Tropics; Goats-Health-Tropics
282 NAL Call No.: SF105.A1Z8
In vitro and in vivo development of cloned ovine embryos using in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes.
Holm P; Nagashima H; Sun FJ; Seamark RF Reproduction-in-Domestic-Animals v.30(3): p.125-128; 19 ref (1995)
Descriptors: in-vitro; development; embryos; oocytes; cloning; blastomere; embryonic-development; oviducts; pregnancy-rate; embryo-transfer; biotechnology; in-vivo-maturation; in-vitro-maturation; fusion; in-vitro-development
283 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V643
The incidence of luteal activity, as determined by peripheral plasma progesterone concentration, before the onset of the breeding season in the Rasa Aragonesa breed of sheep.
Abecia, J. A.; Forcada, F.; Zarazaga, L.; Lozano, J. M. Br-vet-j v.152(3): p.353-355. (1996 May)
Descriptors: sheep; aragonese; ovulation; progesterone; hormone-secretion; anestrus; sexual-behavior
284 NAL Call No.: SF55.I4I53
Income and employment dynamics of goat farms in different agroclimatic zones of Tamil Nadu.
Prabaharan R; Thirunavukkarasu M Indian-Journal-of-Animal-Production-and-Management v.11(1): p.14-26; 8 ref (1995)
Descriptors: family-labour; female-labour; production-costs; returns; goat-keeping; households; income; employment
Indian Journal of Small Ruminants.
Parthasarathy S 1995, Inaugural issue., 51 pp
Descriptors: fertility; animal-production; viral-diseases; drug-resistance; nutrition; periodicals; new-journals; sheep-feeding; goat-feeding; sheep-diseases; Indian-Journal-of-Small-Ruminants
286 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
An indoor method for studying the preferences of sheep and cattle at pasture.
Dumont B; Petit M Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.46(1-2): p.67-80; 25 ref (1995)
Descriptors: animal-behaviour; grazing; feed-intake; estimation; methodology; hay; quality; feeding-preferences; starvation; feeding-behaviour; palatability
287 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Influence of a conspecific agemate on distress bleating by lambs.
Porter, R. H.; Nowak, R.; Orgeur, P. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.45(3/4): p.239-244. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: lambs; removal; vocalization; twins; stress-factors; animal-welfare
Abstract: Lambs typically display behavioral and physiological indicants of distress when they are removed from their mother. In the present experiment, we assessed the effects of the presence of agemate conspecifics on the rate of distress bleating by 3-week-old lambs immediately following maternal separation. When removed from their mother and tested in isolation, lambs emitted more distress bleats than they did when paired with a social partner--either their twin (P < 0.01) or an unfamiliar lamb (P<0.05). Moreover, rates of distress bleating by paired unfamiliar lambs were greater than for familiar twins tested together (P < 0.02). The presence of an agemate lamb therefore appears to alleviate, at least to some extent, the stress associated with maternal separation. Lower rates of bleating by twin pairs in contrast with paired unfamiliar lambs suggest that twins recognize one another. Prior to testing, twins interacted closely and thereby had the opportunity to become mutually acquainted.
288 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Influence of artificial rearing on behavioral and immune response of lambs.
Napolitano F; Marino V; Rosa G de; Capparelli R; Bordi A; De Rosa G Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.45(3-4): p.245-253; 21 ref (1995)
Descriptors: artificial-rearing; immune-response; behaviour; lambs; growth; age; antibodies; stress; hydrocortisone; nonspecific-immunostimulation; animal-behaviour
289 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Influence of chromium tripicolinate on glucose metabolism and nutrient partitioning in growing lambs.
Kitchalong, L.; Fernandez, J. M.; Bunting, L. D.; Southern, L. L.; Bidner, T. D. J-anim-sci v.73(9): p.2694-2705. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: lambs; chromium; mineral-nutrition; glucose-tolerance-test; dry-matter; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; picolinic-acid; carcass-weight; dressing-percentage; blood-plasma; organs; depot-fat; weight; fat-percentage; longissimus-dorsi; metabolites; insulin; glucagon
Abstract: Twenty-four Suffolk lambs (average BW 38 +/- 2.7 kg; 16 ewes and 8 wethers) were fed either a corn-cottonseed hull-based control diet (CON) or CON plus 250 ppb of Cr as chromium tripicolinate (CrPic). Lambs were penned in groups of three and ADG and DMI were measured through d 85 of the experiment. Jugular blood samples were obtained during wk 2, 7, and 11. An i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT; 500 mg of glucose/kg BW) and an i.v. insulin challenge test (IVICT; .1 IU of ovine insulin/kg BW) were performed during wk 2 and 10 of the trial. This was followed by a N balance trial during wk 3 and 11. Wethers were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and carcass characteristics determined. No differences (P > .10) were observed between dietary treatments in DMI, ADG, or N balance; however, the CrPic-fed wethers had 18% less fat over the 10th rib (P = .082) and a lower yield grade ( P = .014). Plasma NEFA was lower throughout the trial (P < .03) and cholesterol was 17% lower during wk 2 (P < .02) in lambs fed CrPic. There were no differences due to diet (P > .10) in plasma concentrations of urea N, glucose, albumin, total protein, insulin, glucagon, triiodothyronine, or thyroxine. Glucose clearance rate and half-life during the IVGTT and IVICT did not differ (P > .10) between CON and CrPic groups; however, during the IVGTT on wk 2, plasma insulin was elevated (P < .05) and glucose reduced (P = .067) in the lambs fed CrPic. Supplemental CrPic seems to influence metabolic measurements that may affect performance of growing lambs.
290 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Influence of deciduous broadleaved woody species in goat nutrition during the dry season in northern Greece.
Papachristou, T. G.; Nastis, A. S. Small-rumin-res v.20(1): p.15-22. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: goats; browse-plants; woody-plants; dry-season; carpinus-orientalis; fraxinus-ornus; dietary-protein; summer; autumn; nitrogen-retention; selective-grazing; botanical-composition; crude-protein; breeding-season; greece
291 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Influence of dietary energy and postmortem electrical stimulation on meat quality and collagen characteristics of lamb carcasses.
Abouheif, M. A. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(6): p.577-582. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: lambs; lamb-feeding; poultry-offal-meal; unrestricted-feeding; collagen; solubility; lamb-meat; meat-quality; electrical-stimulation; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; dry-matter; carcass-weight; slaughter-weight; fat-thickness; depot-fat; tail; muscles; ph; temperature; energy-intake; shear-strength; biceps-femoralis
292 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Influence of dietary protein content and digestibility on milk yield and blood constituents in lactating goats.
Pailan, G. H.; Kaur, H. Small-rumin-res v.20(1): p.47-51. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: goats; beetal; crossbreds; dietary-protein; protected-protein; blood-sugar; blood-protein; feed-intake; dry-matter; protein-concentrates; maize; barley; peanut-oilmeal; cottonseed-oilmeal; wheat-bran; protein-content; protein-intak e ; body-weight; milk-yield; milk-composition; urea; feed-conversion; production-costs; blood-plasma; india
293 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Influence of direct-fed microbials on ruminal microbial fermentation and performance of
Yoon, I. K.; Stern, M. D. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(6): p.533-555. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: dairy-cows; lactation; probiotics; feed-additives; rumen-fermentation; rumen-bacteria; mode-of-action; milk-yield; aspergillus-oryzae; saccharomyces-cerevisiae; lactic-acid-bacteria; yeasts; diet; milk-composition; steers; lambs; b u lls; calves; performance; feed-intake; literature-reviews
294 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Influence of feeding different crude fiber levels on milk yield and milk composition of Najdi ewes.
Abdel Rahman, K. M.; Mehaia, M. A. Small-rumin-res v.19(2): p.137-141. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: ewes; ewe-milk; milk-yield; body-weight; litter-size; diet; fiber-content; crude-fiber; alfalfa; barley; concentrates; feed-intake; feed-conversion; milk-composition
295 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
Influence of lamb presence on the behaviour at pasture of "Altamurana" breeding ewes.
Cagnetta P; Ficco C; Vonghia G; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD (ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: grazing; lambs; maternal-behaviour
296 NAL Call No.: S131.E22
Influence of mountain big sagebrush browse on intake, digestibility, and nutritive quality of sheep diets.
Ngugi, K. R.; Hinds, F. C.; Powell, J. Research-j-Agric-Exp-Stn. Laramie : The Station, 1966-. July 1995. (213) 44 p.
Descriptors: wethers; rambouillet; browse; artemisia-tridentata; grasses; digestibility; volatile-compounds; dry-matter; feed-intake; nutritive-value; sheep-dung; chemical-composition; rumen-microorganisms; gas-production; statistical-data; wyo m ing; usa
297 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Influence of nitrogen fertilization and defoliation frequency on nitrogen constituents and feeding value of annual ryegrass.
Zhang, Y.; Bunting, L. D.; Kappel, L. C.; Hafley, J. L. J-anim-sci v.73(8): p.2474-2482. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: lolium-multiflorum; nitrogen-fertilizers; lambs; diet; chemical-composition; defoliation; harvesting-date; rumen-fermentation; ammonia; louisiana
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the seasonal effects of N fertilizer (NF) and defoliation interval (DI) on specific N fractions within annual ryegrass (AR) and overall usage of AR N by growing lambs. In Exp. 1. NF (0, 112, 224, and 336 kg of N/ha) and DI of 2, 4, or 6 wk were factorially applied to AR plots. Both decreasing DI and increasing NF increased N levels in AR in a manner that depended on harvest date (NF or DI X harvest date interaction, P < .05). The proportions of .2% NaOH soluble N or soluble protein N were not affected (P > .05) by NF or DI. Although NF had no effect (P > .05 ) on in situ disappearance of DM, decreasing the DI seemed to reduce the severity of the season-induced reduction in DM disappearance (DI X harvest date interaction, P = .04). In Exp. 2, NF (0 or 224 kg of N/ ha) and a DI of 2 or 6 wk were factorially applied to AR plots. Fresh, frozen AR was fed in semipurified diets (48% of DM as AR) to four wether lambs (23 + 1.3 kg) using a 4 X 4 Latin square. Diets including AR had greater ruminal DM and plant N digestibilities when AR had a 2-wk vs a 6-wk DI with NF but had reduced digestibilities when AR had a 2-wk vs a 6-wk DI without NF. Lambs retained more N when fed diets with fertilized vs unfertilized AR (P = .01) and when fed diets with AR harvested every 2 wk vs every 6 wk (P = .08). Data suggested that forage management scheme and advancing plant maturity affected ryegrass N distribution and ruminal usage in manners that had only minor consequences relative to animal performance.
298 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
Influence of prepartum protein and energy concentrations for dairy goats during pregnancy and early lactation.
Sahlu, T.; Hart, S. P.; Le Trong, T.; Jia, Z.; Dawson, L.; Gipson, T.; Teh, T. H. J-dairy-sci v.78(2): p.378-387. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; goat-feeding; pregnancy; lactation; dietary-protein; metabolizable-energy; body-weight; goat-milk; milk-composition; milk-yield; milk-fat-percentage; crude-protein; kidding-rate; litter-weight; energy-intake; blood-chemistry; metabolites
Abstract: Sixty-three multiparous Alpine does were blocked by pregnancy type (single vs. multiple) on d 90 of pregnancy and assigned to one of nine diets to evaluate the interaction of prepartum protein and energy intake on BW change, kidding, and subsequent production and composition of milk. Treatments were factorial with three percentages of CP (8.5, 11.5, and 14.5% of DM) and three concentrations of metabolizable energy (1.80, 2.16, and 2.53 Mcal/kg of DM). Does were fed for ad libitum intake during pregnancy and switched to a lactation diet (16% CP and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg of DM) after parturition. Milk production and composition were recorded for the first 15 wk of lactation. Prepartum BW gain increased quadratically as protein amount increased but was unaffected by energy. Kidding rate, litter weight, and gestation length were unaffected by protein or energy amounts. Milk production in the subsequent lactation increased quadratically in response to prepartum CP (2.59, 3.26, and 3.07 kg/d for 8.5, 11.5, and 14.5% CP, respectively). Milk production increased linearly in response to prepartum metabolizable energy concentration (2.63, 3.05, and 3.26 kg/d for 1.80, 2.16, and 2.53 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively). Milk fat percentage increased linearly in response to increased prepartum energy. Production of milk fat, protein, SNF, FCM, and SCM were affected quadratically by increased prepartum CP and linearly by prepartum energy, following the pattern for milk production. The present recommendations for prepartum CP and energy appear to be adequate for gestation and subsequent lactation performance of dairy goats.
299 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
Influence of supplementation with dietary soyabean meal on resistance to haemonchosis in Hampshire down lambs.
Wallace, D. S.; Bairden, K.; Duncan, J. L.; Fishwick, G.; Gill, M.; Holmes, P. H.; McKellar, Q. A.; Murray, M.; Parkins, J. J.; Stear, M. J. Res-vet-sci v.58(3): p.232-237. (1995 May)
Descriptors: lambs; haemonchus-contortus; disease-resistance; protein-supplements; soybean-oilmeal; nematode-infections; trickle-infection; liveweight; erythrocytes; blood-protein; serum-albumin; carcass-composition; feces
Abstract: The influence of dietary protein supplementation on resistance to haemonchosis was examined in Hampshire down lambs fed either a basal diet or a diet supplemented with soyabean. At seven months of age the lambs were challenged with an initial loading dose of Haemonchus contortus. followed by a trickle infection three times a week. Blood and faecal samples were collected three times a week and bodyweights were recorded weekly. After 10 weeks the lambs were slaughtered and their worm burdens and carcase composition determined. Although their mean worm burdens were similar, the lambs given the basal diet had higher faecal egg counts, lower packed red cell volumes and lower concentrations of total plasma protein and plasma albumin than the lambs given the supplemented diet. The dietary supplementation also improved the carcase composition of the lambs.
The influence of urine and dung deposition on patch grazing patterns of cattle and sheep inthe Southern Tall Grassveld.
Lutge BU; Hatch GP; Hardy MB African-Journal-of-Range-and-Forage-Science v.12(3): p.104-110; 28 ref (1995)
Descriptors: grasslands; veld; dung-patches; grazing; selective-grazing; urine-patches; grazing-behaviour
301 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Influence of varying RDP:UDP ratios in diets on digestion, nitrogen utilization and milk production efficiency in goats.
Mishra, S.; Rai, S. N. Small-rumin-res v.20(1): p.39-45. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: goats; protein-intake; dietary-protein; protected-protein; feed-intake; dry-matter; protein-digestibility; crude-protein; nitrogen-balance; milk-yield; feed-conversion; lactation; beetal; crossbreds; cottonseed-oilmeal; maize; protein-sources; goat-milk; total-solids; solids-not-fat; milk-fat-percentage; milk-protein-percentage; india
302 NAL Call No.: 410-J828
The influence of vegetation pattern on the grazing of heather moorland by red deer and sheep. I. The location of animals on grass/heather mosaics.
Clarke JL; Welch D; Gordon IJ Journal-of-Applied-Ecology v.32(1): p.166-176; 27 ref (1995)
Descriptors: moorlands; grazing-time; vegetation; wild-animals; grazing; selective-grazing; grasses; browse; grasslands; heathlands; comparisons; grazing-behaviour
The influence of vegetation pattern on the grazing of heather moorland by red deer and sheep. II. The impact on heather.
Clarke JL; Welch D; Gordon IJ Journal-of-Applied-Ecology v.32(1): p.177-186; 30 ref (1995)
Descriptors: vegetation; grazing; wild-animals; selective-grazing; grazing-behaviour
304 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Inhibitory effect of the ionophore salinomycin on deamination by mixed rumen bacteria.
Kobayashi, Y.; Suda, K.; Wakita, M.; Baran, M.; Hoshino, S. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.9(1): p.45-49. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: rumen-bacteria; sheep; rumen-fluid; amino-acids; ammonia; deamination; salinomycin; diet; ryegrass-hay; concentrates; ammonium-nitrogen; aspartic-acid; in-vitro; casein; proteolysis; nad; nadh; cofactors; pyridoxine; 2-oxoglutarate
305 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Intake and behaviour responses by sheep, in different physiological states, when grazing monocultures of grass or white clover.
Penning, P. D.; Parsons, A. J.; Orr, R. J.; Harvey, A.; Champion, R. A. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.45(1/2): p.63-78. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: sheep; feeding-behavior; biting-rates; feed-intake; lolium-perenne; trifolium-repens; grazing-time; lactating-females; plant-height
306 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Intake, digestibility and aerobic stability of barley silage inoculated with mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium.
McAllister, T. A.; Selinger, L. B.; McMahon, L. R.; Bae, H. D.; Lysyk, T. J.; Oosting, S. J.; Cheng, K. J. Can-j-anim-sci v.75(3): p.425-432. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: barley-silage; lactobacillus-plantarum; streptococcus-faecium; lambs; lamb-feeding; silage-making; silage-quality; chemical-composition; digestibility; nitrogen-retention; stability; nutritive-value
Abstract: The effect of ensiling barley treated with two bacterial inoculants containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium (1.0 X 10(5) cfu g-1 as fed silage) on the nutritional value and aerobic stability of barley silage was examined. Inoculants differed in the strains they contained and were originally selected by Pioneer Hi-Bred International for use with corn or alfalfa silage, SILA-BAC (1174), or with grass silage (X2637). Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates were higher (P < 0.05) in inoculated than in control silages. Although inoculants appeared to increase the numbers of lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) at ensiling, post-ensiling numbers (cfu g-1) of yeasts and molds were lower (P < 0.05) in inoculated than in control silages. Lactic acid concentrations and pH were similar among the silages and variations in the growth of yeast and mold populations could not be explained by differences in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) among silages. Inoculation of barley silage with either inoculant increased (P < 0.01) the average daily gain of lambs. A digestibility experiment with 12 growing ram lambs showed that inoculants did not alter (P > 0.05) DM intake, feed efficiency or the digestion of DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Nitrogen intake and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in lambs fed silage inoculated with 1174 as compared with control silage. Yeast populations were increased (P < 0.05) in control and 1174 after 2 d of exposure to air but it required 13 d for a similar yeast population to be established in X2637 silage. Increases in the mold populations within the silages were noted after 2, 5 and 13 d of exposure to air for control, 1174 and X2637, respectively. The temperature of control silage increased (P < 0.05) 2 d after exposure to air, whereas increases in temperature were delayed for 4 d in 1174 and 8 d in X2637. Temperatures rose as high as 30 degrees C in control silage, but did not exceed 24 degrees C in inoculated silages during the 13 d period.
307 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
An integrated approach to assessing the farm and market level impacts of new technology adoption in Australian lamb production and marketing systems: the case of large, lean lamb.
Griffith, G. R.; Vere, D. T.; Bootle, B. W. Agric-syst v.47(2): p.175-198. (1995)
Descriptors: lamb-meat; lamb-production; technology; innovation-adoption; meat-and-livestock-industry; economic-impact; livestock-farming; marketing; profitability; econometric-models; case-studies; australia
An intensive sheep production system for dairy farms. Een intensief systeem op een melkveebedrijf.
Boer J de; Houwelingen KM van; Sikkema K; De Boer J; Van Houwelingen KM Publikatie -Praktijkonderzoek-Rundvee,-Schapen-en-Paarden. 1996, No. 112, 2-12,20; 5 ref
Descriptors: carcass-composition; reproduction; litter-size; mortality; lambs; dairy-farms; production; lambing-rate; female-fertility; management; lamb-production
309 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
Introducing Awassi sheep to Australia: an application of farming system models.
Kingwell, R. S.; Abadi Ghadim, A. K.; Robinson, S. D. Agric-syst v.47(4): p.451-471. (1995)
Descriptors: awassi; farming-systems; dry-farming; profitability; models; introduction; imported-breeds; agricultural-regions; western-australia
An introduction to keeping sheep.
Upton J; Soden D 1996, Ed. 2, vii + 115 pp
Descriptors: sheep-feeding; nutrition; breeding; management; production; sheep-diseases
311 NAL Call No.: 442.8-Z35
Investigations into traditionally managed Djallonke-sheep production in the humid and subhumid zones of Asante, Ghana. III. Relationship between birth weight, preweaning growth, and postweaning growth of lambs.
London JC; Weniger JH Journal-of-Animal-Breeding-and-Genetics v.112(5-6): p.431-453; 15 ref (1995)
Descriptors: birth-weight; production; growth; lambs; traditional-farming; body-weight; parity; sex-differences; dams; age; progeny; preweaning-period; reproduction; lamb-production; postweaning-period
312 NAL Call No.: QP1.P4
Involvement of the main but not the accessory olfactory system in maternal behavior of primiparous and multiparous ewes.
Levy F; Locatelli A; Piketty V; Tillet Y; Poindron P Physiology-and-Behavior v.57(1): p.97-104; 30 ref (1995)
Descriptors: anosmia; vomeronasal-organ; ewes; maternal-behaviour; olfactory-organs
313 NAL Call No.: HD1405.E97 1995a
Is there any future for the traditionally small farms in less favoured areas? The case of Greece.
Zioganas CM; Mattas K (ed.); Papanagiotou E (ed.); Galanopoulos K Agro-food small and medium enterprises in a large integrated economy: proceedings of the 44th Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists, Thessaloniki, Greece, 11-14 October 1995. 1996, 67-80
Descriptors: family-farms; farm-income; rural-development; living-standards; livestock-farming; efficiency; sheep-farming; small-farms; less-favoured-areas; European-Association-of-Agricultural-Economists
314 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding ovine type I carbonic anhydrase.
Wang, L. Q.; Baldwin, R. L. VI.; Jesse, B. W. J-anim-sci v.74(2): p.345-353. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; carbonate-dehydratase; rumen-epithelium; rumen-development; messenger-rna; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; gene-expression; species-differences; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; l42178
Abstract: To identify genes involved in the postnatal development of sheep ruminal epithelium, a lambdagt22a cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA isolated from mature sheep ruminal epithelium. A plus/minus screening procedure was used to identify genes expressed in mature but not in neonatal ruminal epithelium. One of the cDNA clones isolated encodes an ovine carbonic anhydrase, based on nucleotide and deduced peptide sequence analysis. The deduced peptide is most closely related to eukaryotic type I carbonic anhydrase, based on a comparison with all available carbonic anhydrase sequences. Northern blot hybridization confirmed that the amount of mRNA complementary to the carbonic anhydrase cDNA clone is more than five times higher in ruminal epithelium from mature sheep (12 wk old) than in ruminal epithelium from neonatal lambs (< 12 h old). Messenger RNA complementary to this cDNA clone was found only in the epithelium of the ruminant forestomach compartments (i.e., rumen, reticulum, and omasum), but small amounts of hybridizable mRNA were also found in sheep skin. This carbonic anhydrase cDNA clone will allow the study of transcriptional regulation of the carbonic anhydrase gene during ruminal epithelial development.
The Jean Faup cheese dairy. La fromagerie Jean Faup.
Bargain V Chevre. 1995, No. 208, 20-21
Descriptors: cheesemaking; milk; dairy-farms; cheeses; goat-milk; manufacture; marketing; Bethmale-cheese; Garbet-cheese
316 NAL Call No.: 44.8-M47
Kare Syrstad: 1994 was a special year for the dairy industry - and a good one. [Kare Syrstad: 1994 et spesielt, men likevel godt ar for meieriindustrien.]
Meieriposten v.84(6): p.144-149 (1995)
Descriptors: cows; dairy-farms; cheeses; butter; milk-fat; exports; dairy-industry; milk-production; goat-milk
The key to success in goat feeding. Les cles du succes en alimentation des chevres.
Morand Fehr P Chevre. 1995, No. 208, 14-16
Descriptors: goat-milk; milk-production; milk-yield; goat-feeding; dairy-farms; reviews; nutrition; animal-nutrition; production
318 NAL Call No.: 472-N21
Lambing by nuclear transfer.
Solter D Nature-London v.380(6569): p.24-25; 11 ref (1996)
Descriptors: lambing; transfer; nuclei; cloning; embryos; cell-lines; biotechnology; nuclear-transfer
Land freezing and production quotas. Gel des terres et quotas de production.
Laconde C; Morchoine C; Espinasse S Chambres-d'Agriculture. 1995, No. 839, 1-31; 14 tab., 6 fig
Descriptors: quotas; land-management; dairy-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; CAP; livestock-farming; EU-regulations; international-comparisons; legislation; comparisons
320 NAL Call No.: 26-T754
Leaves from tropical trees as protein supplements in diets for sheep.
Wiegand, R. O.; Reed, J. D.; Combs, D. K.; Said, A. N. Trop-agric v.73(1): p.62-68. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: sheep; animal-production; sheep-feeding; plant-residues; leaves; faidherbia-albida; carissa; dichrostachys-cinerea; leucaena-leucocephala; sesbania-sesban; alfalfa-hay; eragrostis-tef; straw; diets; forage; protein-supplements; dosage-effects; maize; feed-intake; digestibility; plant-composition; anthocyanidins; polyphenols; nitrogen-balance; weight-gain; tropics; carissa-edulis
321 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Lifetime lamb and wool production of targhee or Finn-Dorset-Targhee ewes managed as farm or range flock. I. Average annual ewe performance.
Iman, N. Y.; Slyter, A. L. J-anim-sci v.74(8): p.1757-1764. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: ewes; targhee; crossbreds; dorset-horn; lamb-production; finnish-landrace-sheep-breed; range-pastures; lambing-rate; farms; extensive-livestock-farming; litter-size; breed-differences; weaning-weight; age-differences; fleece-weight ; lambing; productive-life; survival; sex-differences; south-dakota
Abstract: Lifetime (5 yr) lamb production and wool production from 207 straightbred Targhee (T) and 474 1/4 Finn-1/4 Dorset-1/2 Targhee (FDT) crossbred ewes managed in a range or farm flock system were evaluated for ewe fertility, prolificacy, ewe fleece weight, and total lamb weight weaned per ewe exposed. Data included 2,620 ewe exposures, 2,384 parturitions, 4,638 lambs born, and 3,498 lambs weaned. Ewes were born in 1984 through 1987 and lambed the first time as 2-yr-olds. Expressed as mean annual values, ewe fertility rates were similar (92.2 vs 91.0%, P = .30) for FDT and T ewes. Finn-Dorset-Targhee ewes had higher (P < .001) prolificacy (2.11 vs 1.75), weaned more lambs per ewe exposed (1.41 vs 1.18), produced more total lamb weight weaned per ewe exposed (33.8 vs 29.9 kg), and lambed 2 d earlier than T ewes. Targhee ewes produced more (P < .001) wool (4.5 vs 3.5 kg) than FDT ewes. Range flock ewes had a higher (P < .001) fertility rate (94.5 vs 88.7%), higher number of lambs weaned per ewe exposed (1.38 vs 1.22), and higher total lamb weight weaned per ewe exposed (34.7 vs 29.0 kg) than farm flock ewes. Farm flock ewes had a higher (P < .001) prolificacy (2.00 vs 1.86) and produced more wool (4.2 vs 3.8 kg) than range flock ewes. Targhee ewes had heavier lambs at birth (5.2 vs 4.6 kg; P < .001) and at weaning (25.8 vs 25.4 kg; P < .05). Range flock lambs were heavier (P < .001) at weaning than farm flock lambs (26.2 vs 24.9 kg). Lambs from FDT dams had a higher (P < .01) survival rate than lambs from T dams (75.6 vs 71.4%). Lamb survival from birth to weaning was higher (P < .001) for range flock lambs than for farm flock lambs (76.6 vs 70.4%). Incorporation of Finnsheep and Dorset breeding increased the reproductive performance in both management systems but decreased wool production.
322 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Lifetime lamb and wool production of Targhee or Finn-Dorset-Targhee ewes managed as farm or range flock. II. Cumulative lamb and wool production.
Iman, N. Y.; Slyter, A. L. J-anim-sci v.74(8): p.1765-1769. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: ewes; lamb-production; wool-production; targhee; crossbreds; finnish-landrace-sheep-breed; lambing-rate; litter-size; weaning-weight; litter-weight; breed-differences; range-pastures; extensive-livestock-farming; farms; age-differe n ces
Abstract: Cumulative lifetime (five lamb crops) lamb production and wool production of 681 ewes were evaluated in this study. Lamb production and wool production from each ewe at the end of age 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr were added to the previous year's production and analyzed within age of ewe. If a ewe failed to lamb, died, or was culled, it received a zero for that year and subsequent years. Main effects in the model included ewe breed and management system. Per ewe entering the study, Finn-Dorset-Targhee (FDT) ewes had a higher (P < .01) number of lambs born (7.42 vs 5.70), number of lambs weaned (5.39 vs 4.48), and total lamb weight weaned (131.7 vs 110.5 kg) than did Targhee ewes. Targhee ewes produced more (P < .01) wool (16.1 vs 13.6 kg) than FDT ewes. Range flock ewes had a higher number of lambs born (6.74 vs 6.38; P < .05), number of lambs weaned (5.39 vs 4.48; P < .01), and total lamb weight weaned (135.8 vs 106.5 kg; P < .01) than did farm flock ewes. Farm flock ewes produced more (P < .01) wool (15.2 vs 14.5 kg). A second analysis based on only those ewes retained at the start of each subsequent breeding season showed FDT ewes had a higher (P < .01) number of lambs born (9.96 vs 8.11), number of lambs weaned (7.61 vs 6.57), and total lamb weight weaned (183.8 vs 165.7 kg) after five lamb crops. Targhee ewes produced more (P < .01) wool (22.5 vs 17.6 kg). Farm flock ewes had a higher (P < .10) number of lambs born (9.18 vs 8.89) and produced more (P < .01) wool (21.1 vs 19.0 kg) than range flock ewes. Range flock ewes weaned more (P < .05) lambs (7.27 vs 6.92) and had more (P < .01) total lamb weight weaned (184.3 vs 165.2 kg) than farm flock ewes.
323 NAL Call No.: 100-N27M
Limiting amino acid in meat and bone and poultry byproduct meals.
Klemesrud, M.; Herold, D.; Villalobos, G.; Klopfenstein, T.; Shain, D.; Lewis, A. MP-Univ-Neb-Linc-Agric-Res-Div (62-A): p.7-9. (1995)
Descriptors: meat-and-bone-meal; poultry-offal-meal; calves; lambs; protein-sources; diet; protein-quality; rumen-digestion; protein-efficiency-ratio; liveweight-gain; limiting-amino-acids
324 NAL Call No.: HD1930.G6A42
Lowland sheep 1994: production economics and management.
Fogerty M; Turner M Special-Studies-in-Agricultural-Economics -Agricultural-Economics-Unit,-University-of-Exeter. 1996, No. 31, 97 pp
Descriptors: farm-surveys; farm-results; farm-management; replacement-rate; support-measures; quotas; economic-impact; farm-income; sheep-farming; costs; profitability; marketing
325 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Lupin and cowpea supplements for growth, wool production, and reproduction in rams.
Pomares CC; Galloway DB; Holmes JHG; Clarke IJ; Tilbrook AJ Australian-Journal-of-Experimental-Agriculture v.35(4): p.447-452; 37 ref (1995)
Descriptors: wool-production; supplements; growth; reproduction; rams; nutritive-value; cowpeas; lupins; maintenance; sheep-feeding; pancreas; gonadotropins; wool; body-condition; semen-production; nutrition; semen; quality; testes; weight; histology; LH; FSH; blood
326 NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
Mahjur areas: traditional rangeland reserves in the Dhamar Montane Plains (Yemen Arab Republic).
Kessler, J. J. J-arid-environ. London, New York, Academic Press. Mar 1995. v. 29 (3) p. 395-401.
Descriptors: rangelands; reserved-areas; forage; range-pastures; dry-season; land-use; range-management; sheep; grazing-systems; pasture-plants; botanical-composition; nutritive-value; yemen
327 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Maintenance of villous height and crypt depth in piglets by providing continuous nutrition after weaning.
Pluske, J. R.; Williams, I. H.; Aherne, F. X. Anim-sci v.62(pt.1): p.131-144. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: piglets; weaning; piglet-feeding; villi; small-intestine; ewe-milk; wet-feeding; dry-feeding; glutamine; intestinal-mucosa; protein-content; liveweight-gain; enzyme-activity; beta-galactosidase; sucrose-alpha-glucosidase; blood-pla s ma; metabolites
Making a living from goat milk. Vivre du lait de chevre.
Delorme Y Chevre. 1995, No. 206, 28-29
Descriptors: goat-milk; dairy-farms; milk-production
329 NAL Call No.: TD172.E5
Managemental practices in goat farming in Phulbani District of Orissa.
Mohapatra PS; Nayak MP Environment-and-Ecology v.14(1): p.67-70; 3 ref (1996)
Descriptors: farming; housing; castration; management; tropics
330 NAL Call No.: 275.29-IO9PA
Managing the replacement ewe lamb.
Morrical, D. PM-Iowa-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service. June 1995. (989-2,rev.) 4 p.
In the subseries: Sheep Management.
Descriptors: lambs; ewes; replacement; sheep-farming; lamb-feeding; ewe-feeding; feeds; feed-requirements; animal-breeding
Manipulating lamb growth to regulate the supply of lamb to market.
Vipond JE; Friggens NC Stocarstvo v.50(2): p.117-126; 18 ref (1996)
Descriptors: meat; storage; parasites; meat-production; markets; growth; lambing-season; breed-differences; nutrition; parasitoses
Marginal productivity and production functions of goats maintained under field conditions.
Singh MR; Lal RC; Singh BP Indian-Journal-of-Small-Ruminants v.1(1): p.26-30; 4 ref (1995)
Descriptors: food-intake; concentrates; labour-productivity; animal-nutrition; economics; returns; flocks; size; productivity
Matching sheep and beef policies to pasture supply on Northland hill country.
Page CR; Thomson RD; Webby RW Proceedings-of-the-New-Zealand-Grassland-Association. 1996, 57: 207-212; 7 ref
Descriptors: animal-husbandry; animal-production; beef-production; sheep-farming; beef-cattle; farm-management; monitoring; groups; New-Zealand-Grassland-Association
334 NAL Call No.: SF380.73.U6A54
Membership directory. ADGA membership directory.
American Dairy Goat Association. Spindale, N.C. : The Association, v. : ill.
Description based on: 1995; title from cover.
Descriptors: American-Dairy-Goat-Association-Directories; Goat-farmers-United-States-Directories
Methods of measuring the amount of local skin cooling and the influence of more remote effects. [A lokalis lehules nagysaganak es tavolhatasanak meresi modszerei.]
Szovatay G Magyar-Allatorvosok-Lapja v.50(10): p.629-630, 732; 6 ref (1995)
Descriptors: lambs; animal-welfare; animal-housing; skin; body-temperature
The Midi-Pyrenees. Midi-Pyrenees.
Caramelle Holtz E Chevre. 1995, No. 208, 17-19
Descriptors: animal-production; meat-production; dairy-farms; dairy-farming; cheeses; goat-milk; manufacture
Milk yields of East Friesland and Corriedale ewes and their crossbreeds (EFXCo) under an intensive outdoor grazing system.
Kugler WG; Nigris F de; Souza J de; Perrachon J; Sommer M; De Nigris F; De Souza J Sheep-Dairy-News v.12(3): p.57-58 (1995)
Descriptors: dairy-farming; grazing-systems; ewes; lactation; milk-yield; breeding; crossbreeding; grazing; ewe-lactation; lactation-duration; crosses; east-friesian-sheep-breed; Corriedale; sheep-breeds
338 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Mineral status of grazing sheep in the dry area of midland China.
Fujihara, T.; Hosoda, C.; Matsui, T. Asian-australas-j-anim-sci v.8(2): p.179-186. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; grazing; dry-season; rainy-season; dietary-minerals; natural-grasslands; forage; mineral-content; nutrient-requirements; blood-plasma; ningxia
339 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
A model-farm approach to research on crop-livestock integration. I. Conceptual framework and methods.
Thomson, E. F.; Bahhady, F. A. Agric-syst v.49(1): p.1-16. (1995)
Descriptors: awassi; sheep-farming; animal-husbandry; crop-enterprises; crop-yield; crop-management; rotations; farming-systems; natural-grasslands; carrying-capacity; research-projects; lambs; milk-production; wool; fertility; mortality; syria ; integrated-crop-and-sheep-enterprises
Abstract: For several decades better crop-livestock integration of farming systems in West Asia and North Africa has been promoted as a way to improve crop and livestock output. To achieve this integration, pasture or forage legumes are usually introduced into rotations or grown on fallow land. This paper reports the conceptual framework and methods used in a six-year on-station project which used model farms to investigate the benefits of closer crop-livestock integration and improved husbandry practices. Three farm types were compared. One consisted of a model farm, experimental sheep flock and natural pasture managed using traditional (T) practices. The second had the same enterprise combination but rotations that allowed better integration (1) of the crop and sheep enterprises which were subjected to improved management practices. The third farm type consisted of a sheep flock and natural pasture, with poor (C, control) management practices being applied to the sheep flock. The model farms and experimental flocks were managed by researchers.
340 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
A model-farm approach to research on crop-livestock integration. II. Experimental results.
Thomson, E. F.; Bahhady, F. A. Agric-syst v.49(1): p.17-30. (1995)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; crop-enterprises; grain; straw; wheat; barley; crop-yield; crop-management; harvesting-losses; research-projects; models
Abstract: A six-year project was conducted to show how better crop-livestock integration and improved management increase the outputs of crops and sheep products. Three farm types were compared, consisting of different crop and sheep enterprise mixes, together with natural pastures. The conceptual framework and experimental methods used were reported in a previous paper. This paper reports the crop and sheep enterprise results. Higher yields of grain and straw from wheat and barley crops resulted from improved crop management and better varieties although the contribution of these two factors could not be ascertained. Harvest losses from all crops were substantial and represented a significant economic loss. Input of feeds harvested from the farms or purchased doubled from the poorly managed to the well-managed flock and most of them were offered during late pregnancy and early lactation. Substantial responses in ewe fertility, and offtake of cull ewes, lambs and milk were associated with improvements in feeding level.
341 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
A model-farm approach to research on crop-livestock integration. III. Benefits of crop-livestock integration and a critique of the approach.
Thomson, E. F.; Bahhady, F. A.; Nordblom, T. L.; Harris, H. C. Agric-syst v.49(1): p.31-44. (1995)
Descriptors: crop-enterprises; sheep-farming; ewe-lactation; feed-supplements; pregnancy; natural-grasslands; rotations; research-projects; models; linear-programming; metabolizable-energy; stocking-rate; profits; farm-management; syria
Abstract: A six year on-station research project used a model-farm approach to study the benefits of improved crop-livestock integration, achieved through the introduction of leguminous forage species into crop rotations. Previous papers reported the conceptual framework, methods and experimental results. A model farm with integrated crop-sheep enterprises had twice the output of metabolizable energy and a higher stocking rate compared to a model farm with traditional rotations. A linear programming model suggested that integration improved farm profits and stocking rates, but improving the nutritional regime of ewes reduced farm profits. The model-farm approach allows close supervision of animals but otherwise had several weaknesses, in particular the difficulty of mimicking the real farm environment on a research station. If the weaknesses are corrected, the approach could be applied with substantial benefits in national programs that have under-utilized land, animal and staffing resources.
342 NAL Call No.: QD426.A1J6
Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequences of cDNA clones of sheep and goat adrenocortical cytochromes P450scc (CYP11A1).
Okuyama E; Okazaki T; Furukawa A; Wu RuFeng; Ichikawa Y; Wu RF Journal-of-Steroid-Biochemistry-and-Molecular-Biology v.57(3-4): p.179-185; 26 ref (1996)
Descriptors: complementary-dna; nucleotide-sequences; cloning; clones; cytochromes; DNA; biotechnology
343 NAL Call No.: 381-B522
Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a sheep arginine vasopressin type 1a receptor.
Hutchins AM; Phillips PA; Venter DJ; Burrell LM; Johnston CI Biochimica-et-Biophysica-Acta,-Gene-Structure-and-Expression v.1263(3): p.266-270; 16 ref (1995)
Descriptors: cloning; arginine; vasopressin; amino-acid-sequences; receptors; nucleotide-sequences; hormones; DNA; biotechnology; G-proteins; homology
344 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Mortality of domestic sheep in free-ranging flocks in southeastern Norway.
Warren, J. T.; Mysterud, I. J-anim-sci v.73(4): p.1012-1018. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; free-range-husbandry; lambs; ewes; mortality; age-differences; predation; ursus-arctos; growth-rate; sex-differences; mountain-grasslands
Abstract: Lamb mortality during three summer grazing seasons (1988 to 1990) among 1,399 lambs in three flocks of free-ranging domestic sheep in southeastern Norway was modeled using logistic regression. Ewe mortality during the same three seasons among the 295 ewes in one of the three flocks was also modeled. During the period, mortality among the 1,399 lambs and 295 ewes was 7.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Other work has shown predation by brown bears to be the single most important mortality factor in all three flocks, especially among ewes. Year, herd, sex, age of dam, and spring growth rate (i.e., from birth to release onto summer range) were statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05) in explaining mortality among lambs. Lamb mortality was higher in 1989 and 1990, higher in Herd(A) (the most isolated herd that grazed adjacent to the Swedish border), higher among lambs of yearlings, among male lambs, and among lambs with low spring growth rate. Ewe mortality increased with age (P = .07). Adjustment of age for weight weakened the statistical association between age and mortality, however (P = .16). The negative association between lamb mortality and age of dam and the positive association between ewe mortality and ewe age may both be related to the quality of maternal care provided by ewes of different ages. Subsequently, attempts to compensate for losses, especially those due to predation by bears, lead to a younger herd that may increase the herd's overall vulnerability.
345 NAL Call No.: QL1.A1N4
Mother-offspring interactions in feral goats a behavioural perspective of maternal investment.
Alley JC; Fordham RA; Minot EO New-Zealand-Journal-of-Zoology v.22(1): p.17-23; 26 ref (1995)
Descriptors: interactions; investment; liveweight-gain; sex-differences; suckling; sucking; behaviour; kids
346 NAL Call No.: 60.18-J82
Mountain big sagebrush browse decreases dry matter intake, digestibility, and nutritive quality of sheep diets.
Ngugi, R. K.; Hinds, F. C.; Powell, J. J-range-manage v.48(6): p.487-492. (1995 Nov.)
Descriptors: sheep; artemisia-tridentata; feed-intake; dry-matter; digestibility; hay; voluntary-intake; feces; chemical-composition; urine; nitrogen-content; nitrogen-balance; wyoming
Abstract: A metabolism study evaluated the influence of increasing quantities (0-30% dry matter basis) of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana Rydb. Beetle) on dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of wether diets. Diets consisted of hand-harvested, coarse-ground and frozen current year's growth of mountain big sagebrush leaves and twig tips mixed with chopped native grass hay. Dry matter intake decreased from 93 to 23 g dry matter day-1 kg metabolic weight-1 and in vivo dry matter digestibility from 59 to 0% with increasing levels of sagebrush in the diet. With increasing levels of sagebrush in the diet, water, lignin, and nitrogen contents increased in the diet, but decreased in the dung, while fiber components decreased in both the diet and dung. Total nitrogen intake decreased from 1.58+/-0.041 to 0.406+/-0.070 g day-1 kg metabolic weight-1, and nitrogen retention decreased from 0.80 g day-1 kg metabolic weight-1 with no sagebrush to a slight loss of nitrogen with 30% sagebrush in the diet. Mountain big sagebrush was not readily consumed by wethers when fed together with grass; as low as 10% sagebrush in the diet seems to adversely influence intake and digestibility. Therefore, when other more favorable forages are not available, sheep and other ruminants with similar physiological responses to mountain big sagebrush may not meet their nutrient requirements through increased sagebrush consumption.
347 NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
Native forage shrub species in south-eastern Spain: forage species, forage phytomass, nutritive value and carrying capacity.
Robles, A. B.; Passera, C. B. J-arid-environ. London, New York, Academic Press. June 1995. v. 30 (2) p. 191-196.
Descriptors: shrubs; forage; biomass; plant-density; ground-cover; rangelands; carrying-capacity; goats; stocking-rate; stocking-density; nutritive-value; spain
348 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Neonatal survival: contributions from behavioural studies in sheep.
Nowak R Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.49(1): p.61-72; 45 ref (1996)
Descriptors: research; lambs; neonates; survival; newborn-animals; maternal-behaviour; colostrum; ewes; nutrition; pregnancy; reviews; behaviour; Merino
349 NAL Call No.: SF1.K3
Neural and neurochemical control of olfactory recognition of offspring in sheep.
Ohkura S; Kendrick KM Journal-of-Reproduction-and-Development v.41(6): p.j143-j154; 35 ref (1995)
Descriptors: nitric-oxide; lambs; mechanical-stimulation; neurotransmitters; animal-behaviour; olfactory-stimulation; memory; maternal-behaviour; suckling; ewes
The New Zealand sheep and beef farm survey 1994-95: production and financial analysis from a sample of sheep and beef farms for the season July 1st to June 30th.
New Zealand, NZ Meat & Wool Boards' Economic Service. Publication -NZ-Meat-and-Wool-Boards'-Economic-Service. 1996, No. 2109, 71 pp
Descriptors: livestock-farming; beef; wool; production; prices; profitability; returns; farm-income; fertilizers; usage; lambing-rate; calving-rate; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; farm-surveys; farm-results
351 NAL Call No.: 49-N62
A newly isolated Staphylococcus gallinarum from goat rumen and partial characterization of its harbouring plasmids.
Kobayashi Y; Wakita M; Hoshino S Animal-Science-and-Technology v.67(5): p.410-414; 14 ref (1996)
Descriptors: cloning; hybridization; rumen; characterization; plasmid-vectors; biotechnology; genetic-engineering; rumen-bacteria; Staphylococcus-gallinarum
352 NAL Call No.: QK710.P68
A novel Ti-plasmid-convertible lambda phage vector system suitable for gene isolation by genetic complementation of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.
Fuse T; Kodama H; Hayashida N; Shinozaki K; Nishimura M; Iba K Plant-Journal v.7(5): p.849-856; 37 ref (1995)
Descriptors: complementation; mutants; mutations; genetic-engineering; vectors; biotechnology; gene-cloning
353 NAL Call No.: 442.8-J8222
Nutrient partitioning and fetal growth in rapidly growing adolescent ewes.
Wallace, J. M.; Aitken, R. P.; Cheyne, M. A. J-reprod-fertil v.107(2): p.183-190. (1996 July)
Descriptors: ewes; embryo-transfer; pregnancy; dams-mothers; fetus; growth-rate; nutrition-physiology; nutrient-intake; birth-weight; survival; placenta; weight; liveweight-gain; maternal-nutrition; correlation; adolescent-animals
354 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Nutrition during fetal life alters annual wool production and quality in young Merino sheep.
Kelly, R. W.; Macleod, I.; Hynd, P.; Greeff, J. Aust-j-exp-agric v.36(3): p.259-267. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-breeds; pregnancy; maternal-nutrition; undernutrition; progeny; young-animals; clones; birth-weight; wool-production; wool; quality
355 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Nutritional consequences among ingredients of free-choice feeding Awassi lambs.
Gorgulu, M.; Kutlu, H. R.; Demir, E.; Ozturkcan, O.; Forbes, J. M. Small-rumin-res v.20(1): p.23-29. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: lambs; awassi; unrestricted-feeding; fattening-performance; feeding-preferences; liveweight-gain; feed-conversion; barley; wheat-bran; cottonseed-oilmeal; alfalfa-hay; feed-intake; feed-formulation; diet; energy-intake; protein-intake
356 NAL Call No.: QH547.I55
Nutritional enhancement of parasite control in small ruminant production systems in developing countries of South-East Asia and the Pacific.
Knox, M.; Steel, J. Int-j-parasitol v.26(8/9): p.963-970. (1996 Aug.-1996 Sept.)
In the special issue: Novel approaches to the control of helminth parasites of livestock / edited by H.S. Gill and L.F. LeJambre. Proceedings of a conference held April 18-21, 1995, Armidale, Australia.
Descriptors: sheep; goats; animal-parasitic-nematodes; nematode-infections; haemonchus-contortus; trichostrongylus; trichostrongylus-colubriformis; nematode-control; feed-supplements; urea; nitrogen-metabolism; protein-supplements; protein-metabolism; cottonseed-oilmeal; south-east-asia; pacific-islands; fiji; urea-molasses-block-supplements
Abstract: Nutritional insufficiency and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism are major constraints to small ruminant production in south-east Asia and the Pacific Islands. Research on the effects of low cost supplements which supply nitrogen and essential minerals on the ability of small ruminants to resist infection is summarised. In controlled pen studies in young Merino sheep offered a low quality roughage diet of oaten chaff and essential minerals, supplementation with urea reduced the effects of parasitic infection by increasing weight gain and wool production and reducing faecal egg output and parasite burden. In Fiji, field studies have shown that supplementation with urea-molasses blocks can result in increased live-weights of lambs at weaning, increased reproduction rates in maiden ewes and reduction in faecal egg output in grazing sheep. Additional benefits were derived from the inclusion of anthelmintic in the blocks in similar groups of sheep particularly during periods of greater susceptibility to parasites. Pen studies with young goats have shown that urea supplements alone gave no production benefits, but when accompanied by 100 g/d of cotton seed meal beneficial responses were observed. It is expected that parasite control in the small ruminant production systems of developing countries in south-east Asia and the Pacific Islands will benefit from the introduction of low cost nitrogen supplements along with anthelmintic therapy delivered strategically by molasses blocks.
Nutritional value of dairy products of ewes and goats milk.
Haenlein GFW Sheep-Dairy-News v.13(1): p.10-16; 69 ref (1996)
Descriptors: ewes; lactation; lactation-stage; seasons; ewe-feeding; goat-feeding; physiology; udders; animal-health; milk-processing; milk-products; ewe-milk; goat-milk; nutritive-value; reviews; milk-composition; products; composition
358 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Nutritive evaluation of ammonia treated olive tree leaves for lactating sheep.
Fegeros, K.; Zervas, G.; Apsokardos, F.; Vastardis, J.; Apostolaki, E. Small-rumin-res v.17(1): p.9-15. (1995 June)
Descriptors: ewes; karagouniko; olea-europaea; ammonia-treatment; leaves; ammoniated-feeds; digestibility; fiber-content; crude-protein; alfalfa-hay; wheat-straw; milk-composition; casein; fatty-acids; ewe-milk; chemical-composition; mineral-content; diet; energy-intake; nutrient-intake; milk-yield; greece
359 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
Nutritive value of dried citrus pulp and its effect on milk yield and milk composition of lactating ewes.
Fegeros, K.; Zervas, G.; Stamouli, S.; Apostolaki, E. J-dairy-sci v.78(5): p.1116-1121. (1995 May)
Descriptors: ewes; ewe-feeding; concentrates; citrus-pulp; karagouniko; wethers; digestibility; milk-yield; ewe-milk; milk-fat-percentage; feed-intake; energy-intake; milk-protein-percentage; fatty-acids; lactose; greece
Abstract: In a digestibility experiment, six adult wethers of the Karagouniko breed were used to determine the nutritive value of dried citrus pulp. The rations consisted of 800 g of hay and 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, and 450 g of citrus pulp. The apparent digestibilities of the DM, OM, CP, ether extract, crude fiber, and N-free extract for dried citrus pulp were 78.6, 87.2, 52.7. 82.0, 93.2, and 83.1%, respectively. Energy content was estimated to be 1.66 Mcal of NEL/kg of DM. In a second experiment, 26 lactating ewes of the Karagouniko breed were used to study the nutrient utilization of dried citrus pulp for milk yield when citrus pulp was used as a replacement for cereal grains. The ewes were divided into two groups immediately postweaning and fed daily 700 g of alfalfa hay, 300 g of wheat straw, and 580 or 550 g of concentrates with or without 30% citrus pulp, respectively. The inclusion of citrus pulp in rations for ewes had no significant effect on milk yield and composition but decreased the C4 to C10 fatty acids. Citrus pulp is a valuable, high energy by-product that can partly replace cereal grains in sheep rations without adverse effect on milk yield or composition.
360 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Nutritive value of Kochia scoparia L. and ammoniated barley straw for goats.
Madrid, J.; Hernandez, F.; Pulgar, M. A.; Cid, J. M. Small-rumin-res v.19(3): p.213-218. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; barley-straw; ammonia-treatment; ammoniated-feeds; kochia-scoparia; digestibility; metabolizable-energy; chemical-composition
361 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Observations of sheep foraging in familiar and unfamiliar environments: familiarity with the environment influences diet selection.
Scott CB; Banner RE; Provenza FD Applied-Animal-Behaviour-Science v.49(2): p.165-171; 18 ref (1996)
Descriptors: lambs; grazing; foraging; learning; feeding; environment; diet; selection; wheat; social-behaviour; feeding-behaviour; feeding-preferences; sheep-feeding
362 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
Observations on the birth of goats.
Ramirez, A.; Quiles, A.; Hevia, M.; Sotillo, F. Can-j-anim-sci v.75(1): p.165-167. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; kidding; reproductive-physiology; reproductive-behavior; placentophagy
Abstract: The parturient behavior of 90 Murciano-Granadina goats was analyzed. Hourly frequencies of births showed a unimodal distribution with a maximum number of births between 10:00 and 18:00 h (74.45%). Twenty-four births (26.66%) took place with the goat standing, and sixty-six births (73.33%) took place with the goat recumbent. Fetuses were presented head-first (80.95%), breech (14.97%) and forelegs first (4.08%). Length of labor was 19.49 min for single birth and 30.36 min for twins (first born and second born, 14.52 and 15.84 min, respectively). Time for complete expulsion of placental tissue for goats with single and twin births was 86.58 +/- 4.93 and 106.57 +/- 4.80 min, respectively. Finally, placentophagy for goats with single or twin births
363 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
Odorous constituents of ovine milk in relationship to diet.
Moio, L.; Rillo, L.; Ledda, A.; Addeo, F. J-dairy-sci v.79(8): p.1322-1331. (1996 Aug.)
Descriptors: ewe-milk; volatile-compounds; pecorino-cheese; aroma; diet; gas-chromatography; sesquiterpenes; grasses; feed-grains
Abstract: The neutral volatile compounds of ovine milk from ewes fed on natural pasture, grass meadow, and on mixed grain rations were isolated by distillation under vacuum and then collected in traps that were cooled with liquid nitrogen. The distillate was extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract obtained was analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Seventy compounds were identified and quantitatively determined. The volatile compounds obtained were mainly esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, and lactones. The olfactometric indices and olfactory properties of 16 compounds were determined by gas chromatography and olfactometry. All of the substances were present in all three milk types with the exception of two sesquiterpenes, which were not detected in the milk from ewes fed the mixed grain ration. The two sesquiterpenes were absent also in ovine cheese obtained from milk from ewes fed the mixed grain ration, but the two sesquiterpenes were identified in cheese produced from milk of sheep fed on natural pasture. The presence of these constituents in the milk can be significant because of their potential role in determining milk and cheese flavor. Accordingly, cheese obtained during summer may be identified using sesquiterpenes as chemical markers of the milk used to make cheese.
Olfactory preferences in newborn lambs: possible influence of prenatal experience.
Schaal B; Ogeur P; Arnould C Behaviour v.132(5-6): p.351-365; 33 ref (1995)
Descriptors: lambs; fetus; odours; olfactory-stimulation; animal-behaviour; smell; newborn-animals
365 NAL Call No.: 26-T754
On-farm reproductive performance of the West African Dwarf goat at Ganawuri in the sub-humid zone of Nigeria.
Ikwuegbu, O. A.; Njwe, R. M.; Tarawali, G. Trop-agric v.73(1): p.49-55. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: west-african-dwarf-goat-breed; animal-production; sexual-reproduction; reproductive-performance; mortality; stylosanthes-hamata; fodder; litter-size; birth-weight; growth-rate; seasonal-variation; disease-control; villages; tropics; nigeria
366 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.75
On-farm test of INRA portable electronic jars for automated milk recording of sheep and goats.
Ricard E; Arhainx J; Guillouet P; Bouvier F; Jacquin M; Chastin P; Astruc JM; Lagriffoul G; Manfredi E; Barillet F; Lajoie L (ed.); Lafontaine S (ed.); Doyle P Milk and beef recording: state of the art, 1994. Proceedings of the 29th biennial session of the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR). Ottawa, Canada, July 31 - August 5, 1994. 1995, 47-51; 3 ref
Descriptors: ewes; milk; automation; dairy-farms; milk-recording; milking-parlours; milk-meters; ewe-milk; goat-milk; International-Committee-for-Animal-Recording; recorder-jar
367 NAL Call No.: 49-Ar23
On social behaviour of milk goats in large groups. [Zum Sozialverhalten von Milchziegen in grossen Gruppen.]
Keil NM; Sambraus HH Archiv-fur-Tierzucht v.39(4): p.465-473; 16 ref (1996)
Descriptors: behaviour; animal-husbandry; horns; animal-behaviour; dominance; social-behaviour
368 NAL Call No.: QH540.F85
Optimal diet selection by a generalist grazing herbivore.
Newman, J. A.; Parsons, A. J.; Thornley, J. H. M.; Penning, P. D.; Krebs, J. R. Funct-ecol v.9(2): p.255-268. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: herbivores; sheep; grazing-behavior; feeding-preferences; stochastic-programming; dynamic-programming; dynamic-models; stochastic-models; lolium-perenne; trifolium-repens; mixed-pastures
369 NAL Call No.: 49.9-Eu7 no.75
The organisation of data processing and evaluation of the on-farm performance in herds of dairy cows and dairy goats in France. [L'organisation de la saisie et de la valorisation des performances en ferme dans les troupeaux de vaches laitieres et de chevres en France.]
Bazin S; Lecomte C; Rognant R; Sigwald JP; Lajoie L (ed.); Lafontaine S (ed.); Doyle P Milk and beef recording: state of the art, 1994. Proceedings of the 29th biennial session of the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR). Ottawa, Canada, July 31 - August 5, 1994. 1995, 81-87
Descriptors: cows; milk; data-collection; herds; data-processing; milk-recording; computer-software; development; goat-milk; dairy-cattle; International-Committee-for-Animal-Recording
370 NAL Call No.: 41.8-So8
Parenteral copper and selenium supplementation of sheep on legume-grass pastures: biochemical and production responses in lambs to maternal treatment.
Van Niekerk, F. E.; Cloete, S. W. P.; Merwe, G. D. v. d.; Heine, E. W. P.; Scholtz, A. J. J-S-Afr-Vet-Assoc v.66(1): p.11-17. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: wethers; sheep-feeding; copper; selenium; liver; kidneys; blood; ewes; supplementary-feeding; fecundity; lambs; maternal-nutrition; survival; pregnancy; body-weight; growth-rate
371 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Performance and blood chemistry in lambs following fasting and transport.
Horton, G. M. J.; Baldwin, J. A.; Emanuele, S. M.; Woht, J. E.; McDowell, L. R. Anim-sci v.62(pt.1): p.49-56. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: lambs; starvation; transport-of-animals; weight-losses; water-intake; refeeding; feed-intake; liveweight-gain; blood-sugar; blood-plasma; hydrocortisone; stress-response; compensatory-growth
372 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Performance of and factors affecting the small-holder sheep production system in Egypt.
Galal, E. S. E.; Metawi, H. R. M.; Aboul Naga, A. M.; Abdel Aziz, A. I. Small-rumin-res v.19(2): p.97-102. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; production-costs; small-farms; farm-income; regression-analysis; litter-size; lambing-interval; rams; egypt
373 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
The performance of West African Dwarf does and their kids at various stocking densities on stylo-based pasture in the subhumid zone of Nigeria.
Iji PA; Umunna NN; Alawa JP; Ikwuegbu OA Journal-of-Agricultural-Science v.125(2): p.263-271; 28 ref (1995)
Descriptors: growth; liveweight-gain; botanical-composition; birth-weight; West-African-Dwarf-goat-breed; stocking-rate; reproduction; stocking-density; pastures; female-fertility; nutrition; grazing; management; tropics
374 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Persistence of the effects of early experience on consumption of low-quality roughage by sheep.
Distel, R. A.; Villalba, J. J.; Laborde, H. E.; Burgos, M. A. J-anim-sci v.74(5): p.965-968. (1996 May)
Descriptors: sheep; feeding-behavior; voluntary-intake; hay; eragrostis-curvula; avena-sativa; forage; nitrogen-retention; sorghum
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of experience early in life with cured weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) (low-quality roughage) or fresh oats (Avena sativa) (high-quality roughage) on voluntary intake and nitrogen retention when sheep ate a low-quality roughage 9 mo after initial exposure. From 1 to 5 mo of age, experienced wethers (EW) grazed cured weeping lovegrass, whereas inexperienced wethers (IW) grazed fresh oats (initial exposure). Then both EW and IW were fed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) hay for 45 d, fresh weeping lovegrass for 105 d, and finally alfalfa hay for 120 d. Nine months after completion of the initial exposure EW and IW were offered sorghum hay (low quality roughage), and, in addition, both groups were offered sorghum with ad libitum access simultaneously to alfalfa hay at six levels of availability. Experienced wethers ingested 15% more (P < .02) sorghum than IW. When given sorghum simultaneously with alfalfa at different levels of availability, EW ingested more (P < .10) sorghum than IW when only sorghum was freely available. Nitrogen retention was negative in both groups, but it was less negative in EW than in IW per unit of metabolic weight (P < .09) and per wether (P < .04). The results show that early dietary experience can have profound and persistent effects on consumption of foods low in nutritional quality, apparently through changes in critical physiological mechanisms.
375 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Physical structure of twelve forage species in relation to rate of intake by sheep.
Wilman, D.; Mtengeti, E. J.; Moseley, G. J-agric-sci v.126(pt.3): p.277-285. (1996 May)
Descriptors: sheep; forage; feed-evaluation; feed-intake; quantitative-analysis; digestibility; trifolium-repens; medicago-sativa; onobrychis-viciifolia; desmodium-intortum; brassica-napus; spergula-arvensis; lolium-perenne; lolium-multiflorum; festuca-arundinacea; chloris-gayana; cenchrus-ciliaris; zea-mays; plant-composition; physicochemical-properties; plant-morphology
376 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Physical structure of white clover, rape, spurrey and perennial ryegrass in relation to rate of intake by sheep, chewing activity and particle breakdown.
Mtengeti, E. J.; Wilman, D.; Moseley, G. J-agric-sci v.125(pt.1): p.43-50. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: lolium-perenne; trifolium-repens; brassica-napus; spergula-arvensis; physicochemical-properties; plant-morphology; plant-anatomy; chemical-composition; sheep; mastication; digestibility; feed-intake; uk
Plant form selection and dietary overlap of cattle and goats on a continuously grazed rangeland.
Joshi M; Rawat YS; Singh SP Journal-of-Tropical-Forest-Science v.8(3): p.300-309; 36 ref (1996)
Descriptors: botanical-composition; feeding-preferences; selection; overlap; seasonal-variation; rangelands; mountain-grasslands; woody-plants; forage; dry-season; wet-season; grasses; forest-trees; continuous-grazing
378 NAL Call No.: SF85.A1R32
Plant preference of sheep grazing in the Mojave desert.
Phillips RL; McDougald NK; Sullins J Rangelands v.18(4): p.141-144; 6 ref (1996)
Descriptors: seasonal-variation; grasses; forbs; shrubs; diet; grazing; grasslands; deserts; selective-grazing; feeding-preferences; weeds; cultural-control; control; gopherus-agassizi; brassica-tectorum; grazing-behaviour
379 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
Polymorphism of domestic behaviour and its adaptive significance in sheep.
Lankin VS; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD (ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: fearfulness; animal-behaviour
Possibilities and prospects for sheep breeding in Germany. [Moglichkeiten und Chancen fur die Schafhaltung in Deutschland.]
Jurkschat M; Brantsch H Neue-Landwirtschaft. 1995, No. 12, 66-69
Descriptors: ewes; lambs; housing; sheepmeat; extensive-husbandry; landscape-conservation; animal-health; flocks; nutrition; flushing; female-fertility; meat-production; management; sheep-farming; production-possibilities
381 NAL Call No.: 45.9-Sv2
Potatoes for goats?. [Potatis till getter ?!]
Bernes G Farskotsel v.75(7-8): p.27-28 (1995)
Descriptors: milk; lactation; concentrates; barley; oats; peas; rapeseed-oilmeal; molasses; feed-intake; cheeses; bacterial-count; feed-formulation; hay; liveweight-gain; milk-yield; goat-feeding; supplements; potatoes; milk-composition; goat-m i lk; tubers; nutrition
Potential for goat production in the oasis system: the case of Jerid. [ Potentialites de l'elevage de la chevre dans le systeme oasien, le cas du Jerid.]
Rekik M; Gharbi M; Dhib C Medit v.7(1): p.39-42; 6 ref (1996)
Descriptors: goat-meat; goat-milk; productivity; farm-income; goat-keeping; oases; milk-production; milk-yield
383 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
The potential of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of sheep feces to determine diet botanical composition.
Anderson, D. M.; Nachman, P.; Estell, R. E.; Ruekgauer, T.; Havstad, K. M.; Fredrickson, E. L.; Murray, L. W. Small-rumin-res v.21(1): p.1-10. (1996 June)
Descriptors: lambs; feces-composition; hilaria-mutica; hay; flourensia; fluorescence; lasers; diet; ratios; wavelengths; flourensia-cerna
384 NAL Call No.: QP1.A2
The preference for warm drinking water induces hyperhydration in heat-stressed lactating goats.
Olsson K; Hydbring E Acta-Physiologica-Scandinavica v.157(1): p.109-114; 23 ref (1996)
Descriptors: lactation; thirst; water-temperature; hydrocortisone; drinking-water; overhydration; heat-stress; water; water-intake; temperature; blood-composition; environmental-temperature; intake; goat-lactation
385 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Preferences of Angora goats for eight selections of grasses used for reclamation of Great Basin rangelands.
Ganskopp, D.; Richman, L.; Johnson, D.; Angell, R.; Cruz, R. Small-rumin-res v.19(2): p.103-112. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: goats; angora; grazing-behavior; feeding-preferences; grasses; arid-regions; leymus; elymus-lanceolatus; psathyrostachys-juncea; agropyron-desertorum; maturity-stage; in-vitro-digestibility; crude-protein; selective-grazing; oregon; pseudoroegneria-spicata
386 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
Preliminary results on the maternal and neonatal behaviour of the "Altamurana" thoroughbred sheep.
Cagnetta P; Vonghia G; Dario C; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD (ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: lambs; maternal-behaviour; newborn-animals; sheep-breeds
387 NAL Call No.: HD1401.A47
Price expectations of sheep and goats by producers and intermediaries in Quetta market, Pakistan.
Rodriguez, A.; Ali, I.; Afzal, M.; Shah, N. A.; Mustafa, U. Agric-econ v.12(1): p.79-90. (1995 Apr.)
Descriptors: sheep; goats; producer-prices; merchants; middlemen; price-formation; farmers'-attitudes; seasonality; rain; carcass-quality; sex; age; breeds; liveweight; customary-law; economic-evaluation; mathematical-models; body-condition; pakistan; balochistan-province; pakistan; meatless-days; meat-days
Abstract: Analysis of producers' and intermediaries' livestock price expectations was used to describe the market in Quetta, the largest livestock market in the highlands of Balochistan Province, Pakistan, and to identify factors that determine price expectations of small ruminants. A total of 4800 expected prices for sheep and goats were collected from producers and market intermediaries at monthly intervals between January 1991 and December 1992. In addition to the expected price of the animal, liveweight, species, sex, breed, body condition (fatness), calendar day and month were recorded, and whether data were collected on a meat or meatless day. Monthly rainfall data were also collected. Models of goat and sheep price expectations were built to compare the similarity of the behaviour of producers and intermediaries. Results indicated that producers and intermediaries expected high prices from November to January and during religious holidays. They expected premiums and discounts related to animals' attributes. Liveweight and seasonality had the strongest effect on prices. Rainfall in the current and previous month was positively related to seller's expected prices suggesting that livestock are retained to take advantage of favourable grazing conditions. The models of price expectations showed that producers adjusted expected goat prices (P less than or equal to 0.10) for seasonality, liveweight, body condition, age, sex and breed, while they adjusted sheep prices for seasonality and liveweight only. High pay-offs could be expected if extension efforts focused on factors that determine sheep meat quality; however, the retail ceiling price of meat and the lack of grading are a disincentive to work in this direction. Seasonality of supply and demand is important in determining prices and this study provides baseline information for market scheduling; however, scheduling of sales of transhumant pastoralists may be difficult to achieve. Further investigation is justified to understand the gap in marketing knowledge between producers who sell in the villages and those who sell in Quetta.
388 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
Principal component analysis (PCA) of behavioural reactions of sheep submitted to three different fear-eliciting situations.
Vandenheede M; Bouissou MF; Picard M; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD(ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: fearfulness; animal-behaviour; fright
389 NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
Problems of extensive sheep farming systems.
Winter, A. In-pract v.17(5): p.217-220. (1995 May)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; large-scale-husbandry; animal-nutrition; sheep-housing; age; lambing; sheep-diseases; mortality; euthanasia; uk
390 NAL Call No.: SF604.P82
Proceedings of the 25th sheep and beef cattle seminar, New Zealand Veterinary Association, June 1995.
Budge G Publication -Veterinary-Continuing-Education,-Massey-University. 1995, No. 165, 1
Descriptors: beef-cattle; helminths; anthelmintics; drug-resistance; drug-therapy; disease-control; control-programmes; mineral-deficiencies; cobalt; toxicity; copper; selenium; tuberculosis; pneumonia; animal-husbandry; diseases; parasites; sheep-diseases; cattle-diseases; food-animals
391 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
Production by ewes rearing single or twin lambs: effects of dietary crude protein percentage and supplemental zinc methionine.
Hatfield, P. G.; Snowder, G. D.; Head, W. A. Jr.; Glimp, H. A.; Stobart, R. H.; Besser, T. J-anim-sci v.73(5): p.1227-1238. (1995 May)
Descriptors: ewes; targhee; lambs; litter-size; dietary-protein; crude-protein; zinc; methionine; feed-intake; dry-matter; milk-yield; ewe-milk; liveweight-gain; weaning-weight; feed-supplements; body-weight; milk-fat-percentage; milk-protein-percentage; lactose; colostrum; solids-not-fat; whey-protein; somatic-cell-count; wool; tensile-strength; diameter; fiber-quality
Abstract: Eighty Targhee ewes with single or twin lambs were used to investigate the effects of chelated zinc methionine and level of dietary CP on milk and wool production, DMI, and ewe and lamb BW change. Treatments were arranged as a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial. Dietary treatments started 30 d prepartum and continued until 42 d postpartum. Milk production was estimated at 4, 10, 18, and 28 d postpartum. During gestation, DMI by ewes receiving zinc methionine and the 14.9% CP diet was greater (P < .10) than DMI by ewes not supplemented with zinc methionine and ewes fed the 11.3% CP diet. Ewes fed the 14.9% CP diet tended (P < .14) to gain more BW from 30 d prepartum to 4 d postpartum and lose more BW from 4 to 42 d postpartum than ewes fed the 11.3% CP diet. Ewes fed zinc methionine and the 14.9% CP diet produced more (P < .10) milk on d 28 than their counterparts. Ewes rearing twins produced more (P < .05) milk on d 4, 10, and 18 than ewes rearing single lambs. However, milk production on d 28 was not affected by number of lambs reared ( P = .68). Lamb ADG at 28, 42, and 59 d postpartum was greater (P < .05) for both the zinc methionine treatment and the 14.9% CP diet. Zinc methionine (P = .11) and the 14.9% CP diet (P = .02) increased weaning weights by 6 and 9%, respectively. We conclude that both the zinc methionine supplement and the 14.9% CP diet resulted in more persistent milk production. In addition, when ewes and lambs were fed for an average of 42 d during early lactation, a 14.9% CP diet, and to a lesser degree, a chelated zinc methionine supplement, lamb weaning weights were improved.
392 NAL Call No.: S539.5.A32--no.32
Production of fine wool in northern China : effect of nutrition and helminth infections.
Anderson, N.; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. ACIAR technical reports ; 32. Canberra, ACT : Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 1995. 80 p. : ill., Includes bibliographical references.
Descriptors: Sheep-China-Nutrition; Sheep-Parasites-China; Wool-China-Growth
A productive relationship between tourism and livestock farming: an example of local development in the small mountain town of Metsovo (Greece). [Un rapport fecond entre le tourisme et le milieu des eleveurs: l'exemple du developpement local de la petite ville montagnarde de Metsovo (Grece).]
Goussios D; Flamant JC (ed.); Portugal AV (ed.); Costa JP (ed.); Nunes AF (ed.); Boyazoglu J Animal production and rural tourism in Mediterranean regions. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Animal Production and Rural Tourism in Mediterranean Regions organized by EAAP, FAO, CIHEAM and SNFEZ of Portugal, Evora, Portugal, 10-13 October 1993. 1995, 243-250; EAAP Publication No. 74
Descriptors: meat; cheeses; wool; textiles; demand; seasonality; diversification; livestock-farming; ancillary-enterprises; tourism-development; tourist-expenditure; ewe-milk; goat-milk; production; marketing; Animal-production-and-rural-tourism
394 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
Productivity and cold resistance in ewes pre-lamb shorn by standard or cover comb.
Dabiri, N.; Morris, S. T.; Parker, W. J.; McCutcheon, S. N.; Wickham, G. A. Aust-j-agric-res v.46(4): p.721-732. (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; lambs; shearing; lamb-production; cold-resistance; cold-stress; feed-intake; new-zealand; cover-comb-shearing; standard-comb-shearing
395 NAL Call No.: HD2151.A64
Productivity growth: total factor productivity on Australian broadacre farms.
Knopke P; Strappazzon L; Mullen J Australian-Commodities v.2(4): p.486-497; 14 ref (1995)
Descriptors: crops; livestock; dairy-farming; beef; sheep-farming; farm-size; regions; farm-sector; productivity; trends
396 NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Profitable goat keeping: the basics.
Anderson, L. Small-farm-today v.13(3): p.52-53. (1996 June)
Descriptors: goats; goat-keeping; small-farms
397 NAL Call No.: HV4701 .A557
A questionnaire survey of the correction methods for vaginal prolapse in ewes.
Scott PR; Sargison ND; Penny CD; Strachan WD Animal-Welfare v.4(3): p.251-254; 3 ref (1995)
Descriptors: animal-welfare; sutures; ewes; female-genitalia; surveys; vaginal-prolapse; surgery
398 NAL Call No.: 41.8-M463
Radon and its importance in animal husbandry. [Radon i jego zoohigieniczne znaczenie.]
Janowski TM; Tombarkiewicz B Medycyna-Weterynaryjna v.51(5): p.274-275; 9 ref (1995)
Descriptors: pig-housing; cattle-housing; poultry-housing; sheep-housing; radionuclides; radon; animal-housing
399 NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Raising Angora goats.
Amato, D. Small-farm-today v.13(1): p.36-38. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: angora; characterization; history; animal-husbandry; small-farms
400 NAL Call No.: 275.29-IO9PA
Recommendations for sheep selection programs.
Morrical, D. PM-Iowa-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Ames, Iowa : Iowa State University, Cooperative Extension Service. June 1995. (989-1,rev.) 4 p.
In the subseries: Sheep management.
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-farming; selection-program; record-keeping; performance-indexes; correction-factors
Reference points for goat production systems in the Ardeche. [En Ardeche des references sur les systemes caprins.]
Hanus G Chevre. 1995, No. 206, 31-33
Descriptors: professional-services; dairy-farms; animal-production; systems; models; farm-dairies; cheesemaking; goat-milk; cheeses; manufacture
402 NAL Call No.: QP251.A5
Regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor expression in the ewe.
Brooks J; McNeilly AS Animal-Reproduction-Science v.42(1-4): p.89-98; 29 ref (1996)
Descriptors: regulation; messenger-rna; cloning; GnRH; receptors; DNA; nucleotide-sequences
The relationship between cortical structure and fibre diameter in primary and secondary wool fibres of yearling Perendale sheep.
Dick JL; Sumner RMW Proceedings-of-the-New-Zealand-Society-of-Animal-Production. 1995, 55: 31-34; 13 ref
Descriptors: structure; fibre; diameter; wool; fibres; cortex; skin; histology; Perendale; New-Zealand-Society-of-Animal-Production
404 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Relationship between rank order and productive parameters in Verata goats during milking.
Paton, D.; Martin, L.; Cereijo, M.; Rota, A.; Rojas, A.; Tovar, J. Anim-sci v.61(pt.3): p.545-551. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: goats; verata; social-dominance; goat-milk; milk-yield; milk-fat-percentage; canonical-analysis; equations; agonistic-behavior; spain
405 NAL Call No.: 60.19-B773
Relationship between vegetation state and bite dimensions of sheep grazing contrasting plant species and its implications for intake rate and diet selection.
Edwards GR; Parsons AJ; Penning PD; Newman JA Grass-and-Forage-Science v.50(4): p.378-388; 40 ref (1995)
Descriptors: simulation-models; vegetation; dimensions; grazing; plant; species; feed-intake; diets; selection; selective-grazing; models; intake; grasses; legumes
406 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Relationships between deuterium dilution space and estimated energy balance in lactating goats.
Schiavon, S.; Ramanzin, M.; Reniero, F.; Bailoni, L.; Bittante, G. Small-rumin-res v.19(1): p.15-22. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: goats; energy-balance; pregnancy; lactation-stage; diet; fiber-content; feed-intake; goat-milk; milk-yield; feces; urine; energy-retention; deuterium-oxide
Report on farming in the Eastern counties of England 1994/95.
Murphy MC 1995, 236 pp
Descriptors: farm-income; gross-margins; fixed-costs; variable-costs; yields; economies-of-scale; crops; cereals; wheat; barley; rape; beans; peas; linseed; potatoes; sugarbeet; arable-farming; dairy-farming; pig-farming; poultry-farming; lives t ock-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; agricultural-manpower; non-farm-income; farm-surveys; farm-results; dairy-farms; economics
Reproductive efficiency and milk production: a simulation model for sheep farms. [Efficienza riproduttiva e produzione di latte: un modello di simulazione per le aziende ovine.]
Pulina G; Cappio Borlino A; Rossi G Informatore-Agrario v.51(12): p.55-57 (1995)
Descriptors: ewe-milk; milk-production; lactation-curve; milk-yield; reproduction; reproductive-performance; ewes; simulation-models; models
409 NAL Call No.: QP1.C6
Reproductive period affects water intake in heat-stressed dehydrated goats.
Olsson K; Josater Hermelin M; Hossaini Hilali J; Cvek K; Hydbring E; Dahlborn K Comparative-Biochemistry-and-Physiology.-A,-Physiology v.113(4): p.323-331; 36 ref (1996)
Descriptors: heat-stress; lactation; pregnancy; water-intake; hydrocortisone; osmotic-pressure; drinking; dehydration; water; intake; goat-lactation
410 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Resistance to cold stress in sheep shorn by cover comb or standard comb.
Dabiri, N.; Holmes, C. W.; McCutcheon, S. N.; Parker, W. J.; Morris, S. T. Anim-sci v.60(pt.3): p.451-456. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; cold-stress; shearing; shearing-machines; fleece; heat-production; environmental-temperature; rain; wind; blood-plasma; fatty-acids; weight-losses; blood-sugar; liveweight-gain; new-zealand
411 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
The response of lactating and dry ewes to energy intake and protein source in the diet.
Purroy, A.; Jaime, C. Small-rumin-res v.17(1): p.17-24. (1995 June)
Descriptors: ewes; lactation; dry-period; restricted-feeding; aragonese; dietary-protein; fish-meal; soybean-oilmeal; barley; milk-protein-percentage; protein-concentrates; feed-intake; dry-matter; fiber-content; crude-protein; milk-yield; orga n ic-matter; body-weight; body-condition; body-fat; body-protein; lambs; liveweight-gain; spain
412 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Response of sheep to annual cycles in nutrition. 2. Effects of diet and endogenous growth hormone during replenishment.
Adams, N. R.; Sanders, M. R.; Briegel, J. R.; Peter, J. R.; Peter, D. W.; Rigby, R. D. G. Anim-sci v.62(pt.2): p.287-292. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: ewes; somatotropin; refeeding; body-weight; immunization; somatoliberin; feed-supplements; protein-concentrates; barley; fish-meal; grazing; blood-plasma; insulin; prolactin; wool; liveweight-gain; insulin-like-growth-factor; skin; liver; carcass-weight; depot-fat; nutritive-ratio
413 NAL Call No.: QP141.A1N88
Response to high dietary copper and duration of feeding time on tissue copper concentration of sheep.
Ledoux, D. R.; Henry, P. R.; Ammerman, C. B. Nutr-res v.16(1): p.69-78. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: diet; copper; dietary-minerals; nutrient-intake; feeding; duration; mineral-content; liver; kidneys; spleen; bones; blood-serum; nutrient-reserves; mineral-supplements; reference-standards; equations; dosage-effects; bioassays; wethers; sheep
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of high dietary Cu and duration of feeding time on tissue mineral composition of sheep to establish a standard curve for future bioassay of supplemental Cu sources. In Experiment 1, 24 crossbred wethers were fed a basal diet (9.24 mg/kg Cu) supplemented with 15, 30 or 45 mg/kg added Cu as cupric acetate for 15 or 30 days. An additional four sheep were killed at day 0 to serve as controls. In Experiment 2, 30 crossbred wethers were injected i.v. with 50 mg ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM) twice weekly for 3 weeks to reduce body Cu stores, then fed the basal diet (7.29 mg/kg Cu) or the basal plus 20, 40, 60 or 80 mg/kg added Cu as cupric acetate for 10 or 20 days. Treatment with ATM reduced liver Cu stores by 52%. In Experiment 1, liver and bone Cu concentrations were greater in sheep supplemented with Cu compared with controls, but there was no difference among sheep fed various added Cu concentrations. In Experiment 2, liver Cu concentration increased linearly in sheep fed 10 days and quadratically in sheep fed 20 days, but serum, spleen and kidney Cu concentrations were not affected by treatment. A bioassay for Cu bioavailability based on liver Cu uptake with a 10-day supplementation period appeared feasable.
414 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Responses in wool and live weight when different sources of dietary protein are given to pregnant and lactating ewes.
Masters, D. G.; Stewart, C. A.; Mata, G.; Adams, N. R. Anim-sci v.62(pt.3): p.497-506. (1996 June)
Descriptors: ewes; dietary-protein; pregnancy; ewe-lactation; protein-requirement; wool; body-weight; lambs; birth-weight; lupins; egg-albumen; fish-meal; urea; amino-acids; insulin; glucose-tolerance-test; lactation-stage; protected-protein; s u lfur; chemical-composition
415 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Responses of sheep to annual cycles in nutrition. 1. Role of endogenous growth hormone during undernutrition.
Adams, N. R.; Briegel, J. R.; Rigby, R. D. G.; Sanders, M. R.; Hoskinson, R. M. Anim-sci v.62(pt.2): p.279-286. (1996 Apr.)
Descriptors: ewes; underfeeding; somatotropin; blood-plasma; somatoliberin; immunization; hormone-secretion; weight-losses; wool-production; lh; fsh; insulin; ovariectomy; follicles
Results from the sheepmeat project. Part 3. [Resultate aus dem Projekt Lammfleisch. 3. Teil.]
Luchinger R Kleinviehzuchter v.43(21): p.1045-1048 (1995)
Descriptors: Swiss-White-Alpine; Swiss-Brownheaded-Mutton; Swiss-Black-Brown-Mountain; Valais-Blacknose; lambs; growth; body-weight; intensive-husbandry; breed-differences; crossbreeding; crosses; Charollais; Ile-de-France; suffolk-sheep-breed; sheep-breeds
417 NAL Call No.: SF371.R47
A review of Montana winter range ewe nutrition research.
Thomas VM; Kott RW Sheep-and-Goat-Research-Journal v.11(1): p.17-24; 18 ref (1995)
Descriptors: research; reproduction; wool-production; protein-supplements; protein-sources; nutrient-requirements; winter; ewes; reviews
Rigotte de Condrieu cheese. [La Rigotte de Condrieu.]
Delorme Y Chevre. 1995, No. 208, 37-39
Descriptors: ancillary-enterprises; farm-enterprises; demonstration-farms; cheesemaking; cheeses; goat-milk; manufacture; farm-dairies; marketing; Rigotte-de-Condrieu-cheese
Role of a major scheme in the dynamic organization of a pastoral community. [Le role d'une macro-technique dans la dynamique d'organisation d'une societe pastorale.]
Choisis JP; Bouche R; Gambotti JY; Zervas NP (ed.); Hatziminaoglou J The optimal exploitation of marginal Mediterranean areas by extensive ruminant production systems. Proceedings Thessaloniki, Greece, 18-20 June 1994. 1996, 74-78; 8 ref
Descriptors: dairy-industry; breeding; ewes; ewe-milk; milk-production; artificial-insemination; technology-transfer; Corsican; dairy-farming; innovation-adoption; communication- ID: optimal-exploitation-of-marginal-Mediterranean-areas-by-extensive-ruminant-production-system s
420 NAL Call No.: S472.A357L58 1994 v.2
The role of forage legume fallows in supplying improved feed and recycling nitrogen in subhumid Nigeria.
Tarawali G; Mohamed Saleem MA; Powell JM (ed.); Fernandez Rivera S (ed.); Williams TO (ed.); Renard C Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycling in mixed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa. Volume 2: Technical papers. Proceedings, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1993. 1995, 263-276; 39 ref
Descriptors: residual-effects; goat-feeding; mixed-farming; cattle-feeding; cycling; nitrogen; farming-systems; liveweight-gain; milk-yield; legumes; cereals; fertilizers; green-manures; feeding; reviews- ID: Livestock-and-sustainable-nutrient-cycling-in-mixed-farming-systems-of-sub-Saharan-Africa
The role of goat raising in income and employment on small farms. [Place de l'elevage caprin dans la formation du revenu et l'occupation des petites exploitations agricoles.]
Salem HB; Hamouda MB Medit v.7(3): p.31-33; 6 ref (1996)
Descriptors: marginal-land; employment; women; goat-keeping; small-farms; classification
422 NAL Call No.: SF756.7.I57 1995
The role of selection for domestic behaviour in the alteration of physiological and productive characteristics in meat-wool sheep.
Lankin VS; Rutter SM (ed.); Rushen J (ed.); Randle HD (ed.); Eddison JC Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of the International Society for Applied
Descriptors: selection; animal-behaviour
423 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Rumen-undegradable dry matter and neutral detergent fibre as ratio indicators of digestibility in sheep given cereal straw-based diets.
Fondevila, M.; Castrillo, C.; Gasa, J.; Guada, J. A. J-agric-sci v.125(pt.1): p.145-151. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: sheep; feed-intake; barley-straw; hay; beet-pulp; diets; digestibility; fiber-content; dry-matter; rumen-digestion
424 NAL Call No.: 60.18-J82
Seasonal diets of sheep in the steppe region of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
Posse, G.; Anchorena, J.; Collantes, M. B. J-range-manage v.49(1): p.24-30. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: sheep; steppes; festuca; woody-plants; diet; seasonal-fluctuations; steppe-soils; tertiary-deposits; species-diversity; forage; tussock-grasslands; canopy; argentina; festuca-gracillima
Abstract: Sheep diets were determined seasonally for large flocks grazing year-round in 2 landscape types of the Magellanic steppe of Argentina. A tussock-grass steppe of Festuca gracillima Hooker f. dominates the uplands of the whole area. On acid soils (Quaternary landscape), woody variants of the steppe prevail; on neutral soils (Tertiary landscape), woody plants are almost absent and short grasses and fortes are abundant. Principal taxa consumed throughout the year
425 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Seasonal patterns of secondary fibre growth, moulting and hair follicle activity in Siberian and Icelandic X Scottish feral goats offered high and low levels of dietary protein.
Rhind, S. M.; McMillen, S. R. Small-rumin-res v.16(1): p.69-72. (1995 Mar.)
Descriptors: goats; cashmere; hair-follicles; s-p-ratio; growth-rate; dietary-protein; seasonal-fluctuations; molting; breed-differences; fleece-weight
426 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
Seasonal variation in the morphology of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) plants and populations in pastures under intensive sheep grazing.
Brock, J. L.; Hume, D. E.; Fletcher, R. H. J-agric-sci v.126(pt.1): p.37-51. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: lolium-perenne; dactylis-glomerata; tillers; stems; flowers; stolons; leaves; roots; plant-morphology; size; length; leaf-age; branching; seasonal-variation; cultivars; phenotypes; genetic-variation; crop-production; crop-yield; plant-density; biomass-production; pastures; grassland-management; sheep; grazing; intensive-husbandry; new-zealand
427 NAL Call No.: SF371.R47
Seasonality in budgeted lamb feeding returns.
Ward CE Sheep-and-Goat-Research-Journal v.11(2): p.45-50; 6 ref (1995)
Descriptors: farm-budgeting; lambs; feeding; returns; seasonal-fluctuations
428 NAL Call No.: 23-Au783
The secretion of gonadotrophins, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 by Merino rams supplemented with different legume seeds.
Blache, D.; Miller, D. W.; Milton, J. T. B.; Martin, G. B. Aust-j-agric-res v.47(6): p.843-852. (1996)
Descriptors: sheep; rams; feed-supplements; lupins; cowpeas; soybeans; protein-intake; energy-intake; lh; fsh; insulin; insulin-like-growth-factor; blood-plasma; concentration; hormone-secretion; supplementary-feeding; animal-nutrition
429 NAL Call No.: SF601.T7
Sedentarisation of cattle farmers in the derived Savannah region of south-west Nigeria: results of a survey.
Jabbar, M. A.; Reynolds, L.; Francis, P. A. Trop-anim-health-prod v.27(1): p.55-64. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: cattle-farming; settlement; white-fulani; crops; tribes; keteku; cattle-breeds; sheep; goats; livestock-numbers; nigeria; yoruba; wordura; muturu
430 NAL Call No.: 41.8-M463
Selected of goat meat husbandry. [Wybrane zagadnienia miesnego uzytkowania koz.]
Piotrowski J Medycyna-Weterynaryjna v.51(2): p.71-75; 41 ref (1995)
Descriptors: animal-production; meat; composition; animal-husbandry
Self-service device for continuous distribution of a heated fermentable liquid. [Dispositif de libre service pour la distribution en permanence d'un liquide chaud fermentescible.]
Legrain M French-Patent-Application. 1995, FR 2 717 347 A1, 6 pp
Descriptors: calves; kids; lambs; piglets; dispensers; beverages; animal-production; young-animals; drinking; nipple-drinkers; troughs; bowl-drinkers; design; automatic-feed-dispensers; liquid-diets
432 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Seroepidemiological survey of Border Disease (BD) in Syrian Awassi sheep.
Tabbaa, D.; Giangaspero, M.; Nishikawa, H. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.273-277. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: sheep; serological-surveys; border-disease-virus; antibody-formation; geographical-variation; epidemiology; lambs; mortality; abortion; rain; transhumance; pens; ventilation; stocking-rate; syria
Setting up in an Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC) area. [S'installer en zone AOC.]
Toussaint G Chevre. 1995, No. 206, 29-30
Descriptors: goat-milk; cheesemaking; milk-processing; quality-standards; dairy-farms; milk-production
434 NAL Call No.: QP1.P4
Sexual play behavior in lambs androgenized in utero.
Orgeur P Physiology-and-Behavior v.57(1): p.185-187; 26 ref (1995)
Descriptors: lambs; puerperium; play; uterus; pregnancy; sexual-behaviour; progeny; androgens; testosterone; dams; effects; behavior
Sheep breeding in arid and semi-arid regions. Proceedings of an ATA-IAMZ seminar, Kairouan, Tunisia, 18-19 November 1992. [L'Elevage ovin en zones arides et semi-arides. Actes du Seminaire de l'Association Tunisienne des Anciens de l'Institut Agronomique Mediterraneen de Zaragoza (ATA-IAMZ), Kairouan (Tunisie), 18-19 novembre 1992.]
Caja G (ed.); Djemali M (ed.); Gabina D (ed.); Nefzaoui A Cahiers-Options-Mediterraneennes. 1995, 6: 123 pp
Descriptors: ewes; rams; lambs; reproduction; growth; selection; dairy-performance; animal-nutrition; Sheep-breeding-in-arid-and-semi-arid-regions
Sheep breeding in Tunisia. Current position and future prospects. [ L'elevage ovin en Tunisie. Situation actuelle et perspectives d'avenir.]
Ben Dhia M Cahiers-Options-Mediterraneennes. 1995, 6: 9-20
Descriptors: arid-zones; sheep-farming; meat-production; animal-production; tropics; Sheep-breeding-in-arid-and-semi-arid-regions
Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line.
Campbell KHS; McWhir J; Ritchie WA; Wilmut I Nature-London v.380(6569): p.64-66; 18 ref (1996)
Descriptors: nuclei; cell-lines; oocytes; techniques; lambing; enucleation; cloning; embryos; transfer; biotechnology; nuclear-transfer
438 NAL Call No.: 472-N21
Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line.
Campbell, K. H. S.; McWhir, J.; Ritchie, W. A.; Wilmut, I. Nature v.380(6569): p.64-66. (1996 Mar.)
Descriptors: sheep; cloning; embryos; embryonic-development; cell-lines; embryo-transfer
Abstract: Nuclear transfer has been used in mammals as both a valuable tool in embryological studies and as a method for the multiplication of 'elite' embryos. Offspring have only been reported when early embryos, or embryo-derived cells during primary culture, were used as nuclear donors. Here we provide the first report, to our knowledge, of live mammalian offspring following nuclear transfer from an established cell line. Lambs were born after cells derived from sheep embryos, which had been cultured for 6 to 13 passages, were induced to quiesce by serum starvation before transfer of their nuclei into enucleated oocytes. Induction of quiescence in the donor cells may modify the donor chromatin structure to help nuclear reprogramming and allow development. This approach will provide the same powerful opportunities for analysis and modification of gene function in livestock species that are available in the mouse through the use of embryonic stem cells.
439 NAL Call No.: QP901.A33-v.395
The sheep endometrial oxytocin receptor.
Flint, A. P. F.; Riley, P. R.; Kaluz, S.; Stewart, H. J.; Abayasekara, D. R. E. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, v. 395. Oxytocin cellular and molecular approaches in medicine and research /. New York : Plenum Press, c1995.. p. 281-294.
Proceedings of a Hanseatic Endocrine Conference on Oxytocin: Cellular and Molecular Approaches in Medicine and Research, April 30-May 4, 1995, Stade, Germany.
Descriptors: ewes; endometrium; oxytocin; hormone-receptors; gene-expression; complementary-dna; clones; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; comparisons; protein-kinase; interferon; protein-kinase-c; trophoblast-interferon; second-messenger-systems; molecular-sequence-data
440 NAL Call No.: HD319.B8L34
Sheep grazing guidelines for managing vegetation of forest plantations in British Columbia.
Newsome T; Wikeem B; Sutherland C Land-Management-Handbook -Ministry-of-Forests,-British-Columbia. 1995, No. 34, vi + 47 pp.; 39 ref
Descriptors: understorey; management; sheep-farming; animal-husbandry; forest-plantations; grazing; agroforestry; weed-control; silvopastoral-systems; cultural-control; weeds; forests; forest-trees
Smeets R Dairy-Technology-Paper v.6(2): p.12-21 (1996)
Descriptors: wool-production; breeding; sheep-feeding; grazing; ewes; sheep-housing; meat-production; cheeses; butter; yoghurt; acidified-milk; animal-husbandry; tropics; milk-production; ewe-milk; milk-products; sheep-farming; trends; animal-production; production; sheep-breeds
442 NAL Call No.: SF371.52.F8R53--1995
Sheep husbandry in France. [L'elevage ovin en France : espaces fragiles et dynamique des systemes agricoles.]
Rieutort, L. CERAMAC ; 7. Clermont-Ferrand : CERAMAC, 1995. 511 p. : ill., Includes bibliographical references (p. 494-503).
Descriptors: Sheep-France; Animal-culture-France
Sheep husbandry in Poland-an outline.
Martyniuk E; Rzepecki R Cahiers-Options-Mediterraneennes. 1995, 11: 121-131; 10 ref
Descriptors: ewes; meat-production; flocks; selection; breeding; genetic-improvement; litter-size; growth; Breeding-of-sheep-and-goats
Sheep husbandry practices in Somadi and Malpura breeding tract.
Mehta SC; Vij PK; Nivsarkar AE; Sahai R Indian-Journal-of-Small-Ruminants v.1(1): p.1-7; 3 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; stillbirths; placental-retention; abortion; oestrus; oestrous-cycle; age-at-first-lambing; age-at-first-mating; litter-size; lactation-duration; economics; profitability; socioeconomic-status; female-fertility; lambing-season; mortality; wool-production; Sonadi; Malpura; sheep-breeds; Rajasthan,-India
Sheep on pasture. Ewes and lambs need more than pennies. [Weidehaltung von Schafen. Mutterschafen und Lammern reichen Pfennige nicht.]
Jurkschat M Neue-Landwirtschaft. 1995, No. 5, 51-53
Descriptors: reproduction; growth; finishing; management; plant-height; carcass-quality; economics; pastures; nutritive-value; ewes; lambs
446 NAL Call No.: S542.A8A34 no.64
Sheep production by transmigrant farmers in a plantation area of North Sumatra.
Sinulinga SE; Doloksaribu M; Batubara LP; Ibrahim TM; Sihite E; Mullen BF (ed.); Shelton HM Integration of ruminants into plantation systems in southeast Asia: Proceedings of a workshop at Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 9-13 September 1994. 1995, 55-57; ACIAR Proceedings No. 64; 4 ref
Descriptors: fodder-plants; silvopastoral-systems; plantations; fodder; research-projects; migrant-farm-workers; agroforestry-systems; Integration-of-ruminants-into-plantation-systems-in-southeast-Asia
447 NAL Call No.: S542.A8A34 no.64
Sheep production under conventional rubber systems in Malaysia.
Chong DaiThai; Tajuddin I; Stur WW; Chong DT; Mullen BF (ed.); Shelton HM Integration of ruminants into plantation systems in southeast Asia: Proceedings of a workshop at Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 9-13 September 1994. 1995, 65-67; ACIAR Proceedings No. 64; 4 ref
Descriptors: weed-control; agroforestry-systems; grasses; legumes; mixtures; cover-crops; liveweight-gain; crop-yield; production; animal-production; pastures; cultural-control; rubber-plants; silvopastoral-systems; fodder-plants; farming-systems; agroforestry; responses; tropical-crops; Integration-of-ruminants-into-plantation-systems-in-sou t heast-Asia
448 NAL Call No.: S542.A8A34 no.64
Sheep under rubber: prospects and research priorities in Indonesia.
Horne PM; Pond KR; Batubara LP; Mullen BF (ed.); Shelton HM Integration of ruminants into plantation systems in southeast Asia: Proceedings of a workshop at Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 9-13 September 1994. 1995, 58-64; ACIAR Proceedings No. 64; 25 ref
Descriptors: animal-nutrition; feeds; resources; fodder-plants; forage; genetic-improvement; feed-supplements; minerals; byproducts; plant-residues; waste-utilization; animal-breeding; animal-health; socioeconomics; silvopastoral-systems; research; rubber-plants; agroforestry-systems; farming-systems; agroforestry; Integration-of-ruminants-into-plantation-systems-in-southeast-Asia
449 NAL Call No.: 23-N4892
Short-term ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing grasses and legumes. 1. Comparison of bite weight, bite rate, and bite dimensions for forages at two stages of maturity.
Gong Y; Hodgson J; Lambert MG; Gordon IL New-Zealand-Journal-of-Agricultural-Research v.39(1): p.63-73; 31 ref (1996)
Descriptors: feeding-behaviour; browsing; grazing; selective-grazing; intake; growth-stages; grasses; legumes; palatability
450 NAL Call No.: 23-N4892
Short-term ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing grasses and legumes. 2. Quantitative relationships between sets of sward and ingestive behaviour variables.
Gong Y; Hodgson J; Lambert MG; Gordon IL New-Zealand-Journal-of-Agricultural-Research v.39(1): p.75-82; 22 ref (1996)
Descriptors: feeding-behaviour; browsing; grazing; plant-height; plant-density; intake; growth-stages; grasses; legumes
SHS annual statistics 1994-95. [Arsstatistik, SHS, 1994/95.]
Sweden, Svensk Husdjursskotsel. Meddelande -Svensk-Husdjursskotsel. 1995, No. 176, 50 pp
Descriptors: growth; progeny-testing; feed-conversion-efficiency; fattening-performance; animal-nutrition; milk-quality; statistics; livestock-numbers; animal-health; reproduction; performance-recording; dairy-performance; milk-recording; female-fertility; performance-testing; meat-production; artificial-insemination; goat-milk; milk-recording-results; Svensk-Husdjursskotsel
452 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
A simulation model of grazing sheep. I. Animal growth and intake.
Finlayson, J. D.; Cacho, O. J.; Bywater, A. C. Agric-syst v.48(1): p.1-25. (1995)
First in a series.
Descriptors: sheep; grazing-systems; growth-models; simulation-models; energy-intake; wool; liveweight; lactation; pregnancy; animal-nutrition; new-zealand
Abstract: This paper is the first in a series that presents the development and use of a quantitative model of a sheep grazing system. The animal growth model presented here draws from a range of sources reported in the literature, and accounts for interactions between an animal's physiological state and herbage quality on diet selection and levels of feed intake. The model estimates partition of energy between maintenance, pregnancy, lactation, wool growth and fat and protein accretion. The model was tested against a range of published data and was found to be acceptable for its intended use as a research tool to evaluate animal performance and the physical and economic consequences of alternative technologies and management strategies.
453 NAL Call No.: HD1.A3
A simulation model of grazing sheep. II. Whole farm model.
Cacho, O. J.; Finlayson, J. D.; Bywater, A. C. Agric-syst v.48(1): p.27-50. (1995)
Second in a series.
Descriptors: sheep; grassland-management; animal-production; reproduction; farm-management; growth-models; new-zealand; pasture-growth
Abstract: This paper presents the implementation of a farm management model of sheep grazing systems and demonstrates how the model can be used to gain incremental information about the system being investigated. The structure of the model is presented in detail, including a description of the data structures used to represent paddocks, mobs, pasture and animal production, and a flexible management component which controls the operation of the model. An experiment is presented that explores potential carrying capacities, requirements for pasture conservation, and appropriate levels of winter feeding for dryland and irrigated properties in the Canterbury Plains of New Zealand. The results of this experiment are then used as inputs to a second experiment that evaluates the effects of stocking rate on animal performance, meat and wool production and profitability.
454 NAL Call No.: SF15.S7A52
Simulation of livestock farming systems: a review of sheep models at animal, herd and farm levels. [El estudio de los sistemas ganaderos mediante simulacion: una revision de los modelos de ovino a nivel del animal individual, del rebano y de la explotacion.]
Bernues A; Herrero M; Dent JB Investigacion-Agraria,-Produccion-y-Sanidad-Animales v.10(3): p.243-272; 64 ref (1995)
Descriptors: farming-systems; simulation-models; extensive-production; grazing-systems; reproduction; models; production; reviews; extensive-livestock-farming; intake; simulation; sheep-farming
Size and number variation of adipocytes during the growth of Rasa Aragonesa lambs.
Purroy A; Mendizabal JA; Soret B; Horcada A; Lizaso G; Mendizabal FJ; Arana A Options-Mediterraneennes.-Serie-A,-Seminaires-Mediterraneens. 1995, No. 27, 179-184; 11 ref
Descriptors: Aragonese; rams; body-fat; adipocytes; nutrition; age; body-weight; slaughter; carcasses; fat; Body-condition-of-sheep-and-goats
456 NAL Call No.: 410-B77
Social dominance in adult female mountain goats.
Fournier F; Festa Bianchet M Animal-Behaviour v.49(6): p.1449-1459; 53 ref (1995)
Descriptors: female-animals; behaviour; social-dominance; wild-animals
Socioeconomic analysis of goat and sheep production in Piaui State, Brazil. [Analise socioeconomica da exploracao de caprinos e ovinos no estado do Piaui.]
Souza Neto J de; Baker GA; Sousa FB de; De Souza Neto J; De Sousa FB Pesquisa-Agropecuaria-Brasileira v.30(8): p.1017-1030; 20 ref (1995)
Descriptors: technical-progress; research; extension; credit; farm-size; education; innovation-adoption; production; farming-systems
458 NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557
Some factors affecting resting behaviour of sheep in slaughterhouse lairages after transport from farms.
Jarvis AM; Cockram MS Animal-Welfare v.4(1): p.53-60; 16 ref (1995)
Descriptors: transport-of-animals; animal-welfare; animal-behaviour; rest; abattoirs
Some possible futures of cattle and sheep farms of Auvergne and Limousin.
Bousset JP; Copus AK (ed.); Marr PJ Rural realities: trends and choices. Proceedings of the 35th Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists, Aberdeen, Scotland, 27-29 June 1994. 1995, 113-126; 2 ref
Descriptors: cattle-farming; sheep-farming; livestock-farming; adjustment-of-production; models; Rural-realities
460 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
Spatial structure and activity in groups of Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini): a comparative study.
Le Pendu, Y.; Maublanc, M. L.; Briedermann, L.; Dubois, M. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.46(3/4): p.201-216. (1996 Jan.)
Descriptors: mouflon; ewes; lambs; animal-behavior; rams; peer-relationships; spatial-distribution; proximity
Abstract: The spatial structure of groups of Mediterranean mouflon was compared during spring/summer in a small population living on a sandy terrace in eastern Germany and within part of a large population inhabiting a low mountain in southern France. A similar comparison was also conducted throughout the year in the French population. The aim of the study was to define proximate mechanisms participating in the spatial structure of the groups. We measured the proximities in the group, distances to nearest neighbours and activity of the individuals according to their sex and age. Lambs and females were closer to each other than to the other individuals on average at both sites and throughout the year (closer in 55-57% of the couples). Lambs tended to be central to the groups and females peripheral (19 groups with central lambs vs. eight groups with peripheral lambs in Niederfinow in spring/summer, P = 0.04). Lambs, yearling males and adult males were closer to peers but some variations were found between sites and periods. The distance to the nearest neighbour was not clearly correlated with the frequency of association. The proportion of individuals behaving like their nearest neighbour was higher when the distance between them was short (Niederfinow, spring/summer: N = 8, p = -0.857; Vialais, autumn/winter N = 8, p = 0.976). This was no longer true when lambs were excluded from the analyses. Nearest neighbours were close when both were engaged in the same activity other than feeding, they kept a medium distance when both were feeding and they were more distant when only one of them was feeding. The differences between the two populations did not affect the spatial behaviour of the individuals in the groups except for a slight tendency of the animals to be closer in the German population. We propose an explanation of the spatial structure of the groups based on the behavioural characteristics of the different sex and age classes and we discuss the concordance of our results with those found in domestic species.
Specialities in the energy supply of ruminants.
Husveth F; Babinszky L Energy and protein supply and their effects on the production of monogastric and ruminant animals. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Animal Nutrition, Kaposvar, Hungary, 17 October, 1995. 1995, 125-143; 52 ref
Descriptors: cows; dairy-cattle; ewes; pregnancy; lactation; rumen-metabolism; volatile-fatty-acids; metabolic-disorders; nutritional-disorders; energy-metabolism; reviews; 4th-International-symposium-on-animal-nutrition
Specialized cheesemaking systems. [ Des systemes fromagers specialises.]
FRECAP-CAPSUD. Chevre. 1995, No. 211, 26-29
Descriptors: goat-feeding; systems; milk-yield; cheesemaking; Provence-Alpes-Cote-d`Azur; farm-dairies; cheeses; goat-milk; manufacture
Specific features of products, small dairy ruminants and help in development of these sectors. [Specificite des produits, petits ruminants laitiers et aide au developpement de ces filieres.]
Vallerand F; Zervas NP (ed.); Hatziminaoglou J The optimal exploitation of marginal Mediterranean areas by extensive ruminant production systems. Proceedings Thessaloniki, Greece, 18-20 June 1994. 1996, 67-73; 11 ref
Descriptors: milk-products; cheeses; structure; economics; ewes; ewe-milk; goat-milk; milk-production; milk-marketing; production; marketing- ID: optimal-exploitation-of-marginal-Mediterranean-areas-by-extensive-ruminant-production-system
464 NAL Call No.: 41.8-N483
Specification of pen rail spacing and trough heights to prevent escape and enable good access to feed by sheep during sea shipments from New Zealand.
Waghorn GC; Davis GB; Harcombe MJ New-Zealand-Veterinary-Journal v.43(6): p.219-224; 8 ref (1995)
Descriptors: feeds; feeding; access; pens; spacing; transport-of-animals; feed-troughs; sea-transport; rails
Statistical review of Northern Ireland agriculture 1994.
UK, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland. 1995, vii + 67 pp
Descriptors: farmers'-income; agricultural-structure; employment; agricultural-manpower; poultry; livestock-numbers; crops; production; acreage; agricultural-censuses; dairy-farming; livestock-farming; arable-farming; pig-farming; poultry-farming; sheep-farming; agricultural-situation; farm-income; dairy-farms; cows
466 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
Status and scope of small ruminant production in dry areas of Pakistan. Review.
Rafiq M Asian-Australasian-Journal-of-Animal-Sciences v.8(3): p.205-212; 4 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; lambs; body-weight; milk-yield; meat-production; wool-production; hides-and-skins; animal-nutrition; marketing; exports; arid-regions; management; socioeconomics; animal-production; reviews; tropics
467 NAL Call No.: SF1.A56
Steroid production and LH receptor concentrations of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea and associated rates of ova wastage in ewes given high and low levels of food intake before and after mating.
Abecia, J. A.; Rhind, S. M.; Bramley, T. A.; McMillen, S. R. Anim-sci v.61(pt.1): p.57-62. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: ewes; plane-of-nutrition; flushing; hormone-receptors; lh; hormone-secretion; follicles; corpus-luteum; granulosa-cells; thecal-cells; embryo-mortality; blood-plasma; fsh; progesterone; natural-mating; embryos; testosterone; estradiol; protein-content; wastage
468 NAL Call No.: S522.U5H37
Stocking the barnyard ark.
Chapline, J. Harrowsmith-ctry-life v.10(60): p.16-21. (1995 Dec.)
Descriptors: shetland-sheep-breed; rare-breeds; sheep-farming; family-farms; vermont
Strategies for management of suckling goats on grasslands and rangelands. [Elements pour raisonner la conduite des chevres allaitantes sur prairie et sur parcours.]
Morand Fehr P Capricorne v.8(3): p.13-16 (1995)
Descriptors: nutrition; management; grazing; grasslands; reviews; rangelands; lactation; feeding; goat-lactation
470 NAL Call No.: HV4701 .A557
Stress hormone responses of sheep to food and water deprivation at high and low ambient temperatures.
Parrott RF; Lloyd DM; Goode JA Animal-Welfare v.5(1): p.45-56; 30 ref (1996)
Descriptors: temperature; food-deprivation; water-deprivation; dehydration; somatotropin; osmotic-pressure; blood-plasma; animal-welfare; stress; glucocorticoids; prolactin; restricted-feeding; blood; starvation; environmental-temperature
471 NAL Call No.: QL1.Z769
Stridulation in the adult dung beetle Aphodius ater (Col., Aphodiidae).
Hirschberger P; Rohrseitz K Zoology v.99(2): p.97-102; 21 ref (1995)
Descriptors: dung-beetles; sheep-dung; sound-production; morphology; scanning-electron-microscopy; sounds; physiology; behaviour; stridulation; Aphodius-ater
Structure and viability of sheep farming in relation to socioeconomic stability in Pogoni area of Epirus-Greece.
Zioganas C; Kazakopoulos L; Koutsotolis K; Zervas NP (ed.); Hatziminaoglou J The optimal exploitation of marginal Mediterranean areas by extensive ruminant production systems. Proceedings of an international symposium organized by HSAP and EAAP and sponsored by EU(DGVI), FAO and CIHEAM, Thessaloniki, Greece, 18-20 June, 1994. 1996, 33-46; EAAP Publication No. 83; 13 ref
Descriptors: farm-size; sheep-farming; production-structure; efficiency; adjustment-of-production; optimization- ID: optimal-exploitation-of-marginal-Mediterranean-areas-by-extensive-ruminant-production-system
Studies on some behavioural aspects, body performance, wool and carcass traits of Ossimi ram lambs raised under closed stable or open shed.
Houria MA Egyptian-Journal-of-Animal-Production v.32(1): p.33-49; 14 ref (1995)
Descriptors: housing; wool-production; growth; carcasses; tropics
474 NAL Call No.: QL750.J68
Studies on the visual acuity of sheep using shape discrimination learning.
Tanaka T; Hashimoto A; Tanida H; Yoshimoto T Journal-of-Ethology v.13(1): p.69-75; 20 ref (1995)
Descriptors: animal-experiments; animal-behaviour; vision; learning
475 NAL Call No.: 22.5-P352
Study of the skin follicle structure and selection methods in cashmere goats.
Jin H; Zhang B Acta-Agriculturae-Universitatis-Pekinensis v.21(1): p.94-99; 5 ref (1995)
Descriptors: cashmere; traits; heritability; genetic-correlation; selection-index; body-weight
476 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C475
Study on grazing behaviour of Angora goat on the loess Plateau of China.
Jin ZhuLi; Li MouZhao; Ai LaiZeng; Wang YinKui; Jin ZL; Li MZ; Ai LZ; Wang YK Chinese-Journal-of-Animal-Science v.31(4): p.25-26 (1995)
Descriptors: grasslands; chemical-composition; dry-matter; crude-protein; digestible-energy; selective-grazing; diets; botanical-composition; grazing; intake; forbs; nutrients; Ziziphus-jujuba; Arundinella-hirta; Lespedeza-hedysaroides
Succession status as a variable in a sheep production system of Greece: the case of Pogoni Eparchy-Epirus.
Kazakopoulos I; Alexandridis C; Zioganas C; Zervas NP (ed.); Hatziminaoglou J The optimal exploitation of marginal Mediterranean areas by extensive ruminant production systems. Proceedings of an international symposium organized by HSAP and EAAP and sponsored by EU(DGVI), FAO and CIHEAM, Thessaloniki, Greece, 18-20 June, 1994. 1996, 54-57; EAAP Publication No. 83
Descriptors: farm-size; livestock-numbers; intensification; sheep-farming; farm-management; succession- ID: optimal-exploitation-of-marginal-Mediterranean-areas-by-extensive-ruminant-production-system
Suitability of aerially sown artificial baits as a technique for poisoning feral goats.
Forsyth DM; Parkes JP New-Zealand-Journal-of-Ecology v.19(1): p.73-76; 15 ref (1995)
Descriptors: baits; palatability; control; poisoning; grazing; grazing-behaviour
479 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
Supplementation of high fecundity Border Leicester X Merino ewes with a high protein
Hinch GN; Lynch JJ; Nolan JV; Leng RA; Bindon BM; Piper LR Australian-Journal-of-Experimental-Agriculture v.36(2): p.129-136; 31 ref (1996)
Descriptors: lambs; border-leicester; fecundity; ewes; protein; survival; crosses; birth-weight; protein-supplements; protein-concentrates; feed-supplements; nutrition; supplements; reproduction; lamb-production
480 NAL Call No.: SF371.R47
Supplementing ewe diets with the calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids during lactation.
Appeddu LA; Ely DG; Aaron DK; Deweese WP; Fink E Sheep-and-Goat-Research-Journal v.11(3): p.132-139; 45 ref (1995)
Descriptors: fats; energy-sources; protected-fat; supplements; ewe-lactation; ewe-milk; composition; yields; calcium; soaps; sheep-feeding; ewes; milk-yield; milk-composition; body-weight; lambs; ewe-feeding
481 NAL Call No.: 41.8-B45
Supporting Moroccan national agricultural research on sheep production - a German development cooperation project. [Forderung der nationalen Agrarforschung Marokkos im Sektor Schafproduktion - ein Projekt der deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit.]
Morkramer G Berliner-und-Munchener-Tierarztliche-Wochenschrift v.108(12): p.451-456; 6 ref (1995)
Descriptors: agricultural-research; production; development-aid; sheep-farming; research; development-projects; animal-production
Systems of production in the Italian beef and sheep industry: prospects for extensive systems.
Malorgio GA Medit v.7(2): p.9-15; 6 ref (1996)
Descriptors: beef; sheepmeat; production; land-use; extensive-livestock-farming; consumption; trends; livestock-farming; farming-systems
483 NAL Call No.: SF99.A5T34--1995
Tagasaste and lucerne as fodders for breeding prime lambs or growing steers : field day notes 11th April 1995 : held at the University of Melbourne "Strathfieldsaye Estate" research farm.
Barton, N. J.; Victoria. Agriculture Victoria. [Melbourne] : Agriculture Victoria,  19,  p. : ill., Cover title.
Descriptors: Alfalfa-as-feed-Australia-Victoria-Congresses; Tagasaste-Australia-Victoria-Congresses; Sheep-Feeding-and-feeds-Australia-Victoria-Congresses; Sheep-Breeding-Australia-Victoria-Congresses; Beef-cattle-Feeding-and-feeds-Australia-Vi c toria-Congresses
484 NAL Call No.: Videocassette--no.2502
Take time? : training your dog from farm work to trialling.
Jones, H. G. & Farming Press Videos (Firm). Ipswich, U.K. : Farming Press Videos ; Alexandria Bay, N.Y. : Distributed in N. America by Diamond Farm Enterprises, c1995. 1 videocassette (ca. 56 min.) : sd., col..
Abstract: Glyn Jones demonstrates how a working sheep dog can become a competent trials competitor.
485 NAL Call No.: QH442.B5
Targeting gene expression to the wool follicle in transgenic sheep.
Damak S; Jay NP; Barrell GK; Bullock DW Bio-Technology v.14(2): p.181-184; 32 ref (1996)
Descriptors: gene-expression; wool; gene-transfer; inheritance; skin; growth; zygotes; DNA; injection; chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase; diet; seasons; reporter-genes; follicles; keratin; promoters; transgenics; biotechnology; tissue-specificity; microinjection
486 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
The thermal response of sheep to a hot environment in different years.
McCrabb, G. J.; Bortolussi, G.; Hennoste, L. M.; McDonald, B. J. J-agric-sci v.125(pt.1): p.153-158. (1995 Aug.)
Descriptors: sheep-farming; temperature; heat-stress; stress-response; seasonal-variation; australia
487 NAL Call No.: 23-W52J
Today's woolgrowers: a profile.
McFarland, I. J-agric. South Perth, W.A. : Dept. of Agriculture, 1972-. 1996. v. 37 (1) p. 30-34.
Descriptors: wool-production; sheep; animal-husbandry; western-australia
Top quality management of goats in the Netherlands. [Holland-Ziegenzucht mit Spitzenmanagement.]
Muggli J Kleinviehzuchter v.44(9): p.425-427 (1996)
Descriptors: lactation-duration; dairy-performance; animal-nutrition; conformation; milk-protein-percentage; milk-fat-percentage; cheesemaking; animal-production; breeds; milk-yield; management; selection; goat-milk; milk-production; milk-composition
Transport of sheep.
Hall SJG; Clarkson M Proceedings of the Sheep Veterinary Society 1993-1994: Volume 18. 1995, 117-119; 3 ref
Descriptors: animal-behaviour; stress; transport-of-animals; animal-welfare; transport
The tropical agriculturalist: goats.
Steele M 1996, viii +152 pp.; 10 ref
Descriptors: nutrition; milk-production; meat-production; animal-production; tropics; goat-milk; production
Tunisia: commencement of collection and processing of goat milk by agricultural service cooperatives. [Tunisie: demarrage de la collecte et de la transformation du lait de chevre par les cooperatives de services agricoles.]
Capricorne v.8(3): p.11-12 (1995)
Descriptors: cheeses; marketing; tourism; dairy-farms; animal-production; development; international-cooperation; oases; goat-milk; milk-processing; milk-marketing; cheesemaking
492 NAL Call No.: 286.8-Ag3Ae
UK farmers facing less profitable year.
Agra-Europe-British-edition. 1996, No. 1688, N-3-N-4
Descriptors: dairy-farming; pig-farming; cattle-farming; sheep-farming; arable-farming; poultry-farming; mixed-farming; farm-income; trends; farm-results; profitability; dairy-farms
493 NAL Call No.: 44.8-M736
Uniform quality is also important for farmhouse cheesemaking. Second cheese test of the Association for Craft Milk Processing in Organic Farming eV. [Gleichmassige Qualitat auch fur handwerkliche Herstellung wichtig. Zweite Kaseprufung des Verbandes fur handwerkliche Milchverarbeitung im okologischen Landbau eV.]
Bienerth M Deutsche-Milchwirtschaft v.46(11): p.569, 572 (1995)
Descriptors: cows; goat-milk; ewe-milk; organic-foods; Soft-cheese; cheeses; milk-processing; dairy-farms; organic-farming; cheesemaking; milk-production; cheese-quality; sensory-evaluation; farm-dairies; fresh-cheese
494 NAL Call No.: SF601.T7
Use of dried poultry litter in the diet of pregnant and lactating Awassi ewes.
Muwalla, M. M.; Abo Shehada, M. N.; Tawfeek, F.; Abuirmeileh, N. M.; Hill, R. Trop-anim-health-prod v.27(2): p.106-112. (1995 May)
Descriptors: ewes; poultry-manure; ewe-feeding; lambing-rate; pregnancy; lactation; lambs; performance; milk-yield; body-weight; weaning-weight; ewe-milk; milk-flavor; jordan
Use of graded levels of rumen-protected fats in sheep feeding: effects on milk composition in Comisana ewes. [Effetto dell'impiego di livelli crescenti di grassi rumino-protetti sulla qualita del latte di pecore di razza Comisana.]
Dell' Aquila S; Sevi A; Rotunno T; Taibi L; Muscio A Archivio-Veterinario-Italiano v.46(2): p.38-50; 31 ref (1995)
Descriptors: fats; ewes; milk-composition; ewe-milk; milk; nutrition; lipids; ewe-feeding; protected-fat
Use of melatonin implants and daylength treatments to control seasonal reproduction in sheep and goats. [Emploi des implants de melatonine et des traitements photoperiodiques pour maitriser la reproduction saisonniere chez les ovins et les caprins.]
Chemineau P; Malpaux B; Pelletier J; Leboeuf B; Delgadillo JA; Deletang F; Pobel T; Brice G Productions-Animales v.9(1): p.45-60; 41 ref (1996)
Descriptors: spermatozoa; reproduction; implantation; fertility; ewes; sexual-behaviour; photoperiodism; testes; growth; mating; artificial-insemination; rams; melatonin; effects; breeding-season; light-regime; estrus
497 NAL Call No.: QK900.J67
Use of paired plots and multivariate analysis for the determination of goat grazing preference.
Leps J; Michalek J; Kulisek P; Uhlik P Journal-of-Vegetation-Science v.6(1): p.37-42; 30 ref (1995)
Descriptors: multivariate-analysis; diets; selection; grasslands; abandoned-land; grazing; selective-grazing; grazing-behaviour; Galium-harcynicum
498 NAL Call No.: QL750.A6
The usefulness of grazing tests for studying the ability of sheep and cattle to exploit reproductive patches of pastures.
Dumont, B.; D'Hour, P.; Petit, M. Appl-anim-behav-sci v.45(1/2): p.79-88. (1995 Oct.)
Descriptors: sheep; cattle; grazing-behavior; tests; feeding-preferences; pastures; growth-stages; vegetative-period; grazing-time; dactylis-glomerata
499 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
Utilization of recovered solids from tequila industry vinasse as fodder feed.
Iniguez Covarrubias, G.; Franco Gomez, M. d. J.; Lopez Ortiz, G. Bioresour-technol v.55(2): p.151-158. (1996 Feb.)
Descriptors: agave-tequilana; vinasse; distillery-effluent; waste-water; pollutants; sheep; feeds; nutritive-value; digestibility; fattening-performance; waste-utilization; efficacy; fermented-solids
Abstract: Digestibility and sheep feeding trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of using fermented solids (FS) collected by centrifugation from tequila distillery wastewater. In the digestibility trial, 12 growing Pelibuey crossbred male sheep weighing 30 kg on average were randomly assigned to one of the following four dietary treatments (dry basis) in three replicates: (1) basal diet (BD); (2) DB + 15% fermented solids (FS); (3) BD + 30% FS and (4) BD + 45% FS. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and organic matter for these diets were determined. Apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein for FS were also determined. The feeding trial was conducted with 36 sheep (average initial weight 19 kg). Animals were randomly assigned to one of 12 pens (three sheep per pen). Each pen was randomly assigned to one of the four diets used in the digestibility trial, so that each dietary treatment was fed to three pens of sheep. Average daily gain and feed intake were measured over a 56 day period with subsequent calculations of the feed:gain ratio. It seems that fermented solids can be utilized successfully by sheep which consequently can contribute to feed cost savings and to solve environmental problems of the tequila industry.
500 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
The value of cowpea husk to the goat.
Adeloye, A. A. Bioresour-technol v.52(3): p.281-282. (1995)
Descriptors: cowpeas; husks; goats; goat-feeding; fattening; nutritive-value; acceptability; liveweight-gain; feed-conversion; fattening-performance
Abstract: Eight Sokoto red grower goats weighing 10-12 kg, in a randomized complete block design, were used in growth and digestion studies to determine the value of cowpea husk to the goat. The experimental diet was milled cowpea husk, providing an all-concentrate diet. The control diet was a 40:60 concentrate:grass mixture. The concentrate was made up of 3 parts of ground maize to 2 parts of soybean cake. The grass forage was Pennisetum purpureum. Parameters for assessment were dry matter feed intake, live weight changes, feed conversion and nitrogen utilization. The experiment lasted 65 days, comprising 60 days of growth study and 5 days digestion trial. The performances of the goats on cowpea husk were superior (P < 0.05) to the control, with growth rate of 110 g/day, dry matter feed intake of 4.03% BW and feed conversion of 225.2 g gain/kg feed intake. The cowpea husk was well accepted by the goats, as indicated by its dry matter intake and conversion. Nitrogen utilization tests indicated a high nutritive value of the protein from the crop waste. The energy utilization was suggested to be due to the crude fibre content of the diet. These observations indicate the suitability of cowpea husk feed properties and nutrient utilization for the goat. Cowpea husk could serve as an efficient fattening ration and dry-season feed for the ruminants.
501 NAL Call No.: 49-J82
The value of soybean hulls as a replacement for corn in beef cattle diets formulated with or without added fat.
Ludden, P. A.; Cecava, M. J.; Hendrix, K. S. J-anim-sci v.73(9): p.2706-2711. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: beef-cattle; soybean-husks; steers; dietary-fat; maize; protein-supplements; maize-cobs; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; dry-matter; feed-conversion; sheep; nutritive-value; lard; energy-intake; fattening-performance; steers; fiber-content; digestibility
Abstract: One hundred twenty crossbred yearling steers (average weight = 445 +/- 32 kg) were used in an 84-d randomized complete block design experiment to determine the value of soybean hulls (SH) as a replacement for corn in concentrate diets formulated with or without added fat (lard). The steers were blocked by weight and allotted to one of eight treatments in a 4 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The main factors were amount of SH (0, 20, 40, or 60% of diet DM) and amount of added fat (0 or 5% of diet DM). The basal diet without added fat or SH contained cracked corn (80%), a urea-based protein supplement (15%), and ground corn cobs (5%). Replacing corn with SH linearly (P = .03) decreased ADG, increased DMI (linear, P = .003; quadratic, P = .06), and linearly (P < .001) decreased gain efficiency. Fat addition tended (P = .08) to improve efficiency; ADG and DMI were unaffected (P > .05) by fat addition. Similar diets were fed to 16 wethers (average weight = 47 +/- 2.3 kg) in a randomized complete block design experiment to determine digestibility of NDF and dietary concentration of DE. Replacing corn with SH linearly increased DMI (P = .001) and NDF (P < .001) and linearly decreased (P < .001) the digestibility of DM. The digestibility of NDF tended to increase with increased SH. The digestibility of energy linearly (P = .0001) decreased with increased SH. The amount of fat had no effect (P > .05) on DMI or intake of NDF or digestibilities of these nutrients. The addition of fat tended (P = .07) to improve the intake of DE. For the conditions of this study, addition of fat to diets had similar effects on performance regardless of the dietary amount of SH. The feed value of SH was estimated as 74 to 80% of that of corn. The use of SH in concentrate diets should be dictated by the cost of SH relative to cereal grains within the context of reduced gain and efficiency, particularly when SH are fed at high concentrations of diet DM.
502 NAL Call No.: SF1.L5
Variation between Merino ewes in pasture intake. 2. Within-flock genetic parameters for intake and some production traits.
Lee GJ; Atkins KD; Mortimer SI Livestock-Production-Science v.41(2): p.143-150; 24 ref (1995)
Descriptors: ewes; genotype-nutrition-interaction; production; wool; quality; heritability; selection; feed-intake; body-weight; wool-production; genotypes; Merino
503 NAL Call No.: 389.8-B773
The voluntary feed intake of pigs given feeds based on wheat bran, dried citrus pulp and grass meal, in relation to measurements of feed bulk.
Kyriazakis I; Emmans GC British-Journal-of-Nutrition v.73(2): p.191-207; 21 ref (1995)
Descriptors: diets; composition; feeds; bulk; volume; feed-intake; grass-meal; citrus-pulp; wheat-bran; water-holding-capacity; sheep-feeding; wheat
504 NAL Call No.: SD387.M8A3
Voluntary intake by sheep and goats of Gliricidia sepium fed in three states and at three levels of supplementation to a basal diet of Panicum maximum.
Smith JW; Larbi A; Jabbar MA; Akinlade J Agroforestry-Systems v.32(3): p.287-295; 25 ref (1995)
Descriptors: dry-matter; feed-intake; voluntary-intake; feed-supplements; browse-plants; multipurpose-trees; crude-protein; nutritive-value; fodder
505 NAL Call No.: S1.M57
Walton Farms Ltd: a marketing success.
Beetler, D. L. Small-farm-today v.12(3): p.41-42. (1995 June)
Descriptors: sheep; sheep-farming; sheepmeat; marketing
506 NAL Call No.: S397.M57--no.95/13
WASP : a virtual farm with wheat and sheep pasture.
Trenbath, B. R. Miscellaneous publication (Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture) ; 95/13. [Perth?] : Dept. of Agriculture, Western Australia,  146 p. : ill., "September 1995"--Cover.
507 NAL Call No.: SF1.S6
Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential and adaptability.
Schoeman, S. J.; Visser, J. A. S-Afr-j-anim-sci v.25(3): p.75-79. (1995 Sept.)
Descriptors: sheep; blackhead-persian; dorper; south-african-merino; lambs; water-intake; water-use-efficiency; liveweight-gain; feed-intake; environmental-factors; breed-differences; feeding-behavior
508 NAL Call No.: SF380.I52
Women's tasks in the management of goats in Southern Nigeria.
Ajala, A. A. Small-rumin-res v.15(3): p.203-208. (1995 Feb.)
Descriptors: goat-keeping; rural-women; household-surveys; age; education; livestock-numbers; ownership; marketing; selling-prices; extension; nigeria
Wool growth responses in Drysdale and high and low staple tenacity Romney sheep to nutrient supplementation in autumn.
Bray AR; Merrick NC; Smith MC; Scobie DR Proceedings-of-the-New-Zealand-Society-of-Animal-Production. 1995, 55: 54-57; 14 ref
Descriptors: wool; growth; Drysdale; staple; Romney; autumn; energy-intake; protein-intake; fibres; diameter; wool-production; protein-supplements; breed-differences; quality; nutrition; New-Zealand-Society-of-Animal-Production
The Animal Welfare Information Center, http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/srb9707.htm, September 1997