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Information Resources on the North American Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)


A Bibliography on Its Natural History and

Use in Biomedical Research


September 2001

AWIC Resource Series No. 9


opossums in a barrel
Photo by Dr. William J. Krause

 

 

 

Compiled by:


William J. Krause, Ph.D.

Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences

School of Medicine

University of Missouri - Columbia

Columbia, Missouri 65212



Published by:


U. S. Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

National Agricultural Library

Animal Welfare Information Center

Beltsville, Maryland 20705

Contact us : http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us

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Introduction
General References on the Biology of Marsupials
Folklore
Natural History : Ecology
Evolution : Paleontology
Chromosomes: Genetics
General Morphological Features
Energetics
Temperature Regulation
Behavior
Husbandry
Use as Model
Experimental Techniques using Didelphis
Experimental (Induced) Pathologies
Diseases : Natural Pathologies
Parasitology : Bacteriology : Virology
Guanylate Cyclase : Guanylin : Uroguanylin : Lymphoguanylin
Lipids
Musculo-Skeletal System
Heart
Blood Vascular System
Lymph Vascular System
Lymphoid Organs
Blood
Hemopoietic Tissues
Immunology
Tolerance (Resistance) to Snake Venoms
Integument
Nervous System
Eye : Optic Nerve
Ear
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Endocrine System
Urinary System
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Gametes : Fertilization
Fetal Membranes
Placentation
Embryology and Early Development
Birth
Pouch
Mammary Glands: Milk
Useful Web Sites

 


Introduction

 

In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the use of marsupials as unique models for biomedical research (Tyndale-Biscoe and Janssens 1988; Saunders and Hinds 1997). Of these the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has received more scientific scrutiny than any other marsupial to date. Didelphis has long been a popular animal model among gastroenterologists (Krause and Cutts 1992) and numerous studies concerned with its reproductive biology (Hartman 1952), early embryology (Hartman 1916, 1919; McCrady 1938), histogenesis/organogenesis (Krause 1998a, 1998b), developmental neurobiology (Martin and Wang 1997) and spinal cord regeneration (Wang et al. 1998a, 1998b; Martin et al. 2000) have been published. In addition, Didelphis virginiana has played a pivotal role not only in predicting the existence of a newly discovered family of guanylyl cyclase stimulating peptides (guanylin, uroguanylin, and lymphoguanylin) but also was the animal model used in the initial discovery, isolation and purification of the most recent members of this family of peptides, uroguanylin and lymphoguanylin (Krause et al.1998, Forte et al. 1999, 2000). Recently, a small protein known as lethal toxin neutralizing factor (LTNF) was isolated from opossum serum. This factor has been shown to be a potent antidote for several animal, plant, and bacterial toxins. An effective, synthetic form of LTNF has been made so that this peptide can be made in abundance without depending upon the natural source, opossum serum. It is believed that the synthetic form of LTNF may become a universal therapy against animal, plant and bacterial toxins ( Lipps 1999, Lipps 2000).

 

The purpose of this literature survey is to provide an introduction into the literature with regard to the biology of Didelphis virginiana and to gather together a variety of studies that have focused on this particular species. Although numerous studies have been published on Didelphis, these are scattered throughout a very diverse literature with regard both to discipline and time. The primary aim is to gather these references under one cover as a desk reference for those interested either in using Didelphis as a biomedical model for study or in the biology and natural history of this North American marsupial. The bibliography cites the primary references and serves as a guide into the diverse literature where specific topics with regard to Didelphis virginiana are most likely to be encountered. The reference list has been restricted as much as possible to Didelphis virginiana although some confusion does exist in the early literature with regards as to which actual species was used in some studies. According to Gardner (1973), the genus Didelphis contains three distinct species: Didelphis virginiana of North and Central America; Didelphis marsupialis of Central and South America; and Didelphis albiventris of the highlands in South America. Prior to this work, the North American opossum was commonly referred to as either Didelphis marsupialis or Didelphis virginiana. The references cited in this survey are restricted as much as possible to the North American or Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana. The earliest reference is Tyson 1698, the latest includes a few references published in 2001. The references have been organized under 43 subheadings to aid the reader in finding specific references with regard to general areas or topics of interest. In addition to published accounts on the husbandry of Didelphis, videotape also is available on its husbandry and care as well as the establishment of a temporary-breeding colony for the North American opossum (Krause 1999).

 

References

 

Forte LR, Eber SL, Fan X, London RM, Wang Y, Rowland LM, Chin DT, Freeman RH, Krause WJ (1999) Lymphoguanylin: Cloning and characterization of a unique member of the guanylin peptide family. Endocrinology 140: 1800-1806


Forte LR, London RM, Krause WJ, Freeman RH (2000) Mechanisms of guanylin action via cyclic GMP in the kidney. Annu Rev Physiol 62: 673-695

 

Gardner AL (1973) The systematics of the genus Didelphis (Marsupialia:Didelphidae) in North and Middle America. Spec Publ Mus Texas Tech Univ, Lubbock, TX, 4: 1-81

 

Hartman CG (1916) Studies in the development of the opossum Didelphys virginiana L. I. History of early cleavage. II. Formation of the blastocyst. J Morphol 27:1-83

 

Hartman CG (1919) Studies in the development of the opossum Didelphys virginiana L. III. Description of new material on maturation, cleavage and entoderm formation. IV. The bilaminar blastocyst. J Morphol 32:1-142

 

Hartman CG (1952) Possums. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, pp 1-147

 

Krause WJ (1998a) A review of histogenesis/organogenesis in the developing North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol Vol I. 143:1-143

 

Krause WJ (1998b) A review of histogenesis/organogenesis in the developing North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol Vol II. 143:1-120

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH (1992) Development of the digestive system in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 125:1-151

 

Krause WJ, London RM, Freeman RH, Forte LR (1997) The guanylin and uroguanylin peptide hormones and their receptors. Acta Anat 160:213-231

 

Krause WJ (1999) Tips on the husbandry and establishment of a temporary breeding colony for the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Videotape presentation. Housed in the Animal Welfare Information Center Audio-Visual Series, National Agricultural Library Collection, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.

 

Lipps BV (1999) Anti-lethal factor from opossum serum is a potent antidote for animal, plant and bacterial toxins. J Venom Anim Toxins [Online] 5: 1-16

 

Lipps BV (2000) Small synthetic peptides inhibit, in mice, the lethalithy of toxins derived from animal, plant and bacteria. J Venom Anim Toxins [Online] 6: 1-10

 

Martin GF, Terman JR, Wang XM (2000) Regeneration of descending spinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Brain Res Bull 53: 677-687

 

Martin GF, Wang XM (1997) Development and development plasticity of descending spinal pathways in the North american opossum, Didelphis virginiana. In: Saunders NR, Hinds LA (eds) Marsupial biology:recent research, new perspectives. Univ New South Wales Press, Sydney, Chapt 21, pp 358-481

 

McCrady E Jr (1938) The embryology of the opossum. Am Anat Mem 16: 1-233

 

Saunders NR, Hinds LA (1997) Marsupial biology: recent research, new perspectives. Univ New South Wales Press, Sydney

 

Tyndale-Biscoe CH, Janssens PA (1988) The developing marsupial:models for biomedical research. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg

 

Wang XM, Basso DM, Terman JR, Martin GF (1998a) Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates. Exp Neurol 151: 50-69

 

Wang XM, Terman JR, Martin GF (1998b) Regeneration of supraspinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 398: 83-97


 

 


1.1    General References on the Biology of Marsupials

 

Archer M (1982) Carnivorous marsupials, Vol 1. Surrey Beatty & Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Archer M (1982) Carnivorous marsupials, Vol 2. Surrey Beatty & Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Archer M (1987) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution, Vol 1. Surrey Beatt y & Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Archer M (1987) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution, Vol II. Surrey Beatty & Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Ellsworth AF (1976) The North American opossum: an anatomical atlas. Robert Krieger, Huntington, New York

 

Grigg G, Farman P, Hume I (1989) Kangaroos, wallabies and rat-kangaroos, Vol I. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney

 

Hartman CG (1952) Possums. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas

 

Hume ID (1982) Digestive physiology and nutrition of marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

Hunsaker DII (1977) The biology of marsupials. Academic Press, New York

 

Lee AK, Cockburn A (1985) The evolutionary ecology of marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

Lee AK, Handesyde KA, Sanson GD (1990) Biology of the koala. Surrey Beatty & Sons and the World Koala Research Corporation, Sydney

 

McCrady E Jr (1938) The embryology of the opossum. Am Anat Mem 16:1-233

 

Saunders NR, Hinds LA (1997) Marsupial biology: recent research, new perspectives. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney

 

Smith A, Hume I (1984) Possums and gliders. Surrey, Beatty & Sons and the Australian Mammal Society, Sydney

 

Stonehouse B, Gilmore D (1977) The biology of marsupials. University Park Press, Baltimore

 

Szalay FS (1994) Evolutionary history of the marsupials and an analysis of osteological characters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

Tyndale-Biscoe CH (1973) Life of marsupials. Elsevier, New York

 

Tyndale-Biscoe CH, Janssens PA (1988) The developing marsupial: models for biomedical research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

 

Tyndale-Biscoe CH, Renfree M (1987) Reproductive physiology of marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

 

1.2    Folklore

 

Barton BS (1823) Facts, observations and conjectures relative to the generation of the opossum of North America. Ann Philos 6: 349-354

 

Eastman CP (1915) Early protrayals of the opossum. Am Nat 49: 585-594

 

Elliott D (1992) Advanced 'possumology'. In: Wildwoods Wisdom. Paragon Press, New York, New York, Chapt 18, pp 160-173

 

Hartman CG (1921) Traditional beliefs concerning the generation of the opossum. J Am Foke-Lore 34: 321-323

 

Hartman CG (1952) Possums. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas

 

Keefe JF (1967) The world of the opossum. J B Lippincott Co, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

 

Ley W (1940) Animal fables. Nat Hist 46: 85-87

 

 

1.3    Natural History : Ecology

 

Abbott RL (1944) The fool of the forest. Frontiers 8:136-137, 146

 

Allen CH, Marchinton RL, MacLentz W (1985) Movement, habitat use and denning of opossums in the Georgia Piedmont. Am Midl Nat 113:408-412

 

Allen DL (1940) Nobody loves the 'possum. Mich Cons 9:5-10

 

Allen JA (1900) Note on the generic names Didelphis and Philander. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 13:185-190

 

Allen JA (1901) A preliminary study of the North American opossums of the genus Didelphis. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 14:149-188

 

Altevolmer AK (1999) Virginia opossums, minimum reproductive age and predators in the Penna aging model. Int J Mod Phys C 10: 717-721

 

Amundson R (1949) The opossum. Wildl North Carol 13:4-6

 

Anton TG (2000) Thamnophis radix (plains garter snake). Predation. Herpetol. Rev 31: 47

Ashbrook FG, Arnold BM (1927) Fur-bearing animals of the United States: the opossum. Fur Jour 1:28-29

 

Ashby KR (1972) Patterns of daily activity in mammals. Mammal Rev 1:171-185

 

Atkinson AA (1953) Br'er possum, hermit of the lowlands. Nat Geogr Mag 103: 405-418

 

Atkinson AA (1960) The opossum, America's only pouched mammal. In: Wild animals of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC, Chapt 22, pp 312-319

 

Audubon JJ, Bachman J (1851) The quadrupeds of North America. VG Audubon, New York, Vol 2, pp 334

 

Austad SN (1988) The adaptable opossum. Sci Am 258: 98-104

 

Austad SN (1993) Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 229: 695-708

 

Austin GP (1924) Opossums now plentiful in Ventura County. Calif Fish Game 10:46

 

Bachmann E (1948) Passive 'possum. Conserv 2:21-23

 

Bailey V (1923) The Virginia opossum and its way. Nat Mag 2:5-7

 

Barger NR (1947) Wisconsin wildlife for boys and girls-animals. Opossum (Didelphis virginiana virginiana). Wis Cons Bull 12:24-25

 

Benedict RA, Genoways HH, Freeman PW (2000) Shifting distributional patterns of mammals in Nebraska. Trans Neb Acad Sci 26: 55-84.

 

Beidelman RG (1952) Possums, and points west. Colo Cons 1:2-5

 

Bermudez FC, Stuart JN, Frey JK, Valdez R (1995) Distribution and status of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in New Mexico. Southwest Nat 40: 336-340

 

Beyer WN, Connor EE, Gerould S (1994) Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J Wild Manag 58: 375-382

 

Blair FW (1936) An opossum dies of cold and hunger. J Mammal 17:410

 

Blumenthal EM, Kirkland GL (1976) The biology of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, in southcentral Pennsylvania. Proc Pa Acad Sci 50:81-85

 

Bradt GW (1947) Opossum-invader from the South. Mich Cons 16:4-5

 

Brocke RH (1970) Ecological inferences from oxygen consumption data on the opossum. Bull Ecol Soc Am 51:29

 

Brown LN (1965) Status of opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, in Wyoming. Southwest Nat 10: 142-143

 

Bryant HC (1927) The opossum reaches San Diego County. Calif Fish Game 13:146

 

Campbell MR (1981) Records of albinotic opossum from central California. Southwest Nat 25: 560

 

Caro TM, Shargel JA, Stoner CJ (2000) Frequency of medium-sized mammal road kills in an agricultural landscape in California. Am Midl Nat 144: 362-369

 

Chamberlain EB (1928) The Florida opossum on the coast of South Carolina. J Mammal 9:247

 

Coleman RH (1929) Opossum in the lower Hudson Valley, New York. J Mammal 10:250

 

Cook A (1948) The opossum. NY State Cons 3:25

 

Coues E (1871) Notes on the natural history of Fort Macon, NC, and vicinity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 12-29

 

Crawford LE (1948) Drama in the woods. Okla Game Fish News 4:11

 

Cristoffer C (1993) Fruit removal and interplant distance in the persimmon, Diospyros virginiana . Florida Scient 56: 223-225

 

Cuyler WK (1924) Cinnamon and albino opossums found at Austin, Texas. J Mammal 5:130

 

Darsie JC (1944) The primitive opossum. NC Wildl Cons 8:10,15

 

Davis C (1963) The peculiar opossum. Wildl North Carol 27:4-6

 

Davis DD (1939) The opossum, prophet without honor. Chicago Nat 2:99-104

 

Davis GW (1938) Virginia opossum in Vermont. J Mammal 19:499

 

Dexter RW (1951) Earthworms in the winter diet of the opossum and raccoon. J Mammal 32:464

 

Dickins JH, Clark DW, White SC, Heidt GA (1999) Survey of medium and large mammals in an urban park (Murray Park), Little Rock, Pulaski County, Arkansas. J Arkansas Acad Sci 53: 41-44

 

Dijak WD, Thompson FR (2000) Landscape and edge effects on the distribution of mammalian predators in Missouri. J Wildl Manage 64: 209-216

 

Doutt KJ (1954) The swimming of the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. J Mammal 35:581-583

 

Duck L (1947) Ol' mister 'possum is quality folks. Okla Game Fish News 3:6-7,12-13

 

Dumond C (1944) Opossums get about. Nat Mag 37:154-155

 

East B (1945) Possums are duds. Field Stream 49:14-15-65-71

 

Eastman CR (1915) Early portrayals of the opossum. Am Nat 49:585-594

 

Edmunds RM, Goertz JW, Linscombe G (1978) Age ratios, weights, and reproduction of the Virginia opossum in north Louisiana. J Mammal 59:884-885

 

Engelmann G (1863) Remarks on the young, twelve in number, attached to the teat s of an opossum. Trans St Louis Acad Sci 2:224

 

Findley JS (1943) 'Possum ways. Bull Cleveland Mus Nat Hist 75:3-4

 

Fisher AK (1885) Capture of an opossum in Essex County, New York. Forest & Stream 24:184

 

Fitch HS, Sandidge LL (1953) Ecology of the opossum on a natural area in northeastern Kansas. Univ Kansas Publ, Mus Natl Hist 7:305-338

 

Fitch HS, Shirer HW (1970) A radiotelemetric study of spatial relationships in the opossum. Am Midl Nat 84:170-186

 

Gardner AL (1973) The systematics of the genus Didelphis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) in North and Middle America. Spec Publ Mus Texas Tech Univ, Lubbock 4: 3-81

 

Gardner AL (1982) Virgina opossum. Didelphis virginiana. In: Chapman JA, Feldhamer GA (eds) Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics.The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 3-36

 

Gehrt SD, Clark DE, Fritzell EK (1997) Population dynamics and ecology of Virginia opossums in southern Texas. Southwest Nat 42: 170-176

 

Gillette LN (1980) Movement patterns of radio-tagged opossums in Wisconsin. Am Midl Nat 104:1-12

 

Gowanloch JN (1950) Incredible "brother 'possum". Iowa Conserv 9:81,84

 

Grinnell J (1915) The Tennessee possum has arrived in California. Calf Fish Game 1: 114-116

 

Grote JC, Dalby PL (1973) An early litter for the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) in Ohio. Ohio J Sci 73:240-241

 

Hall ER, Kelson KR (1952) Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of some North American marsupials, insectivores and carnivores. Univ Kansas Publ, Mus Nat Hist 5:319-341

 

Hall ER, Kelson KR (1959) The mammals of North America. Ronald Press, New York

 

Hallett JG, O'Connell MA, Sanders GD, Seidensticker J (1991) Comparison of population estimators for medium-sized mammals. J Wildl Manage 55: 81-93

 

Hamilton WJ (1933) The northward spread of the opossum in New York. J Mammal 14: 151-152

 

Hamilton WJ (1942) Birth in the opossum family. Nat Hist 1:188-190

 

Hamilton WJ (1951) The food of the opossum in New York State. J Wildlife Manag 15: 258-264

 

Hamilton WJ (1958) Life history and economic relations of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana) in New York State. Cornell Univ Exper Station Mem 354: 3-48

 

Hamilton WJ (1963) Success story of the opossum. High reproductive rate and low predation favor this marsupial. Nat Hist 72: 17-25

 

Hartman CG (1920) The free-martin and its reciprocal: opossum, man, dog. Scienc e 52:469-471

 

Hartman CG (1921) The Virginia opossum. Photographs of two new varieties and th e two normal phases of this animal. J Hered 12:471-473

 

Hartman CG (1921) Traditional belief concerning the generation of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Am Folk-lore 34:321-323

 

Hartman CG (1922) A brown mutation in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) with remarks upon the gray and the black phases in this species. J Mammal 3:146-149

 

Hartman CG (1930) The story of the baby opossum. Nat Mag 16:93-96

 

Hayes JJ (1939) How about these quints? Nat Notes 6:201-202

 

Hazard EB (1963) Records of the opossum in Northern Minnesota. J Mammal 44: 118

 

Heske EJ, Robinson SK, Brawn JD (1999) Predator activity and predation on songbird nests on forest-field edges in east-central Illinois. Landscape Ecol 14: 345-354

 

Hills FC (1882) The opossum at Elmira, New York. Ann Nat 16:403

 

Hjelte C (1956) Opossum. Colorado Outdoors 5: 8-10

 

Hock RJ (1952) The opossum in Arizona. J Mammal 33:464-470

 

Hollander RR, Hogan KM (1992) Occurrence of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, in the Trans-pecos of Texas. Tex J Sci 44:127-128

 

Holmes ACV, Sanderson GC (1965) Populations and movements of opossums in east-central Illinois. J Wild Mgmt 29:287-295

 

Hopkins DD (1977) Nest-building behavior in the immature Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Mammalia 41:361-362

 

Hopkins DD, Forbes RB (1979) Size and reproductive patterns of the Virginia opossum in northwestern Oregon. Murrelet 60: 95-98

 

Hopkins DD, Forbes RB (1980) Dietary patterns of the Virginia opossum in an urban environment. Murrelet 61:20-30

 

Hossler RJ, McAninch JB, Harder JD (1994) Maternal denning behavior and survival of juveniles in opossums in southeastern New York. J Mammal 75: 60-70

 

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Hunsaker DII (1977) Ecology of new world marsupials. In: Hunsaker DII (ed) The biology of marsupials. Academic Press, New York, Chapt 3, pp 95-156

 

Hunter J (1969) Baby opossums. Living Mus 30:84-85

 

Jewett SG, Dobyns HW (1929) The Virginia opossum in Oregon. J Mammal 10:351

 

Johnson GE (1931) Hibernation in mammals. Quart Rev Biol 6:439-461

 

Keefe JF (1967) The world of the opossum. JB Lippincott Co, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp 1-144

 

Kennard FG (1925) The Virginia opossum in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. J Mammal 6:196

 

King JO, King DT (1994) Use of a long-distance night vision device for wildlife studies. Wildl Soc Bull 22: 121-125

 

Kirk GL (1921) Opossum in Vermont. J Mammal 2:109

 

Kirk GL (1922) Another opossum taken in Vermont. J Mammal 3:115

 

Kirsch JAW (1977) The six-percent solution: second thoughts on the adaptedness of the marsupialia. Amer Sci 65: 276-288

 

Kirsch JAW (1977) The classification of marsupials. In: Hunsaker DII The biology of marsupials. Academic Press, New York, Chapt 1, pp 1-50

 

Kissell RE Jr, Kennedy ML (1992) Ecologic relationships of co-occurring populations of opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Tennessee. J Mammal 73:808-813

 

Koppel IL (1915) Opossums near San Jose continue to increase. Calif Fish Game 1: 195

 

Kovacic DA, Guttman SI (1979) An eletrophoretic comparison of genetic variability between eastern and western populations of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Am Midl Nat 101:269-277

 

Ladine TA (1997) Activity patterns of co-occurring populations of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Mammalia 61: 345-354

 

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Lay DW (1942) Ecology of the opossum in eastern Texas. J Mammal 23:147-159

 

Layne JN, Benton AH (1954) Some speeds of small animals. J Mammal 35:103-104

 

Layne JN (1951) The use of the tail by an opossum. J Mammal 32:464-465

 

Leberg PL, Kennedy ML, Van Den Bussche RA (1983) Opossum demography and scent-station visitation in western Tennessee. Proc Ann Conf SEAFWA 37: 34-40

 

Lemelin P (1999) Morphological correlates of substrate use in didelphid marsupials: implications for primate origins. J Zool 247: 165-175

 

Lewis JB (1929) Opossum in captivity. J Mammal 10:167-168

 

Lincecum G (1872) The opossum. Am Nat 6:555-557

 

Lippincott JW (1924) Why the 'possum thrives. Nat Mag 4:273-277, 319

 

Lippincott JW (1937) A biography of a backyard visitor, the friendly and adventurous 'possum. Frontiers1:89-91

 

Little EV (1916) The opossum in Los Angeles County. Calif Fish Game 2:46-47

 

Llewellyn LM, Dale FH (1964) Notes on the ecology of the opossum in Maryland. J Mammal 45:113-122

 

Long CA, Copes FA (1968) Note on the rate of dispersion of the opossum in Wisconsin. Am Midl Nat 80: 283-284

 

Loring JA (1899) Occurrence of the Virginia opossum in southern central New York. Science 9:71

 

MacCallum GA (1901) The opossum in Canada. Forest & Stream 57:205

 

Manuel BJ (1977) Occurrence of the opossum on the Tug Hill Plateau. NY Fish Game J 24:98

 

Marquez M (1994) The Virginia opossum in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica: female reproductive strategies and male dimorphic characters (sexual dimorphism, Didelphis virginiana). Ph D Thesis, University of Florida, Gainsville pp 85

 

McComb WC, Noble RE (1981) Nest-box and natural-cavity use in three mid-south forest habitats. J Wildl Mgmt 45:93-101

 

McComb WC, Chambers CL, Newton M (1993) Small mammal and amphibian communities and habitat associations in red alder stands, central Oregon coast range. Northwest Sci 67: 181-188

 

McKeever S (1958) Reproduction in the opossum in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida. J Wildl Mgmt 22:303

 

McManus JJ (1974) Didelphis virginiana. Mammalian Species 40: 1-6

 

Middleton HT (1923) Obliging Bill possum. Nat Mag 2:171-174, 181

 

Mitchell PC (1911) On longevity and relative viability in mammals and birds: with a note on the theory of longevity. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1: 425-548

 

Mohr C (1931) Opossum and spotted skunk in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. J Mammal 12:162-163

 

Moore JC (1955) Opossum taking refuge under water. J Mammal 36:559

 

Moseley VP (1969) Is the 'possum playing? Virginia Wildl 30:16-17

 

Nixon CM, Sullivan JB, Esker T, Koerkenmeier R (1994) Notes on the life history of opossums in west-central Illinois. Trans Ill State Acad Sci 87: 187-193

 

Olds FA (1900) A North Carolina 'possum hunt. Outing 36:33-35

 

Olson CA, Werner PA (1999) Oral rabies vaccine contact by raccoons and nontarget species in a field trial in Florida. J Wildl Dis 35: 687-695

 

Payne P (1954) Possum makes a nest. Everglades Nat Hist 2:101

 

Peterson RL, Downing SC (1956) Distributional records of the opossum in Ontario . J Mammal 37:431-435

 

Petrides GA (1949) Sex and age determination in the opossum. J Mammal 30:364-37 8

 

Pray LL (1921) Opossum carries leaves with its tail. J Mammal 2:109-110

 

Reed AW, Kennedy ML (2000) Conservation status of the eastern spotted skunk Spilogale putorius in the Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee. Am Midl Nat 144: 133-138

 

Rehn JAG (1901) The application of Didelphis marsupialis Linneanus. Am Nat 35:147-149

 

Reynolds HC (1942) A contributon to the life history and ecology of the opossum, Didelphis virginina Kerr, in central Missouri. MS thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia

 

Reynolds HC (1945) Some aspects of the life history and ecology of the opossum in central Missouri. J Mammal 26:361-379

 

Reynolds HC (1952) Studies on reproduction in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana virginiana). Univ Calf Publ Zool 52: 223-283

 

Reynolds HC (1953) The opossum. Sci Amer 188: 88-94

 

Rogers CM (1998) Song sparrows, top carnivores and nest predation: a test of the mesopredator release hypothesis. Oecologia 116: 227-233

 

Rosenblatt DL, Heske EJ, Nelson SL, Barber DM, Miller MA, Mccallister B (1999) Forest fragments in east-central Illinois: Islands or habitat patches for mammals? Am Midl Nat 141: 115-123

 

Ryser JT (1990) The mating system, ecology, and biology of the Virgina opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in north-central Florida. Ph D Thesis, Univ Berne, Switzerland, pp 133

 

Ryser J (1995) Activity, movement and home range of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Florida. Bull Florida Mus Nat Hist 38: 177-194

 

Sampson F (1950) 'Possums: dumb but numerous. Missouri Cons 11:4,5,12

 

Sanderson GC (1961) Estimating opossum populations by marking young. J Wild Mgmt 25:20-27

 

Sandidge LL (1953) Food and dens of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) i n northeastern Kansas. Trans Kansas Acad Sci 59:97-106

 

Sands JL (1960) The opossum in New Mexico. J Mammal 41:393

 

Scheffer VB (1943) The opossum settles in Washington State. Murrelet 24:27-28

 

Schwartz CW (1945) Facts about 'possums. Missouri Cons 6:17

 

Schwartz CW, Schwartz ER (1953) Opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Missouri Cons 14:10-13

 

Schwartz CW, Schwartz ER (1974) The wild mammals of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Missouri

 

Seidensticker J, O'Connell MA, Johnsingh AJT (1987) Virginia opossum. In: Novak M, Baker JA, Obbard ME, Malloch B (eds) Wild furbearers management and conservation in North America. Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, pp 247-261

 

Sens B (1999) The opossum. N.H. Audubon 35: 10

 

Shaffer CH (1948) Virginia animals everyone should know: the opossum. Virginia Wildl 9:19-20

 

Sheak HW (1926) A study of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr: Family Didelphyidae). Bull Wagner Free Inst Sci 1: 39-45

 

Shirer HW, Fitch HS (1970) Comparison from radio tracking of movements and denning habits of the raccoon, striped skunk, and opossum in northeastern Kansas. J Mammal 51:491503

 

Shomon JJ (1969) Animal tracks - and how to know them. Wildl Rev 5:15-18

 

Shufield RW (1920) The opossums. Am Forestry 26:96-101

 

Smiley D (1938) An opossum in New York State feels the effects of winter. J Mammal 19:499

 

Smith DM (1940) Albinism in the opossum. J Hered 31:342

 

Smith JM (1935) The opossum in Kent County, Ontario. Can Field Nat 49:109

 

Smith L (1941) An observation on the nest-building behavior of the opossum. J Mammal 22:201-202

 

Sperry CC (1933) Opossum and skunk eat bats. J Mammal 14:152-153

 

Stewart D (1993) The suprisingly social loner. New research reveals the sophisticated social life and survival tricks of the solitary opossum. Nat Wildl 31:12-16

 

Stieglitz WO, Klimstra WD (1962) Dietary pattern of the Virginia opossum, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana Kerr, late summer-winter, Southern Illinois. Trans Ill Acad Sci 55:198-208

 

Stoner D (1939) Remarks on abundance and range of the opossum. J Mammal 20:250-251

 

Stoner D (1945) Further remarks on the opossum in New York. J Mammal 26:192-193

 

Stoskopf MK, Meyer RE, Jones M, Baumbarger DO (1999) Field immobilization and euthanasia of American opossum. J Wildl Dis 35: 145-149

 

Stout IJ, Sonenshine DE (1974) Ecology of an opossum population in Virginia, 1963-69. Acta Theriol 19:235-245

 

Sunquist ME, Austad SN, Sunquist F (1987) Movement patterns and home range in the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). J Mammal 68: 173-176

 

Taube CM (1947) Food habits of Michigan opossums. J Wildl Mgmt 11:97-103

 

Tubbs CE (1916) The opossum in Amador County. Calif Fish Game 2:111

 

Verts BJ (1963) Movements and populatoins of opossums in cultivated area. J Wildl Mgmt 27:127-129

 

von Bloeker JC (1928) Records of opossums from San Diego County, California. J Mammal 9:62

 

Walker EP (1968) Mammals of the world. 2nd ed., Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland, Vol 1, pp 10-13

 

Walker LW (1933) Opossum's comeback. Nat Mag 21:299

 

Weckerly FW, Kennedy ML, Leberg PL (1987) Density estimates of the Virginia opossum (Marsupialia: Didelphidae). J Tenn Acad Sci 62:108-110

 

Whitaker JO Jr, Jones GS, Goff RJ (1976) Ectoparasites and food habits of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, in Indiana. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 86:501-507

 

Wilson TS (1996) Raccoon and opossum home ranges, movements, and habitat use in a managed forest of central Mississippi (Procyon lotor, Didelphis virginianus, Tallahala wildlife management area, Bienville national forest). MS Thesis, Mississippi State Univ, pp 132

 

Winton BR (1998) Relative abundance of furbearers in northeastern Oklahoma. Pro c Oklahoma Acad Sci 78: 125-126

 

Wiseman GL, Hendrickson GO (1950) Notes on the life history and ecology of the o possum in southeast Iowa. J Mammal 31:331-337

 

Wood AA (1947) An opossum in Kent County, Ontario. Canad Field-Nat 61:199

 

Worth CB (1975) Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) as disseminator s of the common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana). J Mammal 56:517

 

Wright DD (1989) Mortality and dispersal of juvenile opossums, Didelphis virginiana. MS Thesis, Univ Florida, Gainesville, pp100

 

Yeager LE (1936) Winter daytime dens of opossum. J Mammal 17: 410-411

 

 

1.4    Evolution : Palentology

 

Archer M (1987) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution, Vol 1. Surrey Beatty & Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Archer M (1987) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution, Vol II. Surrey Beatty & Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Archibald JD (1979) Oldest known eutherian stapes and a marsupial petrosal bone from the late

Cretaceous of North America. Nature 281:669-670

 

Barrantes GE, Daleffe L (1999) Allozyme genetic distances and evolutionary relationships in marsupials of North and South America. Acta Theriol 44: 233-242

 

Bleiweiss R, Kirsch JAW (1993) Experimental analysis of variance for DNA hybridization: 1. Accuracy. J Mol Evol 37: 504-513

 

 

Bleiweiss R, Kirsch JAW (1993) Experimental analysis of variance for DNA hybridization: 2. Percision. J Mol Evol 37: 514-524

 

Cachel SM (1979) A functional analysis of the primate masticatory system and the origin of the anthropoid post-orbital septum. Am J Phys Anthrop 50:1-17

 

Cao Y, Adachi J, Janke A, Pääbo S, Hasegawa M (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among eutherian orders estimated from inferred sequences of mitochondrial proteins: instability of a tree based on a single gene. J Mol Evol 39: 519-527

 

Cao Y, Adachi J, Hasegawa M (1994) Eutherian phylogeny as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Jpn J Genet 69: 455-472

 

Cartmill M (1974) Rethinking primate origins. Science 184:436-443

 

Cifelli RL, De Muizon C (1998) Marsupial mammal from the upper cretaceous North Horn Formation, central Utah. J Paleontol 72: 532-537

 

Clemens WA (1968) Origin and early evolution of marsupials. Evolution 22:1-18

 

Couto CP (1952) Fossil mammals from the beginning of the Cenozoic in Brazil. Marsupialia: Didelphidae. Am Mus Novit 1567:1-26

 

Dahms NM, Brzycki-Wessell MA, Ramanujam KS, Seetharam B (1993) Characterization of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from opossum liver: opossum cation-independent MPR binds insulin-like growth factor-2. Endocrinology 133: 440-446

 

Dörner M, Pääbo S (1995) Nucleotide sequence of a marsupial LINE-1 element and the evolution of placental mammals. Mol Biol Evol 12: 944-948

 

Driscoll DJ, Migeon BR (1988) Localization of G6PD and HPRT to different arms of the X chromosome of the North American marsupial (Didelphis virginiana) by in situ hybridization and deletion mapping: evolutionary significance. Genomics 3:308-314

 

Fish FE (1993) Comparison of swimming kinematics between terrestrial and semiaquatic opossums. J Mammal 74: 275-284

 

Frye MS, Hedges SB (1995) Monophyly of the order Rodentia inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences of the genes for 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and tRNA-valine. Mol Biol Evol 12: 168-176

 

Gilbert N, Labuda D (2000) Evolutionary inventions and continuity of CORE-SINEs in mammals. J Mol Biol 298: 365-377

 

Gray TA, Nicholls RD (2000) Diverse splicing mechanisms fuse the evolutionarily conserved bicistronic MOCS1A and MOCS1B open reading frames. Rna 6: 928-936

 

Grundy WN, Naylor GJP (1999) Phylogenetic inference from conserved sites alignments. J Exp Zool 285: 128-139

 

Guilday JE (1958) The prehistoric distribution of the opossum. J Mammal 39:39-4 3

 

Janke A, Pääbo S (1993) Editing of a tRNA anticodon in marsupial mitochondria changes its codon recognition. Nuc Acid Res 21: 1523-1525

 

Janke A, Feldmaier-Fuchs G, Thomas WK, von Haeseler A, Pääbo S (1994) The marsupial mitochondrial genome and the evolution of placental mammals. Genetics 137: 243-256

 

Kirsch JAW, Bleiweiss RE, Dickerman AW, Reig OA (1993) DNA/DNA hybridization studies of carnivorous marsupials. Relationships among spiecies of Didelphis (Didelphidae). J Mammal Evol 1: 75-97

 

Korth WW (1994) Middle tertiary marsupials (Mammalia) from North America. J Paleontol 68: 376-397

 

Landsmeer JMF (1986) A comparison of fingers and hand in varanus, opossum and primates. Acta Morphol Neerl-Scand 24:193-221

 

Landsmeer JMF (1987) The hand and hominisation. Acta Morphol Neerl-Scand 25:83-93

 

Lee AK, Cockburn A (1985) The evolutionary ecology of marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

Lewis O J (1985) Derived morphology of the wrist articulations and theories of hominoid evolution. Part I. The lorisine joints. J Anat 140:447-460

 

McGrew PO (1937) New marsupials from the Tertiary of Nebraska. J Geol 45:448-455

 

Mõrl M, Dörner M, Pääbo S (1995) C to U editing and modifications during the maturation of the mitochondrial tRNA (Asp) in marsupials. Nuc Acids Res 23: 3380-3384

 

Patton JL, Reis SFD, Silva MNFD (1996) Relationships among didelphid marsupials based on sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene. J Mam Evol 3: 3-29.

 

Reig OA, Gardner AL, Bianchi NO, Patton JL (1977) The chromosomes of the Didelphidae (Marsupialia) and their evolutionary significance. Bio J Linn Soc 9: 191-216

 

Reig OA, Kirsch JAW, Marshall LG (1987) Systematic relationships of the living and Neocenozoic American "opossum-like" marsupials (suborder Didelphimorphia), with comments on the classification of these and of the Cretaceous and Paleogene New World and European metatherians. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Nortion, NSW, Australia, Vol 1, pp 1-89

 

Richardson SJ, Wettenhall REH, Schreiber G (1996) Evolution of transthyretin gene expression in the liver of Didelphis virginiana and other American marsupials. Endocrinology 137: 3507-3512

 

Russell LS (1928) Didelphiidae from the lance beds of Wyoming. J Mammal 9:229-232

 

Szalay FS (1994) Evolutionary history of the marsupials and an analysis of osteological characters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

Simpson GG (1928) American Eocene Didelphids. Am Mus Novit 307:1-7

 

Simpson GG (1930) A new specimen of Eodelphis cutleri from the Belly river formation of Alberta. Canada Dept Mines, Geol Serv 51: 29-32

 

Simpson GG (1935) Note on the classification of recent and fossil opossums. J Mammal 16:134-137

 

Simpsom GG (1938) A new marsupial from the Eocene of Patagonia. Am Mus Novit 989:1-5

 

Simpson GG (1944) Tempo and mode in evolution. Columbia University Press, New York

 

Springer MS, Hollar LJ, Burk A (1995) Compensatory substitutions and the evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in mammals. Mol Biol Evol 12: 1138-1150

 

Springer MS, Kirsch JAW (1993) A molecular perspective on the phylogeny of placental mammals based on mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequences, with special reference to the problem of the Paenungulata. J Mammal Evol 1: 149-166

 

Springer MS, Westerman M, Kavanagh JR, Burk A, Woodburne MO, Kao DJ, Karjewski C (1998) The origin of the Australasian marsupial fauna and the phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic monito del monte and marsupial mole. Pro Royal Soc Lond B 265: 2381-2386

 

Stock C (1936) Sespe Eocene Didelphids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 22:122-124

 

Thomason JJ, Russell AP (1986) Mechanical factors in the evolution of the mammalian secondary palate: a theoretical analysis. J Morphol 189: 199-213

 

Woodburne MO, Zinsmeister WJ (1982) Fossil land mammal from Antartica. Science 218: 284-286

 

 

1.5    Chromosomes : Genetics

 

Biggers JD, Fritz HI, Hare WCD, McFeely RA (1965) Chromosomes of American marsupials. Science 148:1602-1603

 

Chauvet J, Hurpet D, Michel G, Chauvet M-T, Archer R (1984) Two multigene families for marsupial neurohypophysial hormones? Identification of oxytocin, mesotocin, lysipressin and arginine vasopressin in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 123:306-311

 

Driscoll DJ, Migeon BR (1988) Localization of G6PD and HPRT to different arms of the X chromosome of the North American marsupial (Didelphis virginiana) by in situ hybridization and deletion mapping: evolutionary significance. Genomics 3:308-314

 

Graham MA, Barr ML (1959) Sex chromatin in the opossum, Didelphys virginiana . Arch D'Anat Micro Morph Exp 48:111-121

 

Hoy WE, George WC (1929) The somatic chromosomes of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Morphol 47:201-215

 

Kaslow DC, Migeon BR (1987) DNA methylation stabilizes X chromosome inactivation in eutherians but not in marsupials: evidence for multistep maintenance of mammalian X dosage compensation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:6210-6214

 

Kaslow DC, Migeon BR, Persico MG, Zollo M, VanDenBerg JL, Samollow PB (1987) Molecular studies of marsupial X chromosomes reveal limited sequence homology of mammalian X-linked genes. Genomics 1:19-28

 

Keith DH, Teplitz RL, Riggs AD (1984) Metaphase synchronization and chromosome preparation from the OK opossum cell line having a potentially isolatable X chromosome. In Vitro 20:833-836

 

Lemos B, Canavez F, Moreira MAM (1999) Mitochondrial DNA-like sequences in the nuclear genome of the opossum genus Didelphis (Marsupialia : Didelphidae). J Hered 90: 543-547

 

Meneghini R (1974) Repair replication of opossum lymphocyte DNA: effect of compounds that bind to DNS. Chemico-Biol Interact 8:113-126

 

Migeon BR, deBeur SJ, Axelman J (1989) Frequent derepression of G6PD and HPRT on the marsupial inactive X chromosome associated with cell proliferation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 182:597-609

 

Ohno S, Kaplan WD, Kinosita R (1960) The basis of nuclear sex difference in somatic cells of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Exp Cell Res 19:417-420

 

Pathak S, Elder FFB, Maxwell BL (1980) Asynaptic behavior of X and Y chromosomes in the Virginia opossum and the southern pygmy mouse. Cytogenet Cell Genet 26:142-149

 

Reig AO, Gardner AL, Bianchi NO, Patton JL (1977) The chromosomes of the Didelphidae (Marsupialia) and their evolutionary significance. Biol J Linn Soc 9: 191-216

 

Reiss JA, Neu RL, Kajii T, Gardner LI (1970) Late DNA replication in the sex chromosomes of Didelphis virginiana. Experientia 26:917-918

 

Robinson ES, Samollow PB, VanDeBerg JL, Johnston PG (1994) X--chromosome replication patterns in adult, newborn and prenatal opossums. Reprod Fert Devel 6: 533-540

 

Samollow PB, Ford AL, VanDeBerg JL (1987) X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk -A loci. Genetics 115:185-195

 

Samollow PB, Johnston PG, Ford AL, VanDeBerg JL (1989) X-linked gene expression in metatherian fibroblasts: evidence from the Gpd and Pgk -A loci of the Virginia opossum and the red-necked wallaby. Biochem Genet 27:313-320

 

Samollow PB, Robinson ES, Ford AL, VanDeBerg JL (1995) Developmental progressio n of Gpd expression from the inactive X chromosome of the Virginia opossum. Develop Genet 16: 367-378

 

Schneider LK (1970) RNA synthesis in the sex chromosomes of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. I. Female. Experientia 26:914-916

 

Schneider LK (1971) Evidence for the genetic activity in the sex chromosomes of the male opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Anat Rec 169:420-421

 

Schneider LK (1972) Interpretation of sex chromosomal RNA synthesis in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Can J Genet Cytol 14:905-909

 

Schneider LK (1973) Cell cycle determination of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Experientia 29: 468

 

Schneider LK (1977) Marsupial chromosomes, cell cycles and cytogenetics. In: Hunsaker DII (ed) The biology of marsupials. Academic Press, New York, chapt 2, pp 51-93

 

Schneider LK, Rieke WO (1967) DNA replication patterns and chromosomal protein synthesis in opossum lymphocytes in vitro. J Cell Biol 33:497-509

 

Shaver EL (1962) The chromosomes of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Can J Genet Cytol 4:62-68

 

Sinha AK (1967) Spontaneous occurrence of tetraploidy and near-haploidy in mammalian peripheral blood. Exp Cell Res 47:443-448

 

Sinha AK (1967) Heterochromatization in opossum, Didelphys virginiana. Experientia 23: 889-895

 

Sinha AK, Kakati S (1976) C- and G-bands of the opossum chromosomes: terminal sequences of DNA replication. Can J Genet Cytol 18:195-205

 

Sinha AK, Kakati S, Pathak S (1972) Exclusive localization of C-bands within opossum sex chromosomes. Exp Cell Res 75:265-268

 

Thrasher JD (1969) Preliminary estimates of the mean duration of the S-phase in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Exp Cell Res 57:441-442

 

 

1.6    General Morphological Features

 

Blincoe H (1962) The structure of the nonmotile hindlimb of the pouch young opossum. Anat Rec 142:89-93

 

Coues E (1872) On the osteology and myology of Didelphis virginiana. With an appendix on the brain by Jeffries Wyman. Mem Boston Soc Nat Hist 2:41-154

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ (1983) Structure of the paws in Didelphis virginiana. Anat Anz 154:329-335

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ, Leeson CR (1978) General observations on the growth and development of the young pouch opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Biol Neonate 33:264-272

 

Ellsworth AF (1976) The North American opossum: an anatomical atlas. Robert E Krieger, Huntington, New York, pp 1-209

 

Haughton S (1866) Note on animal mechanics. IX. On the muscles of the marsupials. Proc Roy Irish Acad 9:469-487

 

Hulsey TK, Palotay JL, Dhindsa DS (1975) Development of the neonate opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Biol Neonate 27:177-183

 

Jenkins FA Jr, Weijs WA (1979) The functional anatomy of the shoulder in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 188:379-410

 

Kirsch JAW (1973) Notes for the dissection of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. 2nd edn, Yale Printing Service, pp 1-57

 

Lillegraven JA (1977) Review: The North American opossum: an anatomical atlas. J Mammal 58:454-456

 

Pine RH (1973) Anatomical and nomenclatural notes on opossums. Proc Biol Soc Wash 86: 391-402

 

Stein BR (1981) Comparative limb myology of two opossums, Didelphis and Chironectes. J Morphol 169:113-140

 

Stone LS (1947) Development of the pouch young opossum, Didelphys virginiana. J Anat 81:397-398

 

Tyson E (1698) Carigueya, fur marfupiale americanum or, the anatomy of an opoffum. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond 20:105-164

 

Young AH (1880) The intrinsic muscles of the marsupial hand. J Anat 14:149-165

 

 

1.7    Energetics

 

Fleming MW, Harder JD, Wukie JJ (1981) Reproductive energetics of the Virginia opossum compared with some eutherians. Comp Biochem Physiol 70B:645-648

 

Fournier RA, Weber J-M (1994) Locomotory energetics and metabolic fuel reserves of the Virginia opossum. J Exp Biol 197: 1-16

 

Hsu M, Harder JD, Lustick SI (1988) Seasonal energetics of opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Ohio. Comp Biochem Physiol 90A:441-443

 

Lustick S, Lustick DD (1972) Energetics in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. Comp Biochem Physiol 43A:643-647

 

Maller O, Clark JM, Kare MR (1965) Short-term caloric regulation in the adult opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 118:275-277

 

Meyer MP, Morrison P (1961) Tissue slice respiration in the developing opossum. J Exp Zool 148:1-20

 

Pippitt DD (1976) A radiotelemetric study of the winter energetics of the opossum Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Ph D Thesis, Univ Kansas, Lawrence, pp 84

 

Weber JM, Fournier R, Grant C (1997) Glucose kinetics of the Virginia opossum - possible implications for predicting glucose turnover in mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol 118: 713-719

 

Weber JM, O’Conner T (2000) Energy metabolism of the Virginia opossum during fasting and exercise. J Exp Biol 203: 1365-1371

 

 

1.8    Temperature Regulation

 

Dills G (1971) Telemetered thermal responses of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). J Alabama Acad Sci 42:204

 

Dills GG, Manganiello T (1973) Diel temperature fluctuations of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana virginiana). J Mammal 54:763-765

 

Gemmell RT, Turner SJ, Krause WJ (1997) The circadian rhythm of body temperature of four marsupials. J Therm Biol 22:301-307

 

Higginbotham AC, Koon WE (1955) Temperature regulation in the Virginia opossum. Am J Physiol 181:69-71

 

McManus JJ (1969) Temperature regulation in the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. J Mammal 50:550-558

 

Morrison P, Petajan JH (1962) The development of temperature regulation in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Physiol Zool 35:52-65

 

Petajan JH, Morrison P (1962) Physical and physiological factors modifying the development of temperature regulation in the opossum. J Exp Zool 149:45-57

 

Petejan JH, Morrison P, Akert K (1962) Localization of central nervous control of temperature regulation in the opossum. J Exp Zool 150:225-231

 

Rink R, Miller JA Jr (1967) Temperature, weight (=age), and resistance to asphyxia in pouch-young opssums. Cryobiology 4:24-29

 

Treagust DF, Folk GE Jr, Randall W, Folk MA (1979) The circadian rhythm of body temperature of unrestrained opossums, Didelphis virginiana. J Therm Biol 4:251-255

 

 Treagust DF, Randall W, Folk GE Jr (1980) A fourier regression analysis o f body temperature of the American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Interdiscip Cycle Res 11:135-144

 

Walker JM, Berger RJ (1980) The ontogenesis of sleep states, thermogenesis, and thermoregulation in the Virginia opossum. Develop Psychobiol 13:443-445

 

 

1.9    Behavior

 

Allen CH (1985) Movement, habitat use and denning of opossums in the Georgia piedmont. Am Midl Nat 113: 408-412

 

Angermeier WF, McLean J, Minvielle D, Grue C (1987) Food-rewarded operant learning in the opossum. Bull Psychon Soc 25:23-26

 

Angermeier WF, McLean JI, Minvielle D (1986) Some variables affecting feeding cycles in the opossum. Bull Psychon Soc 24:459-461

 

Austad SN (1993) Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 229: 695-708

 

Austad SN, Sunquist ME (1986) Sex-ratio manipulation in the common opossum. Nature 324: 58-60

 

Barratt ES (1965) EEG correlates of tonic immobility in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol 18:709-711

 

Bergquist EH (1970) Output pathways of hypothalamic mechanisms for sexual, aggressive, and other motivated behaviors in opossum. J Comp Physiol Psychol 70:389-398

 

Bombardieri RA, Johnson JI (1969) Daily activity schedule of captive opossums. Psychon Sci 17:135-136

 

Buchholz D (1976) Spontaneous and centrally induced behaviors in normal and thalamic opossums. J Comp Physiol Psych 90:898-908

 

Bunch RW, Narayanan CH, Narayanan Y (1981) An apparatus for observing behavior of pouch-young opossums. Brain Res Bull 6:183-187

 

Cheney CD, Eldred NL (1980) Lithium-chloride-induced aversions in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Physiol Psychol 8: 383-385

 

Cone DM, Cone AL (1968) Cage activity in the Virginia opossum. Psychon Sci 10:259-260

 

Cone AL, Cone DM (1970) Operant conditioning of Virginia opossum. Psychol Rep 26:83-86

 

Doolittle JH, Weimer J (1968) Spatial probability learning in the Virginian opossum. Psychon Sci 13:191

 

Francq EN (1969) Behavioral aspects of feigned death in the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. Am Midl Nat 81:556-568

 

Friedman H (1964) Taming of the Virginia opossum. Nature 201:323-324

 

Friedman H, Marshall DA (1965) Position reversal training in the Virginia opossum: evidence for the acquisition of learning set. Quart J Exp Psychol 17:250-254

 

Gabrielsen GW, Smith EN (1985) Physiological responses associated with feigned death in the American opossum. Acta Physiol Scand 123:393-398

 

Gantt WH, Newton JEO, Royer FL, Stephens JH (1991) Effect of person. Integ Physiol Behav Sci 26: 146-160

 

German RZ, Crompton AW (1996) Ontogeny of suckling mechanisms in opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Brain Behav Evol 48: 157-164

 

Hayssen VD (1985) A comparison of the reproductive biology of metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) mammals with special emphasis on sex differences in the behavior of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Ph D Thesis, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, New York, pp 345

 

Herring FH, Mason DJ, Doolittle JH, Starrett DE (1966) The Virginia opossum in psychological research. Psychol Rep 19:755-757

 

Holmes DJ (1987) Social complexity and potential for chemocommunication in captive Virginia opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Ph D Thesis, Bowling Green State Univ, Bowling Green, Ohio, pp 195

 

Holmes DJ (1990) Social and other correlates of scent marking in captive Virginia opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. In: Macdonald DW, Natynczuk SE, Muller-Schwarze D (eds) Chemical signals in vertebrates. 5. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp 451-458

 

Holmes DJ (1991) Social behavior in captive Virginia opossums, Didelphis virginiana. J Mammal 72:402-410

 

Holmes DJ (1992) Odors as cues for orientation to mothers by weanling Virginia opossums. J Chem Ecol 18:2251-2259

 

Holmes DJ (1992) Sternal odors as cues for social discrimination by female Virginia opossums, Didelphis virginiana. J Mammal 73:286-291

 

Holmes Meisner D (1986) History and gross morphology of the sexually dimorphic sternal gland in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. In: Duvall D, Muller-Schwarze D, Silverstein RM (eds) Chemical signals in vertebrates. 4. Ecology, evolution, and comparative biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 579-585

 

Hunsaker DII, Shyse D (1977) Behavior of New World marsupials. In: Hunsaker DII(ed) The biology of marsupials.Academic Press, New York, Chapt 5, pp 279-347

 

James WT (1937) An experimental study of the defense mechanisms in the opossum, with emphasis on natural behavior and its relation to mode of life. J Genet Psychol 51:95-100

 

James WT (1955) The behavior of the opossum in the Guthrie-Horton puzzle box. J Genet Psychol 87:203-206

 

James WT (1958) Conditioned responses in the opossum. J Genet Psychol 93:179-18 3

 

James WT (1959) Behavior of the opossum in the Fink arrow maize. J Genet Psycho l 94:199-203

 

James WT (1960) A study of visual discrimination in the opossum. J Genet Psycho l 97:127-130

 

James WT (1980) A test of the Virginia opossum's preference for sweets. Bull Psychon Soc 16:65-66

 

James WT, McFarland J (1966) A study of form discrimination in the opossum. J Psychol 64:193-198

 

James WT, Turner WW (1963) Experimental study of maze learning in young opossums. Psychol Rep 13:921-922

 

Kimble DP (1997) Didelphid behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21: 361-369

 

King OM (1961) A note on opossum behavior. J Mammal 42: 397

 

Ladine TA, Kissell RE (1994) Escape behavior of Virginia opossums. Am Midl Nat 132: 234-238

 

Langley WM (1979) Preference of the striped skunk and opossum for auditory over visual prey stimuli. Carnivore 2: 31-34

 

Langworthy OR (1925) The development of progression and posture in young opossums. Am J Physiol 74:1-13

 

Langworthy OR (1928) The behavior of pouch-young opossums correlated with the myelinization of tracts in the nervous system. J Comp Neurol 46:201-240

 

McManus JJ (1967) Observations on sexual behavior of the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. J Mammal 48:486-487

 

McManus JJ (1970) Behavior of captive opossums, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. Am Midl Nat 84:144-169

 

McManus JJ (1971) Activity of captive Didelphis marsupialis. J Mammal 52: 846-848

 

Norton AC, Beran AV, Misrahy GA (1964) Electroencephalograph during "feigned" sleep in the opossum. Nature 204:162-163

 

Platt JJ, James WT (1967) Response to stimulus change in the opossum. J Psychol 67:85-89

 

Platt JJ, James WT (1966) Social facilitation of eating behavior in young opossums. 1. Group vs solitary feeding. Psychon Sci 6: 421-422

 

Platt JJ, Sutker LW, James WT (1968) Social facilitation of eating behavior in young opossums. II. The effects of isolation. Psychon Sci 10:267-268

 

Platt JJ, Yaksh T, James WT (1968) Response to environmental stimulus change in young opossums. Perceptual Motor Skills 26:43-46

 

Pressman TG, Doolittle JH (1966) Taste preferences in the Virginia opossum. Psychol Rep 18:875-878

 

Raven HC (1929) A case of matricide in the opossum. J Mammal 10:168

 

Roberts WW, Bergquist EH, Robinson TCL (1969) Thermoregulatory grooming and sleep-like relaxation induced by local warming of preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus in opossum. J Comp Physiol Psych 67:182-188

 

Roberts WW, Steinberg ML, Means LW (1967) Hypothalamic mechanisms for sexual, aggressive, and other motivational behaviors in the opossium, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Physiol Psychol 64:1-15

 

Russell EM (1984) Social behaviour and social organization of marsupials. Mammal Rev 14:101-154

 

Ryser J (1992) The mating system and male mating success of the Virginia opossu m (Didelphis virginiana) in Florida. J Zool 228:127-139

 

Seidensticker J, Lumpkin S (1989) Playing possum is serious business for our only marsupial. Smithsonian 20:108-119

 

Seidensticker J, O'Connell MA, Johnsingh AJT (1987) Virginia opossum In : Novack M, Baker JA, Obberd ME, Malloch B (eds) Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada, Chapt 23, pp 247-261

 

Stasiak M, Masterton RB (1996) Auditory quality cues are more effective than auditory location cues in a R no R (go no go) differentiation - the extension of the rule to primitive mammals (American opossum, Didelphis virginiana). Acta Neurobiol Exper 56: 949-953

 

Tamar H (1961) Taste reception in the opossum and the bat. Physiol Zool 34:86-91

 

Thexton AJ, Crompton AW (1989) Effect of sensory input from the tongue on jaw movement in normal feeding in the opossum. J Exp Zool 250:233-243

 

Tilley MW, Doolittle JH, Mason DJ (1966) Olfactory discrimination learning in the Virginia opossum. Perceptual Motor Skills 23:845-846

 

Tilley MW, Doolittle JH, Mason DJ (1966) Spontaneous alternation in the Virginia opossum. Psychol Rep 19:593-594

 

Twyver HV, Allison T (1970) Sleep in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol 29:181-189

 

Walker JM, Berger RJ (1980) The ontogenesis of sleep states, thermogenesis, and thermoregulation in the Virginia opossum. Develop Psychobiol 13:443-454

 

Wiedorn WS (1954) A new experimental animal for psychiatric research: the opossum, (Didelphis virginiana) Science 119:360-361

 

Wright DD (1989) Mortality and dispersal of juvenile opossums, Didelphis virginiana. MS Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville

 

 

1.10  Husbandry

 

Brooks MB (1959) Care and management of opossums: their use in pediatric research. Proc Animal Care Panel 9:167-171

 

Burns RK, Burns LM (1957) Observations on the breeding of the American opossum in Florida. Rev Suisse Zool 64:595-605

 

Coghill GE (1939) Studies on rearing the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Ohio J Sci 39:239-249

 

Farris, E J (1950) The opossum. In: Farris EJ (ed) The care and breeding of laboratory animals. John Wiley & Sons, New York

 

Feldman DB, Ross PW (1975) Methods for obtaining neonates of known age from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 25:437-439

 

 

Feldman DB, Self JL (1971) Sedation and anesthesia of the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Lab Anim Sci 21:717-720

 

Feldman DB, Self JL (1973) Establishment of a helminth-free opossum colony. Lab Anim Sci 23:855-857

 

Fritz HI (1971) Maintenance of the common opossum. Int Zool Yearbook 11:46-49

 

Funk RS (2000) Opossum medicine. N Am Vet Conf Vet Proc 14: 1003

 

Harder JD, Fleming MW (1982) Husbandry of a small breeding colony of opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 32:547-549

 

Heuser CH, Hartman CG (1928) Some old and forgotten observations upon the breeding habits of the opossum. J Mammal 9:61-62

 

Jurgelski W Jr (1974) The opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) as a biomedical model. I. Research perspective, husbandry, and laboratory technics. Lab Anim Sci 24:376-403

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Forsythe W, Dahl D, Thomas LD, Moore JA, Kotin P, Falk HL, Vogel FS (1974) The opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) as a biomedical model. II. Breeding the opossum in captivity: facility design. Lab Anim Sci 24:404-411

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Porter ME (1974) The opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) as a biomedical model. III. Breeding the opossum in captivity: methods. Lab Anim Sci 24:412-425

 

Krupp JH, Quillin R (1964) A review of the use of the opossum for research-husbandry, experimental techniques and routine health measures. Lab Anim Care 14:189-194

 

Mizell M, Ramsey DE, Warringer RA, Spencer R (1970) Laboratory development and use of the American opossum, Didelphys virginiana. Am Zool 10: 539

 

Reynolds HC (1952) Studies on reproduction in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana virginiana). Univ Calif Publ Zool 52:223-283

 

Sherwood BF, Rowlands DT Jr, Hackel DB, LeMay JC (1969) The opossum, Didelphis virginiana, as a laboratory animal. Lab Anim Care 19:494-499

 

Thomason JJ, Russell AP (1986) A plastic cage for restraint of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) Lab Anim Sci 36:547-549

 

 

1.11  Use as Model

 

Adzick NS, Longaker MT (1991) Animal models for the study of fetal tissue repair. J Surg Res 51:216-222

 

Baudinette R, Skinner J (2001) Marsupials as models for biomedical research. ANZCCART News 14(3):1-3

 

Block M (1960) Wound healing in the new-born opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Nature 187:340-341

 

Cullen JJ, Maes EB, Aggrawal S, Conklin JL, Ephgrave KS, Mitros FA (2000) Effect of endotoxin on opossum gallbladder motility: A model of acalculous cholecystitis. Ann Surg 232: 202-207

 

Fleming MW, Tassava RA (1981) Preamputation and postamputation histology of the neonatal opossum hindlimb: implications for regeneration experiments. J Exp Zool 215:143-149

 

Jurgelski W Jr (1983) An alternative animal model for perinatal carcinogenesis. Biol Res Pregnancy Perinatol 4:3-16

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Boyd CW (1972) Induction of seizures in the opossum (Didelphis marsupials virginiana Kerr) with an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis - a new model for experimental epilepsy. Fed Proc 31:304

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Falk HL, Kotin P (1972) Ethyl nitrosourea carcinogenesis in the neonatal marsupial (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana Kerr) - a new animal model for oncogenesis. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 13:93

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Falk HL, Kotin P (1976) Embryonal neoplasms in the opossum: a new model for solid tumors of infancy and childhood. Science 193:328-332

 

Jurgelski, W Jr, Hudson PM, Falk HL, Zimmerman LE, Henry JM, Palmer N (1977) Experimentally induced dysontogenetic tumors in the opossum: a clinicopathological and histo-pathological comparison with analogous neoplasms of man and other animals. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18:104

 

Kaiser AM, Saluja AK, Sengupta A, Saluja M, Steer ML (1995) Relationship between severity, necrosis, and apoptosis in five models of experimental acute pancreatitis. Am J Physiol 269: C1295-C1304

 

Kelln EE, Komori A (1968) Potential of the opossum in oral research. J Dent Res 47:338

 

Lerch MM, Saluja AK, Rünzi M, Dawra R, Saluja M, Steer ML (1993) Pancreati c duct obstruction triggers acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the opossum. Gastroentorology 104:853-861

 

Mizell M, Isaacs JJ (1970) Induced regeneration of hindlimbs in the newborn opossum. Am Zool 10:141-155

 

Moore CR, Bodian D (1940) Opossum pouch young as experimental material. Anat Rec 76:319-327

 

New DAT, Mizell M (1972) Opossum fetuses grown in culture. Science 175:533-536

 

New DAT, Mizell M, Cockroft DL (1977) Growth of opossum embryos in vitro during organogenesis. J Embryol Exp Morphol 41:111-123

 

Northway MG, Libshitz HI, West JJ, Withers HR, Mukhopadhyay AK, Osborne BM, Szwarc IA, Dodd GD (1979) The opossum as an animal model for studying radiation esophagitis. Radiology 131:731-735

 

Senninger N, Moody FG, Coelho JCU, Van Buren DH (1986) The role of biliary obstruction in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in the opossum. Surgery 99:688-693

 

Steinhardt GF, Salinas-Madrigal L, Farber R, Lynch R, Vogler G (1990) Experimental ureteral obstruction in the fetal opossum. I. Renal functional assessment. J Urol144:564-566

 

Steinhardt GF, Vogler G, Salinas-Madrigal L, LaRegina M (1988) Induced renal dysplasia in the young pouch opossum. J Pediatr Surg 23:1127-1130

 

Wiedorn WS (1954) A new experimental animal for psychiatric research: the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Science 119:360-361

 

 

1.12  Experimental Techniques using Didelphis

 

Feldman DB, Self JL (1971) Sedation and anesthesia of the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Lab Anim Sci 21:717-720

 

Jackson RK (1971) Experimental talipes in the Virginia opossum. Clin Orthopaed Related Res 81:152-157

 

Jurgelski W Jr (1971) Administration of test materials to the neonatal North American opossum (Didelphys marsupialis virginiana Kerr). Lab Anim Sci 21:748-751

 

La Regina MC, Lonigro J, Woods L, Williams GA, Vogler GA (1988) Valvular endocarditis associated with experimental Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 38:159-161

 

Moore DM (1984) A simple technique for blood collection in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim 18:52-54

 

Nelsen OE, White EL (1941) A method for inducing ovulation in the anoestrous opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Anat Rec 81:529-535

 

New DAT, Mizell M (1972) Opossum fetuses grown in culture. Science 175:533-536

 

Northway MG, Libshitz HI, Szwarc IA (1979) A technique for barium esophagram in the opossum. Lab Anim Sci 29:534-537

 

Parmelee AH, Brooks MB, Stone RS (1960) The effect of high oxygen concentration s on the opossum pouch young (Didelphis virginiana). Anat Rec 136:73-78

 

Senninger N, Moody FG, Coelho JCU, Van Buren DH (1986) The role of biliary obstruction in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in the opossum. Surgery 99:688-693

 

Spagnoli DB, Fidler SF, Carmichael SW, Culberson JL (1979) Perfusion fixation of the newborn opossum: equipment and techniques. Lab Anim Sci 29:246-248

 

Steinhardt GF, Salinas-Madrigal L, Farber R, Lynch R, Vogler G (1990) Experimental ureteral obstruction in the fetal opossum. I. Renal functional assessment. J Urol 144:564-566

 

Steinhardt GF, Vogler G, Salinas-Madrigal L, and LaRegina M (1988) Induced renal dysplasia in the young pouch opossum. J Pediatr Surg 23:1127-1130

 

 

1.13  Experimental (Induced) Pathologies

 

Amundson TE, Yuill TM, DeFoliar GR (1985) Experimental La Crosse virus infection of red fox (Vulpes fulva), raccoon (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and woodchuck (Marmota monax). Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:586-595

 

Andrews EJ (1973) Methylcholanthrene carcinogenesis in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Natl Cancer Inst 51:1217-1225

 

Bowen GS (1976) Experimental infection of North American mammals with epidemic Venezuelan encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25:891-899

 

Box ED, Duszynski DW (1978) Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis from icterid birds to sparrows and canaries by sporocysts from the opossum. J Parasitol 64:682-688

 

Darling ST (1910) Sarcosporidiosis in the opossum and its experimental production in the guinea pig by the intramuscular injection of sporozites. Bull Soc Path Exot 3:513-518

 

Fenger CK, Granstrom DE, Gajadhar AA, Williams NM, Mccrillus SA, Stamper S, Langemeier JL, Dubey JP (1997) Experimental induction of equine myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp., sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Vet Parasitol 68: 199-213

 

Gandolfi R, Culbertson R (1983) Corticosteroid-induced death in an opossum. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:1277-1279

 

Johnson JI, Hamilton TC, Hsung J-C, and Ulinski PS (1972) Gracile nucleus absen t in adult opossums after leg removal in infancy. Brain Res 38:421-424

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM (1971) The response of the pituitary-thyroid axis of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana Kerr) to chronic neonatal administration of Aminotriazole. Fed Proc 30: 294

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Boyd CW (1972) Rickets associated with triparanol induced intestinal lesions in the marsupial (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana Kerr). Anat Rec 172:339

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson P, Falk HL (1979) Tissue differentiation and susceptibility to embryonal tumor induction by ethylnitrosourea in the opossum. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr No 51:123-158

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Falk HL, Kotin P (1976) Embryonal neoplasms in the opossum: a new model for solid tumors of infancy and childhood. Science 193:328-332

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Henery JM, Falk HL (1978) Chemically induced ganglioglioma in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 37: 638

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson PM, Vogel FS (1973) Induction of a chronic somatosensory epilepsy in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) with an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Brain Res 64:466-471

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson P, Boyd C (1972) Induction of seizures on the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana) with an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. II. Relationship between seizure induction, brain sterol composition, and drug configuration. J Cell Biol 55:126A

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Hudson P, Zimmerman LE, Falk HL, Kotin P (1974) Induction of malignant intraocular medulloepitheliomas in opossums orally exposed to a chemical carcinogen (ethyl nitrosourea) early in postnatal life. Am J Pathol 74:40A

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Alderson G, Hudson P (1973) Odontogenic tumor induction in the opossum by a chemical carcinogen. J Dent Res 52:201

 

Jurgelski W Jr, Palmer NF, Hudson PM, Falk HL (1980) Chemical induction of embryonal renal tumors: an accurate model for pediatric renal neoplasia. Fed Proc 39: 331

 

La Regina MC, Lonigro J, Woods L, Williams GA, Vogler GA (1988) Valvular endocarditis associated with experimental Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 38:159-161

 

Larsen F, Schlarman D, Andrus CC, Kaminski DL (1991) The effect of the CCK receptor antagonist CR 1409 on bile reflux pancreatitis in the opossum. Pancreas 6:291-297

 

Lerch MM, Saluja AK, Dawra R, Ramarao P, Saluja M, Steer ML (1992) Acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the opossum: earliest morphological changes involve acinar cells. Gastroenterology 103:205-213

 

Lindsay DS, Hendrix CM, Blagburn BL (1988) Experimental Cryptosporidium parvum infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Wildl Dis 24:157-159

 

Malek EA (1970) Further studies on mammalian susceptibility to experimental infection with Heterobilharzia americana. J Parasitol 56:64-66

 

Mizell M (1975) Tumour induction in vivo : major events leading to tumorigenesis in embryos inoculated with oncogenic herpes viruses. IARC Sci Pub No11: 121-132

 

Moore CG, Schnurrenberger PR (1981) Experimental infection of opossums with Brucella abortus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 179:1113-1116

 

Prasad N, Bushong SC, MacIntyre RS (1973) Radiocytogenetic effects on bone marrow cells of opossum in vivo. Can J Genet Cytol 15:123-126

 

Prasad N, Bushong SC, North LB, Thornby J (1976) Radiation lethality in the opossum. Rad Res 68:514-517

 

Prasad N, Prasad R, Bushong SC (1973) In vivo and in vitro response of opossum testes to ionizing radiation: morphological and enzymatic studies. J Cell Biol 59:270A

 

Prasad N, Prasad R, Bushong SC, North LB (1977) Effect of irradiation on electrophoretic properties of enzymes in haemopoietic cells of opossum. Experientia 33: 263-264

 

Prasad N, Prasad R, Bushong SC, North LB (1977) Effect of irradiation on testicular cells of opossum. Strahlentherapie 153:470-473

 

Prestwood AK, Nettles VF, Farrell RL (1977) Pathologic manifestations of experimentally and naturally acquired lungworm infections in opossums. Am J Vet Res 38:529-532

 

Ramirez R, Brems J, Lee T, Kaminski DL (1984) The effect of 16, 16-dimenthyl prostaglandin E2 on experimental bile reflux pancreatitis in the opossum. Surg Gastroenterol 3:60-68

 

Rowlands DT Jr, Vakilzadeh J, Sherwood BF, LeMay JC (1970) Experimental bacterial endocarditis in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). I. Valvular changes following a single injection of bacteria in unmodified adult opossums. Am J Pathol 58:295-304

 

Senninger N (1992) Bile-induced pancreatitis. Eur Surg Res 24 :(Suppl1), 68-73

 

Senninger N, Moody FG, Coelho JCU, Van Buren DH (1986) The role of biliary obstruction in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in the opossum. Surgery 99:688-693

 

Sevy CE, Cameron TP (1968) Two cases of infection with acid-fast bacteria in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Bull Wildl Dis Assoc 4:22-23

 

Sherwood BF, Rowlands DT Jr, Vakilzadeh J, LeMay JC (1971) Experimental bacterial endocarditis in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). III. Comparison of spontaneously occurring endocarditis with that induced experimentally by pyogenic bacteria and fungi. Am J Pathol 64:513-520

 

Steinhardt GF, Vogler G, Salinas-Madrigal L, LaRegina M (1988) Induced renal dysplasia in the young pouch opossum. J Pediatr Surg 23:1127-1130

 

Vakilzadeh J, Rowlands DT Jr, Sherwood BF, LeMay JC (1970) Experimental bacterial endocarditis in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). II. Induction of endocarditis with a single injection of Streptococcus viridans. J Infect Dis 122:89-92

 

Vakilzadeh J, Sherwood BF, Hackel DB, LeMay JC (1971) Experimental study of pulmonary adenomas in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 21:224-228

 

White MR, Chapman WL Jr, Hanson WL (1989) A comparison of experimental visceral leishmaniasis in the opossum, armadillo and ferret. Lab Anim Sci 39:47-50

 

White MR, Chapman WL Jr, Hanson WL (1989) Chemotherapy of experimental visceral leishmaniasis in the opossum. J Parasitol 75:176-178

 

White MR, Chapman WL Jr, Hanson WL, Latimer KS, Greene CE (1989) Experimental visceral leishmaniasis in the opossum. Vet Pathol 26:314-321

 

Yaeger RG (1971) Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection to opossums via the oral route. J Parasitol 57:1375-1376

 

 

1.14  Diseases : Natural Pathologies

 

Almgren CM, McClure DE (2000) Granulomatous pneumonia in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) associated with an intracellular fungal agent. Comparative Med 50: 323-328

 

Barr TRB (1963) Infectious diseases in the opossum: a review. J Wildl Mgmt 27:53-71

 

Barrie MT, Snyder RL (1986) Multiple primary neoplasms in an opossum. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:1160-1161

 

Brown CC (1988) Endogenous lipid pneumonia in opossums from Louisiana. J Wildl Dis 24:214-219

 

Finlayson R (1965) Spontaneous arterial disease in exotic animals. J Zool 147:229-343

 

Gupta BN, Feldman DB (1973) Carcinosarcoma in an opossum. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163:586-588

 

Gupta BN, Feldman DB (1974) Epidermoid cysts in opossums. Cornell Vet 64:89-93

 

Gupta BN, Feldman DB (1975) Renal agenesis in guinea pig and opossum. Lab Anim Sci 25:238-240

 

Harari Y, Calabuig R, Moody F, Castro G (1991) Immunological sensitization of opossum gallbladder by naturally acquired stomach roundworm infection. Comp Biochem Physiol 99C:531-535

 

Kaufman E, Pokras M, Jakowski R (1988) Biliary adenocarcinoma in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Companion Anim Pract 2:38-40

 

Koller LD (1972) Cutaneous papillomas on an opossum. J Nat Cancer Inst 49:309-313

 

LaPlante ES, Burrell RG (1966) Bacterial endocarditis in opossums. Bull Widl Dis Assoc 2:10-12

 

Long GG, Stookey JL, Terrell TG, Whitney GD (1975) Fibrous osteodystrophy in an opossum. J Wildl Dis 11:221-223

 

Lu Y-S, Rehg J, Lawton G (1982) Acute hepatitis in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) infected with Salmonella turnidorp. Lab Anim Sci 32:193-194

 

McConnell EE, Talley FA (1977) Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules in the adrenal medulla of laboratory animals. Vet Pathol 14:435-440

 

Musher DM, Richie Y (1974) Bacterial clearance and endocarditis in American opossums. Infect Immunol 9:1126-1128

 

Potkay S (1970) Diseases of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis): a review. Lab Anim Care 20:502-511

 

Potkay S (1977) Diseases of marsupials. In: Hunsaker D II (ed) The biology of marsupials. Academic Press, New York, Chapt 8, pp 415-506

 

Prater MR, Duncan RB, Gaydos J (1999) Characterization of metastatic intestinal adenocarcinoma with differentiation into multiple morphologic cell types in a Virginia opossum. Vet Pathol 36: 463-468

 

Richardson DJ, Barnawell EB (1995) Histopathology of Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa (Oligacanthorhynchidae) infection in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Helminthol Soc Wash 62: 253-256

 

Robinson JA, Johnson D (1974) Evidence of immune glomerulitis complex in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Am J Vet Res 35:543-546

 

Runkel NS, Rodriguez LF, LaRocco MT, Moody FG (1990) Mechanisms of pancreatic infection in acute pancreatitis in opossums. Current Surg 47:460-462

 

Runkel NS, Rodriguez LF, Moody FG, LaRocco MT, Blasdel T (1991) Salmonella infection of the biliary and intestinal tract of wild opossums. Lab Anim Sci 41:54-56

 

Schneider P, Busch U, Meister H, Qasem Q, Wuensch PH (1999) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). A comparison of MFH in man and animals. A critical review. Histol Histopathol 14: 845-860

 

Sherwood BF, Rowlands DT Jr, Hackel DB (1969) Pulmonary adenomatosis in opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:1102-1107

 

Sherwood BF, Rowlands DT Jr, Hackel DB, LeMay JC (1968) Bacterial endocarditis, glomerulonephritis, and amyloidosis in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Am J Pathol 53:115-126

 

Smith JH, Meier JL, Neill PJG, Box ED (1987) Pathogenesis of Sarcocystis falcatula in the budgerigar. I. Early pulmonary schizogony. Lab Invest 56:60-71

 

Smith JH, Meier JL, Neill PJG, Box ED (1987) Pathogenesis of Sarcocystis falcatula in the budgerigar. II. Pulmonary pathology. Lab Invest 56:72-84

 

Snyder DE, Hamir AN, Hanlon CA, Rupprecht CE (1991) Lung lesions in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) associated with Capillaria didelphis. J Wildl Dis 27:175-177

 

Toft JD, Pucak GJ, Bullock BC (1973) Basal-cell tumor in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Lab Anim Sci 23:431-433

 

 

1.15  Parasitology : Bacteriology : Virology

 

Alden KJ (1995) Helminths of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, in Southern Illinois, with a compilation of all helminths reported from this host in North America. J Helminthol Soc Wash 62: 197-208

 

Aliff JV (1970) A search for Trypanosoma cruzi in Kentucky opossums. Trans Kentucky Acad Sci 31:104

 

Amundson TE, Yuill TM (1981) Natural La Crosse virus infection in the red fox (Vulpes fulva), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Am J Trop Med Hyg 30:706-714

 

Babero BB (1960) Further studies on helminths of the opossum, (Didelphis virginiana), with a description of the new species from this host. J Parasitol 46:455-463

 

Baker DG, Cook LF, Johnson EM, Lamberski N (1995) Prevalance, acquisition, and treatment of Didelphostrongylus hayesi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) infection in opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zoo Wildl Med 26: 403-408

 

Barr SC, Brown CC, Dennis VA, Klei TR (1991) The lesions and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in opossums and armadillos from southern Louisiana. J Parasitol 77:624-627

 

Beamer PD, Mohr CO, Barr TRB (1960) Resistance of the opossum to rabies virus. Am J Vet Res 21:507-510

 

Boeer WJ, Crawford RP, Hidalgo RJ, Robinson RM (1980) Small mammals and white-tailed deer as possible reservoir hosts of Brucella abortus in Texas. J Wildl Dis 16:19-24

 

Bowman DD, Smith JL, Little MD (1983) Lagochilascaris sprenti sp n (Nematoda: ascarididae) from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Marsupialia: didelphidae). J Parasitol 69:754-760

 

Box ED (1983) Recovery of Sarcocystis sporocysts from feces after oral administration. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 50:348-350

 

Box ED, Duszynski DW (1980) Sarcocystis of passerine birds: sexual stages in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Wildl Dis 16:209-215

 

Box ED, Marchiondo AA, Duszynski DW, Davis CP (1980) Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis sporocysts from passerine birds and opossums: comments on classification of the genus Isospora. J Parasitol 66:68-74

 

Box ED, Meier JL, Smith JH (1984) Description of Sarcocystis falcatula stiles, 1893, a parasite of birds and opossums. J Protozool 31:521-524

 

Box ED, Smith JH (1982) The intermediate host spectrum in a Sarcocystis species of birds. J Parasitol 68:668-673

 

Bringham GD (1936) Susceptibility of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) to the virus of endemic typhus fever. Pub Health Rep 51:333-337

 

Bruning-Fann CS, Schmitt SM, Fitzgerald SD, Payeur JB, Whipple DL, Cooley TM, Carlson T, Friedrich P (1998) Mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from Michigan. J Wildl Dis 34: 632-636

 

Butterworth EW, Beverley-Burton M (1977) Capillaria didelphis n sp (Nematoda :Trichuroidea) from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana L in Georgia. Can J Zool 55: 616-619

 

Byrd EE (1941) The opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, a new host forparagonimus in Tennessee. Science 93:542

 

Byrd EE, Reiber RJ (1942) Mammalian trematodes. I. Trematodes from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rep Reelfoot Lake Biol Sta 6:130-142

 

Byrd EE, Reiber RJ, Parker MV (1942) Mammalian trematodes. I. Trematodes from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, Kerr. J Tenn Acad Sci 17:130-142

 

Byrd EE, Reiber EJ, Parker MV (1942) The anatomy of a lung fluke from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). Rep Reelfoot Lake Biol Sta 6:116-129

 

Byrd EE, Ward JW (1943) Observations on the segmental anatomy of the tapeworm, Mesocestoides variabilis, Mueller,1928, from the opossum. J Parasitol 29:217-226

 

Chandler AC (1932) Notes on Helminth parasites of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in southeast Texas, with descriptions of four new species. Proc U S Natl Mus 81:1-15

 

Clubb SL, Frenkel JK (1992) Sarcocystis falcatula of opossums: transmission by cockroaches with fatal pulmonary disease in psittacine birds. J Parasitol 78:116-124

 

Conti-Diaz IA, Turner C, Tweeddale D, Furcolow ML (1970) Besnoitiasis in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). J Parasitol 56:457-460

 

Cutler TJ, MacKay RJ, Ginn PE, Greiner EC, Porter R, Yowell CA, Dame JB (1999) Are Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula synonymous? A horse infection challenge. J Parasitol 85: 301-305

 

Dame JB, Cutler TJ, Tanhauser S, Ellison S, Greiner EC, MacKay RJ (2000) Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: Mystery wrapped in enigma. Parasitol Res 86: 940-943

 

Denton JF (1944) The occurrence of Eurytrema allentoshi (Foster, 1939) in the opossum in Texas. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 11:54-55

 

Dickerson LM (1930) A new variety of Harmostomum opisthotrias from the North American opossum, Didelphys virginiana, with a discussion of its possible bearing on the origin of its host. Paristology 22: 37-46

 

Dikmans G (1931) A new nematode worm, Viannaia bursobscura, from the opossum, with a note on other parasites of the opossum. Proc U S Natl Mus 79:1-4

 

Dikmans G (1943) The occurrence of Viannaia viannaia Travassos (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) in opossums in North America. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 10:6-7

 

Dubey JP (2000) Prevalence of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Parasitol 86: 705-710

 

Dubey JP, Lindsay DS (1998) Isolation in immunodeficient mice of Sarcocystis neurona from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) faeces, and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula. Int J Parasitol 28: 1823-1828

 

Dubey JP, Lindsay DS (1999) Sarcocystis speeri n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Parasitol 85: 903-909

 

Dubey JP, Saville WJA, Lindsay DS, Stich RW, Stanek JF, Speer CA, Rosenthal BM, Njoku CJ, Kwok OCH, Shen SK, Reed SM (2000) Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona. J Parasitol 86: 1276-1280

 

Dubey JP, Speer CA, Bowman DD, Horton KM, Venturini C, Venturini L (2000) Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) to the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Parasitol 86: 624-627

 

Dubey JP, Speer CA, Lindsay DS (1998) Isolation of a third species of Sarcocystis in immunodeficient mice fed feces from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona. J Parasitol 84: 1158-1164

 

Duhamel GE, Ganley L, Barr BC, Whipple JP, Mathiesen MR, Nordhausen RW, Walker RL, Bargar TW, Van Kruiningen HJ (1998) Intestinal spirochetosis of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana): a potential biologic vector for pathogenic spirochetes. Proc Am Assoc Zoo Veter 1998: 83-88

 

Duncan RB Jr, Reinemeyer CR, Funk RS (1989) Fatal lungworm infection in an opossum. J Wildl Dis 25:266-269

 

Durden LA, Wilson N (1990) Ectoparasitic and phoretic arthropods of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in central Tennessee. J Parasitol 76:581-583

 

Durden LA, Klompen JSH, Keirans JE (1993) Parasitic arthropods of sympatric opossums, cotton rats, and cotton mice from Merritt Island, Florida . J Parasitol 79: 283-286

 

Duszynski DW, Box ED (1978) The opossum (Didelphis virginiana) as a host for Sarcocystis debonei from cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and grackles (Cassidix mexicanus, Quiscalus quiscula). J Parasitol 64:326-329

 

Edgcomb JH, Walker DH, Johnson CM (1976) Klossiella in the opossum. Vet Pathol 13:315-318

 

Ellis RD, Pung OJ, Richardson, DJ (1999) Site selection by intestinal helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Parasitol 85: 1-5

 

Emmons RW, Lennette EH (1969) Isolation of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from an opossum. Science 163:945-946

 

Esslinger JH, Smith JL (1979) Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) didelphis sp n (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from opossums, with a redescription of D (A) pricei (Vaz and Pereira 1934). J Parasitol 65:928-933

 

Farrington DO, Jorgenson RD (1976) Prevalence of Bordetella Bronchiseptica in certain wild mammals and birds in central Iowa. J Wildl Dis 12: 523-525

 

Feldman DB, Moore JA, Harris MW, Self JL (1972) Characteristics of common helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from North Carolina. Lab Anim Sci 22:183-189

 

Fenger CK, Granstrom DE, Langemeier JL, Stamper S, Donahue JM, Patterson JS, Gajadhar AA, Marteniuk JV, Xiaomin Z, Dubey JP (1995) Identification of opossums (Didelphis virginiana) as the putative definitive host of Sarcocystis neurona. J Parasitol 81: 916-919

 

Fenger CK, Granstrom DE, Gajadhar AA, Williams NM, Mccrillis SA, Stamper S, Langemeier JL, Dubey JP (1997) Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Vet Parasitol 68: 199-213

 

Fenger CK, Granstrom DE, Gajadhar AA, Williams NM, McCrillis SA, Stamper S, Langemeier JL, Dubey JP, Wernery U, Wade JF, Mumford JA, Kaaden OR (1999) Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: experimental infection of horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Equine infectious diseases VIII: Proc Eighth Internat Conf, Dubai, 453-454

 

Fish D, Daniels TJ (1990) The role of medium-sized mammals as reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi in southern New York. J Wildl Dis 26:339-345

 

Fish D, Dowler RC (1989) Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York. J Med Entomol 26:200-209

 

Flatt RE, Nelson LR, Patton NM (1971) Besnoitia darlingi in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Lab Anim Sci 21:106-109

 

Forrester DJ (1992) Parasites and diseases of wild mammals in Florida. Univ Press Florida, Gainsville

 

Godsey MS Jr, Amundson TE, Burgess EC, Schell W, Davis JP, Kaslow R, Edelman R (1987) Lyme disease ecology in Wisconsin: distribution and host preferences of Ixodes dammini, and prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37:180-187

 

Gray JB, Anderson RC (1982) Observations on Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda: Physalopteroidea) in the American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Wildl Dis 18:279-285

 

Harari Y, Calabuig R, Moody F, Castro G (1991) Immunological sensitization of opossum gallbladder by naturally acquired stomach roundworm infection. Comp Biochem Physiol 99C: 531-535

 

Hanson WL, Chapman WL, Hendricks LD (1980) Leishmania donovani in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). J Parasitol 66: 700-701

 

Hegner, Ratcliffe H (1927) Trichomonads from the vagina of the monkey, from the mouth of the cat and man, and from the intestine of monkey, opossum and prairie dog. J Parasitol 14:27-35

 

Hill WC (1939) Spirocerca longispiculata n sp. Am Midl Nat 21:636-640

 

Hill RE Jr, Zimmerman JJ, Wills RW, Patton S, Clark WR (1998) Seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging mammals in Iowa. J Wildl Dis 34: 811-815

 

Holloway HL Jr, Dower JL (1963) The helminths of opossums in Western Virginia. Va J Sci 14:203

 

Hopkins D (1980) Ectoparasites of the virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in an urban environment. Northwest Sci 54:199-201

 

Howell JM, Dalsey WC (1990) Aerobic bacteria cultured from the mouth of the American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) with reference to bacteria associated with bite infections. J Clin Microbiol 28:2360-2361

 

Jack SW, Van Alstine WG, Swackhamer J (1989) Besnoitiasis in Indiana opossums. J Vet Diag Invest 1:189-191

 

John DT, Hoppe KL (1990) Susceptibility of wild mammals to infection with Naegleria fowleri. J Parasitol 76:865-868

 

Joseph T (1973) Coccidia from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr). Proc Indiana Acad Sci 83:467

 

Joseph T (1974) Eimeria indianensis sp n and an Isospora sp from the opossum Didelphis virginiana (Kerr). J Protozool 21:12-15

 

Karsten V, Davis C, Kuhn R (1992) Trypanosoma cruzi in wild raccoons and opossums in North Carolina. J Parasitol 78:547-549

 

Kaye MD, Mooney BF, Murray R (1977) Pasteurella hemolytica infection in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Lab Anim Sci 27:118-119

 

Kinsella JM, Winegarner CE (1975) A field study of Anatrichosoma infections in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Parasitol 61:779-781

 

Kollars TM (1993) Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting medium-sized wild mammals in southwestern Tennessee. J Med Entomol 30: 896-900

 

Kollars TM Jr, Ladine TA (1999) Patterns of infestation by adult Dermacentor variabilis (Acari:Ixodidae) in a mark-recapture study of raccoons (Mammalia:Carnivora) and Virginia opossums (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia) in Tennessee. J Med Entomol 36: 263-267

 

Kollars TM, Oliver JH, Durden LA, Kollars PG (2000) Host association and seasonal activity of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Missouri. J Parasitol 86: 1156-1159

 

Kollars TM, Oliver JH, Masters EJ, Kollars PG, Durden LA (2000) Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA. Exp Appl Acarol 24: 631-643

 

Krupp JH (1962) Treatment of opossums with Physaloptera infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 141:369-370

 

Krupp JH (1966) Parasitic diseases of the opossum. Lab Anim Dig 2:12-13

 

Leiby DA, Schad GA, Duffy CH, Murrell KD (1988) Trichinella spiralis in aTrichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals. J Wildl Dis 24:606-609

 

Lonigro JG, LaRegina MC (1988) Characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) with septicemia. J Wildl Dis 24:557-559

 

Lyons ET, Tolliver SC, Stamper S, Snyder B (1995) Nematodes found in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and four other species of mammals in Central Kentucky in 1991. Trans Ky Acad Sci 56: 128-133

 

Lu YS, Rehg J, Lawton G (1982) Acute hepatitus in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) infected with Salmonella turnidorp. Lab Anim Sci 32: 193-194

 

Marsh AE, Barr BC, Tell L, Bowman DD, Conrad PA, Ketcherside C, Green T (1999) Comparison of the internal transcribed spacer, ITS-1, from Sarcocystis falcatula isolates and Sarcocystis neurona. J Parasitol 85: 750-757

 

Marx MB (1969) Two surveys of Salmonella infection among certain species of wildlife in northern Virginia (1963 and 1965-1966). Am J Vet Res 30:2003-2006

 

McLean RG, Francy DB, Campos EG (1985) Experimental studies of St Louis encephalitis virus in vertebrates. J Wildl Dis 21:85-93

 

Mease JA (1929) Tularemia from opossums. J Am Med Assoc 92:1042

 

Messick JB, Berent LM, Ehrhart EJ, Wasmer CC (2000) Light and electron microscopic features of Eperythrozoon-like parasites in a North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Zoo Wildl Med 31: 240-243

 

Moore TD, Allen AM, Ganaway JR, Sevy CE (1971) A fatal infection in the opossum due to Mycobacterium intracellulare. J Infect Dis 123:569-578

 

Mueller JF (1930) Cestodes of the genus Mesocestoides from the opossum and the cat. Am Midl Nat 12:81-86

 

Murphy AJ, Mansfield LS (1999) Simplified technique for isolation, excystation, and culture of Sarcocystis species from opossums. J Parasitol 85: 979-981

 

Nettles VF, Prietwood AK, Davidson WR (1975) Severe parasitism in an opossum. J Wildl Dis 11:419-420

 

Oliver JH, Magnarelli LA, Hutcheson HJ, Anderson JF (1999) Ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at Cape Hatteras, NC and Assateague Island, MD and VA. J Med Entomol 36:578-587

 

Olson CA, Werner PA (1999) Oral rabies vaccine contact by raccoons and nontarge t species in a field trial in Florida. J Wildl Dis 35: 687-695

Page LK, Swihart RK, Kazacos KR (1999) Implications of raccoon latrines in the epizootiology of Baylisascariasis. J Wildl Dis 35: 474-480

 

Patton S, Funk RS (1992) Serologic response of the opossum Didelphis virginiana to a temperature-sensitive mutant (ts-4) of Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol 78:741-743

 

Pence DB, Little MD (1972) Anatrichosoma buccalis sp n (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from the buccal mucosa of the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis L. J Parasitol 58:767-773

 

Premvati G, Bair TD (1979) Trematode parasites of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Florida. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 46:207-212

 

Prestwood AK (1976) Didelphostrongylus hayesi gen et sp n (Metastrogyloidea: Filaroididae) from the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. J Parasitol 62: 272-275

 

Pung OJ, Durden LA, Banks CW, Jones DN (1994) Ectoparasites of opossums and raccoons in southeastern Georgia. J Med Entomol 31: 915-919

 

Pung OJ, Banks CW, Jones DN, Krissinger MW (1995) Trypanosoma cruzi in wild raccoons, opossums, and triatomine bugs in southeast Georgia, USA . J Parasitol 81: 324-326

 

Richardson DJ (1993) Acanthocephala of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Arkansas, with a note on the life history of Centrorhynchus wardae (Centrorhynchidae). J Helminthol Soc Wash 60: 128-130

 

Richardson DJ, Barnwell EB (1995) Histopathology of Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa (Oligacanthorhynchidae) infection in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Helminthol Soc Wash 62: 253-256

 

Rodriguez L, Calabuig R, LaRocco M, Moody FG, and Miller TA (1992) Bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract of opossums. Vet Microbiol 30:289-295

 

Rossano MG, Kaneene JB, Marteniuk JV, Banks BD, Schott HC, Mansfield LS (2001) The seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids. Prev Vet Med 48: 113-128

 

Runkel NS, Rodriguez LF, Moody FG, LaRocco MT, Blasdel T (1991) Salmonella infection of the biliary and intestinal tract of wild opossums. Lab Anim Sci 41:54-56

 

Rurangirwa FR, Teitzel CA, Cui J, French DM, McDonough PL, Besser, T (2000) Streptococcus didelphis sp. nov., a streptococcus with marked catalase activity isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with suppurative dermatitis and liver fibrosis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:759-765

 

Saville WJ, Reed SM, Morley PS, Granstrom DE, Kohn CW, Hinchcliff KW, Wittum TE (2000) Analysis of risk factors for the development of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217: 1174-1180

 

Schad GA, Leiby DA, Murrell KD (1984) Distribution, prevalence and intensity of Trichinella spiralis infection in furbearing mammals of Pennsylvania. J Parasitol 70:372-377

 

Schnurrenberger PR, Brown RR, Hill EP, Scanlan CM, Altiere JA, Wykoff JT (1985) Brucella abortus in wildlife on selected cattle farms in Alabama. J Wildl Dis 21:132-136

 

Schriefer ME, Sacci JB, Taylor JP, Higgins JA, Azad AF (1994) Murine typhus: updated roles of multiple urban components and a second typhus like rickettsia. J Med Entomol 31: 681-685

 

Scholtyseck E, Entzeroth R, Chobotar B (1982) Light microscopy and electron microscopy of Sarcocystis-sp in the skeletal muscle of an opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Protistologica 18:527-532

 

Smith DD, Frenkel JK (1984) Besnoitia darlingi (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae, Toxoplasmatinae): transmission between opossums and cats. J Protozool 31:584-587

 

Smith DD, Frenkel JK (1995) Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of Missouri and east central Kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmissions. J Wild Dis 31: 15-21

 

Smith JL, Bowman DD, Little MD (1983) Life cycle and development of Lagochilascaris sprenti (Nematoda: ascarididae) from opossums (Marsupialia: didelphidae) in Louisiana. J Parasitol 69:736-745

 

Smith KE, Zimmerman JJ, Patton S, Beran GW, Hill HT (1992) The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis on Iowa swine farms with an emphasis on the roles of free-living mammals. Vet Parasitol 42:199-211

 

Snyder DE, Hamir AN, Hanion CA, Rupprecht CE (1991) Lung lesions in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) associated with Capillaria didelphis. J Wildl Dis 27: 175-177

 

Sorvillo FJ, Gondo B, Emmons R, Ryan P, Waterman SH, Tilzer A, Andersen EM, Murray RA, Barr AR (1993) A suburban focus of endemic typhus in Los Angeles County: association with seropositive domestic cats and opossums. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: 269-273

 

Stewart TB, Dean D (1971) Didelphonema longispiculata (Hill, 1939) Wolfgang, 1953 (Nematoda: Spiruroidea) and other helminths from the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana) in Georgia. J Parasitol 57:687-688

 

Swann AI, Schnurrenberger PR, Brown RR, Garby CL (1980) Brucella abortus isolations from wild animals. Vet Rec 106:57

 

Tanhauser SM, Yowell CA, Cutler TJ, Greiner EC, MacKay RJ, Dame JB (1999) Muliple DNA markers differentiate Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula. J Parasitol 85: 221-228

 

Tate T, Christian FA (1977) Physiological and histochemical studies of the nematode (Cruzia americana). An intestinal parasite on the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Proc La Acad Sci 40: 125-126

 

Thiermann AB, Jeffries CD (1980) Opportunistic fungi in Detroit's rats and opossum. Mycopathologia 71:39-43

 

Thigpen JE, Gupta BN, Feldman DB (1974) Pasteurella multocida infection in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 24:922-923

 

Thigpen JE, Moore JA, Gupta BN, Feldman DB (1975) Opossums as a reservoir for Salmonellae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:590-592

 

Tillotson K, McCue PM, Granstrom DE, Dargatz DA, Smith MO, Traub-Dargatz JL (1999) Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona residing in northern Colorado. J Equine Vet Sci 19: 122-126

 

Toaston FL, Christain FA (1977) Parasitic mites of opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from the east Baton Rouge area in Louisiana. Proc La Acad Sci 40: 126

 

Volk JJ (1938) Isospora boughtoni n sp from the American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Parasitol 24:547-548

 

Whitaker JO, Jones GS, Goff RJ (1976) Ectoparasites and food habits of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, in Indiana. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 86: 501-507

 

Williams SG, Sacci JB Jr, Schriefer ME, Andersen EM, Fujioka KK, Sorvillo FJ, Barr AR, Azad A F (1992) Typhus and typhuslike rickettsiae associated with opossums and their fleas in Los Angeles County, California. J Clin Micro 30:1758-1762

 

Wilson ML, Litwin TS, Gavin TA, Capkanis MC, Maclean DC, Spielman A (1990) Host-dependent differences in feeding and reproduction of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 27:945-954

 

Zimmermann RH, McWherter GR, Bloemer SR (1988) Medium-sized mammal hosts of Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) at Land Between the Lakes, Tennessee, and effects of integrated tick management on host infestations. J Med Entomol 25: 461-466

 

 

1.16  Guanylate Cyclase : Guanylin : Uroguanylin : Lymphoguanylin

 

Fan X, Hamra FK, Freeman RH, Eber SL, Krause WJ, Lim RW, Pace VM, Currie MG, Forte LR (1996) Uroguanylin: cloning of preprouroguanylin cDNA, mRNA expression in the intestine and heart and isolation of uroguanylin and prouroguanylin from plasma. Biochem Biophy Res Comm 219: 457-462

 

Fan X, Wang Y, London RM, Eber SL, Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Forte LR (1997) Signaling pathways for guanylin and uroguanylin in the digesative, renal, central nervous, reproductive and lymphoid systems. Endocrinology 138:4636-4648

 

Forte LR, Eber SL, Fan X, London RM, Wang Y, Rowland LM, Chin DT, Freeman RH, Krause WJ (1999) Lymphoguanylin: Cloning and characterization of a unique member of the guanylin peptide family. Endocrinology 140: 1800-1806

 

Forte LR, Freeman RH, Krause WJ, London RM (1999) Guanylin peptides: cyclic GMP signaling mechanisms. Brazil J Med Biol Res 32: 1329-1336

 

Forte LR, Krause WJ, Freeman RH (1988) Receptors and cGMP signaling mechanism for E coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney. Am J Physiol 255:F1040-F1046

 

Forte LR, Krause WJ, Freeman RH (1989) Escherichia coli enterotoxin receptors: localization in opossum kidney, intestine, and testis. Am J Physiol 257:F874-F881

 

Forte LR, Krause WJ, Freeman RH (1993) Guanylin bioactivity in human intestinal and opossum kidney cells. In: Brown BL, Dobson PR (eds) Advances in second messenger and phosphoprotein research. Raven Press, New York, Vol 28, pp 133-138

 

Forte LR, Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Francis SH, Corbin JD (1992) Regulation of intestinal chloride channels by E coli heat-stable enterotoxin: molecular mechanisms. In: Gopalakrishnakone P, Tan CK (eds) Recent advances in toxinology research. National University of Singapore, Singapore, Vol 3, pp 485-500

 

Forte LR, Thorne PK, Eber SL, Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Francis SH, Corbin JD (1992) Simulation of intestinal Cl transport by heat-stable enterotoxin: activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by cGMP. Am J Physiol 263:C607-C615

 

Forte LR, London RM, Freeman RF, Krause, WJ (2000) Guanylin peptides: renal actions mediated by cyclic GMP. Am J Physiol 278: F180-F191

 

Forte LR, London RM, Krause WJ, Freeman RH (2000) Mechanisms of guanylin action via cyclic GMP in the kidney. Annu Rev Physiol 62: 673-695

 

Hamra FK, Forte LR, Eber SL, Pidhorodeckyj NV, Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Chin DT, Tomkins JA, Fok KR, Smith CE, Duffin KL, Siegel NR, Currie MG (1993) Uroguanylin: structure and activity of a second endogenous peptide that stimulates guanylate cyclase. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 90:10464-10468

 

Hamra FK, Krause WJ, Eber SL, Freeman RH, Smith CE, Currie MG, Forte LR (1996) Opossum colonic mucosa contains uroguanylin and guanylin peptides. Am J Physiol 270: G708- G716

 

Hamra FK, Fan X, Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Chin DT, Smith CE, Currie MG, Forte LR (1996) Prouroguanylin and proguanylin: purification from colon, structure, and modulation of bioactivity by proteases. Endocrinology 137: 257-265

 

Krause WJ, Cullingford GL, Freeman RH, Eber SL, Richardson KC, Fok KF, Currie MG, Forte LR (1994) Distribution of heat-stable enterotoxin/guanylin receptors in the intestinal tract of man and other mammals. J Anat 184: 407-417

 

Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Forte LR (1990) Autoradiographic demonstration of specific binding sites for E coli enterotoxin in various epithelia of the North American opossum. Cell Tissue Res 260:387-394

 

Krause WJ, Forte LR, Hamra FK, Freeman RH (1997) The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana: an importaant model for mechanistic studies of secretory diarrhoea and fluid-volume homeostasis. In: Saunders NR, Hinds LA (eds) Marsupial biology : recent research, new perspectives. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, Chapt 17, pp 289- 309

 

Krause WJ, London RM, Freeman RH, Forte LR (1997) The guanylin and uroguanylin peptide hormones and their receptors. Acta Anat 160:213-231

 

White AA, Krause WJ, Turner JT, Forte LR (1989) Opossum kidney contains a functional receptor for the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 159:363-367

 

 

1.17  Lipids

 

Brumleve SJ, Musacchia JX (1960) A study of some lipids in tissues of the opossum. J Mammal 41:311-314

 

Wilber CG (1952) Notes on the lipids in some wild animals. J Mammal 33:105

 

 

1.18  Musculo-Skeletal System

 

Barghusen HR, Hopson JA (1979) The endoskeleton: the comparative anatomy of the skull and the visceral skeleton. In: Wake MH (ed) Hyman's comparative vertebrate anatomy. 3rd ed, Univ Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 301-326

 

Black JD (1935) Vitality of the Virginia opossum as exhibited in the skeleton. J Mammal 16:223

 

Blincoe H (1962) The structure of the nonmotile hindlimb of the pouch young opossum. Anat Rec 142: 89-93

 

Bowen JM (1975) Comparative electrophysiology and pharmacology of mammalian (including one marsupial) intercostal muscle biopsy preparations. Am J Vet Res 36:1619-1622

 

Boyde A, Hobdell MH (1969) Scanning electron microscopy of primary membrane bone. Z Zellforsch 99:89-108

 

Bridgman CF, Shumpert EE, Eldred E (1969) Insertions of intrafusal fibers in muscle spindles of the cat and other mammals. Anat Rec 164:391-401

 

Cheng C-C (1955) The development of the shoulder region of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana, with special reference to the musculature. J Morphol 97:415-471

 

Coghill GE (1938) Early movements of the opossum with special reference to the walking gait. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 39:31-35

 

Coues E (1872) The osteology and myology of Didelphys virginiana. With an appendix on the brain by Jeffries Wyman. Mem Boston Soc Nat Hist 2:41-154

 

Crompton AW, Cook P, Hiiemae K, Thexton AJ (1975) Movement of the hyoid apparatus during chewing. Nature 258:69-70

 

Elftman HO (1929) Functional adaptations of the pelvis in marsupials. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 58:189-232

 

Ellsworth AF (1976) The North American opossum: an anatomical atlas. Robert Krieger, Huntington, New York, pp 1-209

 

Fisher MS (1999) Kinematics, EMG, and inverse dynamics of the Therian forelimb – a synthetic approach. Zool Anz 238: 41-54

 

Fleming MW, Tassava RA (1981) Preamputation and postamputation histology of the neonatal opossum hindlimb: implications for regeneration experiments. J Exp Zool 215:143-149

 

Gaudin TJ, Biewener AA (1992) The functional morphology of xenarthrous vertebra e in the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus (Mammalia, Xenrthrum). J Morphol 214:63-81

 

Gilbert PW (1954) The premandibular head cavities in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Morphol 95:47-76

 

Hamrick MW (1999) Development of epiphyseal structure and function in Didelphis virginiana (Marsupiala, Didelphidae). J Morphol 239: 283-296

 

Hansen S, Cutts JH, Krause WJ, Cutts JHIII (1987) Distribution of fibre types in thirty-seven muscles of Didelphis virginiana. Anat Anz 164:153-158

 

Hiiemae KM (1975) Masticatory movements in primitive mammals. In: Anderson DJ, Matthews B (eds) Mastication. Wright, Bristol, England, pp 105-118

 

Hiiemae KM, Crompton AW (1971) A cinefluorographic study of feeding in the American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. In: Dahlberg AA (ed) Dental morphology and evolution. Univ Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 299-344

 

Hiiemae KM, Jenkins FA (1969) The anatomy and internal architecture of the muscles of mastication in Didelphis marsupialis. Postilla 140:1-49

 

Hiiemae KM, Thexton AJ (1974) Twitch tension characteristics of opossum jaw musculature. J Dent Res 53:1067

 

Jackson RK (1971) Experimental production of Talipes in opossums. Proc Royal Soc Med 64:261

 

Jenkins FA Jr (1971) Limb posture and locomotion in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and in other non-cursorial mammals. J Zool 165:303-315

 

Jenkins FA Jr (1974) The movement of the shoulder in claviculate and aclaviculate mammals. J Morphol 144:71-84

 

Jenkins FA Jr, Weijs WA (1978) A cineradiographic and electromyographic study of the shoulder in the Virginia opossum: implications for the origin of the mammalian pectoral girdle. Am J Phys Anthropol 48:409

 

Jenkins FA Jr, Weijs WA (1979) The functional anatomy of the shoulder in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 188:379-410

 

Kelly L, Simmons JH, Heck T, Holladay LA (1988) Conformational free energies of myoglobins of small mammals. Inter J Peptide Protein Res 31:281-288

 

Kirsch JAW (1973) Notes for the dissection of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. 2nd ed, Yale Printing Service, pp 1-57

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH (1982) The notochord of the newborn opossum and its fate during postnatal development. Arch Histol Jpn 45:155-165

 

Lieberman DE, Crompton AW (2000) Why fuse the mandibular symphysis? A comparative analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 112: 517-540

Lowrance EW (1949) Variability and growth of the opossum skeleton. J Morphol 85: 569-593

 

Lowrance EW (1957) Correlations of certain ponderal and linear skeletal measurements with skull weight and skull length in the opossum. Anat Rec 128:69-75

 

Maunz M, German RZ (1997) Ontogeny and limb bone scaling in two new world marsupials, Monodelphis domestica and Didelphis virginiana. J Morphol 231: 117-130

 

McConathy D, Giddings CJ, Gonyea WJ (1983) Structure-function relationships of the flexor carpi radialis muscle compared among four species of mammals. J Morphol 175:279-292

 

McGarrick J, Thexton A (1978) Computer-aided analysis of jaw and hyoid movement. J Physiol 275:9P-10P

 

Minkoff EC, Mikkelsen P, Cunningham WA, Taylor KW (1979) The facial musculature of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Mammal 60:46-57

 

Minot CS (1906) The segmental flexures of the notochord. Anat Rec 1:42-50

 

Mizell M (1968) Limb regeneration: induction in the newborn opossum. Science 161 :283-286

 

Mizell M (1969) Induction of hindlimb regeneration in the newborn opossum. Am Zool 9:597

 

Mizell M, Isaacs JJ (1970) Induced regeneration of hindlimbs in the newborn opossum. Am Zool 10:141-155

 

Nesslinger CL (1956) Ossification centers and skeletal development in the postnatal Virginia opossum. J Mammal 37:382-394

 

Owen R (1841) On the osteology of the marsupialia. Trans Zool Soc 2: 379-408

 

Peters SE, Mulkey R, Rasmussen SA, Goslow GE Jr (1984) Motor units of the primary ankle extensor muscles of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana): functional properties and fiber types. J Morphol 181:305-317

 

Romero-Herrera AE, Lehmann H (1975) The primary structure of the myoglobin of Didelphis marsupialis (Virginia opossum). Biochim Biophys Acta 400:387-398

 

Sciote JJ, Rowlerson AM, Carlson DS (1995) Myosin expression in the jaw-closing muscles of the domestic cat and American opossum. Arch Oral Biol 40: 405-413

 

Stalheim-Smith A (1989) Comparison of the muscle mechanics of the forelimb of three climbers. J Morphol 202:89-98

 

Stein BR (1981) Comparative limb myology of two opossums, Didelphis and Chironectes. J Morphol 169:113-140

 

Thexton AJ, Crompton AW (1989) Effect of sensory input from the tongue on jaw movement in normal feeding in the opossum. J Exp Zool 250:233-243

 

Thexton AJ, Hiiemae KM (1974) Does the jaw opening reflex act as an effective protective response? J Dent Res 53:1067

 

Thexton AJ, Hiiemae KM (1975) The twitch-contraction characteristics of opossum jaw musculature. Arch Oral Biol 20:743-748

 

Thexton AJ, Hiiemae KM (1977) A radiographic and electromyographic study of snapping and biting in the opossum. Arch Oral Biol 22:303-308

 

Thomas DA (1981) Motor units in selected hind limb muscles of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Anat Rec 199:306

 

Thomason JJ (1991) Cranial strength in relation to estimated biting forces in some mammals. Can J Zool 69:2326-2333

 

Thomason JJ, Russell AP, Morgeli M (1990) Forces of biting, body size, and masticatory muscle tension in the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Can J Zool 68:318-324

 

Wade O, Hancock EW (1949) Unusual features in the lumbar plexus of the opossum. Nat Hist Misc (Chicago) 50:1-2

 

Washburn SL (1946) The sequence of epiphysial union in the opossum. Anat Rec 95 : 353-363

 

Webber RJ, Malemud CJ, Sokoloff L (1977) Species differences in cell culture of mammalian articular chondrocytes. Calcif Tissue Res 23:61-66

 

Williams LW (1908) The later development of the notochord in mammals. Am J Anat 8: 251-284

 

Young AH (1880) Intrinsic muscles of the marsupial hand. J Anat Physiol 14:149-165

 

 

1.19  Heart

 

Binnicker PC (1970) Light and electron microscopic observations on the cardiac conducting system of adult and developing pouch young opossums. Ph D Thesis, Columbia University, New York, New York, pp 124

 

Francq EN (1970) Electrocardiograms of the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, during feigned death. J Mammal 51:395

 

Hirakow R, Krause WJ (1980) Postnatal differentiation of ventricular myocardial cells of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) and T-tubule formation. Cell Tissue Res 210:95-100

 

House EW, Hoffer T, Ross BK (1979) Comparison of cardiovascular reflexes of the newborn and adult opossum. Biol Neonate 35: 140-144

 

Leeson TS, Leeson CR, Krause WJ (1984) Opossum ventricle: bodies in myocardian. IRCS Med Sci 12:21-22

 

Nardone RM, Wilber CG (1952) Electrocardiograms of the opossum at low temperatures. Fed Proc 11:112

 

Nardone RM, Wilber CG, Musacchia XJ (1955) Electrocardiogram of the opossum during exposure to cold. Am J Physiol 181:352-356

 

Qayyum MA (1969) Neuro-anatomy of the specialized tissues of the heart of the Virginia opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. Zool Anz 182:328-335

 

Rowlatt U (1990) Comparative anatomy of the heart of mammals. Zool J Linn Soc 98 : 73- 110

 

Szabuniewicz J-M, Szabuniewicz M (1978) The electrocardiogram of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Zbl Vet Med 25A:785-793

 

Walmsley R (1978) Anatomy of human mitral valve in adult cadaver and comparative anatomy of the valve. Brit Heart J 40:351-366

 

Wilber CG (1955) Electrocardiographic studies on the opossum. J Mammal 36:284-286

 

Williams TH, Folan JC, Jew JY, Wang Y-F (1990) Variations in atrioventricular valve innervation in four species of mammals. Am J Anat 187:193-200

 

 

1.20  Blood Vascular System

 

Ask-Upmark E (1935) The carotid sinus and the cerebral circulation. Acta Psych Neurol Suppl 6: 1-374

 

Bernard SL, Luchtel DL, Glenny RW, Lakshminarayan S (1996) Bronchial circulation in the marsupial opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. Res Physiol 105: 77-83

 

Bubis JJ (1962) The blood vessels in the central nervous system of the opossum. In: Electron microscopy. Proc 5th inter congr electron micros, Academic Press, New York, Vol 2, pp 11-12

 

Bubis JJ, Luse SA (1964) An electron microscopic study of the cerebral blood vessels of the opossum. Z Zellforsch 62:16-25

 

Carverhill P, Fox JE, McWade D, Rangachari PK (1985) The sodium pump in opossum vascular smooth muscle. Comp Biochem Physiol 82A:621-625

 

Dom R, Fisher BL, Martin GF (1970) The venous system of the head and neck of th e opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Morphol 132:487-496

 

Grollman A (1970) Hypertension in the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Am J Physiol 218:80-82

 

House EW, Hoffer T, Ross BK (1979) Comparison of cardiovascular reflexes of the newborn and adult opossum. Biol Neonate 35:140-144

 

Lierse WV (1964) Histochemische und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen on Kapilleren verschiedener Entwicklungsstufen des Gehirns. Anat Anz (Suppl) 115: 150-165

 

McClure CFW (1900) The variations of the venous system in Didelphys virginiana (Preliminary account). Anat Anz 18:441-460

 

McClure CFW (1901) The spermatic and mesenteric arteries of Didelphys virginiana (Kerr, Linn). Biol Bull 2:353-355

 

McClure CFW (1901) The anatomy and development of the posterior vena cava in Didelphys virginiana (Kerr, Linn). Biol Bull 2: 333-335

 

McClure CFW (1903) A contribution to the anatomy and development of the venous system of Didelphys marsupialis (L). Part I, Anatomy. Am J Anat 2: 371-404

 

McClure CFW (1906) A contribution to the anatomy and development of the venous system of Didelphys marsupialis (L). Part II, Development. Am J Anat 5:163-226

 

McMenamin PG, Krause WJ (1993) Morpholgical observations on the unique paired capillaries of the opossum retina. Cell Tissue Res 271: 461-468

 

Scharrer E (1939) The functional significance of the capillary bed in the brain of the opossum. Anat Rec 75:319-340

 

Scharrer E (1939) The regeneration of end-arteries in the opossum brain. J Comp Neurol 70:69-76

 

Scharrer E (1940) Arteries and veins in the mammalian brain. Anat Rec 78:173-19 6

 

Scharrer E (1940) Further experiments on the regeneration of end-arteries in th e brain of the opossum. J Exp Zool 85:365-381

 

Scharrer E (1940) Vascularization and vulnerability of the cornu ammonis in the opossum. Arch Neurol Psych 44:483-506

 

Tribe M (1923) The development of the hepatic venous system and the post caval vein in the marsupialia. Phil Trans Roy Soc B 212:147-207

 

Voris HC (1928) The arterial supply of the brain and spinal cord in the Virginian opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 44:403-423

 

Wade O, Neely P (1949) The heart and attached vessels of the opossum, a marsupial. J Mammal 30:111-116

 

Wislocki GB (1939) The unusual mode of development of the blood vessels of the opossum's brain. Anat Rec 74:409-427

 

Wislocki GB (1940) Pecularities of the cerebral blood vessels of the opossum: diencephalon, area postrema and retina. Anat Rec 78:119-137

 

Wislocki GB, Campbell ACP (1937) The unusual manner of vascularization of the brain of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Anat Rec 67:177-191

 

 

1.21  Lymph Vascular System

 

Miller JJ (1969) Studies of the phylogeny and ontogeny of the specialized lymphatic tissue venules. Lab Invest 21: 484-490

 

Wood GN (1924) The lymphatics of the opossum. Anat Rec 27:192-193

 

Zimmermann AA (1933) On the development of the lymphatic system in opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Anat Rec 55:42-43

 

Zimmermann AA (1940) Origin and development of the lymphatic system in the opossum (Didelphys marsupialis virginiana Kerr). Univ Illinois Press, Urbana, pp 1-197

 

 

1.22  Lymphoid Organs

 

Bryant BJ (1977) The development of the lymphatic and immunohematopoietic systems. In: Hunsaker DII (ed) The biology of marsupials. Academic Press, New York, Chapt 6, pp 349-385

 

Chiarini-Garcia H, Pereira FM (1999) A comparative study of lymph node mast cell populations in five marsupial species. Tissue Cell 31: 318-326

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ (1982) Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 135:601-613

 

Hayes TG (1968) Studies of a primitive mammalian spleen, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Morphol 124:445-450

 

Johnston J (1898) The thymus in the marsupials. J Linn Soc Zool 26:537-557

 

Kingsbury BF (1940) The development of the pharyngeal derivatives of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), with special reference to the thymus. Am J Anat 67:393-435

 

Oláh I, Glick B (1980) Re-evaluation of the lymphocyte migration through the high-endothelial venules. Light and electron microscopic studies on the opossum's lymph node. Acta Biol Acad Sci Hung 31:207-225

 

Symington J (1898) The thymus gland in the marsupialia. J Anat Physiol 32:278-291

 

Zimmermann AA (1940) Origin and development of the lymphatic system in the opossum (Didelphys marsupialis virginiana Kerr). Univ Illinois Press, Urbana, pp 1-197

 

 

1.23  Blood

 

Alayash AI, Ryan BAB, Fratantoni JC (1993) Oxidation reactions of human, opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) hemoglobins: a search for a correlation with some structural-functional properties. Comp Biochem Physiol 106B: 427-432

 

Baggot JD, Davis LE (1973) Plasma protein binding of digitoxin and digoxin in several mammalian species. Res Vet Sci 15:81-87

 

Bainton DF (1976) Neutrophil granules: a review. Am J Med Technol 42: 1-7

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Block MH, Brown GL (1976) Hemoglobins of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). I. Developmental changes from yolk sac to definitive erythropoiesis. Lab Anim Sci 26:160-165

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Brown GL, Waterman MR (1976) Hemoglobins of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). II. Polymorphism; electrophoretic and chromatographic observations. Lab Anim Sci 26:908-912

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Chadwick E, Lima JE (1989) Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum Didelphis virginiana erythrocytes. IV. Red cells have low adenosine deaminase activity and high levels of deoxyadenosine nucleotides. Life Sci 44:963-970

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Lima JE, Banks RE (1993) The effect of enzyme replacement on red cell adenine deoxyribonucleotides in adenosine deaminase-deficient erythrocytes of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Comp Biochem Physiol 106B: 635-639

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Lima JE, Banks RE (1993) 2-Deoxyadenosine metabolism in human and opossum Didelphis virginiana erythrocytes in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol 106B: 641-645

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Lima JE, Chadwick E, Stewart I (1988) Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum Didelphis virginiana erythrocytes. III. Metabolic depletion with 2-deoxyglucose markedly accelerates methemoglobin reduction in opossum but not in human erythrocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol 89A:119-124

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Lima JE, Waldrup T (1984) Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes. I. Utilization of carbohydrates and purine nucleosides. J Cell Physiol 120:69-74

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Lima JE, Waldrup TL, Chadwick E, Stewart I (1988) Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum Didelphis virginiana erythrocytes. II. Comparative aspects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose catabolism in opossum and human red cells in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol 89A:113-117

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, White JC, Chadwick E, Lima JE (1990) Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenosine and guanine nucleotides in vitro. J Cell Physiol 143:563-568

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Lima JE, White JC (1991) NAD synthesis in ADA deficient erythrocytes of the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Adv Exp Med Biol 309B:329-332

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Waterman MR, Lima JE, Waldrup T (1982) Cytosolic and membrane-bound methemoglobin reductases in erythrocytes of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Comp Biochem Physiol 73B:591-594

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Waterman MR, Lima JE, Waldrup T (1983) Comparative aspects of methemoglobin formation and reduction in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and human erythrocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol 75A:635-639

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, White JC, Chadwick E, Lima JE (1990) Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes. VI. De novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis is limited to the final steps of the pathway in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol 97B:193-196

 

Brinkhous KM, Thomas BD, Ibrahim SA, Read MS (1977) Plasma levels of platelet aggregating factor/von Willebrand factor in various species. Thrombosis Res 11:345-355

 

Campbell, BF, Magde D, Sharma VS (1985) Geminate recombination of CO in rabbit, opossum, and adult hemoglobins. J Biol Chem 260:2752-2756

 

Catanese JJ, Kress LF (1992) Isolation from opossum serum of a metalloproteinas e inhibitor homologous to human alpha 1B-glycoprotein. Biochemistry 31:410-418

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ, Leeson CR (1980) Changes in erythrocytes of the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Blood Cells 6:55-62

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ (1980) Leukocytes in the peripheral blood of the developing opossum. J Anat 130:113-120

 

De Jong WW, Terwindt EC (1976) The amino-acid sequence of the alpha-crystallin A chains of red kangaroo and Virginia opossum. Eur J Biochem 67:503-510

 

Dill K, Satterlee JD, Richards JH (1978) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the binding of isocyanides to various hemoglobins and myoglobins. Biochemistry 17:4291-4298

 

Duan W, Richardson SJ, Babon JJ, Heyes RJ, Southwell BR, Harms PJ, Wettenhall REH, Dziegielewska DM, Selwood L, Bradley AJ, Black CM, Schreiber G (1995) Evolution of transthyretin in marsupials. Eur J Biochem 227: 396-406

 

Fox DH, Rowlands DT Jr, Wilson DB (1976) Proliferative reactivity of opossum peripheral blood leukocytes to allogeneic cells, mitogens, and specific antigens. Transplantation 21:164-168

 

Garcia VE, Perez JC (1984) The purification and characterization of an antihemorrhagic factor in woodrat (Neotoma micropus) serum. Toxicon 22:129-138

 

Giacometti L, Berntzen AK, Bliss ML (1972) Hematologic parameters of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Comp Biochem Physiol 43A:287-292

 

Gray M (1924) Character of the blood-clot in the thyroidectomized adult opossum. Am J Physiol 68:149-152

 

Hindes RD, Mizell M (1976) The origin of immunoglobulins in opossum "embryos". Develop Biol 53:49-61

 

Hoff GL, Bigler WJ, Trainer DO, Debbie JG, Brown GM, Winkler WG, Richards SH, Reardon M (1974) Survey of selected carnivore and opossum serums for agglutinins to Brucella canis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:830-831

 

Hoversland AS, Dhindsa DS, Murphy WS, Parer JT, Metcalfe J (1973) Respiratory properties and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) concentration in blood of the adult opossum. Physiologist 16:348

 

Hoversland AS, Murphy WS, Dhindsa DS, Parer JT, Metcalfe J (1975) Oxygen transport and hemodynamics in unanesthetized American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Comp Biochem Physiol 50A: 519- 525

 

Imai K, Ikeda-Saito M, Yonetani T (1980) Studies on cobalt myoglobins and hemoglobins, XIII. A consequence of the occurrence of glutamine at the E7 (58) site of alpha subunits in opossum hemoglobin. J Mol Biol 144:551-565

 

John ME, Bethlenfalvay NC, Waterman MR (1982) Oxidation-reduction properties of the hemoglobin of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Comp Biochem Physiol 73B:585-590

 

John ME, DuBois RN, Waterman MR (1981) Altered heme environments in opossum and rabbit methemoglobins. Zeit Naturfor - Sec C - Biosci 36:964-967

 

John ME, Waterman MR (1979) Structural characteristics of nitrosyl hemoglobins and their relation to ESR spectra. FEBS Letters 106:219-222

 

John ME, Waterman MR (1979) Nitric oxide induced conformational changes in opos s um hemoglobin. J Biol Chem 254:11953-11957

 

John ME, Waterman MR (1981) Spectral, conformational and chemical properties of opossum methemoglobin. Eur J Biochem 115:1-6

 

Jupin JA (1968) Isolation and identification of immune globulins in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). W V Med J 64:389

 

Kalmutz SE (1962) Antibody production in the opossum embryo. Nature 193:851-853

 

Katsh S, Windsor E (1955) Unusual value for protein-bound iodine in the serum o f the opossum. Science 121:897-898

 

Koop BF, Goodman M (1988) Evolutionary and developmental aspects of two hemoglobin beta-chain genes (epsilon M and beta M) of opossum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3893-3897

 

Lewis JH (1975) Comparative hematology: studies on opossums Didelphis marsupialis (virginianus). Comp Biochem Physiol 51A:275-280

 

Mays A Jr, Loew FM (1968) Hemograms of laboratory-confined opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Am Vet Med Assoc 153:800-802

 

Menchaca JM, Perez JC (1981) The purification and characterization of an antihemorrhagic factor in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. Toxicon 19:623-632

 

Murphy WS, Metcalfe J, Dhindsa DS, Hoversland AS (1978) Respiratory characteristics of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) blood during chronic anemia. Res Physiol 32:293-298

 

Murphy WS, Metcalfe J, Hoversland AS, Dhindsa DS (1977) Postnatal changes in blood respiratory characteristics in an American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Res Physiol 29:73-80

 

Nakashima K, Nakashima H, Shimoyama M (1991) Deoxyadenosine triphosphate acting as an energy-transferring molecule in adenosine deaminsae inhibited human erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1094: 257-262

 

Niedzwicki JG, Liou C, Abernethy DR, Lima JE, Hoyt A, Lieberman M, Bethlenfalvay NC (1995) Adenosine deaminase isoenzymes of the opossum Didelphis virginiana : initial chromatographic and kinetic studies. Comp Biochem Physiol 111B: 291-298

 

Patton S, Funk RS (1992) Serologic response of the opossum Didelphis virginiana to a temperature-sensitive mutant (TS-4) of Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol 78:741-743

 

Petty C, Bethlenfalvay NC, Bageant T (1975) Spectrophotometric measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Comp Biochem Physiol 50A:273-276

 

Prasad N, Bushong SC, Barton HL (1971) Opossum lymphocytes in short-term culture with phytohemagglutinin. Exp Cell Res 69:425-429

 

Prasad N, Prasad R, Bushong SC, North LB (1977) Effect of irradiation on electrophoretic properties of enzymes in haemopoietic cells of opossum. Experientia 33:263-264

 

Richardson SJ, Wettenhall REH, Schreiber G (1996) Evolution of transthyretin gene expression in the liver of Didelphis virginiana and other American marsupials. Endocrinology 137: 3507-3512

 

Rowlands DT Jr, Blakeslee D, Lin H-H (1972) The early immune response and immunoglobulins of opossum embryos. J Immunol 108:941-946

 

Rowlands DT Jr, Dudley MA (1969) The development of serum proteins and humoral immunity in opossum "embryos". Immunology 17:969-975

 

Rirtenberg MB, Chern CJ, Lincoln DR, Black JA (1975) The immunological properties of pyruvate kinase. I: Mammalian erythrocyte enzymes. Immunochemistry 12:491-494

 

Schneider LK (1973) Cell cycle determination of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Experientia 29:468-469

 

Schneider LK, Goldman HD (1974) Effects of incubation temperature on the kinetics of cultured lymphocytes from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana . Experientia 30:1192-1193

 

Schneider LK, Rieke WO (1968) Opossum lymphocytes in vitro : a valuable tool for cytogenetic investigations. Cytogenetics 7:1-7

 

Scott WJ (1938) Gas transport by the blood of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana. J Cell Comp Physiol 12:391-401

 

Sharma VS, Isaacson RA, John ME, Waterman MR, Chevion M (1983) Reaction of nitric oxide with heme proteins: studies on metmyoglobin, opossum methemoglobin, and microperoxidase. Biochemistry 22:3897-3902

 

Sharma VS, John ME, Waterman MR (1982) Functional studies on hemoglobin opossum. Conclusions drawn regarding the role of the distal histidine. J Biol Chem 257:11887-11892

 

Sharma VS, Ranney HM (1982) Studies on hemoglobin intermediates. A new method for studying the reaction of Hb4(CO)3 with CO in human, carp, rabbit and opossum hemoglobin. J Mol Biol 158:551-558

 

Stenzel P (1974) Opossum Hb chain sequence and neutral mutation theory. Nature 252:62-63

 

Stenzel P, Brimhall B, Jones RT, Black JA, McLachlan A, Gibson D (1979) Opossum hemoglobin. The amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta chains. J Biol Chem 254:2071-2076

 

Tarng S-F, Huang SY, Perez JC (1986) Isolation of antihemorrhagic factors in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum using a monoclonal antibody immunoadsorbent. Toxicon 24:567-573

 

Tashian RE, Shreffler DC, Shows TB (1968) Genetic and phylogenetic variation in the different molecular forms of mammalian erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. Ann New York Acad Sci 151:64-77

 

Timmons EH, Marques PA (1969) Blood chemical and hematological studies in the laboratory-confined, unanesthetized opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Lab Anim Sci 19:342-344

 

Waterman MR, Stenzel P (1974) Physical and chemical properties of opossum hemoglobin. A hemoglobin containing glutamine at position 58 (E7) in the alpha subunit. Biochim Biophys Acta 359:401-410

 

Waugh R, Evans EA (1976) Viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes of different vertebrate animals. Microvascular Res 12:291-304

 

Williams DA, Lewis DA, Krause WJ, Flood MH, Huxley VH, Miller VM (1997) Phylogenetic characterization of plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx). Am J Physiol

 

Wirtz GH, Westfall SA (1967) Immune complement of the opossum. Immunochemistry 4:61-63

 

Zinkl JG, Feldman DB (1974) The erythrocyte life span in the American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Lab Anim Sci 24:500-504

 

 

1.24  Hemopoietic Tissues

 

Bethlenfalvay NC, Block MH, Brown GL (1976) Hemoglobins of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). I. Developmental changes from yolk sac to definitive erythropoiesis. Lab Anim Sci 26:160-165

 

Cutts JH, Leeson CR, Krause WJ (1973) The postnatal development of the liver in a marsupial, Didelphis virginiana. 1. Light microscopy. J Anat 115: 327-346

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ (1982) Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 135: 601-613

 

Block M (1964) The blood forming tissues and blood of the newborn opossum (Didelphys virginiana). I. Normal development through about one hundredth day of life. Ergebn Anat Entw Gesch 37:237-366

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH, Leeson CR (1975) The postnatal development of the liver in a marsupial, Didelphis virginiana. II. Electron microscopy. J Anat 120: 191-205

 

Miller JFAP, Block M, Rowlands DT Jr, Kind P (1965) Effect of thymectomy on hematopoietic organs of the opossum "embryo". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 118:916-921

 

Paone DB, Cutts JH, Krause WJ (1975) Megakaryocytopoiesis in the liver of the developing opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Anat 120:239-252

 

Prasad N, Bushong SC, MacIntrye RS (1973) Radiocytogenetic effects on bone marrow cells of opossum in vitro. Can J Gen Cytol 15:123-126

 

 

1.25  Immunology

 

Ashman R, Keast D, Stanely NF, Waring H (1975) The immunological responses of marsupials. Am Zool 15:155-166

 

Gibson DM (1977) Species specificity in the isoelectric spectra of immunoglobulin light chains. J Immunol 118:409-411

 

Griffin J, Frank T (2000) Veterinary tuberculosis vaccine development. Clin Infect Dis 30: S223-S228

 

Hindes RD, Mizell M (1976) The origin of immunoglobulins in opossum "embryos". Develop Biol 53:49-61

 

Kalmutz SE (1962) Antibody production in the opossum embryo. Nature 193: 851-85 3

 

LaPlante ES, Burrell RG, Watne AL, Zimmermann B (1966) Permanent survival of skin allographs applied to the pouch young of the opossum. Surg Forum 17: 200-201

 

LaPlante ES, Burrell RG, Watne AL, Taylor DL, Zimmermann B (1969) Skin allograft studies in the pouch young of the opossum. Transplanation 7:67-72

 

LaVia MF, Rowlands DT, Block M (1963) Antibody formation in embryos. Science 140:1219-1220

 

Major PC, Burrell R (1971) Induction of acquired tolerance in neonatal opossums. J Immunol 106:1690-1691

 

Marx JJ Jr, Burrell R, Fisher SQ (1971) A study of the afferent and efferent limbs of the immune response in opossums. J Immunol 106:1043-1049

 

Rowlands DT Jr (1970) The immune response of adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to the bacteriophage f2. Immunology 18:149-155

 

Rowlands DT Jr, Blakeslee D, Angala E (1974) Acquired immunity in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) embryos. J Immunol 112:2148-2153

 

Rowlands DT Jr, Blakeslee D, Lin HH (1972) The early immune response and immunoglobins of opossum embryos. J Immunol 108:941-946

 

Rowlands DT Jr, Dudley MA (1968) The isolation of immunoglobulins of the adult opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J Immunol 100:736-743

 

Rowlands DT Jr, LaVia MF, Block MH (1964) Antibody formation in the fetal opossum. Am J Pathol 44: 2a

 

Rowlands DT Jr, LaVia MF, Block MH (1964) The blood forming tissues and blood of the newborn opossum (Didelphis virginiana). II. Ontogenesis of antibody formation to flagella of Salmonella typhi. J Immunol 93:157-164

 

Taylor DL, Burrell R (1968) The immunologic responses of the North American opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J Immunol 101:1207-1216

 

 

1.26  Tolerance (Resistance) to Snake Venoms

 

Catanese JJ, Kress LF (1992) Isolation from opossum serum of a metalloproteinase inhibitor homologous to human alpha 1B glycoprotein. Biochemistry 31: 410-418

 

Catanese JJ, Kress LF (1993) Opossum serum alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor: purification, linear sequence, and resistance to inactivation by rattlesnake venom metalloproteinases. Biochemistry 32: 509-515

 

Domont GB, Perales J, Moussatche H (1991) Natural anti-snake venom proteins. Toxicon 29:1183-1194

 

Huang S-Y, Perez JC (1980) Comparative study on hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of snake venoms. Toxicon 18:421-426

 

Kilmon JASr (1976) High tolerance to snake venom by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Toxicon 14:337-340

 

Kress LF, Catanese JJ (1985) Isolation of an inhibitor of snake venom metalloproteinases from opossum serum. Fed Proc 44: 1431

 

Kress LF, Catanese JJ (1988) Purification and amino-terminal sequence of an inhibitor of snake venom hemorrhagic activity. FASEB J 2: A348

 

Lipps BV (1999) Anti-lethal factor from opossum serum is a potent antidote for animal, plant and bacterial toxins. J Venom Anim Toxins [Online] 5: 1-16

 

Lipps BV (2000) Small synthetic peptides inhibit, in mice, the lethalithy of toxins derived from animal, plant and bacteria. J Venom Anim Toxins [Online] 6: 1-10

 

Lipps BV, Lipps FW (1996) Embodiments of natural and synthetic lethal toxin neutralizing factors and their utility as treatment for envenomation. US patent 5: 576, 297

 

Martinez-Moczygemba M (1992) Production of a monoclonal antiboby against an antihemorrhagic factor isolated from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). M S Thesis, Texas A & I Univ, pp 62

 

Menchaca JM, Perez JC (1981) Purification and characterization of an anti hemorrhagic factor in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. Toxicon 19:623-632

 

Moussatche H, Yates A, Leonardi F, Borche L (1979) Mechanisms of resistance of the opossum to some snake venoms. Toxicon 17 (Suppl 1):130

 

Perales J, Munoz R, Moussatche H (1986) Isolation and partial characterization of a protein fraction from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum, with protecting property against the Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Anais da Acadmia Brasileira de Ciencias 58:155-162

 

Perez JC, Pichyangkul S, Garcia VE (1979) The resistance of three species of warm-blood animals to Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom. Toxicon 17:601-607

 

Perez JC Sanchez EE (1999) Natural protease inhibitors to hemorrhagins in snake venoms and their potential use in medicine. Toxicon 37: 703-728

 

Ramirez MS, Sanchez EE, Garcia-Prieto C, Perez JC, Chapa GR, McKeller MR, Ramirez R, De Anda Y (1999) Screening for fibrinolytic activity in eight Viperid venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C 124: 91-98

 

Sanchez EE, Garcia C, Perez JC, De La Zerda SJ (1998) The detection of hemorrhagic proteins in snake venoms using monoclonal antibodies against Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. Toxicon 36: 1451-1459

 

Soto JG, Perez JC, Minton SA (1988) Proteolytic, hemorrhagic and hemolytic activities of snake venoms. Toxicon 26:875-882

 

Tarng S-F, Huang SY, Perez JC (1986) Isolation of antihemorrhagic factors in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum using a monoclonal antibody immunoadsorbent. Toxicon 24:567-573

 

Thwin MM, Gopalakrishnakone P (1998) Snake envenomation and protective natural endogenous proteins: a mini review of the recent developments (1991-1997). Toxicon 36: 1471-1482

 

Werner RM, Faith RE (1978) Decrease in the lethal effect of snake venom by serum of the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. Lab Anim Sci 28:710-713

 

Werner RM, Vick JA (1977) Resistance of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) to envenomation by snakes of the family Crotalidae. Toxicon 15:29-33

 

1.27  Integument

 

Baden HP, Maderson PFA (1970) Morphological and biophysical identification of fiberous proteins in the amniote epidermis. J Exp Zool 174: 225-232

 

Brenowitz GL (1978) The innervation of the glabrous forepaw skin of developing opossums Didelphis virginiana. Anat Rec 190: 347-348

 

Brenowitz GL, Tweedle CD, Johnson JI (1980) The development of receptors in the glabrous forepaw skin of pouch young opossums. Neuroscience 5:1303-1310

 

Burger J, Marquez M, Gochfeld M (1994) Heavey metals in the hair of the opossum from Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 27: 472-476

 

Cutts JH, Krause WJ (1983) Structure of the paws in Didelphis virginiana. Anat Anz 151: 329-335

 

Fortney JA (1973) Cytology of eccrine sweat glands in the opossum. Am J Anat 136:205-219

 

Hadler WA, Silveira SR (1985) A histochemical method able to detect vitamins D and to discriminate it from cholesterol and its esters. Acta Histochem 76:177-182

 

Halata Z, Munger BL (1985) The terminal myelin segments of afferent axons to cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Brain Res 347:177-182

 

Halata Z (1993) Sensory innervation of the hairy skin (light- and electronmicroscopic study). J Invest Derm 101: 75S-81S

 

Hartschuh W, Weihe E (1980) Fine structural analysis of the synaptic junction of Merkel cell-axon-complexes. J Invest Dermatol 75: 159-165

 

Krause WJ (1991) Morphological observations on the paracloacal glands of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Zool Anz 227:286-294

 

Krause WJ (1991) Histological observations on the suprasternal gland region of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Zool Anz 227:356-361

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH, Leeson CR (1978) Postnatal development of the epidermis in a marsupial, Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 125:85-99

 

LaPlante ES, Burrell R, Watne AL, Taylor DL, Zimmermann B (1969) Skin allograft studies in the pouch young of the opossum. Transplantation 7:67-72

 

Loo SK, Halata Z (1985) The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Anat 143:167-180

 

Mann SJ (1968) The tylotrich (hair) follicle of the American opossum. Anat Rec 160:171-179

 

Montagna W, Macpherson E (1973) Similiarites in cutaneous nerve receptors. Arch Dermatol 107:383-385

 

Munger BL (1965) The intraepidermal innervation of the snout skin of the opossum. A light and electron microscope study, with observations on the nature of Merkel's Tastzellen. J Cell Biol 26:79-97

 

Munger BL (1991) Neuro-cutaneous interactions in embryonic development: implications for medical dermatoglyphics. Prog Clin Biol Res 373:295-304

 

Silveira SR, Hadler WA (1984) Histochemical aspects concerning the synthesis and the fate of cholesterol into the epidermis. Acta Histochem 74:145-155

 

Silveira SR, Hadler WA (1985) A histochemical study on the vitamin D synthesis into the epidermis. Acta Histochem 76:225-234

 

Tsukise A, Meyer W, Ikeda I (1985) Carbohydrate histochemical investigation in the scrotal skin of the common American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis L). Cell Mol Biol 31:357-364

 

Winkelmann RK (1964) Nerve endings of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana): a comparison with nerve endings of primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 22:253-258

 

 

1.28   Nervous System

 

Andrezik JA, King JS (1977) The lateral reticular nucleus of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). I. Conformation, cytology and synaptology. J Comp Neurol 174:119-150

 

Bauer-Moffett C, King JS (1981) The development of the inferior olivary complex in preweanling opossums. Identification of midbrain, cerebellar and spinal terminals. Anat Embryol 162:249-280

 

Barratt ES (1965) EEG correlates of tonic immobility in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 18:709-711

 

Basso DM (2000) Neuroanatomical substrates of functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury: Implications of basic science research for human spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 80: 808-817

 

Bautista NS, Matzke HA (1965) A degeneration study of the course and extent of the pyramidal tract of the opossum. J Comp Neurol 124:367-375

 

Beck PD, Pospichal MW, Kaas JH (1996) Topography, architecture and connections of somatosensory cortex in opossums: evidence for five somatosensory areas. J Comp Neurol 366: 109-133

 

Benevento LA (1968) Organization of the visual cortex in the opossum. Anat Rec 160: 313

 

Benevento LA, Ebner FF (1970) Pretectal, tectal, retinal and cortical projections to thalamic nuclei of the opossum in stereotaxic coordinates. Brain Res 18:171-175

 

Benevento LA, Ebner FF (1971) The areas and layers of corticocortical terminations in the visual cortex of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 141:157-189

 

Benevento LA, Ebner FF (1971) The contribution of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to the total pattern of thalamic terminations in striate cortex of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 143:243-260

 

Benjamin RM, Golden GT (1985) Extent and organization of opossum prefrontal cortex defined by anterograde and retrograde transport methods. J Comp Neurol 238:77-91

 

Benjamin RM, Jackson JC, Golden GT, West CHK (1982) Sources of olfactory inputs to opossum mediodorsal nucleus identified by horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic methods. J Comp Neurol 207:358-368

 

Beran RL, Martin GF (1971) Reticulospinal fibers of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. I. Origin. J Comp Neurol 141:453-465

 

Biedenbach MA, Towe AL (1970) Fiber spectrum and functional properties of pyramidal tract neurons in the American opossum. J Comp Neurol 140:421-429

 

Bishop GA (1991) Physiological interactions between enkephalin and excitatory amino acids in the cerebellar cortex of the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. Neuroscience 44:449-455

 

Bishop GA (1996) Cholecystokinin modulation of spontaneous and excitory amino acid-induced activity in the opossum cerebellum. Neuropeptides 30: 533-540

 

Bishop GA, Ho RH, King JS (1985) An immunohistochemical study of serotonin development in the opossum cerebellum. Anat Embryol 171:325-338

 

Bishop GA, Ho RH, King JS (1985) Localization of serotonin immunoreactivity in the opossum cerebellum. J Comp Neurol 235:301-321

 

Bishop GA, Ho RH, King JS (1988) A temporal analysis of the origin and distribution of serotoninergic afferents in the cerebellum of pouch young opossums. Anat Embryol 179:33-48

 

Bishop GA, King JS (1992) Differential modulation of Purkinje cell activity by enkephalin and corticotropin releasing factor. Neuropeptides 22:167-174

 

Bodemer CW, Towe AL (1963) Cortical localization patterns in the somatic sensory cortex of the opossum. Exp Neurol 8:380-394

 

Bodian D (1935) The projection of the lateral geniculate body on the cerebral cortex of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana. J Comp Neurol 62:469-494

 

Bodian D (1937) An experimental study of the optic tracts and retinal projection of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 66:113-144

 

Bodian D (1939) Studies on the diencephalon of the Virginia opossum. Part I. Th e nuclear pattern in the adult. J Comp Neurol 71:259-323

 

Bodian D (1940) Studies on the diencephalon of the Virginia opossum. Part II. The fiber connections in normal and experimental material. J Comp Neurol 72:207-297

 

Bodian D (1942) Studies on the diencelphalon of the Virginia opossum. Part III. The thalamo-cortical projection. J Comp Neurol 77:525-575

 

Borisoff JF, Pataky DM, McBride CB, Steeves JD (2000) Raphe-spinal neurons display an age-dependent differential capacity for neurite outgrowth compared to other brainstem-spinal populations. Exp Neurol 166: 16-28

 

Bowman MH, King JS (1973) The conformation, cytology and synaptology of the opossum inferior olivary nucleus. J Comp Neurol 148:491-523

 

Bromiley RB, Brooks C McC (1940) Role of neocortex in regulating postural reactions of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J Neurophysiol 3: 339-346

 

Cabana T, Martin GF (1982) The origin of brain stem-spinal projections at different stages of development in the North American opossum. Develop Brain Res 2:163-168

 

Cabana T, Martin GF (1984) Developmental sequence in the origin of descending spinal pathways. Studies using retrograde transport techniques in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Develop Brain Res 15:247-263

 

Cabana T, Martin GF (1985) The development of commissural connections of somatic motor-sensory areas of neocortex in the North American opossum. Anat Embryol 171:121-128

 

Cabana T, Martin GF (1985) Corticospinal development in the North American opossum: evidence for a sequence in the growth of cortical axons in the spinal cord and for transient projections. Develop Brain Res 23:69-80

 

Cabana T, Martin GF (1986) The development of projetions from somotic motor-sensory areas of the neocortex to the diencephalon and brainstem in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 251:506-516

 

Cabana T, Martin GF (1986) The adult organization and development of the rubrospinal tract. An experimental study using the orthograde transport of WGA-HRP in the North American opossum. Develop Brain Res 30:1-11

 

Cassini P, Ho RH, Martin GF (1989) The brainstem origin of enkephalin- and substance-P-like immunoreactive axons in the spinal cord of the North American opossum. Brain Behav Evol 34:212-222

 

Christensen BN, Ebner FF (1978) The synaptic architecture of neurons in opossum somatic sensory-motor cortex: a combined anatomical and physiological study. J Neurocytol 7:39-60

 

Christensen JL, Hill RM (1970) Receptive fields of single cells of a marsupial visual cortex of Didelphis virginiana. Experientia 26:43-44

 

Christensen JL, Hill RM (1970) Response properties of single cells of a marsupial visual cortex. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 47:547-556

 

Chu HN (1932) The fiber connections of the diencephalon of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Nat Res Inst Psychol, Peiping, China, pp 34

 

Chu HN (1932) The cell masses of the diencelphalon of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Nat Res Inst Psychol, Peiping, China, pp 36

 

Chu HN (1933) The fiber connections of the diencelphalon of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Psych Abst 7:235-236

 

Coleman J, Clerici WJ (1981) Organization of thalamic projections to visual cortex in opossum. Brain Behav Evol 18:41-59

 

Coleman J, Diamond IT, Winer JA (1977) The visual cortex of the opossum: the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase to the lateral geniculate and lateral posterior nuclei. Brain Res 137:233-252

 

Condo GJ, Wilson PD (1990) Morphological organization of thalamocortical relay cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 292:303-319

 

Crutcher KA, Humbertson AO Jr (1978) The organization of monoamine neurons within the brainstem of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 179:195-222

 

Crutcher KA, Humbertson AO Jr, Martin GF (1978) The origin of brainstem-spinal pathways in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Studies using the horseradish peroxidase method. J Comp Neurol 179:169-194

 

Culberson JL (1968) An evoked potential study of the ventromedial hypothalamus of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, including a stereotaxic atlas of the forebrain. Ph D Thesis, Tulane University, pp 160

 

Culberson JL, Bach LMN (1973) Limbic projections to the ventromedial hypothalamus of the opossum. Exper Neurol 41:683-689

 

Culberson JL, Haines DE, Kimmel DL, Brown PB (1979) Contralateral projection of primary afferent fibers to mammalian spinal cord. Exper Neurol 64:83-97

 

Culberson JL, Kimmel DL (1972) Central distribution of primary afferent fibers of the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Brain Res 44:325-335

 

Culberson JL, Kimmel DL (1975) Primary afferent fiber distribution at brachial and lumbosacral spinal cord levels in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Brain Behav Evol 12:229-246

 

Cummings S, King JS (1990) Coexistence of corticotropin releasing factor and enkephalin in cerebellar afferent systems. Synapse 5:167-174

 

Cummings SL, Young WS, Bishop GA, DeSouza EB, King JS (1989) Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor in the cerebellum and precerebellar nuclei of the opossum: a study utilizing immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization histochemistry, and receptor autoradiography. J Comp Neurol 280:501-521

 

Cummings SL, Young WS, King JS (1994) Early development of cerebellar afferent systems that contain corticotropin-releasing factor. J Comp Neurol 350: 534-549

 

Cunningham RH (1897) The cortical motor centres of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana. J Physiol 22:264-269

 

Curry JJ, Timiras PS (1968) Electroshock seizure thresholds and seizure patterns in two species of opossum, Didelphys virginiana and Marmosa mitis. Exper Neurol 21:364-367

 

Diamond IT and Utley JD (1963) Thalamic retrograde degeneration study of sensor y cortex in opossum. J Comp Neurol 120:129-160

 

DiTirro FJ, Ho RH, Martin GF (1981) Immunohistochemical localization of substance-P, somatostatin, and methionine-enkephalin in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 198:351-363

 

DiTirro FJ, Martin GF, Ho RH (1983) A developmental study of substance-P, somatostatin, enkephalin, and serotonin immunoreactive elements in the spinal cord of the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 213:241-261

 

Divac I, Bjšrklund A, Lindvall O, Passingham RE (1978) Converging projections from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons to the neocortex in three species. J Comp Neurol 180:59-71

 

Dom R, Falls W, Martin GF (1973) The motor nucleus of the facial nerve in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Its organization and connections. J Comp Neurol 152:373-401

 

Dom R, King S, Martin GF (1973) Evidence for two direct cerebello-olivary connections. Brain Res 57:498-501

 

Dom RM (1982) Topographical representation of the peripheral nerve branches of the facial nucleus of the opossum: a study utilizing horseradish peroxidase. Brain Res 246:281-284

 

Donoghue JP, Ebner FF (1981) The organization of thalamic projections to the parietal cortex of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 198:365-388

 

Donoghue JP, Ebner FF (1981) The laminar distribution and ultrastructure of fibers projecting from three thalamic nuclei to the somatic sensory-motor cortex of the opossum. J Comp Neurol 198:389-420

 

Dubois FS (1929) The tractus solitarius and attendant nuclei in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 47:189-224

 

Ebner FF (1967) Medial geniculate nucleus projections to telencephalon in the opossum. Anat Rec 157:238-239

 

Ebner FF (1967) Afferent connections to neocortex in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 129:241-268

 

Ebner FF (1970) Reference atlas of the brain of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). US Gov Res Dev Rep 70: 41

 

Eisenberg JF, Wilson DE (1981) Relative brain size and demographic strategies in Didelphid marsupials. Am Nat 118:1-15

 

Erickson RP, Jane JS, Waite R, Diamond IT (1964) Single neuron investigation of sensory thalamus of the opossum. J Neurophysiol 27:1026-1047

 

Falls WM, King JS (1976) The facial motor nucleus of the opossum: cytology and axosomatic synapses. J Comp Neurol 167:177-204

 

Falls WM, King JS (1976) The facial motor nucleus of the opossum: synaptic endings on dendrites. J Comp Neurol 167:205-226

 

Foltz FM, Matzke HA (1960) An experimental study on the origin, course and termination of the cerebellifugal fibers in the opossum. J Comp Neurol 114:107-125

 

Foster RE, Donoghue JP (1979) Ipsilateral corticocortical connections of the SI forepaw area in the parietal cortex of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Anat Rec 193:540-541

 

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Panneton WM, Martin GF (1983) Brainstem projections to the facial nucleus of th e opossum. A study using axonal transport techniques. Brain Res 267:19-33

 

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Pindzola RR, Ho RH, Martin GF (1988) Catecholaminergic innervation of the spina l cord in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Brain Behav Evol 32:281-292

 

Pindzola RR, Ho RH, Martin GF (1990) Development of catecholaminergic projections to the spinal cord in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 294:399-417

 

Pubols BH Jr (1968) Retrograde degeneration study of somatic sensory thalamocortical connections in brain of Virginia opossum. Brain Res 7:232-251

 

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Pubols BH Jr, Donovick PJ, Pubols LM (1973) Opossum trigeminal afferents associated with vibrissa and rhinarial mechanoreceptors. Brain Behav Evol 7: 360-381

 

Pubols BH, Pubols LM (1966) Somatic sensory representation in the thalamic ventrobasal complex of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 127:19-34

 

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Putnam SJ, Cone DM (1966) Terminal connections of the olfactory tract fibers in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Anat Rec 154: 405

 

Putnam SJ, Megirian D, Manning JW (1968) Marsupial interhemispheric relation. J Comp Neurol 132: 227-234

 

Rafols JA, Matzke HA (1970) Efferent projections of the superior colliculus in the opossum. J Comp Neurol 138:147-160

 

Ravizza RJ, Masterton B (1971) The habituation of auditory reflexes in the decorticate opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Physiol Behav 6:717-722

 

Ravizza RJ, Masterton B (1972) Contribution of neocortex to sound localization in opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Neurophysiol 35:344-356

 

Reddy VK, Cassini P, Ho RH, Martin GF (1990) Origins and terminations of bulbospinal axons that contain serotonin and either enkephalin or substance-P in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 294:96-108

 

Reep R (1984) Relationship between prefrontal and limbic cortex: a comparative anatomical review. Brain Behav Evol 25:5-80

 

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Royce GJ, Ward JP, Harting JK (1976) Retinofugal pathways in two marsupials. J Comp Neurol 170:391-413

 

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Salinas M-E, Zeballos GA, Wang MB (1971) A stereotaxic atlas of the opossum brain (Didelphis virginiana). Brain Behav Evol 4:114-150

 

Schreck J, Johnson JI (1978) Postnatal days 9-15, a critical period for the loss in cuneate nucleus due to removal of peripheral receptive fields in pouch young opossums. Anat Rec 190: 534-535

 

Scott DE (1982) Ultrastructural organization of the circumventricular organ system of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Anat Rec 202: 172A

 

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Sreesai M (1974) Cerebellar cortical projections of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). J Hirnforsch 15:529-544

 

Stokes JH (1911) The acoustic complex and its relations in the brain of the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Am J Anat 12: 401-445

 

Terman JR, Wang XM, Martin GF (1996) Growth of dorsal spinocerebellar axons through a lesion of their spinal pathway during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Develop Brain Res 93: 33-48

 

Terman JR, Wang XM, Martin GF (1997) Developmental plasticity of selected spinocerebellar axons. Studies using the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Develop Brain Res 102: 309-314

 

Terman JR, Wang XM, Martin GF (1998) Origin, course, and laterality of spinocerebellar axons in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Anat Rec 251: 528-547

 

Terman JR, Wang XM, Martin GF (1999) Developmental plasticity of ascending spinal axons - Studies using the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Dev Brain Res 112: 65-77

 

Thompson EL (1942) The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus in Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 76:239-281

 

Tobias TJ, Ebner FF (1973) Thalmocortical projections from the mediodorsal nucleus in the Virginia opossum. Brain Res 52:79-96

 

Todd BA, Inman C, Sedgwick EM, Abbott NJ (2000) Ionic permeability of the opossum sciatic nerve perineurium, examined using electrophysiological and electron microscopic techniques. Brain Res 867: 223-231

 

Towe AL (1973) Relative numbers of pyramidal tract neurons in mammals of different sizes. Brain Behav Evol 7: 1-17

 

Towe AL, Biedenbach MA (1969) Observations on the primitive pyramidal system of the American opossum. Brain Behav Evol 2:49

 

Tsai C (1925) The descending tracts of the thalamus and midbrain of the opossum , Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 39:217-248

 

Tsai C (1925) The optic tracts and centers of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 39:173-216

 

Turner EL (1924) The pyramidal tract of the Virginian opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J Comp Neurol 36:387-397

 

Tweedle CD, Hearshen DO, Ostapoff E-M (1977) Ultrastructure of the developing cuneate-gracile nuclear complex in opossums. Anat Rec 187:733-734

 

Ulinski PS (1971) External morphology of pouch young opossum brains: a profile of opossum neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol 142:33-58

 

van der Sprenkel HB (1927) Stria terminalis and amygdala in the brain of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 42:211-254

 

Vigh B, Vigh-Teichmann I, Manzano e Silva SMJ, van den Pol AN (1983) Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of the central canal and terminal ventricle in various vertebrates. Cell Tissue Res 231:615-621

 

Vigh-Trichmann I, Vigh B, Aros B, Kausz M, Simonsberger P, van den Pol AN (1981) CSF contacting neuronal structures of the third ventricle of opossum, hedgehog and cat. Mikroskopie 38:337-355

 

Volker VS, EG Hamel (1966) The nuclear configuration and cyto-architecture of the amygdaloid complex in Didelphis virginiana. Alabama J Med Sci 3:54-69

 

Voris HC (1928) The morphology of the spinal cord of the Virginian opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 46:407-459

 

Voris HC, Hoerr NL (1932) The hindbrain of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 54:277-356

 

Wade O, Hancock EW (1949) Unusual features in the lumbar plexus of the opossum. Nat Hist Misc (Chicago) 50: 1-2

 

Walker JJ, Bishop GA, Ho RH, King JS (1988) Brainstem origin of serotonin- and enkephalin-immunoreactive afferents to the opossum's cerebellum. J Comp Neurol 276:481-497

 

Walker JJ, King JS (1989) Ontogenesis of enkephalinergic afferent systems in the opossum cerebellum. Develop Brain Res 48:35-58

 

Walsh TM, Ebner FF (1970) The cytoarchitecture of somatic sensory-motor cortex in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana): a Golgi study. J Anat 107:1-18

 

Walsh TM, Ebner FF (1973) Distribution of cerebellar and somatic lemniscal projections in the ventral nuclear complex of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 147:427-446

 

Waltzer R, Martin GF (1988) Organization of forebrain projections from the medullary reticular formation in the North American opossum. Evidence for connectional heterogeneity. Brain Behav Evol 31:57-81

 

Wang XM, Basso DM, Terman JR, Bresnahan JC, Martin GF (1998) Adult opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates. Exp Neurol 151: 50-69

 

Wang XM, Qin YQ, Xu XM, Martin GF (1994) Developmental plasticity of reticulospinal and vestibulospinal axons in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 349: 288-302

 

Wang XM, Qin YQ, Terman JR, Martin GF (1997) Early development and developmental plasticty of the fasciculus gracilus in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Develop Brain Res 98: 151-163

 

Wang XM, Terman JR, Martin GF (1996) Evidence for growth of supraspinal axons through the lesion after transection of the thoracic spinal cord in the developing opossum Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 371: 104-115

 

Wang XM, Terman JR, Martin GF (1998) Regeneration of supraspinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Comp Neurol 398: 83-97

 

Wang XM, Terman JR, Martin GF (1999) Rescue of axotomized rubrospinal neurons by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Dev Brain Res 118: 177-184

 

Ward JW (1954) The development of the cortico-spinal tract in the pouch-young o f the Virginia opossum, Didelphys virginiana. J Comp Neurol 101:483-494

 

Watson CR, Herron P (1977) The inferior olivary complex of marsupials. J Comp Neurol 176:527-537

 

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Weber JT, Martin GF, Behan M, Huerta MF, Harting JK (1979) The precise origin of the tectospinal pathway in three common laboratory animals: a study using the horseradish peroxidase method. Neurosci Lett 11:121-127

 

Weed LH, Langworthy OR (1925) Decerebrate rigidity in the opossum. Am J Physiol 72:25-42

 

Weed LH, Langworthy OR (1925) Developmental study of excitatory areas in the cerebral cortex of the opossum. Am J Physiol 72:8-24

 

Weindl A, Schinko I (1978) The ventricular system of the opossum brain. Scan Electron Microsc II:861-870

 

Weindl A, Sofroniew MV, Wetzstein R (1987) Immunohistochemical demonstration of secretory neurons in the brain of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and the European mole (Talpa europea). Acta Endocrinol Suppl 215: 121-122

 

Welker W, Shambes GM (1985) Tactile cutaneous representation in cerebellar granule cell layer of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Brain Behav Evol 27:57-79

 

Willard FH, Ho RH, Martin GF (1984) The neuronal types and the distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine and enkephalin-like immunoreactive fibers in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the North American opossum. Brain Res Bull 12:253-266

 

Willard FH, Martin GF (1983) The auditory brainstem nuclei and some of their projections to the inferior colliculus in the North American opossum. Neuroscience 10:1203-1232

 

Willard FH, Martin GF (1984) Collateral innervation of the inferior colliculus in the North American opossum: a study using fluorescent markers in a double-labeling paradigm. Brain Res 303:171-182

 

Willard FH, Martin GF (1986) The development and migration of large multipolar neurons into the cochlear nucleus of the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 248: 119-132

 

Winer JA, Morest DK, Diamond IT (1988) A cytoarchitectonic atlas of the medial geniculate body of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana, with a comment on the posterior intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. J Comp Neurol 274:422-448

 

Woodburne RT (1943) The nuclear pattern of the non-tectal portions of the midbrain and isthmus in the opossum. J Comp Neurol 78:169-190

 

Xu XM, Martin GF (1989) Developmental plasticity of the rubrospinal tract in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 279:368-381

 

Xu XM, Martin GF (1990) The response of rubrospinal neurons to axotomy in the adult opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Exp Neurol 108:46-54

 

Xu XM, Martin GF (1991) Evidence for new growth and regeneration of cut axons in developmental plasticity of the rubrospinal tract in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 313:103-112

 

Xu XM, Martin GF (1991) Ipsilaterally projecting rubrospinal neurons in adult and developing opossums. Anat Rec 231:538-547

 

Xu XM, Martin GF (1992) The response of rubrospinal neurons to axotomy at different stages of development in the North American opossum. J Neurotrauma 9:93-105

 

Yuen H, Dom RM, Martin GF (1974) Cerebellopontine projections in the American opossum. A study of their origin, distribution and overlap with fibers from the cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol 154:257-285

 

Ziehen T (1897) Ueber die Motorische Rindenregion von Didelphys virginiana. Centralbl Physiol 11:457-461

 

Zimmerman EA, Chambers WW (1963) Cortical projections to sensory relay nuclei in the brainstem of the opossum and rat. Anat Rec 145:304

 

Zou XC, Martin GF (1995) The distribution of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with notes on their development. Brain Behav Evol 45: 63-83

 

Zou XC, Ho RH, Wang XM, Martin GF (1996) Evidence for GAP-43 within descending spinal axons in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Brain Behav Evol 47: 200-213

 

 

1.29  Eye : Optic Nerve

 

Ahnelt PK, Kolb H (2000) The mammalian photoreceptor mosaic-adaptive design. Prog Retin Eye Res 19: 711-777

 

Bodian D (1936) An experimental study of the optic tracts and retinal projection of the Virginia opossum. J Comp Neurol 66:113-144

 

Braekevelt CR (1976) Fine structure of the retinal epithelium and tapetum lucidum of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Morphol 150:213-226

 

Christensen JL, Hill RM (1969) A review of the anatomy and neurophysiology of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) visual system. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 46:440-446

 

Friedman H (1967) Color vision in the Virginia opossum. Nature 213:835-836

 

Goldman KA, Steinberg RH (1979) Phagocytosis and degradation of phagosomes in the tapetal retinal pigment epithelium (PE) of the opossum. J Cell Biol 83: 132A

 

Hazlett LD, Hazlett JC, Ireland M, Bradley RH (1978) Microperoxisomes in retinal epithelium and tapetum lucidum of the American opossum. Exper Eye Res 27:343-348

 

Herman KG, Steinberg RH (1982) Melanosome metabolism in the retinal pigmented epithelium of the opossum. Cell Tissue Res 227:485-507

 

Herman KG, Steinberg RH (1982) Phagosome degradation in the tapetal retinal pigment epithelium of the opossum. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 23:291-304

 

Herman KG, Steinberg RH (1982) Phagosome movement and the diurnal pattern of phagocytosis in the tapetal retinal pigment epithelium of the opossum. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 23:277-290

 

Johnson GL (1901) Contributions to the comparative anatomy of the mammalian eye, chiefly based on opthalmoscopic examination. Philos Trans B 194: 1-82

 

Kirby MA, Clift-Forsberg L, Wilson PD, Rapisardi SC (1982) Quantitative analysi s of the optic nerve of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana): an electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol 211:318-327

 

Kirby MA, Wilson PD (1986) Receptive field properties and latencies of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Neurophysiol 56: 907-933

 

Kirby MA, Wilson PD, Fischer TM (1988) Development of the optic nerve of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Develop Brain Res 44:37-48

 

Kolb H, Wang HH (1985) The distribution of photoreceptors, dopaminergic amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the retina of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Vision Res 25:1207-1221

 

Krause WJ, McMenamin PG (1992) Morphological observations on the Harderian gland of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Anat Embryol 186:145-152

 

Leure-dupree AE (1975) Electron microscopic observations of the retina in the pouch young opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Anat Rec 181: 409-410

 

Levi G (1926) Le développement de la cornée chez les amniotes. Comp Rend Assoc Anat 21: 358-369

 

Maclaren RE, Taylor JSH (1997) Regeneration in the developing optic nerve - correlating observations in the opossum to other mammalian systems. Prog Neurobiol 53: 381-398

 

McMenamin PG (1999) Subretinal macrophages in the developing eye of eutherian mammals and marsupials. Anat Embryol 200: 551-558

 

McMenamin PG, Krause WJ (1993) Development of the eye in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Anat 183:343-358

 

McMenamin PG, Krause WJ (1993) Morphological observations on the unique paired capillaries of the opossum retina. Cell Tissue Res 271:461-468

 

Pirie A (1961) Cholesterol in the tapetum lucidum of the eye of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Nature 191:708-709

 

Rapaport DH, Wilson PD (1983) Retinal ganglion cell size groups projecting to the superior colliculus and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 213:74-85

 

Rapaport DH, Wilson PD, Rowe MH (1981) The distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Comp Neurol 199:465-480

 

Rowe MH, Wilson PD, Rapaport DH (1981) Conduction velocity groups in the optic nerve of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana): retinal origins and central projections. J Comp Neurol 199:481-493

 

Uga S, Smelser GK (1973) Comparative study of the fine structure of retinal Müller cells in various vertebrates. Invest Ophthalmol 12:434-448

 

Walls GL (1939) Notes on the retinae of two opossum genera. J Morphol 64:67-87

 

Wilson PD, Condo GJ (1985) Beta-like ganglion cells in the retina of the North American opossum. Brain Res 331:155-159

 

Wislocki GB (1940) Peculiarities of the cerebral blood vessels of the opossum : diencephalon, area postrema and retina. Anat Rec 78: 119-131

 

 

1.30  Ear

 

Bock WJ (1970) The M. tensor tympani in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Amer Zool 10:557

 

Fernández C, Schmidt RS (1963) The opossum ear and evolution of the coiled cochlea. J Comp Neurol 121:151-159

 

Henson OW (1974) Comparative anatomy of the middle ear. In: Keidel WD, Neff WD (eds) Handbook of sensory physiology. Auditory system. Anatomy physiology (ear). Springer, New York, Vol V, Part 1, pp 39-110

 

Krause WJ (1991) The vestibular apparatus of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) prior to and immediately after birth. Acta Anat 142:57-59

 

Larsell O, McCrady E Jr (1935) Acoustic function in pouch young of the opossum. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 32:774-776

 

Larsell O, McCrady E Jr, Zimmerman AA (1935) Morphological and functional development of the membranous labyrinth in the opossum. J Comp Neurol 63:95-118

 

McClain JA (1939) The development of the auditory ossicles of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J Morphol 64:211-265

 

McCrady E Jr (1935) Symposium: tone localization in the cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 44: 813-818

 

McCrady E Jr, Larsell O (1935) Functional development of the otocyst in the opossum. Anat Rec 61:34-35

 

McCrady E Jr, Wever EG, Bray CW (1937) The development of hearing in the opossum. J Exp Zool 75:503-517

 

Segall W (1969) The auditory ossicles (malleus, incus) and their relationships to the tympanic: in marsupials. Acta Anat 73:176-191

 

Stokes JH (1911) The acoustic complex and its relations in the brain of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Am J Anat 12: 401-445

 

Sucheston ME, Cannon MS (1971) Eustachian tube of several mammalian species. Arch Otolaryngol 93:58-64

 

Weil R (1899) Development of the ossicula auditis in the opossum. Ann New York Acad Sci 12: 103-118

 

 

1.31  Respiratory System

 

Bremer JL (1904) On the lung of the opossum. Am J Anat 3:67-73

 

Ellison LT, McPherson JC, Ellison RG (1969) Alveolar surfactant in small laboratory animals, fowl, snakes, and adult and pouch 'possums. Fed Proc 28:400

 

Farber JP (1972) Development of pulmonary reflexes and pattern of breathing in the Virginia opossum. Res Physiol 14:278-286

 

Farber JP (1978) Laryngeal effects and respiration in the suckling opossum. Res Physiol 35:189-200

 

Farber JP (1982) Pulmonary receptor discharge and expiratory muscle activity. Res Physiol 47:219-229

 

Farber JP (1983) Expiratory motor responses in the suckling opossum. J Appl Physiol Respir Envir Exer Physiol 54:919-925

 

Farber JP (1985) Motor responses to positive-pressure breathing in the developing opossum. J Appl Physiol 58:1489-1495

 

Farber JP (1986) Differential recruitment of expiratory muscles during opossum development. J Appl Physiol 60:841-845

 

Farber JP (1987) Expiratory effects of cerebellar stimulation in developing opossums. Am J Physiol 252:R1158-R1164

 

Farber JP (1988) Medullary inspiratory activity during opossum development. Am J Physiol 254:R578-R584

 

Farber JP (1989) Medullary expiratory activity during opossum development. J Appl Physiol 66:1606-1612

 

Farber JP (1990) Effects on breathing of rostral pons glutamate injection during opossum development. J Appl Physiol 69:189-195

 

Farber JP (1993) GABAergic effects on respiratory neuronal discharge during opossum development. Am J Phsiol 264: R331-R336

 

Farber JP (1993) Maximum discharge rates of respiratory neurons during opossum development. J Appl Physiol 75: 2040-2044

 

Farber JP (1995) Effect on breathing of medullary bicuculline microinjections in immature opossums. Am J Physiol 269: R1295-R1300

 

Farber JP, Fisher JT, Sant'Ambrogio G (1983) Distribution and discharge properties of airway receptors in the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. Am J Physiol 245:R209-R214

 

Farber JP, Fisher JT, Sant'Ambrogio G (1984) Airway receptor activity in the developing opossum. Am J Physiol 246:R753-R758

 

Farber JP, Hultgren HN, Tenney SM (1972) Development of the chemical control of breathing in the Virginia opossum. Res Physiol 14:267-277

 

Farber JP, Maltby MA (1980) Ventilatory effects of naloxone and morphine in the developing opossum. Res Physiol 41:279-287

 

Farber JP, Marlow TA (1974) Hering-Breuer inflation reflex and pattern of breathing in the opossum. Fed Proc 33:420

 

Farber JP, Marlow TA (1976) Pulmonary reflexes and breathing pattern during sleep in the opossum. Res Physiol 27:73-86

 

Farber JP, Marlow TA (1977) Ventilatory effects accompanying spontaneous movement in the suckling opossum. Res Physiol 31:241-250

 

Farber JP, Marlow TA (1978) An obstructive apnea in the suckling opossum. Res Physiol 34:295-305

 

Farber JP, Tenny SM (1970) Development of ventilatory control mechanisms in the Virginia opossum. Physiologist 13:194

 

Farber JP, Tenney SM (1971) The pouch gas of the Virgina opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Res Physiol 11:335-345

 

Frappell PB, Mortola JP (1989) Respiratory mechanics in small newborn mammals. Res Physiol 76:25-36

 

Frederickson RG, Ulrich RG, Pope RS (1980) Morphology of differentiating epithelial cells in the respiratory tract of the postnatal opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Scan Electron Microsc 3:291-300

 

Hill RW (1978) Exhalant air temperatures in the Virginia opossum. J Therm Biol 3:219-221

 

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1.32  Digestive System

 

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Chakder S, Rattan S (1992) Neurally mediated relaxation of opossum internal anal sphincter: influence of superoxide anion generator and the scavenger. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 260:1113-1118

 

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Chakder S, Rattan S (1996) Evidence for VIP-induced increase in NO production i n myenteric neurons of opossum internal sphincter. Am J Physiol 270: G492-G497

 

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Christensen J, Iskandarani M (1981) Neuromuscular functions in esophageal smooth muscle of opossums as differently affected by veratrum alkaloids. Gastroenterology 81:866-871

 

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Christensen J, Percy WH (1985) A pharmacological study of oesophageal musculari s mucosae from the cat, dog and American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Addendum. Br J Pharmacol 85:565

 

Christensen J, Rick GA (1985) Nerve cell density in submucous plexus throughout the gut of cat and opossum. Gastroenterology 89:1064-1069

 

Christensen J, Rick GA (1985) Shunt fascicles in the gastric myenteric plexus i n five species. Gastroenterology 88:1020-1025

 

Christensen J, Rick GA, Lowe LS (1992) Distributions of interstitial cells of Cajal in stomach and colon of cat, dog, ferret, opossum, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. J Auto Nerv Sys 37:47-56

 

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Christensen J, Rick GA, Soll DJ (1987) Intramural nerves and interstitial cells revealed by the Champy-Maillet stain in the opossum esophagus. J Auto Ner Sys 19:137-151

 

Christensen J, Roberts RL (1983) Differences between esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter in mitochondria of smooth muscle in opossum. Gastroenterology 85:650-656

 

Christensen J, Robison BA (1982) Anatomy of the myenteric plexus of the opossum esophagus. Gastroenterology 83:1033-1042

 

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Christensen J, Williams TH, Jew J, O'Dorisio TM (1989) Distribution of immunoreactive substance P in opossum esophagus. Dig Dis Sci 34:513-520

 

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Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Li YF, Moody FG, Schlegel JF (1986) Effect of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 on the myoelectric activity of the gastrointestinal tract of the opossum. J Physiol 377:421-427

 

Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Moody FG, Li YF (1985) Gastrointestinal myoelectric activity following abdominal operations in the opossum. World J Surg 9:612-618

 

Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Moody FG, Li YF, Senninger N (1986) Gastrointestinal motility following small bowel obstruction in the opossum. J Surg Res 41:274-278

 

Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Moody FG, Li YF, Weisbrodt NW (1986) Influence of autonomic drugs on the motility of the sphincter of Oddi in the opossum. Surg Gyn Obst 163:209-214

 

Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Moody FG, Li YF, Weisbrodt NW (1986) Serotonin increases the velocity of propagation and frequency of the migrating myoelectric complexes. Eur J Clin Invest 16:252-256

 

Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Moody FG, Schlegel JF (1986) Effect of feeding on myoelectric activity of the sphincter of Oddi and the gastrointestinal tract in the opossum. Dig Dis Sci 31:202-207

 

Coelho JC, Gouma DJ, Moody FG, Senninger N, Li YF, Chey WY (1986) Sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal motility disturbance following alcohol administration in the opossum. World J Surg 10:990-995

 

Coelho JC, Moody FG (1987) Certain aspects of normal and abnormal motility of sphincter of Oddi. Dig Dis Sci 32:86-94

 

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Daniel EE, Jager LP, Jury J (1987) Catecholamines release mediators in the opossum oesophageal circular smooth muscle. J Physiol 382:489-508

 

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Rattan S (1986) The non-adrenergic non-cholinergic innervation of the esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter. Arch Inter Pharma Ther 280 (Suppl):62-83

 

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Rattan S, Chakder S (1997) L-citrulline recycling in opossum internal anal sphincter relaxtion by nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerve. Gastroenterology 112: 1250-1259

 

Rattan S, Chakder S (1997) L-arginine deficiency causes supression of nonadrenergic nonchoinergic nerve-mediated smooth muscle relaxation - role of L-citrulline recycling. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 282: 378-384

 

Rattan S, Chakder S (2000) Influence of heme oxygenase inhibitors on the basal tissue enzymatic activity and smooth muscle relaxation of internal anal sphincter. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 294: 1009-1016

 

Rattan S, Coln D, Goyal RK (1976) The mechanism of action of gastrin on the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 70:828-831

 

Rattan S, Culver PJ (1987) Influence of loperamide on the internal anal sphincter in the opossum. Gastroenterology 93:121-128

 

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Rattan S, Gidda JS, Goyal RK (1983) Membrane potential and mechanical responses of the opossum esophagus to vagal stimulation and swallowing. Gastroenterology 85:922-928

 

Rattan S, Gonnella P, Goyal RK (1988) Inhibitory effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide and calcitonin on opossum esophageal smooth muscle. Gastroenterology 94:284-293

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1974) Neural control of the lower esophageal sphincter: influence of the vagus nerves. J Clin Invest 54:899-906

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1975) Effect of nicotine on the lower esophageal sphincter. Studies on the mechanism of action. Gastroenterology 69:154-159

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1976) Effect of dopamine on the esophageal smooth muscle in vivo. Gastroenterology 70:377-381

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1977) Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the lower esophagea l sphincter in vivo: evidence for multiple sites of action. J Clin Invest 59:125-133

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1978) Effects of histamine on the lower esophageal sphincte r in vivo: evidence for action at three different sites. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 204:334-342

 

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Rattan S, Goyal RK (1980) Evidence against purinergic inhibitory nerves in the vagal pathway to the opossum lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 78:898-904

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1983) Identification and localization of opioid receptors in the opossum lower esophageal sphincter. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 224:391-397

 

Rattan S, Goyal RK (1987) Effect of galanin on the opossum lower esophageal sphincter. Life Sci 41:2783-2790

 

Rattan S, Grady M, Goyal RK (1982) Vasoactive intestinal peptide causes peristaltic contractions in the esophageal body. Life Sci 30:1557-1563

 

Rattan S, Hersh T, Goyal RK (1972) Effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha and gastrinpentapeptide on the lower esophageal sphincter. Pro Soc Exper Bio Med 141:573-575

 

Rattan S, Moummi C (1989) Influence of stimulators and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotides on lower esophageal sphincter. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 248:703-709

 

Rattan S, Moummi C, Chakder S (1991) CGRP and ANF cause relaxation of opossum internal anal sphincter via different mechanisms. Am J Physiol 260:G764-G769

 

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Rattan S, Shah R (1987) Influence of sacral nerves on the internal anal sphincter of the opossum. Am J Physiol 253:G345-G350

 

Rattan S, Shah R (1988) Influence of purinoceptors' agonists and antagonists on opossum internal anal sphincter. Am J Physiol 255:G389-G394

 

Rattan S, Thatikunta P (1993) Role of nitric oxide in sympathetic neurotransmission in opossum internal anal sphincter. Gastroenterology 105: 827-836

 

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Ren J, Schulze-Delrieu K (1990) Movement of wax particles by contractions in the isolated opossum esophagus. Am J Physiol 258:G164-G170

 

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Robotham H, Jury J, Daniel EE (1985) Capsaicin effects on muscularis mucosa of opossum esophagus: substance P release from afferent nerves? Am J Physiol 248:G655-G662

 

Rodriguez L, Calabuig R, LaRocco M, Moody FG, Miller TA (1992) Bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract of opossums. Vet Microbiol 30:289-295

 

Runkel NSF, Rodriguez LF, Moody FG (1995) Mechanisms of sepsis in acute pancreatitis in opossums. Am J Surg 169 227-232

 

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Rünzi M, Saluja A, Kaiser A, Gerdes D, Sengupta A, Steer ML (1995) Biochemical and morphological changes that characterise recovery from necrotising biliary pancreatitis in the opossum. Gut 37: 427-433

 

Ryan J, Cohen S (1976) Gallbladder pressure-volume response to gastrointestinal hormones. Am J Physiol 230:1461-1465

 

Ryan J, Cohen S (1977) Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on basal and cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder pressure. Gastroenterology 73:870-872

 

Ryan JP, Duffy KR (1978) LES pressure response to pentagastrin: effect of cholinergic augmentation and inhibition. Am J Physiol 234:E301-E305

 

Ryan JP, Snape WJ Jr, Cohen S (1977) Influence of vagal cooling on esophageal function. Am J Physiol 232:E159-E164

 

Saha JK, Hirano I, Goyal RK (1993) Biphasic effect of SNP on opossum esophageal longitudinal muscle: involvement of cGMP and eicosanoid. Am J Physiol 265: G403-G407

 

Saha JK, Sengupta JN, Goyal RK (1990) Effect of bradykinin on opossum esophageal longitudinal smooth muscle: evidence for novel bradykinin receptors. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 252:1012-1020

 

Saha JK, Sengupta JN, Goyal RK (1991) Effects of bradykinin and bradykinin analogs on the opossum lower esophageal sphincter: characterization of an inhibitory bradykinin receptor. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 259:265-273

 

Saha JK, Sengupta JN, Goyal RK (1992) Role of chloride ions in lower esophageal sphincter tone and relaxation. Am J Physiol 263:G115-G126

 

Samuel I, Toriumi Y, Yokoo H, Wilcockson DP, Trout JJ, Joehl RJ (1994) Ligation-induced acute panceatitis in rats and opossums: a comparative morphologic study of the early phase. J Sur Res 57: 299-311

 

Samuel I, Wilcockson DP, Regan JP, Joehl RJ (1995) Ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in opossums: acinar cell necrosis in the absence of colocalization. J Sur Res 58: 69-74

 

Sarna SK, Daniel EE, Waterfall WE (1977) Myogenic and neural control systems for esophageal motility. Gastroenterology 73:1345-1352

 

Schlippert W, Schulze K, Forker EL (1979) Calcium in smooth muscle from the opossum esophagus. Pro Soc Exper Bio Med 162:354-358

 

Schulze K, Christensen J (1977) Lower sphincter of the opossum esophagus in pseudopregnancy. Gastroenterology 73:1082-1085

 

Schulze K, Conklin JL, Christensen J (1977) A potassium gradient in smooth muscle segment of the opossum esophagus. Am J Physiol 232:E270-E273

 

Schulze K, Dodds WJ, Christensen J, Wood JD (1977) Esophageal manometry in the opossum. Am J Physiol 233:E152-E159

 

Schulze K, Hajjar JJ, Christensen J (1978) Regional differences in potassium content of smooth muscle from opossum esophagus. Am J Physiol 235:E709-E713

 

Schulze-Delrieu K, Crane SA (1982) Oxygen uptake and mechanical tension in esophageal smooth muscle from opossums and cats. Am J Physiol 242:G258-G262

 

Schulze-Delrieu K, Lepsien G (1982) Depression of mechanical and electrical activity in muscle strips of opossum stomach and esophagus by acidosis. Gastroenterology 82:720-724

 

Schulze-Delrieu K, Mitros FA, Shirazi S (1982) Inflammatory and structural chang =es in the opossum esophagus after resection of the cardia. Gastroenterology 82:276-283

 

Schulze-Delrieu K, Percy WH, Ren J, Shirazi SS, Von Derau K (1989) Evidence for inhibition of opossum LES through intrinsic gastric nerves. Am J Physiol 256:G198-G205

 

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Seelig LL Jr, Doody P, Brainard L, Gidda JS, Goyal RK (1984) Acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase staining of neurons in the opossum esophagus. Anat Rec 209:125-130

 

Seelig LL Jr, Goyal RK (1978) Morphological evaluation of opossum lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 75:51-58

 

Seelig LL Jr, Schlusselberg DS, Smith WK, Woodward DJ (1985) Mucosal nerves and smooth muscle relationships with gastric glands of the opossum: an ultrastructural and three-dimensional reconstruction study. Am J Anat 174:15-26

 

Sengupta A, Goyal RK (1988) Localization of galanin immunoreactivity in the opossum esophagus. J Auto Nerv Sys 22:49-56

 

Sengupta A, Paterson WG, Goyal RK (1987) Atypical localization of myenteric neurons in the opossum lower esophageal sphincter. Am J Anat 180:342-348

 

Sengupta JN, Kauvar D, Goyal RK (1989) Characteristics of vagal esophageal tension-sensitive afferent fibers in the opossum. J Neurophysiol 61:1001-1010

 

Sengupta JN, Saha JK, Goyal RK (1990) Stimulus-response function studies of esophageal mechanosensitive nociceptors in sympathetic afferents of opossum. J Neurophysiol 64:796-812

 

Sengupta JN, Saha JK, RK Goyal (1992) Differential sensitivity to bradykinin of esophageal distension-sensitive mechanoreceptors in vagal and sympathetic afferents of the opossum. J Neurophysiol 68:1053-1067

 

Senninger N, Moody FG, Coelho JC, Van Buren DH (1986) The role of biliary obstruction in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in the opossum. Surgery 99:688-693

 

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Shackleford JM, Wilborn WH (1968) Structural and histochemical diversity in mammalian salivary glands. Ala J Med Sci 5:180-203

 

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Shaw BW Jr, Becker JM, Moody FG (1979) Histaminergic responses of biliary sphincter in opossum. Surg For 30:400-402

 

Shedlofsky-Deschamps G, Krause WJ, Cutts JH, Hansen S (1982) Histochemistry of the striated musculature in the opossum and human oesophagus. J Anat 134:407-414

 

Shelhamer J (1973) Physiology of the bile transport: manometric studies of common bile duct and sphincter of Oddi. Gastroenterology 64:A-3-686

 

Shibamoto T, Chakder S, Rattan S (1994) Role of hypogastric nerve activity in opossum internal anal sphincter function: influence of surgical and chemical denervation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 271: 277-284

 

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Shirazi S, Schulze-Delrieu K, Custer-Hagen T, Brown CK, Ren J (1989) Motility changes in opossum esophagus from experimental esophagitis. Dig Dis Sci 34:1668-1676

 

Singaram C, Sengupta A, Spechler SJ, Goyal RK (1990) Mucosal peptidergic innervation of the opossum esophagus and anal canal: a comparison with snout skin. J Auto Nerv Sys 29: 231-240

 

Singaram C, Sweet MA, Gaumnitz EA, Bass P, Snipes RL (1996) Evaluation of early events in the creation of amyenteric opossum model of achalasia. Neurogastro Mot 8: 351-361

 

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Stern DN, Song MJ, Landis WJ (1992) Tubule formation and elemental detection in developing opossum enamel. Anat Rec 234:34-48

 

Sugarbaker DJ, Rattan S, Goyal RK (1984) Swallowing induces sequential activation of esophageal longitudinal smooth muscle. Am J Physiol 247:G515-G519

 

Sugarbaker DJ, Rattan S, Goyal RK (1984) Mechanical and electrical activity of esophageal smooth muscle during peristalsis. Am J Physiol 246:G145-G150

 

Sullivan DM, Turner JT (1990) Characterization of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana, Kerr) submandibular gland: differences in receptor density and subtype compared with higher mammalian species. Comp Biochem Physiol 97C:65-70

 

Suzuki T, Dodds WJ, Sarna SK, Hogan WJ, Komorowski RA, Itoh Z (1988) Control mechanisms of sphincter of Oddi contraction rate in the opossum. Am J Physiol 255:G619-G626

 

Takahashi I, Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Itoh Z, Baker K (1988) Effect of vagotomy on biliary-tract motor activity in the opossum. Dig Dis Sci 33:481-489

 

Takahashi I, Dodds WJ, Itoh Z, Hogan WJ, Kern MK (1984) Influence of transsphincteric fluid flow on spike burst rate of the opossum sphincter of Oddi. Gastroenterology 87:1292-1298

 

Takahashi I, Honda R, Dodds WJ, Sarna S, Toouli J, Itoh Z, Chey WY, Hogan WJ, Greiff D, Baker K (1983) Effect of motilin on the opossum upper gastrointestinal tract and sphincter of Oddi. Am J Physiol 245:G476-G481

 

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Takahashi I, Kern MK, Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Sarna SK, Soergel KH, Itoh Z (1986) Contraction pattern of opossum gallbladder during fasting and after feeding. Am J Physiol 250:G227-G235

 

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1.33  Endocrine System

 

Ask-Upmark E (1935) The carotid sinus and the cerebral circulation. Levin and Munksgard, Copengagen, Acta Psychiat (Suppl 6) pp 374

 

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Bauman RT, Turner WC (1966) L-thyroxine secretion rates and L-triiodothyronine equivalents in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Gen Comp Endocrinol 6:109-113

 

Beck RR, Brownell KA, Besch PK (1969) A further study of adrenal function in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Gen Comp Endocrinol 13:165-172

 

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Bensley RR (1916) The influence of diet and iodides on the hyperplasia of the thyroid gland of opossums in captivity. Am J Anat 19:57-65

 

Bodian D (1951) Nerve endings, neurosecretory substance and lobular organization of the neurohpophysis. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 89:354-376

 

Bodian D (1963) Cytological aspects of neurosecretion in opossum neurohypophysis. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 113: 57-93

 

Britton SW, Silvette H (1933) Maternal and fetal carbohydrate relationships in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Am J Physiol 105:12

 

Britton SW, Silvette H (1935) Adrenal insufficiency in the marmot and opossum and theories of cortico-adrenal function. Science 82:230-232

 

Britton SW, Silvette H (1937) Further observations on sodium chloride balance in the adrenalectomized opossum. Am J Physiol 118:21-25

 

Brownell KA, Beck RR, Besch PK (1967) Steroid production by the normal opossum (Didelphis virginiana) adrenal in vitro. Gen Comp Endocrinol 9:214-216

 

Carmichael SW, Spagnoli DB, Frederickson RG, Krause WJ, Culberson JL (1987) Opossum adrenal medulla: I. Postnatal development and normal anatomy. Am J Anat 179:211-219

 

Carmichael SW, Ulrich RG (1983) Scanning electron microscopy of the mammalian adrenal medulla. Mikroskopie 40:53-64

 

Chauvet J, Hurpet D, Michel G, Chauvet M-T, Acher R (1984) Two multigene families for marsupial neurohypophysial hormones? Identification of oxytocin, mesotocin, lysipressin and arginine vasopressin in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 123:306-311

 

Davis JO, Copeland DL, Taylor AA, Baumber JS (1970) Plasma electrolyte concentrations and steroid secretion in the bullfrog and opossum. Am J Physiol 219:555-559

 

Davis PJ, Jurgelski W Jr (1973) Thyroid hormone-binding in opossum serum: evidence for polymorphism and relationship to haptoglobin polymorphism. Endocrinology 92:822-832

 

Dawson AB (1938) The epithelial components of the pituitary gland of the opossum. Anat Rec 72:181-193

 

Findlay ALR, Elfont RM, Epstein AN (1980) The site of the dipsogenic action of angiotensin II in the North American opossum. Brain Res 198:85-94

 

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Green JD (1951) The comparative anatomy of the hypophysis, with special reference to its blood supply and innervation. Am J Anat 88:225-311

 

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Hartman FA, Smith DE, Lewis LA (1943) Adrenal functions in the opossum. Endocrinology 32:340-344

 

Johnston CI, Davis JO, Hartroft PM (1967) Renin-angiotensin system, adrenal steroids and sodium depletion in a primitive mammal, the American opossum. Endocrinology 81:633-642

 

Jordan HE (1911) The microscopic anatomy of the epiphysis of the opossum. Anat Rec 5:325-338

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH (1983) Postnatal development of the thyroid gland in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Acta Anat 116:322-338

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH (1983) Morphological observations on the parathyroid of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Gen Comp Endocrinol 50:261-269

 

Long JA, Jones AL (1967) The fine structure of the zona glomerulus and the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex of the opossum. Am J Anat 120:463-488

 

Long JA, Jones AL (1970) Alterations in fine structure of the opossum adrenal cortex following sodium deprivation. Anat Rec 166:1-25

 

McCrady E Jr (1941) Parathyroids in the adult opossum. Anat Rec 79:45

 

McNulty JA, Hazlett JC (1980) The pineal region in the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. I. Ultrastructural observations. Cell Tissue Res 207:109-121

 

Renfree MB, Vinson GP (1974) Control of steroidogenesis in adrenal tissue from the developing opossum, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. J Endocrinol 63:15P-16P

 

Roth LM, Luse SA (1964) Fine structure of the neurohypophysis of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Cell Biol 20:459-472

 

Sherman DM, Krause WJ (1990) Morphological, developmental and immunohistochemical observations on the opossum pituitary with emphasis on the pars intermedia. Acta Histochem 89:37-56

 

Silvette H, Britton SW (1936) Carbohydrate and electrolyte changes in the opossum and marmot following adrenalectomy. Am J Physiol 115:618-626

 

Smith DE, Lewis LA, Hartman FA (1943) Sodium retention in the opossum. Endocrinology 32:437-442

 

Spagnoli DB, Frederickson RG, Robinson RL, Carmichael SW (1987) Opossum adrenal medulla: II. Differentiation of the chromaffin cell. Am J Anat 179:220-231

 

Vigh B, Vigh-Teichmann I (1981) Light- and electron-microscopic demonstration o f immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various vertebrates. Cell Tissue Res 221:451-463

 

Vinson GP, Bell JBG, Renfree MB, Whitehouse BJ (1975) Secretion of testosterone and corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex in the marsupials Trichosurus vulpecula and Didelphis virginiana and in the rat and the effects of adenocorticotrophin and gonadotrophin stimulation in vitro. Biochem Soc Trans 3:1171-1175

 

Vinson GP, Renfree MB (1975) Biosynthesis and secretion of testosterone by adrenal tissue from the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, and the effects of tropic hormone stimulation. Gen Comp Endocrinol 27:214-222

 

Wang MB (1969) The distribution and control of osmosensitive cells within the hypothalamus of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Neuroendocrinology 4:51-63

 

Warner FJ (1929) The hypothalmus of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Nerv Ment Dis 70:485-494

 

Wheeler RS (1943) Normal development of the pituitary in the opossum and its responses to hormonal treatments. J Morphol 73:43-87

 

 

1.34  Urinary System

 

Blaxall HS, Murphy TJ, Baker JC, Ray C, Bylund DB (1991) Characterization of the alpha-2C adrenergic receptor subtype in the opossum kidney and in the OK cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 259: 323-329

 

Gersh I (1937) The correlation of structure and function in the developing mesonephros and metanephros. Contrib Embryol 26: 33-58

 

Forte LR, Krause WJ, Freeman RH (1988) Receptors and cGMP signaling mechanism for E. coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney. Am J Physiology 255:F1040-F1046

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH (1980) Transitory cell attachments in the differentiating glomerular epithelium of the opossum metanephros. Acta Anat 106:281-289

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH, Leeson CR (1979) Morphological observations on the mesonephros in the postnatal opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 129:377-397

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH, Leeson CR (1979) Morphological observations on the metanephros in the postnatal opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 129:459-477

 

Krause WJ, Freeman RH, Forte LR (1990) Autoradiographic demonstration of specific binding sites for E. coli enterotoxin in various epithelia of the North American opossum. Cell Tissue Res 260: 387-394

 

Liapis H, Nag M, Steinhardt G (1994) Effects of experimental ureteral obstruction on platelet-derived growth factor-A and type 1 procollagen expression in fetal metanephric kidneys. Pediatr Nephrol 8: 548-554

 

Liapis H, Vogler G, Steinhardt GF (1997) North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, as a fetal nephrotoxicity model - histologic and ultrastructural assessment of uranyl nitrate (un)-induced damage. Micro Res Tech 39: 285-296

 

Liapis H, Yu H, Steinhardt GF (2000) Cell proliferation, apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bax expression in obstructed opossum early metanephroi. J Urol 164: 511-517

 

MacNider WD (1927) Occurrence of atypical glomeruli in the kidney of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 25:130-132

 

McCrady E Jr (1940) The development and fate of the urinogenital sinus in the opossum, Didelphys virginiana. J Morphol 66:131-154

 

Plakke RK, Pfeiffer EW (1965) Influence of plasma urea on urine concentration in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Nature 207:866-867

 

Plakke RK, Pfeiffer EW (1970) Urea, electrolyte and total solute excretion following water deprivation in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Comp Biochem Physiol 34:325-332

 

Silvette H, Britton SW (1938) Renal function in the opossum and the mechanism of cortico-adrenal and post-pituitary action. Am J Physiol 123:630-639

 

Steinhardt GF, Salinas-Madrigal L, Farber R, Lynch R, Vogler G (1990) Experimental ureteral obstruction in the fetal opossum. I. Renal functional assessment. J Urol 144:564-566

 

Steinhardt GF, Salinas-Madrigal L, Phillips R, DeMello D (1992) Fetal nephrotoxicity. J Urol 148:760-763

 

Steinhardt GF, Salinas-Madrigal L, DeMello D, Farber R, Phillips B, Vogler G (1994) Experimental ureteral obstruction in the fetal opossum: histologic assessment. J Urol 152: 2133-2138

 

Steinhardt GF, Liapis H, Phillips B, Vogler G, Nag M, Yoon K-W (1995) Insulin-like growth factor improves renal architecture of fetal kidneys with complete ureteral obstruction. J Urol 154: 690-693

 

Steinhardt GF, Vogler G, Salinas-Madrigal L, LaRegina M (1988) Induced renal dysplasia in the young pouch opossum. J Pediatr Surg 23:1127-1130

 

White AA, Krause WJ, Turner JT, Forte LR (1989) Opossum kidney contains a functional receptor for the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 159:363-367


1.35  Male Reproductive System

 

Anderson ME, Paparo AA, Martan J (1979) Paraformaldehyde-induced fluorescence as a histochemical test for 5-hydroxytryptamine in the epididymis of the opossum. J Anat 129:141-149

 

Bedford JM, Calvin HI (1974) Changes in -s-s- linked structures of the sperm tail during epididymal maturation, with comparative observations in sub-mammalain species. J Exp Zool 187: 181-204

 

Bedford JM, Rodger JC, Breed WG (1984) Why so many mammalian spermatozoa--a clue from marsupials? Proc Roy Soc Lond B 221:221-233

 

van den Brock AJP (1910) Unterschungen über den Bau Männlichen Geschlechtsorgane der Beuteltiere. Morph Jahrb 41: 347-436

 

de Burlet HM (1921) Zur Entwicklung und Morphology des Säugerhodens. II. Marsupialier. Z Anat Entwgesch 61: 19-33

 

Burns RK (1939) Sex differentiation during the early pouch stages of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana) and a comparison of the anatomical changes induced by male and female sex hormones. J Morphol 65:497-547

 

Burns RK (1939) The differentiation of sex in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana) and its modification by the male hormone testosterone propionate. J Morphol 65:79-119

 

Burns RK (1939) Effect of testosterone propionate on sex differentiation in pouch young of opossum. Proc Soc Exp Biol 41: 60-62

 

Burns RK (1939) Effects of female sex hormones in young opossums. Proc Soc Exp Biol 41: 270-272

 

Burns RK (1939) The effects of crystalline sex hormones upon sex differentiation in the pouch young of the opossum. Anat Rec 73:61-62

 

Burns RK (1941) Origin and differentiation of epitheliun of urinogenital sinus in the opossum. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 47:106-108

 

Burns RK (1941) The origin of the rete apparatus in the opossum. Science 94: 142-144

 

Burns RK (1942) Hormones and experimental modification of sex in the opossum. In: Biological symposia. Jaques Cattell Press, Lancaster, Penn 9: 125-146

 

Burns RK (1942) Hormones and the growth of the parts of the urinogenital apparatus in mammalian embryos. In: Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology 10: 27-33

 

Burns RK (1942) The origin and differentiation of the epithelium of the urinogenital sinus in the opossum, with a study of the modifications induced by estrogens. Contrib Embryol 30: 63-83

 

Burns RK (1945) Bisexual differentiation of the sex ducts in opossum as a result of treatment with androgen. J Exp Zool 100:119-140

 

Burns RK (1945) The differentiation of the phallas in the opossum and its reactions to sex hormones. Contrib Embryol 31:147-162

 

Burns RK (1945) The effects of male hormone on the differentiation of the urinogenital sinus in young opossums. Contrib Embryol 31: 163-175

 

Burns RK (1955) Experimental reversal of sex in the gonads of the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 41:669-676

 

Burns RK (1956) Hormones versus constitutional factors in the growth of embryonic sex primordia in the opossum. Am J Anat 98:35-68

 

Burns RK (1961) Role of hormones in the differentiation of sex. In: Young CW (ed) Sex and internal secretions. Williams and Wilkins, Baltmore, Vol 1, Chapt 2, pp 76-158

 

Chase EB (1939) The reproductive system of the male opossum, Didelphys virginiana Kerr and its experimental modification. J Morphol 65:215-239

 

Christensen AK, Fawcett DW (1961) The normal fine structure of opossum testicular interstital cells. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 9:653-670

 

Cowper W (1704) II Carigueya, seu marsupiale americanum masculum. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond 24:1576-1590

 

DeLamater ED, Biggers JD (1964) Spermatogenesis (and spermateliosis) in the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, by histochemical and electron microscopical methods. J Histochem Cytochem 12:35-36

 

Disselhorst R (1904) Ausführapparat und Anhangsdrüsen der Männlichen Geschlechtsorgane. In: Oppel's Lehrbuch der Vergl Mikro Anat 4: 1-432

 

Duesberg J (1918) On the interstitial cells of the testicle in Didelphys. Biol Bull 35:175-198

 

Duesberg J (1920) Cytoplasmic structures in the seminal epithelium of the opossum. Contrib Embryol 9:47-84

 

Fawcett DW, Neaves WB, Flores MN (1973) Comparative observations on intertubular lymphatics and the organization of the interstitial tissue of the mammalian testis. Biol Reprod 9:500-532

 

Finkel MP (1945) The relation of sex hormones to pigmentation and to testis descent in the opossum and ground squirrel. Am J Anat 76:93-152

 

Fürst CM(1887) Ueber die Entwicklung der Samenkörperchen bei den Beutelthieren. Arch Mikrosk Anat 30:336-365

 

George FW, Hodgins MB, Wilson JD (1985) The synthesis and metabolism of gonadal steroids in pouch young of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Endocrinology 116:1145-1150

 

Hardin JH (1965) Cytological features of glycogen-containing cells in the third part of the prostate gland of the opossum Didelphys marsupialis. Anat Rec 151:358

 

Heath E, Olusanya S, Pijanowski G (1983) Initial experiments with cyproterone acetate and 1-amino-3-chloro-2-propanol hydrochloride in the male Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Andrologia 15:50-56

 

Holstein A -F (1965) Elektronenmikroskopische untersuchungen am spermatozoon des opossum (Didelphys virginiana Kerr). Z Zellforsch 65:904-914

 

Hruban Z, Martan J, Slesers A, Steiner DF, Lubran M, Richeigl M Jr (1965) Fine structure of the prostatic epithelium of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). J Exp Zool 160:81-105

 

Jacobi GH, Wilson JD (1979) 3-Alpha-androstanediol and prostatic growth: comparison of 3-alpha-androstanediol formation in prostates from 8 species including man and dog. J Urol 121:612-614

 

Jordan HE (1911) The spermatogenesis of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana) with special reference to the acessory chromosome and chondrisomes. Arch Zellforsch 7:41-86

 

Kelce WR, Krause WJ, Ganjam VK (1987) Unique regional distribution of delta 4-3-ketosteroid 5 alpha-oxidoreductase and associated epididymal morphology in the marsupial, Didelphis virginiana. Biol Reprod 37:403-420

 

Krause WJ, Cutts JH (1979) Pairing of spermatozoa in the epididymis of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana): a scanning electron microscopic study. Arch Histol Jpn 42:181-190

 

Ladman AJ (1967) The fine structure of the ductuli efferentes of the opossum. Anat Rec 157:559-576

 

Ladman AJ, Soper EH (1963) Cytological observations on intragranular inclusion bodies in the prostate of the opossum. Anat Rec 145: 364

 

Leydig F (1850) Zur anatomie der männlichen Geschlechtsorgane und Analdrusen der Säugethiere. Zeit Zool 2:1-57

 

Mann T (1964) The biochemistry of semen and of the male reproductive tract. Methuen, London, pp 1-493

 

Martan J (1983) The genital tract of the male opossum Didelphis marsupialis virginiana, and other marsupials. Trans Ill State Acad Sci 76:3-28

 

Martan J, Allen JM (1967) The cytological and chemical organization of the prostatic epithelium of Didelphis virginiana (Kerr). J Exp Zool 159:209-229

 

Martan J, Hruban Z, Slesers A (1967) Cytological studies of the ductuli efferentes of the opossum. J Morphol 121:81-102

 

Moore CR (1939) Modification of sexual development in the opossum by sex hormones. Proc Soc Biol Med 40: 544-546

 

Moore CR (1941) Embryonic differentiation of opossum prostrate following castration, and responses of the juvenile gland to hormones Anat Rec 80:315-327

 

Moore CR (1941) On the role of sex hormones in sex differentiation in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Physiol Zool 14: 1-47

 

Moore CR (1943) Sexual differentiation in the opossum after early gonadectomy. J Exp Zool 94:415-461

 

Moore CR, Morgan CF (1942) Respones of the testis to androgenic treatment. Endocrinology 30: 990-999

 

Moore CR, Morgan CF (1943) First response of developing opossum gonads to equine gonadotropic treatment. Endocrinology 32: 17-26

 

Nelsen OE (1944) The formation of the early genital rudiment and differentiatio n of sex in the opossum. J Morphol 75: 303-319

 

Nelsen OE, Swain E (1942) The early development of the gonadal rudiment in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). Anat Rec 84: 513

 

Olson GE, Orgebin-Crist M-C (1982) Sperm surface changes during epididymal maturation. Ann New York Acad Sci 383:372-392

 

Painter TS (1922) Studies in mammalian spermatogenesis. I. The spermatogenesis of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J Exp Zool 35:13-45

 

Painter TS (1924) Studies in mammalian spermatogenesis. III. The fate of the chromatin-nucleolus in the opossum. J Exp Zool 39:197-227

 

Phillips DM (1972) Comparative analysis of mammalian sperm motility. J Cell Biol 53: 561-573

 

Prasad N, Prasad R, Bushong SC (1973) In vitro and in vitro responses of opossum testes to ionizing radiation: morphological and enzymatic studies. J Cell Biol 59:270A

 

Renfree MB, Robinson ES, Short RV, vanDeBerg JL (1990) Mammary glands in male marsupials: 1. Primordia in neonatal opossums Didelphis virginiana and Monodelphis domestica. Development 110: 385-390

 

Renfree MB, Short RV (1988) Sex determination in marsupials: evidence for a marsupial-eutherian dichotomy. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond B 322: 41-53

 

Retzius G (1909) Die Spermien von Didelphys. Biolog Untersuch 14:123-126

 

Rodger JC (1982) The testis and its excurrent ducts in American caenolestid and didelphid marsupials. Am J Anat 163: 269-282

 

Rodger JC, White IG (1980) Glycogen not n-acetylglucosamine the prostatic carbohydrate of three Australian and American marsupials, and patterns of these sugars in marsupialia. Comp Biochem Physiol 67B:109-113

 

Rubin D (1943) Embryonic differentiation of Cowper's and Bartholin's glands of the opossum following castration and ovariotomy. J Exp Zool 94:463-475

 

Rubin D (1944) The relation of hormones to the development of Cowper's and Bartholin's glands of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Morphol 74:213-285

 

Russell LD, Malone JP (1980) A study of Sertoli-spermatid tubulobulbar complexes in selected mammals. Tissue Cell 12:263-285

 

Russell LD, Peterson RN (1984) Determination of the elongate spermatid-Sertoli cell ratio in various mammals. J Reprod Fert 70:635-641

 

Russell LD, Ren HP, Hikim IS, Schulze W, Hikim APS (1990) A comparative study in twelve mammalian species of volume densities, volumes, and numerical densities of selected testis components, emphasizing those related to the Sertoli cell. Am J Anat 188:21-30

 

Ryser J (1992) The mating system and male mating success of the Virgina opossum Didelphis virginiana in Florida. J Zool 228: 127-139

 

Scott JN, Fritz HI, Nagy F (1979) Response to cryptorchidism of the testis and epididymis of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Reprod Fert 57:175-178

 

Scott JN, Fritz HI, Stuhlman R (1980) Aspermatogenesis in a paralyzed opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Lab Anim 14:289-290

 

Sprando RL, Russell LD (1987) Comparative study of cytoplasmic elimination in spermatids of selected mammalian species. Am J Anat 178:72-80

 

Tsukise A, Meyer W, Ikeda T (1985) Carbohydrate histochemical investigation in the scrotal skin of the common American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis L). Cell Mol Biol 31:357-364

 

Winegarner MS (1982) Seasonal changes in the reproductive tract of the male opossum Didelphis virginiana Kerr in Florida. Am Midl Nat 107:258-261

 

Woolley PA (1987) The seminiferous tubules, rete testis and efferent ducts in didelphid, caenolestid and microbiotheriid marsupials. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey, Beatty and Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, pp 217-22

 

 

1.36  Female Reproductive System

 

Anderson DH (1928) Comparative anatomy of the tubo-uterine junction. Histology and physiology in the sow. Am J Anat 42: 255-305

 

Baxter JS (1933) The development of the lateral vaginal canals in the American opossum. Anat Rec 58:4

 

Baxter JS (1935) Development of the female genital tract in the American opossum. Contrib Embryol 25:15-38

 

Blainville MH (1818) Sur les organes femelles de la génération, et le foetus des animaux Didelphes. Bull Sci Soc Phil Paris, 25-28

 

Burford HJ (1970) Induction of ovulation in the opossum (Didelphis virginian a ). Pharmacologist 12:229

 

Burns RK (1939) Sex differentiation during the early pouch stages of the opossu m (Didelphys virgianiana) and a comparison of the anatomical changes induced by male and female sex hormones. J Morphol 65:497-547

 

Burns RK (1939) Effects of female sex hormones in young opossums. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 41:270-272

 

Burns RK (1939) Effect of testosterone propionate on sex differentiation in pouch young of opossum. Proc Soc Exper Biol 41: 60-62

 

Burns RK (1939) The effects of crystalline sex hormones upon sex differentiation in the pouch young of the opossum. Anat Rec 73: 61-62

 

Burns RK (1939) The differentiation of sex in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and its modification by the male hormone testosterone propionate. J Morphol 65: 79-119

 

Burns RK (1941) Origin and differentiation of epithelium of urinogenital sinus in the opossum. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 47: 106-108

 

Burns RK (1942) The origin and differentiation of the epithelium of the urogenital sinus in the opossum, with a study of the modifications induced by estrogens. Contrib Embryol 30:65-83

 

Burns RK (1942) Hormones and experimental modification of sex in the opossum. In: Biological symposia. Jaques Cattel Press, Lancaster, PA, 9: 125-146

 

Burns RK (1942) Hormones and the growth of the parts of the urinogenital apparatus in mammalian embryos. In: Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology 10: 27-33

 

Burns RK (1945) Bisexual differentiation of the sex ducts in opossums as a result of treatment with androgen. J Exp Zool 100: 119-140

 

Burns RK (1945) The differentiation of the phallas in the opossum and its reactions to sex hormones. Contrib Embryol 31: 147-162

 

Burns RK (1945) The effects of male hormone on the differentiation of the urinogenital sinus in young opossums. Contrib Embryol 31: 163-175

 

Burns RK (1955) Experimental reversal of sex in the gonads of the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 41: 669-676

 

Burns RK (1956) Hormones versus constitutional factors in the growth of embryonic sex primordia in the opossum. Am J Anat 98: 35-67

 

Burns RK (1961) Role of hormones in the differentiation of sex. In: C W Young (ed) Sex and internal secretions.Vol 1, Chapt 2, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 76-158

 

Cook B, Karsch FJ, Graber JW, Nalbandov AV (1977) Luteolysis in the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. J Reprod Fert 49:399-400

 

Cook B, Nalbandov AV (1968) The effect of some pituitary hormones on progesterone synthesis in vitro by the luteinized ovary of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). J Reprod Fert 15:267-275

 

Cook B, Sutterlin NS, Graber JW, Nalbandov AV (1974) Gonadal steroid synthesis in the Virginian opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. J Endocrinol 61: ix

 

Cook B, Sutterlin NS, Garber JW, Nalbandov AV (1977) Synthesis and action of gonadal steroids in the American opossum Didelphis virginiana. In: Calaby JH, Tyndale-Biscoe CH (eds) Reproduction and evolution. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, pp 253-254

 

Everett NB (1942) The origin of ova in the adult opossum. Anat Rec 82:77-91

 

Fleming MW, Harder JD (1981) Effect of pregnancy on uterine constituents of the Virginia opossum. Comp Biochem Physiol 69A:337-339

 

Fleming MW, Harder JD (1981) Uterine histology and reproductive cycles in pregnant and non-pregnant opossums, Didelphis virginiana. J Reprod Fert 63:21-24

 

Fleming MW, Harder JD (1983) Luteal and follicular populations in the ovary of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) after ovulation. J Reprod Fert 67:29-34

 

Fleming MW, Harder JD, Wukie JJ (1981) Reproductive energetics of the Virginia opossum compared with some eutherians. Comp Biochem Physiol 70B:645-648

 

George FW, Hodgins MB, Wilson JD (1985) The synthesis and metabolism of gonadal steroids in pouch young of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Endocrinology 116:1145-1150

 

Guraya SS (1968) A comparative histochemical study of the theca interna in the mammalian ovary. Acta Morphol Neerlando-Scand 7:51-68

 

Guraya SS (1968) Histochemical observations on the granulosa and theca interna during follicular development and corpus luteum formation and regression in the American opossum. J Endocrinol 40:237-241

 

Guraya SS (1968) Histochemical study of developing ovarian oocyte of the American opossum. Acta Embryol Morphol Exper 10:181-191

 

Guraya SS (1974) Comparative morphological and histochemical observations on the ovarian stromal compartment in mammals with special reference to steroidogenesis. Acta Anat 90:250-284

 

Harder JD, Fleming MW (1981) Estradiol and progesterone profiles indicate a lac k of endocrine recognition of pregnancy in the opossum. Science 212:1400-1402

 

Harder JD, Stonerook MJ, Pondy J (1993) Gestation and placentation in two new world opossums: Didelphis virginiana and Monodelphis domestica. J Exp Zool 266: 463-479

 

Hartman CG (1920) The free-martin and its reciprocal: opossum, man, dog. Science 52: 469-471

 

Hartman CG (1922) Breeding habits, development, and birth of the opossum. Ann Rep Smiths Instit 1921: 347-369

 

Hartman CG (1923) Relation of the ovary to the gravid uterus in the aplacental opossum. Am J Physiol 63:423-424

 

Hartman CG (1923) The oestrous cycle in the opossum. Am J Anat 32:353-421

 

Hartman CG (1923) The breeding season of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and the rate of intrauterine and postnatal development. J Morph Physiol 40:143-215

 

 Hartman CG (1924) Observations on the motility of the opossum genital tract and vaginal plug. Anat Rec 27:293-303

 

Hartman CG (1924) Vitamin -A and exercise in relation to follicular atresia in the opossum. Am J Physiol 68:97-101

 

Hartman CG (1925) Hysterectomy and the oestrous cycle in the opossum. Am J Anat 35:25-29

 

Hartman CG (1925) Observations on the functional compensatory hypertrophy of th e opossum ovary. Am J Anat 35:1-24

 

Hartman CG (1925) The interruption of pregnancy by ovariectomy in the aplacenta l opossum: a study in the physiology of implantation. Am J Physiol 71:436-454

 

Hartman CG (1926) Postpubertal oogenesis in the opossum. Anat Rec 32: 209

 

Hartman CG (1926) Polynuclear ova and polyovular follicules in the opossum and other mammals, with special reference to the problem of fecundity. Am J Anat 37:1-51

 

Hartman CG (1927) Observations on the ovary of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Contrib Embryol 101:285-300

 

Hartman CG (1928) The breeding season of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and the rate of intra-uterine and postnatal development. J Morphol 46:143-215

 

Hartman CG (1952) Possums. University of Texas Press, Austin, pp 1-174

 

Hartman CG, Dupre C, Allen E (1926) The effect of follicular and placental hormones upon the mammary glands and genital tract of the opossum. Endocrinology 10:291-300

 

Hartman CG, Enders RK (1933) Response of the opossum ovary (Didelphis virginiana) to urine of pregnancy (follutein Squibb). Anat Rec 58:68

 

Hartman CG, League B (1924) The gonads of a sex-intergrade opossum. Anat Rec 29: 114

 

Hartman CG, League B (1925) Description of a sex-intergrade opossum, with an analysis of the constituents of its gonads. Anat Rec 29:283-297

 

Hill J, Fraser E (1925) Some observations on the female urogenital organs of the Didelphyidae. Proc Zool Soc Lond 189: 189-219

 

Krause WJ (1993) Ultrastructural observations on the opossum corpus luteum late in pregnancy Zool Anz 230:249-255

 

Krause WJ, Sherman DM (1992) Immunohistochemical localization of relaxin in the reproductive system of the female opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Ann Anat 174:341-344

 

Krause WJ, Sherman DM (1992) Immunohistochemical localization of prolactin in opossum corpus luteum. Zool Anz 229:37-41

 

Krause WJ, Sherman DM, Samson WK (1992) Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of oxytocin in the opossum corpus luteum. Acta Histochem 92:190-195

 

Lewis IM (1925) The role of bacteria in the vagina with special reference to the bacterial flora of the lateral vagina canals of the opossum during the oestrus system. Trans Am Micros Soc 44:211-215

 

Lierse W von (1965) Die wandkonstrukton und das Gefäss-system des Uterus vom Opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Acta Anat 69:152-163

 

Martinéz-Esteve P (1942) Observations on the histology of the opossum ovary. Contrib Embryol 30:17-26

 

Meigs CD (1847) Memoirs on the reproduction of the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Proc Am Phil Soc 4:327-330

 

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