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Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide

January 1992 - February 1999

AWIC Resources Series No. 5
March 1999

Updates Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Nonhuman Primates, 1987-1992

Updated by: Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, AWIC Resource Series No. 32, July 2006 (Updated 2014)

Editor:
Michael D. Kreger, M.S.
Animal Welfare Information Center
USDA, ARS, NAL
10301 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351

Selected chapters of this document have been updated by Kristina Adams, Animal Welfare Information Center.

Contact us : http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us

Partial funding for this document comes from National Institutes of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Division of Animal Welfare.

 


Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates
Resource Guide

Contents

Acknowledgements
A Message from OLAW
Introduction
How to Use This Document
U.S. Laws, Regulations, and Policies for Environmental Enhancement for Nonhuman Primates

Organizations and Websites (Updated November 2003 by Kristina Adams)
Primate Centers and Animal Colonies (Updated September 2003 by Kristina Adams)
Listservs (Updated December 2003 by Kristina Adams)
Products and Suppliers (Updated June 2004 by Kristina Adams)
Audiovisuals
Journals and Newsletters (Updated December 2003 by Kristina Adams)

Bibliography (January 1992 through December 1998):

  1. Articles
  2. Books and Conference Proceedings

Articles from the Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter
NOTE: The following articles have been approved by USDA for inclusion in the newsletter and are in public domain. Although they have been reviewed editorially, they have not been peer reviewed. The views expressed are those of the authors.

Appendix A: USDA Final Rule on Environment Enhancement to Promote Psychological Well-Being--Section 3.81 (02/15/91 Vol. 56, No. 32, Federal Register, Pages 6426-6505)

National Agricultural Library Document Services

Web Policies and Links


Acknowledgements

The editor acknowledges the assistance of Nelson Garnett and Carol Wigglesworth of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Viktor Reinhardt of the Animal Welfare Institute, Joanne Oliva-Purdy of the Baltimore Zoo, and Ray Hamel of the Primate Information Center for their review of this document and useful suggestions. D'Anna Jensen helped with layout. Partial funding for this document comes from National Institutes of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), Division of Animal Welfare.

A Message from OLAW

The National Institutes of Health has demonstrated a long-standing commitment to support AWIC's development of these resource documents. Earlier versions have proved to be beneficial to researchers and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees as they implement the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and comply with the Animal Welfare Act amendments that require environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. This updated version will serve as a valuable compilation of literature on environmental enrichment since 1992. The NIH Office for Laboratory Animal Welfare is pleased to have had an opportunity to contribute to the development of this significant resource.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Introduction

The Library of Congress defines environmental enrichment as "enhancing the environment of confined animals in order to encourage natural behaviors and improve their quality of life." Environmental enrichment, also called behavioral enrichment, includes increasing the complexity of an otherwise unstimulating animal enclosure. This can include adding manipulable objects such as balls or boards for grooming and foraging, novel odors or food, or housing animals in compatible social groups. Environmental enrichment is a tool that can be used to improve the animal's psychological well-being by stimulating the ability to cope with daily changes in the social and physical environment, engaging the animal in species-typical behaviors, and reducing or eliminating maladaptive or pathological behaviors.

Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates is not a recent concept. Zoo managers have long known about the benefits of a stimulating environment. In 1906, William Temple Hornaday, Director of the New York Zoological Park, encouraged visitors to come see the gorilla before it dies from "sullenness" and "lack of exercise". He did not expect the gorilla to live more than five months in captivity and relied on regular shipments of wild-caught nonhuman primates to replenish the zoo's stock. Carl Hagenbeck, the animal dealer and zoo director who introduced the world to naturalistic zoo exhibits and positive reinforcement training, wrote in 1910, "In order to keep great apes in sound health, it is necessary to provide them with plenty of society, either of their own or of some other. In the case of all animals in captivity, it is of first importance to take measures for combating the tedium from which they would otherwise suffer." (Beasts and Men, page 287). Zoos have since become acutely aware of the importance of environmental enrichment in terms of exhibiting well-adjusted animals to the public, improving breeding of rare species, and as a tool for preparing captive-reared endangered species for reintroduction to the wild.

As nonhuman primates have become models for human and animal health, researchers have realized that a high quality social and physical environment for primates in the laboratory is essential to research. Pioneers in environmental enrichment for laboratory primates such as Kathryn Bayne, Scott Line, Melinda Novak, and Viktor Reinhardt have demonstrated the value and complexity of enhancing the animal environment given the contexts of biomedical research objectives, species, and individual animal life histories. They have shown that enriched environments can improve data collection as the data are not confounded by hormonal or behavioral indicators of distress. The research is more humane by reducing pain and distress to the animal and it may actually cost less (ie particularly if enriching the environment leads to breeding).

Besides the humane, scientific, and economic reasons to enrich the environment of nonhuman primates, there is now a legal reason. In the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act, the U.S. Congress required that minimum requirements be established "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." The U.S. Department of Agriculture developed regulations to meet that mandate stipulating, "Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The plan must be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian." (9CFR, Sec. 3.81)

In addition to the Animal Welfare Act, those who receive funding from the Public Health Service or are accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) must also comply with The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which is based on a performance standards approach. The Guide contains sections related to environmental enrichment.

There is still a need for information about environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Recently published research, organization contacts, websites provide guidance to those who are familiar with nonhuman primate care and use and to those who wish to develop expertise. The topic is of such importance to the animal research community, that the National Research Council covened the Committee on Well-being of Nonhuman Primates to review the literature and produce guidelines. The resulting publication is The Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates (1998, National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Office of Animal Care is also reviewing the Animal Welfare Act regulations in order to clarify the regulations and provide guidance to the regulated community.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


How to Use This Document

This publication updates and expands Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Nonhuman Primates: 1987-1992. It is current though March 1999 and covers literature published since January 1992. As a resource manual, it is intended to be used for understanding the current regulations, developing ideas for enrichment applicable to laboratory and zoo settings, and introducing the reader to organizations and publications that can help in the design of the enrichment plan or give access to additional resources. This expanded version of the 1992 document contains the full text of relevant sections of the legislation, more organizations, websites and listservs, and a listing of all U.S. primate centers.

This resource guide is not comprehensive. There may be organizations that were not included or references that were not apparent in multidatabase searches. With the exception of the laws and regulations, none of the organizations or products mentioned in the document are endorsed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Bibliographic citations are categorized taxonomically and may be cross-referenced in one of the general sections. It is current through December 1998. Although an effort has been made to ensure that articles are unique to each section, there is considerable overlap due to the scope of the individual articles. Information about specific techniques, such as the use of foraging boards, may be found in several sections.

Call numbers are included for publications contained in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlibrary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials

Please note that organizations often relocate and professional society addresses and contacts change following society elections. All websites and contacts are current as of March 1999.

Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter articles have been included which discuss some of the issues mentioned in the bibliography. Although the articles have been approved by USDA for inclusion in the newsletter and have been reviewed editiorially, they have not been peer reviewed. The views expressed are those of the authors of the articles and do not represent the views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the National Institutes of Health.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


United States Laws, Regulations, and Policies for Environmental Enhancement for Nonhuman Primates

In the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act (Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act), Congress included mention of "psychological well -being" for nonhuman primates. This phrase appears nowhere else in the Animal Welfare Act. Because of the difficulty in defining the phrase, U.S. Department of Agriculture enforcers of the Act at the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Office of Animal Care were charged with defining the terms and developing regulations that ensure a physical environment that promotes primate well-being. Included below are the text from the Animal Welfare Act and the final version of the regulations as they appear in the Code of Federal Regulations. The published (Federal Register ) USDA response to comments from the public on the proposed regulations can be found in Appendix A of this document.

In addition to the Animal Welfare Act, those who receive funding from the Public Health Service or are accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) must also comply with The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which is based on a performance standards approach. The 1996 Guide is intended to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. The Guide is also intended to assist investigators in fulfilling their obligation to plan and conduct animal experiments in accord with the highest scientific, humane, and ethical principles. The recommendations are based on published data, scientific principles, expert opinion, and experience with methods and practices that have proved to be consistent with high-quality, humane animal care and use. The Guide contains standards related to environmental enrichment in the section "Animal Environment, Housing and Management."

Animal Welfare Act as amended (7 U.S.C. §§ 2131 et. seq.)

Section 13. (a)(1) The Secretary shall promulgate standards to govern the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals by dealers, research facilities, and exhibitors.
(2) The standards described in paragraph (1) shall include minimum requirements--
(B) for exercise of dogs, as determined by an attending veterinarian in accordance with the general standards promulgated by the Secretary, and for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.

Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter A, Section 3.81

§ 3.81 Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being.

Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The plan must be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. This plan must be made available to APHIS upon request, and, in the case of research facilities, to officials of any pertinent funding agency. The plan, at a minimum, must address each of the following:

(a) Social grouping. The environment enhancement plan must include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates of species known to exist in social groups in nature. Such specific provisions must be in accordance with currently accepted professional standards, as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. The plan may provide for the following exceptions:

(1) If a nonhuman primate exhibits vicious or overly aggressive behavior, or is debilitated as a result of age or other conditions (e.g., arthritis), it should be housed separately;

(2) Nonhuman primates that have or are suspected of having a contagious disease must be isolated from healthy animals in the colony as directed by the attending veterinarian. When an entire group or room of nonhuman primates is known to have or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent, the group may be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.

(3) Nonhuman primates may not be housed with other species of primates or animals unless they are compatible, do not prevent access to food, water, or shelter by individual animals, and are not known to be hazardous to the health and well-being of each other. Compatibility of nonhuman primates must be determined in accordance with generally accepted professional practices and actual observations, as directed by the attending veterinarian, to ensure that the nonhuman primates are in fact compatible. Individually housed nonhuman primates must be able to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well-being.

(b) Environmental enrichment. The physical environment in the primary enclosures must be enriched by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities. Species differences should be considered when determining the type or methods of enrichment. Examples of environmental enrichments include providing perches, swings, mirrors, and other increased cage complexities; providing objects to manipulate; varied food items; using foraging or task-oriented feeding methods; and providing interaction with the care giver or other familiar and knowledgeable person consistent with personnel safety precautions.

(c) Special considerations. Certain nonhuman primates must be provided special attention regarding enhancement of their environment, based on the needs of the individual species and in accordance with the instructions of the attending veterinarian. Nonhuman primates requiring special attention are the following:

(1) Infants and young juveniles;

(2) Those that show signs of being in psychological distress through behavior or appearance;

(3) Those used in research for which the Committee-approved protocol requires restricted activity;

(4) Individually housed nonhuman primates that are unable to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species; and

(5) Great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg). Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must include in the environment enhancement plan special provisions for great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg), including additional opportunities to express species-typical behavior.

(d) Restraint devices. Nonhuman primates must not be maintained in restraint devices unless required for health reasons as determined by the attending veterinarian or by a research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. Maintenance under such restraint must be for the shortest period possible. In instances where long-term (more than 12 hours) restraint is required, the nonhuman primate must be provided the opportunity daily for unrestrained activity for at least one continuous hour during the period of restraint, unless continuous restraint is required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities.

(e) Exemptions. (1) The attending veterinarian may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in the environment enhancement plan because of its health or condition, or in consideration of its well-being. The basis of the exemption must be recorded by the attending veterinarian for each exempted nonhuman primate. Unless the basis for the exemption is a permanent condition, the exemption must be reviewed at least every 30 days by the attending veterinarian.

(2) For a research facility, the Committee may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in some or all of the otherwise required environment enhancement plans for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal. The basis of the exemption shall be documented in the approved proposal and must be reviewed at appropriate intervals as determined by the Committee, but not less than annually.

(3) Records of any exemptions must be maintained by the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility and must be made available to USDA officials or officials of any pertinent funding Federal agency upon request.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

National Research Council (1996). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 127p.

Animal Environment, Housing and Management

Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to the health and safety of personnel. A good management program provides the environment, housing, and care that permit animals to grow, mature, reproduce, and maintain good health; provides for their well-being; and minimizes variations that can affect research results. Specific operating practices depend on many factors that are peculiar to individual institutions and situations. Well-trained and motivated personnel can often ensure high-quality animal care, even in institutions with less than optimal physical plants or equipment.

Many factors should be considered in planning for adequate and appropriate physical and social environment, housing, space, and management. These include

  1. The species, strain, and breed of the animal and individual characteristics, such as sex, age, size, behavior, experiences, and health.
  2. The ability of the animals to form social groups with conspecifics through sight, smell, and possibly contact, whether the animals are maintained singly or in groups.
  3. The design and construction of housing.
  4. The availability or suitability of enrichments.
  5. The project goals and experimental design (e.g., production, breeding, research, testing, and teaching).
  6. The intensity of animal manipulation and invasiveness of the procedures conducted.
  7. The presence of hazardous or disease-causing materials.
  8. The duration of the holding period.

Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. For social species, this normally requires housing in compatible pairs or groups. A strategy for achieving desired housing should be developed by animal-care personnel with review and approval by the IACUC. Decisions by the IACUC in consultation with the investigator and veterinarian, should be aimed at achieving high standards for professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for the health and well-being of the species and consistent with the research objectives. After the decision-making process, objective assessments should be made to substantiate the adequacy of animal environment, husbandry, and management.

The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. For some species, it might be appropriate to approximate the natural environment for breeding and maintenance. (Chapter 2, pages 21-22)

Naturalistic Environments

Areas like pastures and islands afford opportunities to provide a suitable environment for maintaining or producing animals and for some types of research. Their use results in the loss of some control over nutrition, health care and surveillance, and pedigree management. These limitations should be balanced against the benefits of having the animals live in more natural
conditions. Animals should be added to, removed from, and returned to social groups in this setting with appropriate consideration of the effects on the individual animals and on the group. Adequate supplies of food, fresh water, and natural or constructed shelter should be ensured. (Chapter 2, page 25)

Structural Environment

The structural environment consists of components of the primary enclosure-cage furniture, equipment for environmental enrichment, objects for manipulation by the animals, and cage complexities. Depending on the animal species and use, the structural environment should include resting boards, shelves or perches, toys, foraging devices, nesting materials, tunnels,
swings, or other objects that increase opportunities for the expression of species-typical postures and activities and enhance the animals' well-being. Much has been learned in recent years about the natural history and environmental needs of many animals, but continuing research into those environments that enhance the well-being of research animals is encouraged. Selected
publications that describe enrichment strategies for common laboratory animal species are listed in Appendix A and in bibliographies prepared by the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC 1992; NRC In press).

Social Environment

Consideration should be given to an animal's social needs. The social environment usually involves physical contact and communication among members of the same species (conspecifics), although it can include noncontact communication among individuals through visual, auditory, and olfactory signals. When it is appropriate and compatible with the protocol, social animals should be housed in physical contact with conspecifics. For example, grouping of social primates or canids is often beneficial to them if groups comprise compatible individuals. Appropriate social interactions among conspecifics are essential for normal development in many species. A social companion might buffer the effects of a stressful situation (Gust and others 1994), reduce behavioral abnormality (Reinhardt and others 1988, 1989), increase opportunities for exercise (Whary and others 1993), and expand species-typical behavior and cognitive stimulation. Such factors as population density, ability to disperse, initial familiarity among animals, and social rank should be evaluated when animals are being grouped (Borer and others 1988; Diamond and others 1987; Drickamer 1977; Harvey and Chevins 1987; Ortiz and others 1985; Vandenbergh 1986, 1989). In selecting a suitable social environment, attention should be given to whether the animals are naturally territorial or communal and whether they should be housed singly, in pairs, or in groups. An understanding of species-typical natural social behavior will facilitate successful social housing.

However, not all members of a social species can or should be maintained socially; experimental, health, and behavioral reasons might preclude a successful outcome of this kind of housing. Social housing can increase the likelihood of animal wounds due to fighting (Bayne and others 1995), increase susceptibility to such metabolic disorders as atherosclerosis (Kaplan and others 1982), and alter behavior and physiologic functions (Bernstein 1964; Bernstein and others 1974a,b). In addition, differences between sexes in compatibility have been observed in various species (Crockett and others 1994; Grant and Macintosh 1963; Vandenbergh 1971; vom Saal 1984). These risks of social housing are greatly reduced if the animals are socially compatible and the social unit is stable.

It is desirable that social animals be housed in groups; however, when they must be housed alone, other forms of enrichment should be provided to compensate for the absence of other animals, such as safe and positive interaction with the care staff and enrichment of the structural environment. (Chapter 2, pages 36-38)


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Organizations and Websites

American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK) http://www.aazk.org

AAZK’s Enrichment Committee provides “animal caregivers the means in which to enrich, stimulate, and challenge the lives of the animals in their care." The committee augments the "Enrichment Options" column in the Animal Keepers' Forum and in The Shape of Enrichment newsletter to provide a means for communicating ideas, techniques and information about enrichment. The website provides definitions, health and safety issues, printed resources, the enrichment video library, suggested guidelines for enrichment, and links.

American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) http://www.aza.org
8403 Colesville Rd., Suite 710
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3314
U.S.A.
Tel: (301) 562-0777; Fax: (301) 562-0888

The AZA Office of Conservation and Science coordinates Taxon Advisory Groups (TAG) which monitor the status of particular species in captivity and provide recommendations on species management in captivity and with respect to conservation efforts. Primate TAGs include gibbons, great apes, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and prosimians. Committees, such as the Behavior and Husbandry Advisory Committee, specialize in broad scientific areas and are coordinated to serve in advisory capacities for TAGs. The AZA holds regional and annual conferences at which environmental enrichment at zoos is often discussed. Services are geared towards member institutions, but anyone may contact members of these groups for information. There are fees for AZA membership, published membership directories, reports, and conference proceedings.

American Society of Primatologists http://www.asp.org/

The American Society of Primatologists is an educational and scientific organization whose purpose is to promote the discovery and exchange of information regarding primates, including all aspects of their anatomy, behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, systematics, conservation, husbandry, and use in biomedical research. The society publishes the American Journal of Primatology, a quarterly bulletin for members, and the book Primate Conservation: The Role of Zoological Parks (J. Wallis, ed., 1997).

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Office of Animal Care (APHIS/AC) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/
4700 River Rd., Unit 85
Riverdale, MD 20737-1234
USA
Tel: (301) 734-5240; Fax: (301) 734-4978; E-mail: ace@aphis.usda.gov

The U.S. Department of Agriculture office that enforces the Animal Welfare Act and develops regulations for animal care by exhibitors, researchers, and animal dealers. APHIS/AC answers questions regarding the regulations including those about the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The staff also refers patrons to regional offices where they can communicate directly with Animal Care inspectors and veterinary medical officers. APHIS/AC provides information on its activities and legislative updates in a free newsletter.

Animal Welfare Information Center http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Ave.
Beltsville, MD 20705
USA
Tel: (301) 504-6212; Fax: (301) 504-7125; Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us

A U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service information provider that assists researchers, educators, and exhibitors who must comply with the Animal Welfare Act. Provides reference and referral services including multi-database literature searches, publication of animal care and use resource guides, bibliographies, and Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin, and offering the workshop "Meeting the Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act". Some publications include sections or articles relevant to environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. All services are free except for extended online literature searches.

Animal Welfare Institute
Laboratory Animals Section http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals
PO Box 3650
Washington, DC 20027
USA
Tel: (703) 836-4300; Fax: (703) 836-0400; E-mail: awi@awionline.org

The lab animals section of the AWI website contains full-text articles about primate cage space, lighting, manipulanda, and social housing largely written by primatologist Viktor Reinhardt. The site includes a number of reference publications by Victor and Annie Reinhardt including Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review; Annotated Bibliography on Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates Kept in Laboratories; and Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for Nonhuman Primates. The database contains over 1500 entries and 400 full-text articles available online. It includes theoretical, philosophical, practical, and technical citations from journal articles, books, and chapters. The database is regularly updated and is easily searched by the search engine on its home page. The "Special Features" button lists search topics and suggests keywords.

The Association of British Wild Animal Keepers (ABWAK) http://www.abwak.org/

ABWAK is a non-profit organization specializing in improving cooperation among wild animal keepers. The site has links to information about the journal Ratel, animal diets, husbandry, grants, and job openings. A publication called Guidelines for Environmental Enrichment can be purchased through the website.

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching, Limited (ANZCCART)

AUSTRALIA http://www.adelaide.edu.au/ANZCCART/
The Director
Mitchell Building B03
The University of Adelaide
South Australia 5005
Tel: 61-8-8303 7586, Fax: 61-8-8303 7587; E-mail: anzccart@adelaide.edu.au

NEW ZEALAND http://www.royalsociety.org.nz/organisation/panels/anzccart/
The Executive Officer
C/- The Royal Society of New Zealand
P.O. Box 598
Wellington
Tel: 64-4-472 7421; Fax: 64-4-473 1841; E-mail: anzccart@rsnz.org

Through its varied activities, ANZCCART seeks to promote effective communication and cooperation between all those concerned with the care and use of animals in research and teaching. It publishes a quarterly newsletter and other publications on topics such as euthanasia, animal care and use committees, humane care and use of animals in research, and pain. Articles sometimes address environmental enrichment issues. The newsletter is free of charge.

Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) http://www.ccac.ca/
315-350 Albert Street
Ottawa ON K1R 1B1
Canada
Tel: 613-238-4031; Fax: 613-238-2837; E-mail: pjohnson@ccac.ca

CCAC establishes and enforces standards and guidelines (in Canada) concerning the use of animals in research, testing and teaching. Maintains active, expert committees on all aspects of animal care and use. The Council's program is based on its major publication "Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals," Volume 1, 2nd Edition (1993) and Volume 2 (1984). Both documents address environmental enrichment. CCAC conducts workshops and training courses on various aspects of the care and use of experimental animals, as well as the training of personnel working with these animals. Semi-annually publishes the newsletter, Resource.

Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques: A Photographic Documentation http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/pef/slide/intro.html

A walk-through electronic slideshow developed by Viktor Reinhardt and David Seelig containing 60 photographs of enrichment techniques for laboratory rhesus macaques. Sections are divided into Animate Environmental Enrichment and Inanimate Environmental Enrichment.

European Federation for Primatology http://www.unipv.it/webbio/efp/efp.htm

The EFP brings together national primatological societies as well as groups of primatologists in those countries of Europe where societies could not yet be founded. It coordinates activities between different European societies and promotes the management and study of nonhuman primates. The EFP newsletter is published in the journal Folia Primatologica.

European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) http://www.emrg.org
Christopher Pryce
Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
Schorenstr. 16
CH-8603 Schwerzenbach
Switzerland
Tel: +41 (0) 1 655 7386; Fax: +41 (0) 1 655 7203; E-mail: pryce@behav.biol.ethz.ch

The EMRG is a nonprofit organization that aims to facilitate communication exchange between academic and industrial institutions conducting biological and/or biomedical research using nonhuman primates with a specific goal of optimizing the use of marmosets and tamarins. The group publishes a biannual newsletter and organizes workshops. It also published the 1997 Handbook of Marmosets and Tamarins in Biological and Biomedical Research.

European Primate Resources Network http://www.euprim-net.eu/

EUPREN is an initiative of European institutes that perform research on nonhuman primates. The objectives of EUPREN are to ensure ethical and controlled use of primates, to secure availability of high quality primates for research, and to establish an information network for those interested or working in research. The website contains bylaws; a census of primates in Europe and North Africa; abstracts from meetings on remote monitoring, housing, husbandry, and well-being, and marmoset and tamarin research; and a discussion paper on cage sizes for primates.

International Directory of Primatology http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/idp
Wisconsin Primate Research Center
University of Wisconsin-Madison
1220 Capitol Court
Madison, WI 53715
USA
Tel: (608) 263-3512; Fax: (608) 263-4031; E-mail: hamel@primate.wisc.edu

A directory of the field of primatology including detailed information about organizations, field studies, population management, people active in primatology, and information resources. The online directory is searchable and available at the above website.

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) http://dels.nas.edu/ilar/
The Keck Center of the National Academies
500 5th Street, NW, Keck 687
Washington, DC 20001
USA
Tel: (202) 334-2590; Fax: (202) 334-1687; E-mail: ILAR@nas.edu

ILAR is a division of the Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. It develops guidelines and disseminates information on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of animals and related biological resources in research, testing, and education. ILAR promotes high-quality, humane care of animals and the appropriate use of animals and alternatives. ILAR functions within the mission of the National Academy of Sciences as an advisor to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public. ILAR spearheaded the committee which produced the 1998 book The Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates.

International Primatological Society (IPS) http://www.internationalprimatologicalsociety.org/index.cfm
Richard Wrangham, President
Harvard University
Peabody Museum, 11 Divinity Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
USA
Tel: (617) 495-5948; Fax: (617) 496-8041; Email: wrangham@fas.harvard.edu

The society facilitates cooperation among primatologists and fosters conservation and the judicious use of primates in research. Environmental enrichment issues are addressed by the Captive Care and Breeding Committee. IPS operates a small grants program for education and enrichment studies that have broad implications. The grants program is open to all applicants. IPS publishes a biannual newsletter and maintains a page for Educational Resources About Primates on the Web.

Laboratory Primate Newsletter http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate
Psychology Department
Box 1853
Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912
USA
Tel: (401) 863-2511; Fax: (401) 863-1300; E-mail: primate@brown.edu

The quarterly newsletter provides information of interest to people involved in nonhuman primate research. A Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research is issued periodically. The newsletter is available by e-mail or on the web. To subscribe, send the message: Subscribe LPN-L your-own-name to listserv@listserv.brown.edu. The website contains all issues of Laboratory Primate Newsletter, policies, graduate programs, and related links. The site also contains a very useful environmental enrichment section called Articles on Environmental Enrichment and Psychological Well-being which contains all articles on environmental enrichment and psychological well-being that were printed in the newsletter from 1984-2003. The site topics are social enrichment, environmental enrichment, training, physiological and other measures of stress and psychological well-being, rearing and social development, colony management, editorials, and information resources. Articles are available full text and free of charge.

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) http://www.nih.gov/grants/olaw/olaw.htm
National Institutes of Health Office of Extramural Research
OLAW, Division of Animal Welfare
6100 Executive Blvd., Suite B01
Rockville, MD 20892-7507
USA
Tel: (301) 496-7163; Fax: (301) 402-2803; E-mail: olaw@od.nih.gov

OLAW enforces the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals for researchers who receive Public Health Service funding. Produces conferences and workshops relating to responsible animal care and use in biomedical research. OLAW can provide guidance on the development of plans to enhance psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The PHS Policy requires adherence to the Animal Welfare Act regulations and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

PrimateLit http://primatelit.library.wisc.edu
Library and Information Service
Wisconsin Primate Research Center
University of Wisconsin
1220 Capitol Court
Madison, WI 53715
Tel: (608) 263-3512; E-mail: library@primate.wisc.edu

PrimateLit is a bibliographical database for primatology and exists through a cooperative agreement between the Washington (WaNRPC) and Wisconsin (WRPC) National Primate Research Centers. The WPRC coordinates the project with technical support from the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Library Technology Group. Literature acquisition, analysis, and indexing are carried out by the Primate Information Center at the WaNRPC, University of Washington. The database, comprising over 165,000 records dating from 1940, allows primate researchers to do their bibliographic research on their home or office computers.

Primate Info Net (PIN) http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/
Primate Center Library
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
1220 Capitol Court
Madison, WI 53715-1299
USA
Tel: (608) 263-3512; Fax: (608) 263-4031; E-mail: library@primate.wisc.edu

PIN is a comprehensive website relating to all aspects of primatology maintained by the Wisconsin Primate Research Center (WPRC) Library (http://library.primate.wisc.edu/) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The website includes information services, organizations and programs, information resources, products and services for primates, and related sites.

The WPRC Library is available to the public and is used for computerized database searches; document delivery; and contains 6,000 books; 10,000 volumes of journals; 300 active journal subscriptions; and 7,000 slides, videotapes, and other audiovisual materials. This is a major international resource. Other library services include:

ASKPRIMATE: A cooperative Internet reference service available to the public. To ask a question or for referral, send e-mail to: askprimate@primate.wisc.edu.

PRIMATE-JOBS: A job listing service on the World Wide Web. Includes paid and volunteer positions wanted and available.

Audiovisual Services: An archival collection of primate-related videotapes, slides, and audiotapes may be borrowed for research or education. For more information, contact Ray Hamel, Special Collections Librarian, via e-mail at: hamel@primate.wisc.edu.

International Directory of Primatology: A directory of the field of primatology that includes (1) detailed entries for major primate centers, laboratories, educational programs, foundations, conservation agencies, societies, and sanctuaries, (2) a listing of field studies and (3) information about primate specialist group members, studbook keepers and others who work with primates in captive settings.

World Directory of Primatologists. A list of over 3000 people in the field of primatology with contact and e-mail information.

Primate Products and Services http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/prodser.html
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
University of Wisconsin, Madison
1220 Capitol Court
Madison, WI 53715-1299
USA
Tel: (608) 263-3512; Fax: (608) 263-4031; E-mail: library@primate.wisc.edu

A directory of companies that support of Primate Info Net and other Internet-based services of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Library and Information Service. These services provide for communication, referral, and access to information about nonhuman primates for primatologists worldwide. Listings include a brief description of each company's products or services, e-mail address and a link to the company web page.

Primate Society of Great Britain http://www.psgb.org/
Dr H. C. McKiggan-Fee
Staff Development
St. Andrews University
St. Andrews
Fife
Scotland KY16 9AJ
Tel: 01334 467174; E-mail: info@psgb.org

PSGB is a membership organization affiliated with the International Primatological Society. It has a Conservation Working Party and Captive Care Working Party to provide advice and coordinate action. Sponsors annual meeting. Publishes triennial Primate Eye.

Primate Resource Referral Service (PRRS) http://prrs.wanprc.org/
Washington Regional Primate Research Center
Box 357330, University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-7330
USA
Tel: (206) 543-5178; Fax: (206) 616-1710; E-mail: prrs@bart.rprc.washington.edu

The PRRS (formerly the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse, PSIC) is a NIH-supported conservation program that provides communication between research institutions to facilitate exchanges of nonhuman primates or their tissues. The goal of the PRRS is to increase sharing of these animals, thereby decreasing the need to import animals for research, and to ultimately decrease the number of animals needed. The PRRS maintains a database of information about programs, sources, services, available/wanted animals, tissues, and primate equipment. PRRS publishes two bulletins that serve as a reference and resource guides.

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) http://www.scaw.com/
7833 Walker Drive
Suite 410
Greenbelt, MD 20770
USA
Tel: (301) 345-3500; Fax: (301) 345-3503; E-mail: info@scaw.com

A professional, non-profit organization that sponsors conferences addressing contemporary animal care and use issues in research. Publishes conference proceedings, training manuals, newsletters. Publications include Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates in Research and other SCAW-sponsored conference proceedings. Anyone may request membership, attend conferences, or purchase publications.

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) http://www.ufaw.org.uk
The Old School
Brewhouse Hill
Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire
AL4 8AN 
U.K.
Tel: +44 (0)1582 831818; Fax: +44 (0)1582 831414; E-mail: ufaw@ufaw.org.uk

UFAW is a scientific and technical animal welfare organization. It uses scientific knowledge and established expertise to improve the welfare of animals as pets, in zoos, laboratories, on farms and in the wild. UFAW does not campaign but funds research, holds symposia, gives advice to Government and others and produces publications on animal welfare.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Primate Centers and Animal Colonies

National Primate Research Centers

National Primate Research Centers (NPRCs) are a group of eight highly specialized facilities for research using nonhuman primates (NHP). The centers are funded by grants through the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM). Staffed with experienced research and support personnel, each center provides the appropriate research environment to foster the development of NHP models of human health and disease for biomedical investigations. The NPRCs are affiliated with academic institutions and are accessible to eligible biomedical and behavioral investigators supported by research project grants from the NIH and other sources. The National Primate Research Centers were formerly called Regional Primate Research Centers. The name was changed in April 2002 to reflect the expanded role of the centers. For more information, visit http://www.ncrr.nih.gov/compmed/cm_nprc.asp.

California National Primate Research Center http://www.cnprc.ucdavis.edu
University of California, Davis
One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616
U.S.A.
Tel: (530) 752-0447, Fax: (530) 752-2880, Email: reception@primate.ucdavis.edu
Research emphasizes the effects of environmental influences on human health and basic biological approaches. Resources provided include medicine, pathology and clinical laboratory services, electron microscopy, inhalation toxicology chambers, colony database, animals from breeding and research colonies, research facilities and pathalogical specimens for collaborators.

New England Primate Research Center http://www.hms.harvard.edu/nerprc
One Pine Hill Dr.
PO Box 9102
Southborough, MA 01772
U.S.A.
Tel: (508) 524-8002, Fax: (508) 460-0612, Email: neprc@hms.harvard.edu
Research emphasis is on infectious diseases, immunology, ocological herpesviruses, pathology, behavioral biology, and cardiovascular disease. Provides tissues and other specimens for approved research projects as well as animals from breeding colonies.

Oregon National Primate Research Center http://onprc.ohsu.edu/
505 N.W. 185th Ave.
Beaverton, OR 97006-3448
U.S.A.
Tel: (503) 645-1141, Fax: (503) 690-5569, Email: smithsu@ohsu.edu
Scientists at the Oregon National Primate Research Center conduct basic and applied biomedical research in three priority areas identified for improving human health and well-being: (1) fertility control, early embryo development and women’s health; (2) brain development and degeneration; and (3) newly emerging viruses, especially AIDS-related agents.

Southwest National Primate Research Center http://www.sfbr.org/
P.O. Box 760549
San Antonio, TX 78245-0549
U.S.A.
Tel: (210) 258-9400, E-mail: stardif@icarus.sfbr.org
“At SNPRC, the primary research focus is on nonhuman primate models of human diseases, including common chronic diseases and infectious diseases, genetic and environmental effects on physiological processes, and susceptibility to specific diseases.” The center is located on the campus of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (http://www.sfbr.org).

Tulane National Primate Research Center http://www.tnprc.tulane.edu/index.shtml
18703 Three Rivers Road
Covington, LA 70433
U.S.A.
Tel: (504) 892-2040, Fax: (504) 893-1352, E-mail: info@tpc.tulane.edu
Specializes in research in microbiology, parasitology, urology, gene therapy, and behavior. Provides laparoscopy, ultrasound, and specimens. Collaborating scientists receive animal care, pathology services, parasitology services, science information ser vices, medical illustration services, and animals.

Wisconsin Primate Research Center http://www.primate.wisc.edu/
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Graduate School
1220 Capital Court
Madison, WI 53715-1299
U.S.A.
Tel: (608) 263-3500, Fax: (608) 263-4031, E-mail: jlenon@primate.wisc.edu
Research emphasizes reproduction and development, neurobiology, physiological ethology, psychobiology, aging and metabolic disease, and immunology and virology. Outside investigators may request biological materials. Collaborating scientists receive many bioservices, computer services, and animals.

The WPRC library is available to the public and is used for computerized database searches; document delivery; and contains 6,000 books; 10,000 volumes of journals; 300 active journal sub-scriptions; and 7,000 slides, videotapes, and other audiovisual materials. This is a major international resource.

Yerkes National Primate Research Center http://www.emory.edu/YERKES/
Emory University
Office of Public Affairs
954 Gatewood Road
Atlanta, GA 30322
U.S.A.
Tel: (404) 727-7732, Fax: (404) 727-3108, E-mail: yerkes-information@rmy.emory.edu
Research emphasis is on biomedical and biobehavioral research to improve the health and well-being of human and nonhuman primates. Animals, veterinary medicine, pathology, and biomedical engineering are provided to investigators.

Additional Primate Centers and Animal Colonies

Caribbean Primate Research Center http://cprc.rcm.upr.edu/
University of Puerto Rico
Medical Sciences Campus
P.O. Box 1053
Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico 00952-1053
Tel: (809) 784-6619, Fax: (809) 795-6700, Email: mkessler@coqui.net
“The CPRC currently consists of three facilities: (1) the unique free-ranging island colony of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago which is used primarily for behavioral, demographic, genetics and noninvasive types of biomedical research, (2) the Sabana Seca Field Station, an NIH-owned facility, which houses rhesus monkeys derived from the Cayo Santiago colony in various outdoor configurations for behavioral and biomedical studies, and (3) the CPRC Museum, located at the School of Medicine on the Medical Sciences Campus, which contains the CPRC Skeletal Collection, one of the world's largest collections of complete nonhuman primate skeletons for anatomical, anthropological and biomedical research. The CPRC also supports a field study site for investigations on introduced, unprovisioned, free-ranging populations of patas and rhesus monkeys located in the Sierra Bermeja of southwestern Puerto Rico.”

Duke University Primate Center http://www.duke.edu/web/primate/
3705 Erwin Road
Durham, NC 27705
U.S.A.
Tel: (919) 489-3364, Fax: (919) 490-5394, E-mail: primate@duke.edu
“Research at the Primate Center focuses on several major areas: the systematics, behavior, physiology, biomechanics and anatomy of living lemurs; husbandry practices necessary for keeping and breeding prosimians; field research involving the distribution, behavior, ecology, and conservation needs of lemurs in Madagascar; field research on habitat conservation, reintroduction of lemurs into the wild, and effectiveness of conservation education programs; and evolution of primates through the discovery, description, and analysis of living and fossil primates.” Researchers from outside the university are welcome and should contact the center to discuss their project.

Living Links Center http://www.emory.edu/LIVING_LINKS/
Emory University
954 N. Gatewood Road
Atlanta, Georgia 30329
U.S.A.
Tel: (404) 727-0915, Fax: (404) 727-3270, Email: LIVING_LINKS@emory.edu
The Living Links Center for the Advanced Study of Ape and Human Evolution specializes in comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and humans. The Center was established in 1997 at Emory University and is an integrated part of Yerkes Primate Center. The institute conducts all of its work with noninvasive techniques that they would not hesitate to apply to human volunteers. Their goals are 1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation.

New Iberia Research Center http://nirc.louisiana.edu
The University of Louisiana at Lafayette
4401 W. Admiral Doyle Drive
New Iberia, LA 70560
U.S.A.
Tel: (337) 482-2411, Fax: , E-mail: NIRCadmin@louisiana.edu
“The University of Louisiana at Lafayette New Iberia Research Center specializes in the breeding, management, and importation of a diverse range of nonhuman primate species and offers a broad range of diagnostic, laboratory, and human resources for the development and characterization of nonhuman primate models for applied and basic research aimed at promoting human quality of life.”

Squirrel Monkey Breeding and Research Resource http://www.smbrr.org
Primate Research Laboratory
Department of Comparative Medicine
University of South Alabama
Mobile, AL 36688
U.S.A.
Tel: (334) 460-6238, Fax: (334) 460-7783, Email: cabee@usouthal.edu
Research emphasizes multidisciplinary studies of reproduction in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys and providing a resource of laboratory born and reared animals for NIH-sponsored research programs. Outside investigators may request tissue or body fluid specimens. Collaborating investigators are provided animal husbandry, medical care, pathology services, and colony animals.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Listservs

Alloprimate

A moderated general primatology site that focuses on primate conservation, ecology, research, environmental enrichment, health and disease, ethology/behavior, and sanctuary/zoo operations. The group may be joined either by sending a blank e-mail message to alloprimate-subscribe@egroups.com or by going through Yahoo!Groups at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/alloprimate.

Primate Enrichment Forum (PEF)

An email list designed to facilitate communication between professionals working at primate biomedical research facilities on environment enrichment topics, stress, well-being, and husbandry. The list is open to animal caretakers, veterinary, research, and behavioral technicians, veterinarians, colony managers, research scientists, and behaviorists/enrichment coordinators. In order to be added to the list, you must submit an application online by going to the following website: http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/pef/pefentry.html . If you have any questions, contact David Seelig at dseelig@vet.upenn.edu.

Primate-Science

An e-mail list managed by the Wisconsin Primate Research Center. It is open worldwide to staff at nonhuman primate centers and laboratories and those conducting primate research in academic institutions or zoos. The purpose of this forum is the factual, science-based exchange of ideas and information about nonhuman primates and is intended to serve the international primatological research community. In order to be added to the list, you must submit an application online by going to the following website: http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/ps/. If you have any questions, contact Matthew Hoffman at mhoffman@primate.wisc.edu.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Products and Suppliers

This Products and Suppliers list has not been updated since 2004 – and it was competely replaced in 2009 by the new Products and Suppliers list.

The following is a partial listing of companies that manufacture and/or supply nonhuman primate enrichment products.

Animal Management Resources, Inc. (Meg Hudson-Dye)

            Internet: http://www.mytrainingstore.com/

Suppliers of training supplies such as clickers, whistles, and lanyards, and exclusive distributor of Active Minds Enrichment Gear, manufactured by Desert Plastics (2401A Phoenix, NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87107, USA; Phone: 505-884-3889 OR 1-866-793-0376; Fax: 505-884-3932; E-mail: JoeBarr@desertplastics-abq.com; Internet: http://desertplastics-abq.com/). The toys are durable enough for all types of animals and come in unique colors and shapes. They can customize each shape according to your needs.

Bio- Serv. One 8th Street, Suite 1, Frenchtown, New Jersey 08825, USA.

            Phone: 908-996-2155 OR 1-800-996-9908
            Fax: 908-996-4123
            E-mail:
sales@bio-serv.com (Sales); vetserv@bio-serv.com (Veterinary Assistance);
            techserv@bio-serv.com (Technical Assistance)
            Internet:
http://www.bio-serv.com

Produces and distributes food treats, foraging and grooming boards, challenger balls, toys, and mirrors for nonhuman primates.

Britz-Heidbrink, Inc. 1302 9th Street, Wheatland, Wyoming 82201, USA

            Phone: 307-322-4040
            Fax: 307-322-4141
            Internet: http://www.bhenrich.com/

Produces nonhuman primate caging that comes with Environ-Richment® Entertainment Panels that provide increased possibilities for manipulation, novel visual stimulation and foraging opportunities. 

Lomir Primate Enrichment Technologies. 99 East Main Street, Malone, New York 12953, USA OR
            95 Hout Notre-Dame-de-I’lle-Perrot, Quebec, Canada, J7V 7M4, CANADA

            Phone: 518-483-7697 or 1-877-425-3604 (USA) OR 514-425-3604 (CANADA)
            Fax: 518-483-8195 (USA) OR 518-425-3605 (CANADA)
            E-mail: info@lomir.com
            Internet:
http://www.lomir.com/pet

Producers of unique primate enrichment devices made of durable opaque polypropylene. Devices are designed to increase foraging time.

Nylabone Products. 1 TFH Plaza, 3rd and Union Avenues, Neptune City, New Jersey 07753, USA

            Phone: 1-800-631-2188
            E-mail:
info@nylabone.com
            
Internet: http://www.nylabone.com/

Manufacturer of Nylabone, Nylaballs, Gumabone Plaque Attacker, Gumabone tugs, and Gumadisc Flying Disc chew toys for dogs and other animals, including nonhuman primates

Otto Environmental, LLC. 6914 N. 124th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53224, USA

            Phone: 414-358-1001
            Fax: 414-358-9035
            E-mail: jeff@ottoenvironmental.com
            Internet:
http://www.ottoenvironmental.com

Supplier and manufacturer of enrichment products, foraging devices, caging, transport boxes, and other equipment for all species. Products manufactured by Otto Environmental include the ZoyTM, Bingo BallTM, and the HammockTM. The company works closely with laboratory and zoo facilities.

Primate Products, Inc. PO Box 620415, Woodside, California 94062, USA.

            Phone: 650-529-0419
            Fax: 650-851-1763
            E-mail: corporate@primateproducts.com
            Internet:
http://www.primateproducts.com/

Supplier of "Kong Toys" which are autoclavable hollow toys that are durable enough to withstand rough handling and biting. They can also be filled with treats. Also manufactures mirrors, puzzle and nutra-toss foraging devices, and primahedrons.

Steiner Enterprises, Inc. 2780 Conservation Club Road, Lafayette, Indiana 47905, USA

            Phone: 765-429-6409
            Fax: 765-429-5795
            Internet:
h ttp://www.steineronline.com

Manufactures enrichment products for nonhuman primates including foraging balls, foraging ball loaders, tube style foraging feeders, primate perches, biscuit feeders, and rattles. Custom designs are also accepted and manufactured.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Audiovisuals

Audiovisuals available for loan from the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center are marked with their call numbers. NAL call numbers are included for audiovisuals contained in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlibrary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials

Audiovisual Archives http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/av.html
Lists slides and videotapes related to nonhuman primates that are available from the Primate Information Center at University of Wisconsin-Madison. For more information, contact Ray Hamel, Special Collections Librarian, via e-mail at: hamel@primate.wisc.edu

Benevolent Primate Husbandry (1990). Produced by Ross Barker, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center.
WRPCRC call number: VT0329
This program is designed to give caretakers an understanding of primate behaviors and develop a kind and respectful philosophy of care. Macaque behaviors shown include social interactions (grooming, play, aggression) and methods of communication (facial expressions such as open mouth threat, closed mouth threat, fear grin and lipsmacking). Also shown are a variety of examples of abnormal behavior developed when animals become stressful that caretakers should learn to identify. VHS, 25 min.

Environmental Enrichment: Advancing Animal Care (1990). Produced by Countrywise Communication. Distributed by Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
NAL call number: Videocassette no. 1327
WRPCRC call number: VT0273
This videotape (presented in three titled sections) is designed to provide instruction and promote discussion of environmental enrichment procedures for animals in zoos, laboratories, farms, and pets. Common marmosets are shown in a specific example in which they are provided with hidden food to encourage foraging behavior in order to reduce cage circling behavior. VHS, 37 min.

Environmental Enrichment Devices and Procedures for Captive Non-human Primates (1989). Produced by Lyna Watson, Primate Ethology Unit, New England Regional Primate Research Center.
WRPCRC call number: VT0117
Describes and demonstrates the environmental enrichment devices and procedures for singly housed and group-housed species of macaques and New World monkeys at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. Some of the devices shown include hanging feeders, puzzle feeders, and PVC pipes. Procedures include the training of animals for blood sample collection for insulin readings. VHS, 30 min.

Environmental Enrichment For Individually Caged Rhesus Macaques (1988). Photography by Bob Dodsworth and Viktor Reinhardt, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
WRPCRC call number: SS034
Environment enrichment for caged rhesus macaques is shown through the introduction of branches or compatible companions. 78 slides.

Granby's Primates: A Captive Life (1983). Produced by Steve Holloway. Distributed by Filmakers Library.
WRPCRC call number: VT0129
A study was conducted on 5 primate species at the Granby Zoo in Montreal to compare the behaviors of primates in the wild and in captivity, to provide for better environmental enrichment in zoo exhibit design. Species studies were the gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), and white-handed gibbon. Some abnormal behaviors shown include aggression, stereotypic pacing, obesity, and smoking a cigarette. VHS, 28 min.

Metro Washington Park Zoo : Environmental Enrichment Program (1992). Metro Washington Park Zoo: Portland, OR
NAL call number: Videocassette no. 1532
This video shows how the Metro Washington Park Zoo introduces experiences to the animals that are functionally similar to those they would encounter in their natural habitat. 15 min.
Descriptors: zoo animals, behavior, environmental enrichment.

New Frontiers in Animal Behavior Management (1997). Produced and distributed by Gary Priest, San Diego Zoo, PO Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112
WRPCRC call number: VT0619
Demonstration of several management techniques using positive reinforcement, on subjects ranging from siamangs to tigers to human teenagers. VHS, 35 min.

Nonhuman Primates: Environmental Enrichment (1992). Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources, University of Washington: Seattle, WA.
NAL call number: Slide No. 435
Covers psychological well-being by social, non-social, contact, and non-contact approaches. 61 slides, 25 min. audiocassette, guide.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, behavior, enrichment.

Primate Enrichment (1996?). Produced and distributed by Kelley Bollen, Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse, NY 13204, Tel: 315-435-8512
WRPCRC call number: VT0487
Primate enrichment at the Burnet Park Zoo through the use of food presentation devices and toys. Food presentation devices include plastic containers, PVC tubing, logs, puzzle boxes, cloth bags, milk crates, coconut feeders and frozen milk carton treats . Toys include burlap, cloth and paper bags; a boomer ball; a wicker basket and t-shirt; a cotton mop; and a burlap hammock. Species seen interacting with these objects include white-handed gibbons, ruffed lemurs, tamarins, vervets, mandrills, siamangs, ring-tailed lemurs, slow lorisess coucang), and bushbabies. VHS

Training Corral-Living Rhesus Monkeys for Fecal and Blood Sample Collection (1990). Produced by M. R. Clarke, K. M. Phillippi, J. A. Falkenstein, E. A. Moran, Tulane Regional Primate Research Center and S. J. Suomi, Laboratory Comparative Ethology, NICHD. Jeff Falkenstein Productions. Distributed by the Tulane Regional Primate Research Center.
WRPCRC call number: VT0217
Shows the acclimation techniques employed to reduce stress for corral-living rhesus monkeys when collecting fecal and blood samples. The monkeys are given food rewards in return for defecation in single holding cages. They are also trained to extend their leg through a modified squeeze cage for unanesthetized bleeding from the saphenous vein. Once the acclimation is completed, the animals are shown to be relaxed during the procedure. One adult female continued to nurse her neonate infant through the venipuncture. This behavior modification is intended to reduce stress and increase safety for the animals and the technicians. VHS, 27 min. This tape also provides a look at the corral facility at the Tulane Regional Primate Research Center at Tulane University.

Training Medical Behaviors in Orang-utans at Brookfield Zoo (1989). Produced by the Brookfield Zoo, Chicago Zoological Society. Distributed by Ceil Wilson, Brookfield Zoo, 3300 Gold Road, Chicago, IL 60513
WRPCRC call number: VT0299
Positive reinforcement is used to train diabetic orang utans to voluntarily submit a limb for venipucture. VHS, 10 min.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Journals and Newsletters

NOTE: Call numbers are included for publications contained in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlibrary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials .

American Journal of Primatology
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/34629
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030
USA
Phone: 201-748-6645
E-mail: subinfo@wiley.com
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5

The official journal of the American Society of Primatologists that contains research papers on all primate-related subjects including wild and captive animal studies, conservation, and enriching the captive environment.

Animal Keepers' Forum
http://www.aazk.org/
American Association of Zoo Keepers AAZK, Inc.
3601 SW 29th Street, Suite 133
Topeka, KS 66614-2054
USA
NAL call number: QL77.5 A54

This monthly journal of the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. (AAZK) contains regular features such as "Enrichment Options" which highlights psychological stimulation, behavioral enrichment, activity manipulation, and occupational husbandry in zoo and aquarium environments. AAZK is the professional organization for zookeepers in America (primarily in the USA) and holds annual conferences, publishes proceedings, and sponsors special projects that improve animal care.

Animal Technology
http://www.iat.org.uk/
The Institute of Animal Technology
5 South Parade
Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL
UK
E-mail: journal@iat.org.uk
NAL call number: QL55 I5

This journal is published three times a year by the Institute of Animal Technology. Originally entitled Animal Technology, the journal began including the term welfare in its title in 2002. The journal routinely features short articles, technical notes, or reviews pertaining to enriched housing/caging options or enrichment strategies for various laboratory and farm animals.

Animal Welfare
http://www.ufaw.org.uk
Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
The Old School, Brewhouse Hill
Wheathampstead, Herts AL4 8AN
UK
Phone: (0) 1582 831818
Fax: (0) 1582 831414
E-mail: ufaw@ufaw.org.uk
NAL call number: HV4701 A557

This peer-reviewed quarterly journal includes articles on scientific research and technical studies related to the welfare of animals kept on farms, in laboratories, as companions, in zoos, or managed in the wild. The journal includes many environmental enrichment articles and international technical reports.

Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/newsletters/awicnews.htm
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, MD 20705
USA
Phone: 301-504-6212
Fax: 301-504-7125
Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us

The bulletin is published quarterly and contains animal care and use articles, regulatory updates, and grants information. Articles are geared toward researchers, exhibitors, and educators who must comply with the Animal Welfare Act. Environmental enrichment articles are frequently featured. There is no fee for the subscription and all issues are posted on the website in full text.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science
http://www.elsevier.com
Elsevier Science
Customer Service Department
6277 Sea Harbor Drive
Orlando, FL 32887-4800
USA
Phone: 1-877-839-7126 (Toll-free number) for US Customers
Phone: 407-345-4020 for Customers outside the US
Fax : 407-363-1354
Email: usjcs@elsevier.com
NAL call number: QL750 A6

This is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes information on the behavior of domesticated and utilized animals. Topics include the behavior of lab, zoo, and laboratory animals in relation to animal management and welfare, companion animal behavior and problems, and the behavior of wild animals from an applied perspective. The journal features environmental enrichment research on nonhuman primates in zoo and laboratory contexts.

Comparative Medicine
http://www.aalas.org/publications/index.aspx#CM
AALAS
9190 Crestwyn Hills Drive 
Memphis, TN 38125-8538
USA
Phone: 901-754-8620
E-mail: info@aalas.org

This bi-monthly journal was called Laboratory Animal Science prior to the year 2000. The journal covers topics such as animal models of human diseases, research applications, and diseases of laboratory animals. Abstracts are available free from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) website. Members can view entire issues on the web.

Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science
AALAS
9190 Crestwyn Hills Drive
Memphis, TN 38125-8538
USA
Phone: 901-754-8620
E-mail: info@aalas.org

A journal published six times each year that provides articles relevant to a wide cross-section of people working with laboratory animals. The journal is peer reviewed and serves as the official communication vehicle for the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS).

Folia Primatologica
http://www.karger.com/fpr
S. Karger AG
Customer Service
P.O. Box
CH-4009 Basel
Switzerland
Fax : 41 61 306 12 34
Email: service@karger.ch
NAL call number: QL737 P9F6

This bimonthly international primatology journal is the official journal of the European Federation for Primatological Research. Topic areas range from microbiology to paleontology. The journal features articles on primate learning, social behavior, care and use, and environmental enrichment. Subscibers may view issues online from the website.

International Zoo News: IZN
http://www.zoonews.ws/IZN/
80 Cleveland Road
Chichester, West Sussex PO19 2HF
UK
Phone/Fax: 44-(0)1243-782803
Email: nick@zoonews.ws
NAL call number: QL76 I58

Published eight times per year, the journal is dedicated to exchanging news, information, and ideas between zoos of the world. Feature articles sometimes describe environmental enrichment techniques.

Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science
http://www.animalsandsociety.org/static/resources-publications?tcid=42&_i=sub
Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PYSETA)
P.O. Box 1297
Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297
USA
Phone/Fax: 301-963-4751
Email: fran@pyseta.org
NAL call number: HV5701 J68

A peer-reviewed quarterly journal jointly published by PYSETA and The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The journal publishes articles and commentaries on methods of experimentation, husbandry, and care that enhance the welfare of animals. The website contains issue contents, abstracts, and guidelines for authors.

Journal of Medical Primatology
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/cservices/
Journal Customer Service
Blackwell Publishing
350 Main Street
Malden, MA 02148
USA
Phone: 1-800-835-6770 OR 781-388-8599
Fax: 781-388-8232
Email: customerservices@blackwellpublishing.com
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66

This journal publishes articles on primates as research models, veterinary medicine, husbandry and management in the laboratory, wildlife management, behavioral and social needs related to medical conditions, and captive primate care.

Lab Animal
http://www.labanimal.com
Lab Animal Subscription Department
P.O. Box 5054
Brentwood, TN 37024-5054
Phone: 1-800-524-2688
Email: labanimal@natureny.com
USA
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33

The journal is published 11 times a year and emphasizes the proper management and care of laboratory animals. It contains articles that discuss information, ideas, methods, and materials for animal research professionals. It routinely contains articles dealing with environ mental enrichment techniques and occasionally devotes an issue to the topic. The last issue of the year is the next year's Lab Animals Buyers Guide which contains ordering information for laboratory animals, products such as enrichment devices, and services.

Laboratory Animals
http://www.roysocmed.ac.uk/pub/la.htm
Royal Society of Medicine Press, Ltd.
1 Wimpole St.
London W1G 0AE
UK
Phone: 44 (0)20 7290 2921
Fax: 44 (0)20 7290 2929
Email: rsmjournals@rsm.ac.uk
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3

This is the official journal of several organizations including the Laboratory Animal Science Association (LASA), Gesellschaft für Versuchstierkunde, Nederlan dse Vereniging voor Proefdierkunde, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Versuchstierkunde, and the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations. It contains occasional articles on environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates as well as articles on primate behavior and neurosciences. It publishes European and international working group reports and guidelines on animal care and use topics.

Laboratory Primate Newsletter
http://www.brown.edu/primate
Box 1853, Psychology Department
Brown University
Providence, RI 02912
USA
Phone: 401-863-2511
Fax: 401-863-1300
Email: Judith_Schrier@brown.edu
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3

This newsletter is a quarterly publication geared towards researchers who study or use nonhuman primates and includes conference papers, announcements, grants, research and education opportunities, employment opportunities, and recent books and articles listed by topic with abstract. Full text issues are available on the web in HTML and PDF formats and are no longer being professionally printed. There are three mailing lists associated with the LPN to which you can subscribe by sending one of the following messages to LISTSERV@BROWN.EDU:
                 (1) “Subscribe LPN-WARN” - Sends only the announcement that a new issue has been added to the website
                 (2) “Subscribe LPN-L” - Sends a non-graphic text of the latest issue
                 (3) “Subscribe LPN-PDF” - Sends a large PDF file of the latest issue

Primate Report
http://www.dpz.gwdg.de/infra/primrep.htm
Dr. Dr. M. Schwibbe
German Primate Center (DPZ)
Kellnerweg 4
D-37077 Goettingen
Germany
NAL call number: QL737 P9P65

This journal publishes original papers, abstracts and contributions from the meetings of national and international primatological societies, from symposia as well as special issues like surveys on primatological activities in habitat countries and census of captive primates in the Old World countries. Papers come from any area of primatology, including breeding and husbandry, behavior, evolutionary biology, morphology, physiology and palaeontology.

Ratel
http://www.abwak.org/ratel_journal/
The Association of British Wild Animal Keepers
David Fowler
c/o Cotswold Wildlife Park
Burford Oxon OX18 4JW
UK
Email: apollo@derf33.freeserve.co.uk
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37

A bi-monthly journal written by British animal keepers for animal keepers and is a source of up to date information on animal welfare and husbandry. It contains feature articles on animal welfare and husbandry, news and announcements, and the column From Rags to Enrichment. The website contains a collection of some recently published articles and is updated regularly.

The Shape of Enrichment
http://enrichment.org
The Shape of Enrichment, Inc.
1650 Minden Drive
San Diego, CA 92111-7124
USA
Fax: 858-279-4208
Email: shape@enrichment.org
NAL call number: HV4737 S53

This is a quarterly newsletter that focuses on environmental enrichment for captive animals. It also operates an enrichment and training video library and organizes the bi-yearly international conference on environmental enrichment.

Zoo Biology http://www3.interscience.wiley.com
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030
USA
Phone: 201 748 6645
E-mail: subinfo@wiley.com
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6

This is a bi-monthly journal published in association with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. The journal contains scientific articles on all aspects of zoo biology including behavior, nutrition, veterinary medicine, and husbandry and frequently publishes environmental enrichment studies.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Bibliography

The list of bibliographic citations covers the publication years 1992 through 1998. While peer-reviewed journals provide the bulk of the citations, non-peered reviewed material from newsletters, bulletins, and conference proceedings are also included The data bases searched include AGRICOLA, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, and Zoological Record. Other sources, such as bibliographic material used by the USDA APHIS/Animal Care Monkey Business Team, were also used to discover relevant citations. Abstracts are included only when the data base is Federally-funded and in the public domain (i.e., AGRICOLA and MEDLINE). If the document can be found in the National Agricultural Library (NAL) collection, the NAL call number is given. [While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlibrary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials .] Special permission to include abstracts from the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science has been provided by the editor. Please note that the citations are largely arranged by taxa, however, many articles are relevent to the field of environmental enrichment and not just a particular species.


Bibliography: Articles

General Environmental Enrichment

*** To: Top of Document | Contents | Bibliography: List of Articles, Books/Conference Proceedings | AWIC Newsletter Articles ***

Acuna M. (1993). Christmas trees for environmental enrichment. Shape of Enrichment 2(4):1-2.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoo animals, birds, mammals, Christmas tree as enrichment.

Baer J.F. (1998). A veterinary perspective of potential risk factors in environmental enrichment. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. D.J. Shepherdson, J. Mellen, M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, pp. 277-301.
NAL call number: SF408 S435 1998
Descriptors: zoos, animal care, parasites, stress, risks from enrichment.

Brent, L. (1995). Improving the laboratory environment for nonhuman primates. Animal Welfare Institute Quarterly 44(1):14-15.
NAL call number: HV4761 A5
Descriptors: primates, laboratory, enrichment.

Bryant, L. and C. Kinzley (1994). Environmental enrichment at the Oakland Zoo. American Zoo And Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1994:183-184.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: zoos, environmental enrichment.

Carlstead, K. (1996). Effects of captivity on the behavior of wild mammals. In: Wild Mammals in Captivity Principles and Techniques. D.G. Kleiman, M.E. Allen, K.V. Thompson, and S. Lumpkin, eds., University of Chicago Press: Chicago, pp. 317-333.
NAL call number: SF408 W55 1996
Descriptors: zoo mammals, stress, behavior, enrichment options, environmental complexity.

Carlstead, K. and D. Shepherdson (1994). Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction. Zoo Biology13(5):447-58.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: stress, zoo animals, social behavior, environmental enrichment.

Coe, J.C. (1995). Opinion: Giving laboratory animals choices. Lab Animal 24(7):41-42.
NAL call number: QL55 A133
Descriptors: novelty, benefits, stimulus, laboratory animals.

Desmond, T. and G. Laule (1994). Use of positive reinforcement training in the management of species for reproduction. Zoo Biology 13(5):471-477.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: training, animal care, social interaction, psychological well-being, techniques.

Embury, A.S. (1997). Planting for environmental enrichment at Melbourne Zoo. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, pp. 290-298.
Descriptors: foraging, food as environmental enrichment, behavior stimulus.

Frew, L. (1994). Rags to enrichment. Environmental enrichment at Belfast Zoo. RATEL 21(5):166-167.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: zoo primates, environmental enrichment.

Irven, P.M. (1997). Some thoughts on behavioural and environmental enrichment. RATEL 24(3):87-89.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: zoo animal enrichment, wildlife parks.

Isbister, K. (1993). Building a behavioral enrichment program at Brookfield Zoo. Shape of Enrichment 2(3):6-7.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoo animal enrichment, enrichment programs.

Johnson, S. (1996). Mixing it up: Enhancing the visitor experience and enriching the animal environment. Annual Conference Proceedings of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association 1996:183-89.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: animal welfare, zoos, visitors.

Koene, P. (1997). Time budgets of zoo mammals in relation to housing. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen, B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, pp. 179-187.
Descriptors: zoo mammals, housing, activity, behavior.

Kreger, M.D., M. Hutchins, and N. Fascione (1998). Context, ethics, and environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 59-82.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: context, social housing, novelty, exhibit animals, reintroduction programs, animal welfare.

Laule, G. (1993). The use of behavioral management techniques to reduce or eliminate abnormal behavior. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 4(4):1-2, 8-11.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: data collection, behavioral goals, strategies, social behavior.

Laule, G. (1995). The role of behavioral management in enhancing exhibit design and use. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1995:84-88.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: exhibit design, behavioral stimulation, positive reinforcement, zoos.

Laule,G. and T. Desmond (1998). Positive reinforcement training as an enrichment strategy. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., pp. 302-313.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: positive reinforcement, behavioral enrichment, stimulus.

Lawrence, A.B. and J.Rushen, eds. (1993). Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare. CAB International: Wallingford, United Kingdom, 212p.
NAL call number: QL751.6 S75 1993
Descriptors: livestock, causes, motivation, stimulus, repetition.

Lindburg, D.G. (1998). Enrichment of captive mammals through provisioning. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., pp. 262-276.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: zoo mammals, behavioral enrichment.

Mahoney, C.J. (1992). Opinion: Some thoughts on psychological enrichment. Lab Animal 21(5):27-37.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: psychological well-being, laboratory animals, environmental complexity.

Maple, T.L. and L.A. Perkins(1996). Enclosure furnishings and structural environmental enrichment. In: Wild Mammals in Captivity Principles and Techniques D.G. Kleiman, M.E. Allen, K.V. Thompson, and S. Lumpkin, eds., University of Chicago Press: Chicago, pp. 212-222.
NAL call number: SF408 W55 1996
Descriptors: zoo mammals, design, behavior, enrichment options, environmental complexity.

Markowitz, H. (1997). Environmental enrichment and the conservation of behavior. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, pp. 17-23.
Descriptors: species-typical behavior, zoos, mammals.

Markowitz, H. and C. Aday (1998). Power for captive animals: contingencies and nature. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., 350p.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: philosophy, zoo animals, environmental enrichment methods.

Martin, S. (1996). Training as enrichment. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1996:139-143.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: positive reinforcement, mammals, behavioral management.

Mason, A. (1993). Environmental enrichment at Twycross Zoo, United Kingdom. Shape of Enrichment 2(3):8.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoos, mammals, environmental enrichment.

Mellen, J.D., D.J. Shepherdson, and M. Hutchins (1998). Epilogue: The future of environmental enrichment. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. D.J. Shepherdson, J. Mellen, M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, pp. 329-336.
NAL call number: SF408 S435 1998
Descriptors: Zoos, future areas for research, applications.

Morgan, K.N., S.W. Line, and H. Markowitz (1998). Zoos, enrichment, and the skeptical observer: the practical value of assessment. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. D.J. Shepherdson, J. Mellen, M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, pp. 153-171.
NAL call number: SF408 S435 1998
Descriptors: methods of assessment, zoos, review.

Morimura, N. and U. Yoshikazu (1998). Behavior patterns of 9 mammals in the zoo: The comparison among species, and different environments. Japanese Journal of Animal Psychology 48(1):33-45.
Descriptors: wallaby, lion, wolf, bear, elephant, zebra, deer, Japanese macaque, chimpanzee, behavioral repetoire, activity budgets, feeding behavior.

National Research Council (1996). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 127p.
NAL call number: SF406 G95 1996
Descriptors: guidelines, laboratory animal housing, management, veterinary medicine, physical plant.

Newberry, R.C. (1995). Environmental enrichment: Increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 44:229-243.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: natural behavior, activity levels, zoos, farms, laboratories.

Partridge, J. (1996). From rags to enrichment: Enriching our animals' lives. RATEL 23(1):28-30.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, zoos, mammals.

Partridge, J. (1993). Some potential enrichment ideas. RATEL 20(2):48-52.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, zoos, mammals.

Pecenko, N., S. Baebler, and T. Cirman (1997). Visitors as an environmental enrichment. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995 Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, pp. 325-333.
Descriptors: macaques, chimpanzees, visitor effects on animal activity, zoos.

Pereira, M.E. (1991). Primate preference for outdoors. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 5:313-315.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: housing preferences, animal welfare, enrichment.

Poole, T. (1997). Behavioral problems in captivity in general and their management. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg, pp. 118-130.
Descriptors: zoos, stereotypies, mammals.

Poole, T. (1997). Happy animals make good science. Laboratory Animals 31:116-124.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: enrichment, behavior, activity levels, distress, confounding.

Poole, T. (1997). Identifying the behavioural needs of zoo mammals and providing appropriate captive environments. RATEL 24(6):200-211.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: behavior, enrichment, zoos, mammals.

Poole, T. (1998). Meeting a mammal's psychological needs: basic principles. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. D.J. Shepherdson, J. Mellen, M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, pp. 83-94.
NAL call number: SF408 S435 1998
Descriptors: behavior, enrichment, zoos, mammals.

Rice, J.M. (1994). Zoo husbandry and research: an integrated approach. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 8:597-600.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: enrichment, animal training, husbandry.

Robinson, M.H. (1998). Enriching the lives of zoo animals, and their welfare: Where research can be fundamental. Animal Welfare 7(2):151-175.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: role of enrichment in context of zoo missions, tradeoffs, visitor expectations, animal welfare, naturalitic exhibits.

Schwammer, H.M. (1997). Time management for zoo-animals: Behavioral problems in captivity in general and their management. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg, pp. 239-243.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, behavior, zoo animals.

Seidensticker, J. and D.L. Forthman (1998). Evolution, ecology, and enrichment: Basic considerations for wild animals in zoos. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J. Mellen, M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, pp. 15-29.
NAL call number: SF408 S435 1998
Descriptors: zoo animals, life history, behavioral ecology.

Shepherdson, D.J. (1998). Introduction: Tracing the path of environmental enrichment in zoos. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. D.J. Shepherdson, J. Mellen, M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, pp. 1-12.
NAL call number: SF408 S435 1998
Descriptors: review, history, rewards, zoos.

Shepherdson, D. (1992). Environmental enrichment: Back to the future. Proceedings of Symposium of the Association of British Wild Animal Keepers 15:42-54.
NAL call number: SK351 A8
Descriptors: zoos, housing, animal welfare.

Shepherdson, D. (1991). A wild time at the zoo: Practical enrichment for zoo animals. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings 1991:413-420.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: zoos, environmental enrichment.

Shields, J. (1995). Behavioral enrichment for the rest of the zoo. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1995:456-457.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: zoos, behavioral enichment, Alabama.

Shikha, N.M. (1996). Environmental enrichment: to ward off boredom in zoo animals. Indian Zoo Year Book 1:3-6.
Descriptors: zoos, boredom, environmental enrichment.

Tardona, D.R. (1997). Animal behavioral enrichment and public perception: an opportunity to inform and educate. Animal Keepers' Forum 24(7):320-321.
NAL call number: QL77.5 A54
Descriptors: zoos, public perception, animal care.

Veasey, J.S., N.K. Waran, and R.J. Young (1996). On comparing the behaviour of zoo housed animals with wild conspecifics as a welfare indicator. Animal Welfare 5(1):13-24.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: comparisons, preferences, behavioral flexibility, adaptation, animal welfare.


*** To: Top of Document | Contents | Bibliography: List of Articles, Books/Conference Proceedings | AWIC Newsletter Articles ***

General Primate Enrichment

Anderson, J.R. and E. Visalberghi (1991). Primate psychological well-being: a comparative approach to environmental enrichment for captive primates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30(1/2): 195.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Desciptors: proceedings, veterinary ethology, behavior, veterinary ethology.

Appley, D.M., S.L. Knoblock, M.A. Luzzi, M.L. McFarland, T. Rakowski, and J.W. Streett (1997). A systematic approach to implementation of an enrichment program for primates. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36 (4): 69.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: animal behavior, stress, housing, welfare.

Bayne, K.A.L. (1995). Wildlife management in the laboratory: Non-human primates. In: Wildlife Mammals as Research Models: In the laboratory and field. Proceedings of a seminar sponsored by Scientists Center for Animal Welfare at American Veterinary Medical Association meeting, July 12, 1994. K. Bayne and M. Kreger, eds., pp.3-11.

Bayne, K. (1991). Providing environmental enrichment to captive primates. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 13(11):1689-92, 94, 95.
NAL call number: SF601 C66
Descriptors: behavior, wellbeing, caging, toys, social behavior, stereotypies, locomotion, visual stimuli.

Bayne, K. (1991). Alternatives to continuous social housing. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4): 355-59.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Although social housing is desirable for social species of nonhuman primates, circumstances arise whereby social housing is precluded (for example, certain kinds of infectious disease or toxicologic research, when the health of the animal(s) would be compromised by social housing, and animals which respond behaviorally in an inappropriate manner to social housing). Nonsocial alternatives that provide increased environmental complexity to the home cage should then be considered. Nonsocial "environmental enrichment" schemes can be designed to enhance the expression of an individually housed nonhuman primate's locomotive/postural, manipulative, and foraging behaviors. In this way, nonsocial, but species-typical, behaviors can be promoted in the single cage housing condition.
Descriptors: housing, husbandry, enrichment, exceptions.

Bayne, K.A.L., S.L. Dexter, J.K. Hurst, G.M. Strange, and E.E. Hill (1993). Kong toys for laboratory primates: Are they really an enrichment or just fomites? Laboratory Animal Science 43(1): 78-85.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Simple toys as enrichment devices have been associated with a rapid decline in their use by nonhuman primates. Other facets of toy presentation have not been described previously. For example, a comparison of the effect(s) of an enrichment device between two facilities should be validated if enrichment recommendations are to be made that affect diverse research facilities across the country. Additionally, a comparison of two methods of presentation (one highly accessible to the animal and the other less accessible) of the same enrichment device for potential differences in efficacy could provide direction in implementing an enrichment program based on simple toys. The handling of enrichment devices by nonhuman primates can lead to the spread of microbial contamination. The typical enrichment program rotates enrichment devices among animals to maximize the variety of stimuli available to each primate in the most economic manner. An adequate sanitation program is therefore pivotal to minimizing the potential for enrichment devices to be fomites. We conducted three experiments that addressed these issues. The results confirmed that, alhtough the presence of a simple toy reduced behavioral pathology, there was variability in behavioral effect for an enrichment technique between facilities. Two methods of presentation (on floor and suspended) of a simple toy did not produce any significant differences in use. Finally, we demonstrated that microbial growth can persist on enrichment devices after they have been sanitized in a commercial cagewasher.
Descriptors: toys, sanitation versus environmental enrichment, microbial growth.

Bayne, K.A.L., S.L. Dexter, and G.M. Strange (1993). Effects of food treats and human interaction. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 32(2):6-9.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: human/animal interaction, social enrichment, positive reinforcement, novelty.

Bercovitch, F.B. and M.J. Kessler (1993). Primate facilities and environmental enrichment: An ecological and evolutionary perspective. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 7:435-439.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: primates, laboratory, enrichment.

Bloomsmith, M.A., L.Y. Brent, and S.J. Schapiro. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):372-377.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Before implementing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates, several issues should be considered. The assignment of enrichment tasks can be made to caretakers, a dedicated "enrichment technician," volunteers, students or individuals with training in behavioral science. Determining the enrichment techniques to be used must take into account personnel time available; the species, age, sex, and individual histories of the nonhuman primates; and experimental protocols for which animals are being maintained. Identifying the most beneficial way to use the available personnel time must be tailored for each institution. To meet federal regulations, records must be kept of the environmental enhancements available to each nonhuman primate. Good record-keeping will allow appropriate evaluation of the program. This evaluation should involve the animals' responses to the enrichment opportunity, cost and durability of enrichment items, human and nonhuman safety considerations, and personnel required. The well-being of captive nonhuman primates will be most improved if well-informed decisions are made in developing and managing environmental enrichment programs.
Descriptors: record keeping, evaluation, enrichment plans.

Bollen, K. (1995). Primate enrichment. Animal Keepers' Forum 22(5): 162.
NAL call number: QL77.5 A54
Descriptors: Burnet Park Zoo, enrichment strategies.

Bowditch, A.P., H.S. Crofts, N.G. Muggleton, P.C. Pearce, S. Prowse, and E.A.M. Scott (1997). Housing and behavioral testing conditions for long term studies. In: Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome, 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ [March 23, 1998]). European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).

Box, H.O., ed. (1991). Primate Responses to Environmental Change. Chapman and Hall: New York, 442p.
NAL call number: QL737 P9P74 1990
Descriptors: species differences, adaptation, nature, captivity, stress, distress, physiology.

Britt, A. (1993). Cage top feeding for primates. Shape of Enrichment 2(3): 11.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoos, laboratories, foraging behavior.

Carlson, S., P. Rama, D. Artchakov, and I. Linnankoski (1997). Effects of music and white noise on working memory performance in monkeys. Neuroreport 8(13): 2853-56.
It has been suggested that Mozart's music may have beneficial effects on the performance of cognitive tasks in humans. In the present study the effects of Mozart's piano music, white noise, simple rhythm and silence were studied on the performance of a delayed response (DR) task in monkeys. The acoustic treatments were given for 15 min, either before or during DR testing. The acoustic treatments did not affect DR performance when given before testing. However, Mozart's piano music played during DR testing caused a significant deterioration in the performance of the monkeys, whereas white noise improved it. It is suggested that Morzart's music serves as distractive stimulation during DR performance thus affecting working-memory-related neuronal processing and performance. White background noise, on the other hand, may improve DR performance by protecting against environmental distraction during testing.
Descriptors: nervous system, sensory stimulus, music, memory, background noise.

Clardy, B.E., A.W. Grady, and W.M. Taylor (1997). An economical enrichment device for nonhuman primates. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(4): 71.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: costs of enrichment, laboratory primates, behavior.

Crockett, C.M. and D.M. Bowden (1994). Challenging conventional wisdom for housing monkeys. Lab Animal 23(2):29-33.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory primates, animal welfare, cage size.

Crockett, C.M. (1998). Psychological well-being of captive nonhuman primates: lessons from laboratory studies. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., pp. 129-152.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: laboratory primates, psychological well-being, review.

Demlong, M. (1993). Another passive insect dispensor. The Shape of Enrichment 2(2):6-7.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: food enrichment, foraging behavior.

Dickie, L. (1997). Environmental enrichment in captive primates: a survey and review. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, pp. 337-355.
Descriptors: zoo primates, Europe, care, enrichment.

Dorian, C. (1993). Feeder logs, swings, and perches for primates. The Shape of Enrichment 2(2):3-5.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: manipulanda, novelty, zoos.

Elliot, B. and S. Cook (1994). Environmental enrichment for non-human primates. Canadian Association of Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter 28(2): 36, 38-40.
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: lab primates, enrichment, animal wellbeing.

Farmer, K.H. and R.J. Young (1994). From rags to enrichment. Recycling paper. Ideas for environmental enrichment with primates. RATEL 21(6):202-203.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: waste paper, zoo primates.

Field, K.J., J. Denny, and G. Kubica (1992). Nonhuman primate socialization and environmental enrichment using a transfer tunnel. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 31(2):5-8.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: tunnel, social behavior, laboratory, exploratation.

Holmes, S.N., J.M. Riley, P. Juneau, D. Pyne, and G.L. Hofing (1995). Short term evaluation of a foraging device for non-human primates. Laboratory Animals 29(4):364-369.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: foraging behavior, laboratory, activity level, behavioral changes.

Jacobsen, L., R. Hamel, and J. Brown (1998). Internet resources in primatology. ILAR Journal 38(4):171-184.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: audiovisuals, directories, websites, listservs, electronic resources.

Laule, G. (1994). Use of positive reinforcement techniques in primates to enhance animal care, research, and enrichment. Canadian Association of Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter 28(2): 33-36.
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: animal training, rewards, conditioning, behavior, animal welfare.

Ludes, E. (1996). Welfare and environmental enrichment of captive primates. STAL 21(1): 25-39.
Descriptors: psychological wellbeing, species-specific behavior, laboratory and zoo primates.

Marriner, L.M. and L.C. Drickamer (1994). Factors influencing stereotyped behavior of primates in a zoo. Zoo Biology 13(3):267-275.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: rearing methods, repetitive motor patterns, atypical behavior, lemurs, tamarins, macaques, spider monkeys, baboons, apes.

Marriott, B.M., R.W. Marriott, J. Norris, and D. Lee (1993). A semi-natural habitat for housing small nonhuman primates. Journal of Medical Primatology 22(6):348-354.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: cage complexity, laboratory, activity levels.

Maxwell, J. (1993). Stimulating natural behavior: enrichment. Australian Primatology 7(4):17-18.
Descriptors: zoos, measuring behavior, activity.

Maxwell, J. (1993). Stimulating natural behaviors: enrichment for brains and hands. Shape of Enrichment 2(1):1-2
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoos, primates, environmental enrichment.

Murchison, M.A. (1993). Potential animal hazard with ring toys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 34(1):1-2.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: risks, choking, ring toys, devices.

Novak, M.A., A. Rulf, H. Munroe, K. Parks, C. Price, P. O'Neill, and S. J. Suomi (1995). Using a standard to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment. Lab Animal 24(6): 37-42.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory primates, methods, assessing enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Enticing non-human primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology 12:307-312.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: foraging behavior, activity levels, novelty stimulus.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (1998). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates: An Annotated Bibliography for Animal Care Personnel. 2nd ed. Animal Welfare Institute, PO Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007
Descriptors: guidelines and regulations, enrichment programs, inanimate enrichment, feeding enrichment, substrates, animate enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (1992). Quantitatively tested environmental enrichment options for singly-caged nonhuman primates: A review. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 6:374-383.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: animal welfare, assessing enrichment options.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Roberts (1997). Effective feeding enrichment for non-human primates: A brief review. Animal Welfare 6(3):265-272.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging, laboratories, feed processing, zoos, animal welfare.

Rosenblum, L.A. and M.W. Andrews (1995). Environmental enrichment and psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. In: Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research, Biology, and Management, B.T. Bennett, C.R. Abee, and R. Henrickson, eds., Academic Press: New York., pp. 101-112.
NAL call number: SF407 P7N66 1995
Descriptors: enrichment programs, behavior, devices, social groups.

Sambrook, T.D. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (1997). Control and complexity in novel object enrichment. Animal Welfare 6(3): 207-216.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: novelty, manipulanda, complexity, ecological approaches.

Sambrook, T.D. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (1996). What makes novel objects enriching? A comparison of the qualities of control and complexity. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35(4): 1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: novelty, manipulanda, complexity.

Schnell, C. R. and P. Gerber (1997). Training and monitoring of animals. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ [January 1999]). European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: positive reinforcement, rewards, observations.

Sokol, K.A. (1993). Commentary: thinking like a monkey--"primatomorphizing" an environmental enrichment program. Lab Animal 22(5):40-45.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory, environmental enrichment.

Swanson, J., M.D. Kreger, D.J. Berry, J. Lyons-Carter, and J. Larson (1992). Environmental enrichment information resources for nonhuman primates: 1987-1992. National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center: Beltsville, MD, 105p.
NAL call number: aZ7996.P85E58 1992
Descriptors: bibliography, information resources.

Taira, K., and E.T. Rolls (1996). Receiving grooming as a reinforcer for the monkey. Physiology and Behavior 59(6): 1189-1192.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Descriptors: grooming, social contact, positive reinforcement.

Visalberghi, E. and J.R. Anderson (1993). Reasons and risks associated with manipulating captive primates' social environments. Animal Welfare 2(1): 3-15.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: group housing, aggression, boredom, resource access.

Watts, E. and A. Meder (1996). Introduction and socialization techniques for primates. In: Wild Mammals in Captivity Principles and Techniques. D.G. Kleiman, M.E. Allen, K.V. Thompson, and S. Lumpkin, eds., University of Chicago Press:Chicago, pp. 67-77.
NAL call number: SF408 W55 1996
Descriptors: introductions, aggression, social behavior.

Weed J.L., Baker, S.C. Harbaugh, and J. Erwin (1995). Innovative enclosures for laboratory primates: evaluation of a "breeding condominium". Lab Animal 24(7): 28-32.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: housing, social interactions, laboratory.

Woolley, A.P.A.H. (1997). Requirements of biomedical research in terms of housing and husbandry: pharmacology and toxicology. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ [January 1999]). European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: social housing, isolation housing, experimental studies, husbandry.


*** To: Top of Document | Contents | Bibliography: List of Articles, Books/Conference Proceedings | AWIC Newsletter Articles ***

Enrichment Plans

Bloomsmith, M.A., L.Y. Brent, and S.J. Schapiro. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):372-377.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Before implementing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates, several issues should be considered. The assignment of enrichment tasks can be made to caretakers, a dedicated "enrichment technician," volunteers, students or individuals with training in behavioral science. Determining the enrichment techniques to be used must take into account personnel time available; the species, age, sex, and individual histories of the nonhuman primates; and experimental protocols for which animals are being maintained. Identifying the most beneficial way to use the available personnel time must be tailored for each institution. To meet federal regulations, records must be kept of the environmental enhancements available to each nonhuman primate. Good record-keeping will allow appropriate evaluation of the program. This evaluation should involve the animals' responses to the enrichment opportunity, cost and durability of enrichment items, human and nonhuman safety considerations, and personnel required . The well-being of captive nonhuman primates will be most improved if well-informed decisions are made in developing and managing environmental enrichment programs.
Descriptors: record keeping, evaluation, enrichment plans.

Dewey, A. (1994). The development of enrichment masterplan. Proceedings of the 20th National Conference of the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. Topeka, KS: AAZK, pp. 88-93.
NAL call number: QL76 A46 1993
Descriptors: planning, evaluation, enrichment plan, education, zoo primates.

National Research Council (1998). The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 168p.
NAL call number: SF407 P7P79 1988
Descriptors: guidelines, enrichment program elements, apes, cebids, prosimians, callitrichids, cercopithecids, research needs, sample plans.

Primate Environmental Enhancement Plans. 1990-Present
Collection of primate environmental enhancement plans prepared by research institutions and zoos from around the United States. Reports were prepared to meet USDA Animal Welfare Act mandate for providing for the "psychological well-being" of nonhuman primates.
NAL call number: HV4737 P75
Descriptors: environmental enrichment plans, psychological wellbeing, Animal Welfare Act.

Taylor, W.J. and M.L. Laudenslager (1998). Low-cost environmental enrichment plan for laboratory macaques. Lab Animal 27(4):28-31.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: psychological well-being, Animal Welfare Act, laboratory macaques.


*** To: Top of Document | Contents | Bibliography: List of Articles, Books/Conference Proceedings | AWIC Newsletter Articles ***

Great Apes and Gibbons

Aureli, F. and F.B.M. DeWaal (1997). Inhibition of social behavior in chimpanzees under high density conditions. American Journal of Primatology 41(3):213-228.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: social behavior, crowding, captivity.

Baker, K.C. (1997). Straw and forage material ameliorate abnormal beahviors in adult chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 16(3):225-236.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: substrate, foraging behavior, zoos, activity.

Baker, K.C. and F. Aureli (1996). The neighbor effect: Other groups influence intragroup agonistic behavior in captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 40(3):283-291.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: social behavior, dominance, aggression.

Baker, K.C. (1996). Chimpanzees in single cages and small social groups: Effects of housing on behavior. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 35(3):71-74.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: social housing, foraging, dominance, abnormal behaviors.

Baker, K.C. (1997). Human interaction as enrichment for captive chimpanzees: A preliminary report. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):92.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: human-animal bond, social behavior, training.

Bettinger, T., J. Wallis, and T. Carter (1994). Spatial selection in captive adult female chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 13(2):167-176.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: spatial behavior, territoriality, zoos, social behavior.

Bloomsmith, M.A. and S.P. Lambeth (1995). Effects of predictable versus unpredictable feeding schedules on chimpanzee behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 44(1): 65-74.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: chimpanzees, timing, predictability of feeding, species-appropriate behavior.

Bloomsmith, M.A., S.P. Lambeth, A.M. Stone, and G.E. Laule (1997). Comparing two types of human interaction as enrichment for chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 42(2): 96.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: human-animal bond, training, social behavior.

Bloomsmith, M.A., G.E. Laule, P.L. Alford, and R.H. Thurston (1994). Using training to moderate chimpanzee aggression during feeding. Zoo Biology 13(6):557-566.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: human-animal bond, social behavior, dominance.

Brent, L. (1998). Destructible toys as enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(1):5-15.
NAL call number: HV4701 J68
The use of destructible objects or toys as enrichment for nonhuman primates has had promising results in terms of increased use and positive behavioral effect. The purpose of this project was to determine the use and durability of a number of inexpensive, destructible toys provided one at a time or several at once. Nine singly caged chimpanzees were provided with eight different toys made of plastic, vinyl, or cloth and the frequency of use of the toys was determined during 15 min trials twice per day. The toy was removed when it was destroyed or when it was not contacted during four trials. The chimpanzees contacted the toys for an average of 11 times per trial, and the use of the individual toys was significantly higher when provided one at a time rather than all at once. Use of the toys was fairly stable over time, and the toys remained in the cages an average of 3.2 days. The durability of the toys was related to the type of toy, i.e., more flexible cloth and vinyl toys lasted longer than rigid plastic toys. The destructible toys were used significantly more often than other permanent cage toys or televisions. Toy use was not related to age, level of abnormal behavior or use of existing permanent toys or television. The implications of the results were related to the management of an environmental enrichment program, and indicate that the provision of flexible, inexpensive toys one at a time can be an effective method of enrichment for captive chimpanzees.
Descriptors: use, durability, timing, affects of age or abnormal behavior.

Brent, L. (1995). Feeding enrichment and body weight in captive chimpanzees. Journal of Medical Primatology 24(1):12-16.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Although positive behavioral consequences have been attributed to feeding enrichment, physiological changes may also occur. In this study, the body weight records of a large chimpanzee colony were reviewed to determine if body weight was affected by the implementation of a daily enrichment program, including food items offered three to four times per week. Comparing the mean body weight by age groups indicated that the weight of female chimpanzees was significantly greater after feeding enrichment but that male body weight did not differ.

Brent L. (1992). Woodchip bedding as enrichment for captive chimpanzees in an outdoor enclosure. Animal Welfare 1(3):161-170.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, juveniles, behavior, evaluation, woodchips.

Brent, L. and A.M. Stone (1996). Long-term use of televisions, balls, and mirrors as enrichment for paired and singly caged chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 39(2):139-45.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
The evaluation of environmental enrichment techniques for nonhuman primates over long periods of time has had mixed results. Some studies report rapid habituation to new enrichment items, while others note continued use. We have investigated the use of three different enrichments that had been available to paired and singly caged chimpanzees for several years. Twenty subjects were observed during 200 hr of scan sampling while singly caged and while pair housed. Each subject had a variety of enrichments available and their use of a television, ball, and mirror were recorded. The chimpanzees had previous exposure to all of the items: televisions had been available for a mean of 22.75 months, balls had been available for 55.9 months, and mirrors had been available for 25.9 months. The results indicated that the chimpanzees continued to use the enrichments for small amounts of time (0.27%-1.53% of the observations) even after such prolonged exposure. Television and ball use were significantly higher than mirror use. Housing condition was not a significant factor in the analyses, contrary to expectations. We concluded that several simple enrichment items may be effective in offering variety and choices to the nonhuman primate and can be one element in a comprehensive environmental enhancement plan.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, laboratory, devices, enrichment plans.

Brown, D., J. Calcagno, K. Gold, and S. Thompson (1995). Effects of environmental enrichment on nonsocial and abnormal behavior of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1995:29-35.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: gorilla, zoos, behavior.

Brown, D. and K.C. Gold (1997). Effects of straw bedding on non-social and abnormal behavior of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Behavioral problems in captivity in general and their management . In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg, pp 24-38.
Descriptors: gorilla, zoos, substrate, social behavior.

Burd L. and D. Moore (1991). Primate enrichment: using novel stimuli for behavioral modification in captive gibbons. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings 1991:505-511.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: Hylobates, housing, environmental enrichment.

Fritz, J. (1994). Introducing unfamiliar chimpanzees to a group or partner. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(1):5-7.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social behavior, dominance, social housing.

Fritz, J., S.M. Howell and M.L. Schwandt (1997). Colored light as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 36:(2):1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: novel stimulus, activity, behavior.

Gilloux, I., J. Gurnell, and D. Shepherdson (1992). An enrichment device for great apes. Animal Welfare 1(4): 279-289.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: gorilla, chimpanzee, puzzle feeders, behavioral response, feeding behavior.

Goff, C., S. Menkhus-Howell, J. Fritz, and B. Nankivell (1994). Space use and proximity of captive chimpanzee mother/offspring pairs. Zoo Biology 13(1):61-68.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: social housing, spatial behavior, pair bonds.

Heuer, A. and R. Hartmut (1998). Environmental enrichment for four subadult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in the Zoological Garden of Hanover. Zoologische Garten 68(2):119-133.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: manipulanda, habituation, novel objects.

Howell, S., E. Mittra, J. Fritz, and J. Baron (1997). The provision of cage furnishings as environmental enrichment at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. Newsletter of the Primate Foundation Of Arizona 9(2):1-5.
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, cage props, environmental enrichment, chimpanzees.

Kessel, A. and L. Brent (1996). Goldfish as enrichment for singly housed chimpanzees. Animal Technology 47(1):1-8.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: goldfish, habitiuation, laboratory chimps, aquariums.

Kessel, A.L., L. Brent, and T. Walljasper (1995). Shredded paper as enrichment for infant chimpanzees. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 34(4):4-6.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, infants, shredding paper.

Lambeth, S.P. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1992). Mirrors as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Animal Science 42(3):261-66.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
At many facilities, limitations of the physical environment have reduced the opportunity for captive chimpanzees to live in large, naturalistic social groups. Convex mirrors used to increase visual access of neighboring groups may improve the social environment. This was tested in a study of 28 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) group-housed in conventional indoor/outdoor runs. A total of 47.8 hours of behavioral observations were conducted and comparisons made across three conditions: no mirror present, a mirror present with visual access to neighboring conspecifics, or a mirror present with visual access to the neighbors' empty run. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to neighboring animals, facial expressions, sexual, and agonistic behaviors increased, whereas affiliative behaviour decreased compared with when no mirror was present. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to a neighbors' empty run, facial expressions and sexual behavior increased compared with when no mirror was present. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to a neighbor's empty run, agonism decreased compared with when a mirror gave subjects visual access to neighboring animals. When subjects had visual access to neighbors, they used the mirror 30% of the total data points; while they had visual access to the neighbors' empty run, they looked during 24% of the total data points. Juveniles' use of the mirror increased over time while adults' use remained stable. Adult males used the mirror less than did the other subjects. These findings indicate that a mirror allowing visual access to neighboring conspecifics has potential as an enrichment device that affects social behavior.
Descriptors: mirrors, visual access, age dependence, social behavior.

Lukas K.E., M.P. Hoff, and T.L. Maple (1995). Rotating gorilla troops through multiple exhibits at Zoo Atlanta's Ford African rainforest: A behavioral evaluation. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings 1995:352-354.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: social behavior, novelty, zoo primates, gorillas.

Morris, A. and T. Bettinger (1991). Chimpanzee enrichment at the Tulsa Zoo. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings 1991:417-422.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, enrichment, zoos.

Ogden, J.J., D.G. Lindburg, and T.L. Maple (1994). A preliminary study of the effects of ecologically relevant sounds on the behaviour of captive lowland gorillas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 39(2):163-76.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: quiet, ventilation noise, caretaker sounds, vocalization playbacks, rainforest sounds, behavior, stress, age differences.

Pazol K.A. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1993). The development of stereotyped body rocking in chimpanzees reared in a variety of nursery settings. Animal Welfare 2(2):113-129.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, novel stimulus, social behavior, treatment.

Perkins, L. (1992). Variables that influence the activity of captive orangutans. Zoo Biology 11(3):177-186.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: zoos, social behavior, manipulanda, dominance.

Perret, K., H. Preuschoft, and S. Preuschoft (1995). The impact of zoo visitors on the behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoologische Garten 65(5):314-32.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: stress from visitors, effects on social behavior of chimpanzees, play.

Perret, K., S. Buechner, and H. Joerg a Adler (1998). Environmental enrichment programs for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in zoos. Zoologische Garten 68(2):95-111.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: tool use, foraging, social behavior, economic costs, benefits for wellbeing.

Preutz, J.D. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1992). Comparing two manipulable objects as enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 1(2): 127-137.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: devices, activity, behavior.

Rooney, M.B. and J. Sleeman (1998). Effects of selected behavioral enrichment devices on behavior of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(4):339-351.
NAL call number: HV4701 J68
Environmental complexity plays an integral role in the activity and psychological well-being of primates. The experiment described in this article evaluated the effects of nonintrusive, inexpensive, and easily managed behavioral enrichment devices on the behavior of a group of captive western lowland gorillas. Devices used included cardboard boxes containing food items, paper bags containing food items, burlap rags, willow, and maple browse. The enrichment devices increased foraging, social play, and solitary play behaviors. Sedentary behaviors decreased. Rags, bags, browse, and boxes did not statistically decrease the incidence of regurgitation/reingestation or coprophagy. Depending on the type of enrichment item used, the effects on agonism and manipulation of enrichment item were variable. To make informed management decisions about the psychological well being of captive animals, it is important to objectively quantify and examine the influences on their behavior.
Descriptors: manipulanda, toys, zoos.

Russon, A.E. and B.M. Galdikas (1993). Imitation in free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 107(2): 147-61.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: rehabilitation environments, learning, imitation.

Shefferly, N., J. Fritz , and S. Howell (1993). Toys as environmental enrichment for captive juvenile chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 32(2):7-9.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: toys, chimpanzees, laboratory.

Struthers, E.J., H. Harvey, and S. Walden (1997). Utilization of a sensory diet approach for enrichment and mitigation of abnormal behaviors in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 42(2):151.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: foraging, diet enrichment, stereotypies, behavior.

Sugiyama, Y. (1995). Drinking tools of wild chimpanzees at Bossou. American Journal of Primatology 37:263-269.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: wild chimpanzees, toolmaking, drinking, manipulanda.

Takemoto H, K. Kumazaki, and T. Matsuzawa (1996). Selectivity in feeding behavior of planted trees by captive chimpanzees. Primate Research 12(1):33-40.
Descriptors: diet, food preferences, foraging, zoos.

Takeshita, H. and J. Van Hooff (1996). Tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the Arnhem Zoo community. Japanese Psychological Research 38(3):163-173.
Descriptors: zoos, tool use, age, play.

Wood, W. (1998). Interactions among environmental enrichment, viewing crowds, and zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 17(3):211-230.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: zoos, visitors effects on behavior, foraging, object use, grooming, play.

Woods, S. (1995). Facilitation of problem solving, tool use, and affiliative social behaviors in captive gorillas. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1995:384-388.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: zoos, grooming, manipulanda, cognition.

Wood, W. (1997). Changes in grooming and play behavior across three levels of enviromental complexity in an intensively housed group of zoo chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):156.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: grooming, social behavior, play, complex housing, zoos.

Wright, B.W. (1995). A novel item enrichment program reduces lethargy in orangutans. Folia Primatologica 65(4):214-218.
NAL call number: QL737 P9F6
Descriptors: obesity, environmental enrichment, devices, novelty, zoos.

Wright, B.W. (1994). A comparative analysis of the effects of behavioral enrichment and the utilization of tools within and between captive groups of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and Bornean orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Suppl. 18:210-211.
Descriptors: abstract, tool use, manipulanda, social behavior.

Young, R.J., D. McNaught, and B. Richardson (1994). Hand-manipulated food dispensers for Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). RATEL 21(3):85-86.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: devices, zoos, foraging behavior.


*** To: Top of Document | Contents | Bibliography: List of Articles, Books/Conference Proceedings | AWIC Newsletter Articles ***

Macaques

Anderson, J.R., A. Rortais, and S. Guillemein (1994). Diving and underwater swimming as enrichment activities for captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 3(4): 275-83.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
In order to assess the environmental enrichment value of a small swimming pool for captive juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), observations of social and individual behaviours were made during baseline and experimental (pool) conditions. When the pool was available there was less social grooming and cage manipulation, and more play. Most of the monkeys engaged in diving and underwater swimming. The presence of pieces of banana at the bottom of the pool reduced these water-related activities, whereas when raisins were spread along the bottom or when there was no food in the water, there was more diving and less aggression. Certain effects tended to vary with dominance status, but individual differences appeared more important than social status in determining reactions to the water. The provision of a small swimming pool for captive macaques is an effective contribution to improving their welfare.
Descriptors: rhesus macaque, swimming pool, social behavior.

Bayne, K.A.L. and S. Dexter (1992). Removing an environmental enrichment device can result in a rebound of abnormal behavior in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 27:15.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: atypical behavior, importance of environmental enrichment, devices.

Bayne, K.A.L., S.L. Dexter, and H. Mainzer (1992). The use of artificial turf as a foraging substrate for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 1(1):39-53.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: substrate, foraging behavior, activity.

Bayne, K.A.L., J.K. Hurst, and S.L. Dexter (1992). Evaluation of the preference to and behavioral effects of an enriched environment on male rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science 42(1): 38-45.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Two environments were provided to laboratory rhesus monkeys to determine if the animals spent more time (for the purposes of this study, defined as the cage side preference) in an enriched cage side than an unenriched cage side. The side (right or left) of a double-wide cage in which the animal spent the most time (as determined by Chi square analysis) was initially determined during baseline obsevations. The "nonpreferred" side was then enriched during the experimental phase of the study. The enrichment consisted of a perch, a Tug-A-Toy suspended inside the cage, a Kong toy suspended on the outside of the cage, and a grooming board mounted on the outside of the cage. No statistically significant changes in use of the enrichments were detected over time Fifty percent of the animals switched cage side preference to the enriched side during the study. All subjects showed reduced behavioral pathology during exposure to the enriched environment with a return of behavioral pathology when the enrichments were removed.
Descriptors: preference testing, cage size, toys, laboratory animals.

Bayne, K.A.L., G.M. Strange, and S.L. Dexter (1994). Influence of food enrichment on cage side preference. Laboratory Animal Science 44(6): 624-29.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
A preference test paradigm was used to assess the value of two enrichment techniques for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): (1) a Kong toy stuffed with food treats and (2) a fleece board covered with particulate food. The duration of time spent in the enriched cage side was compared with that spent in the unenriched cage side. Additionally, the number of cage side changes made during an observation interval and the duration and frequency of occurrence of select behaviors were recorded. Half the subjects altered their cage side preference during the experimental condition, and a fifth animal reversed side preference in the postexperimental phase. Subjects spent a mean time of 14% of a session engaged with the foraging devices. The occurrence of several behaviors, including self-directed and locomotor activities, varied significantly with the experimental condition. These results were compared with data from a previous preference study of nonnutritive enrichments, and a hypothesis regarding the relative value of different types of enrichment was developed.
Descriptors: Kong toy, foraging board, cage preferences, nonnutritive enrichment.

Blount, J.o.n.D. (1997). Pond-dipping and a 'brunch' of flowers: enrichment for Sulawesi crested macaques at Newquay Zoo. Ratel 24(4):135-137.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: Macaca nigra, zoos, flowers.

Boccia, M.L., M.L. Laudenslager, and M.L. Reite (1995). Individual differences in macaques' responses to stressors based on social and physiological factors: Implications for primate welfare and research outcomes. Laboratory Animals 29(3):250-7.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Primates are used extensively in a variety of research settings. Federal regulations in the U.S. mandate that caretakers provide for the 'psychological well-being of laboratory primates'. One of the difficulties in implementing this law has been both in the definition of psychological well-being and in the need to deal with each primate species and, in some cases, age or sex class, uniquely. Non-human primates exhibit distinct individual differences in their behavioural and physiological responses to experimental challenges and caretaking procedures. We have been investigating what factors can predict some of these individual differences, and have found that factors both intrinsic and extrinsic are significant. Extrinsic factors found to predict individual differences in response to stressors include the nature and prior experience with the challenge, the presence of familiar peers and availability of social support. Intrinsic factors include cognitive interpretations of the challenge and temperamental differences in reactivity. These studies highlight the importance of understanding the context and individual psychology of macaques in order to provide laboratory environments conducive to their welfare, and in order to understand the impact experimental and caretaking procedures are likely to have on the health and welfare of our subjects.
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, Macaca radiata, stress, individual differences, psychology.

Bowers, C.L., C.M. Crockett, and D.M. Bowden (1998). Differences in stress reactivity of laboratory macaques measured by heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. American Journal of Primatology 45(3): 245-61.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Some laboratory primates are more likely than others to react to anxiety-provoking stressors. Individuals that overreact to stressors may experience diminished psychological well-being and would be inappropriate for some experiments. The differences between reactive and nonreactive individuals may be reflected in heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Using surface electrodes and radio telemetry, we measured these two cardiac variables in seven male and ten female singly caged longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) when they were exposed to two stressors, a sudden noise (whistle test) and an unfamiliar technician wearing capture gloves (glove test). Behavior was videotaped during both tests. For the whistle test, cardiac data were recorded before, during, and after two 1 minute whistle blasts separated by 90 min. For the glove test, data were recorded in 1 minute blocks every 8 minutes over 96 minutes before, during, and after 1 minute exposure to the gloved technician. Heart period was decreased and RSA was suppressed during both the whistle and glove exposures. After the whistle test, the cardiac activity of most subjects returned to baseline levels within 10 minutes. The glove test produced more extended suppression, with greater individual differences, than the whistle test. There were greater individual differences in RSA than in heart period. These enhanced individual differences were used to define stress reactors that differed from nonreactors in their cardiac data profiles. Of 16 subjects that completed the glove test, five were identified as reactors.
Descriptors: stress, physiology, psychology, Macaca fascicularis.

Cardinal, B.R. and K.J. Stephen (1998). Behavioral effect of simple manipulable environmental enrichment on pair-housed juvenile macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37(1):1-3.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: enrichment devices, social housing, manipulanda.

Clark, A.S. and M.L. Schneider (1993). Prenatal stress has long-term effects on behavioral responses to stress in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology 26(5):293-304.
Descriptors: distress, social behavior, laboratory.

Crockett, C.M., R.U. Bellanca, C.L. Bowers and D.M. Bowden (1997). Grooming--contact bars provide social contact for individually-caged laboratory macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(6):53-60.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: individual housing, social behavior, devices.

Crockett, C.M., and D.M. Bowden (1994). Challenging conventional wisdom for housing monkeys. Lab Animal 23(2):29-33.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: social behavior, spatial behavior, performance standards, legislation.

Crockett, C.M., C.L. Bowers, D.M. Bowden, and G.P. Sackett (1994). Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult long-tailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology 32(2):73-94.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: gender, social behavior, laboratory housing.

Crockett, C.M., C.L. Bowers, M. Shimoji, M. Leu, D.M. Bowden, and G.P. Sackett (1995). Behavioral responses of longtailed macaques to different cage sizes and common laboratory experiences. Journal of Comparative Psychology 109(4):368-83.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
The authors tested the effects of varying cage size on the behavior of 10 female and 10 male Macaca fascicularis by singly caging them for 2 weeks in each of 5 cage sizes, ranging from approximately 20% to 148% of regulation size. Behavior in the regulation cage size, a size 23% smaller, and a size 48% larger did not differ in any analysis. Locomotion was significantly less in the 2 smallest cage sizes. Abnormal behavior occurred only 5% of the time, did not increase as cage size decreased, and did not change significantly over nearly 3 years. Disruption of the normal activity budget in the laboratory environment proved to be a useful indicator of psychological well-being. Moving to a new room and, to a lesser extent, moving into a new, clean cage, regardless of size, was associated with disrupted sleep the 1st night and suppressed activity, especially self-grooming, the next day.
Descriptors: cage size, activity, self-grooming, abnormal behavior levels.

Eaton, G.G., S.T. Kelley, M.K. Axthelm, S.P. Iliff-Sizemore, and S.M. Shiigi (1994). Psychological well being in paired adult female rhesus. American Journal of Primatology 33:89-99.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, group housing, well-being.

Estep, D.Q. and S.C. Baker (1991). The effects of temporary cover on the behavior of socially housed stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Zoo Biology 10(6):465-472.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: contact aggression, locomotion, copulation, affiliative behavior.

Fligiel, J. and V. Reinhardt (1994). Assessing group housing for an aged female rhesus macaque. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(4):10-12.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social behavior, older animals, laboratory housing.

Gust, D.A., T.P. Gordon, A.R. Brodie, and H.M. McClure (1994). Effect of a preferred companion in modulating stress in adult female rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 55:681-684.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Descriptors: distress, social behavior, physiological response.

Gust, D.A., T.P. Gordon, M.E. Wilson, A.R. Brodie, A. Ahmed-Ansari, H.M. McClure, and G.R. Lubach (1996). Group formation of female pig tailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology 39(4): 263-273.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: social behavior, group housing.

Holmes, S.N., J.M. Riley, P. Juneau, D. Pyne, and G.L. Hofing (1995). Short-term evaluation of a foraging device for non-human primates. Laboratory Animals 29(4):364-69.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
In the USA, any institution involved in using non-human primates for research has had, for regulatory reasons, to address the psychological needs of these animals. Enriching the environment through the use of foraging devices has been one method and a study was designed to evaluate the short-term effect of a new foraging device on singly-housed cynomolgus monkeys. The study was divided into 3 one-week periods of observation: baseline, device filled with normal ration, and device filled with a novel food. Four behaviours were recorded: foraging, self-directed, hopper feeding, and other behaviours. During the observation periods the device was accepted in preference to the standard hopper style feeder and self-directed behaviours were significantly reduced compared with the baseline period. Changing to a novel food re-kindled interest in the device and reduced the extinguishing effect: i.e. decrease in interest or use of the device. Based on this study, the feeder has been included with several other devices in a rotation programme.
Descriptors: novel food, feeder, Macaca fascicularis, cynomologus macaque, feeding behavior.

Kessel, A.L. and L. Brent (1998). Cage toys reduce abnormal behavior in individually housed pigtail macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(3):227-234.
NAL call number: HV4701 J68
As part of a behavioral intervention program that identifies and treats individual nonhuman primates exhibiting abnormal behavior, five individually housed pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were provided with multiple cage toys in an effort to reduce high levels of abnormal behavior. Ten 30-minute observations of each subject were conducted during the baseline condition, and again after novel toys were presented loose inside the cage, and attached to the outside of the cage. The new toys were used during 27% of the observation time. Kong ToysTM were used most consistently by the macaques during the 5-week observation period. Significant decreases in abnormal behavior and cage-directed behavior, as well as significantly increased enrichment use, were evident after the toys were added. Several of the toys were quickly destroyed, and individual differences were evident in the levels of enrichment use and abnormal behavior. Providing multiple manipulable toys as enrichment for pigtail macaques was effective in reducing abnormal behavior and was an important part of an environmental enrichment program for monkeys who could not be socially housed.
Descriptors: toys, placement on cage, abnormal behavior, single housing.

Lehman, S.M. and R.G. Lessnau (1992). Pickle barrels as enrichment objects for rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 392-97.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Two breeding groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in outdoor enclosures on Key Lois island were observed for 84 hours. Instantaneous scan sampling of a focal animal was used to gather data to test hypotheses concerning frequencies of agonistic and affiliative behaviors as well as differential use of pickle barrels as enrichment objects. Type of barrel used, behavior, and age/sex class of the animal were noted. Barrels were arranged three ways: unattached, on a swivel, and stationary . The behaviors of animals in an enriched environment were compared with control condition animals, which did not have pickle barrels. Animals in an enriched environment accounted for 60.8% (n = 56) of total affiliative contact, 62.2% (n = 399) of total social grooming, and 26% (n = 5) of total agonistic noncontact. A total of 134 scans of barrel use were observed. Analyses of the data showed that swivel and stationary barrels were used the most (55% of all scans of barrel use). Yearlings, juvenile females, and old males used barrels most often (82.8% of all scans of barrel use), although they constituted only 39% of the enriched environment populations. In this study, pickle barrels provided enrichment for young and old animals of both sexes.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, agonistic and affiliative behavior, age of individual.

Leu, M., C.M. Crockett, C.L. Bowers, and D.M. Bowden (1993). Changes in activity levels of singly housed long tailed macaques when given the opoortunity to exercise in a larger cage. Journal of Comparative Psychology 109(4):368.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: social behavior, activity level, exercise, spatial behavior.

Lincoln, H. III, M.W. Andrews, and L.A. Rosenblum (1995). Pigtail macaque performance on a challenging joystick task has important implications for enrichment and anxiety within a captive environment. Laboratory Animal Science 45(3): 264-8.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
The purpose of this study was to extend previous findings on joystick task engagement by a group of pigtail macaques. The goals were to determine the influence of task difficulty on daily levels of task activity and to test the hypothesis that previously identified preferences among identical devices at different locations derived largely from the level of anxiety induced at each location. It was found that the number of daily trials decreased when the task was made more difficult, with more time required to complete each trial with the difficult task. Preferences among locations became more pronounced with the more difficult task. Analysis of errors made on devices at different locations supported the view that preferences did derive, at least in part, from levels of induced anxiety. Locations of enrichment devices may influence not only amount of use but also levels of anxiety in captive monkeys.
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, anxiety, preference, device location.

Lincoln, H. III, M.W. Andrews, and L.A. Rosenblum (1994). Environmental structure influences use of multiple video-task devices by socially housed pigtail macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41(1-2):135-43.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: video enrichment, perch provision, social housing, Macaca nemestrina.

Line, S.W., A.S. Clarke, H. Markowitz, and G. Ellman (1990). Responses of female rhesus macaques to an environmental en richment apparatus. Laboratory Animals 24(3):213-20.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Environmental enrichment devices are a potential way to enhance psychological well-being in laboratory animals. The effects of such devices need to be systematically evaluated before they are recommended for widespread use. The purpose of this research was to monitor the behavioural and physiological responses of adult female rhesus macaques to a simple enrichment device. The apparatus consisted of a box attached to the monkey's home cage that contained a radio and a food dispenser, which could be contrpl led by the monkeys via contact detectors. Radio and food dispenser use were automatically recorded. Whole blood serotonin (WBS), plasma cortisol and abnormal behaviour were measured in 5 monkeys before, during and after a 20-week period in which the monkey's cages were equipped with the device. All monkeys used the device (3 of the 5 subjects earned an average of more than 200 food pellets per day). Mean plasma cortisol and whole blood serotonin did not differ across sampling times, suggesting that the apparatus had no effect on basal stress levels. There was an inverse relationship between apparatus use and cortisol levels in 76% of the samples, but only 3 of 17 coefficients were significant. There was a significant but small negative correlation between apparatus use and self-abusive behaviour. This enrichment device was readily used by adult rhesus monkeys and could be adapted for use in a wide variety of laboratory settings.
Descriptors: food dispenser, stress, cortisol, abnormal behavior.

Line, S.W. and K.N. Morgan (1991). The effects of two novel objects on the behavior of singly caged adult rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):365-69.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Six female and six male adult rhesus macaques were given sticks and nylon balls as an attempt at simple cage enrichment. A latin square design was used to compare behavior during separate 4-week periods with each object and during a control period with no object. Frequency and duration of 15 different behaviors were recorded. Resting was the most common activity which decreased slightly in duration when the stick or nylon ball was present (P < 0.02). The mean duration of stick use was longer than that of the nylon ball (P < 0.01). No other behaviors changed significantly, including the frequency of abnormal behaviors such as self-abuse, stereotypic acts, and bizarre postures. Generally, these objects were used infrequently and led to few changes in the behavior of singly-caged adult rhesus macaques. However, they did appear to stimulate activity for some individuals.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, sticks, nylon balls, behavioral changes.

Line, S.W., K.N. Morgan, and H. Markowitz (1991). Simple toys do not alter the behavior of aged rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology 10(6): 473-84.
NAL call number: AL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: toys, sticks, effectiveness, abnormal behavior.

Ljungberg, T., K. Westlund, and L. Rydn (1997). Ethological studies of well-being in two species of macaques after transition from single-cages to housing in social groups. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop: The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.dpz.gwdg.de: 80/eupren/eupren.htm [March 23, 1998].) European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: social housing, compatability, behavior, mixed species.

Luttrell, L., L. Acker, M. Urben, and V. Reinhardt (1997). Training a large troop of rhesus macaques to cooperate during catching: Analysis of the time investment. Animal Welfare 3(2): 135-140.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: positive reinforcement, capture, handling, training, laboratory.

Lutz, C.K., and R.A. Farrow (1996). Foraging device for singly housed longtailed macaques does not reduce stereotypies. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 35(3):75-78.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: devices, atypical behavior, single housing.

Lutz, C.K. and M.A. Novak (1995). Use of foraging racks and shavings as enrichment tools for groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Zoo Biology 14(5):463-74.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: foraging, social behavior, devices.

Lynch, R. (1998). Successful pair housing of male macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37(1):4-6.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social housing, aggression, dominance.

Murchison, M.A. and E. Renolt (1992). Food puzzle for single caged primates. American Journal Of Primatology 27(4):285-292.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: pigtailed macaques, foraging behavior, puzzles, peanut rewards, control.

Palombit, R.A. (1992). A preliminary study of vocal communication in wild long-tailed macaques: II. Potential of calls to regulate intragroup spacing. International Journal of Primatology 13(2):183-207.
NAL call number: QL737 P9I54
Descriptors: spatial behavior, social behavior, importance of vocal communication.

Parks, K. A. and M.A. Novak (1993). Observations of increased activity and tool use in captive rhesus monkeys exposed to troughs of water. American Journal of Primatology 29(1):13-25.
NAL call number: AL737 P9A5
Descriptors: standing water, running water, combination with novel objects, exploration, social contact, grooming, water enrichment.

Platt, D.M. and M.A. Novak (1997). Video stimulation as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(1/2):139-155.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: video games, video tapes, effects on social behavior, habituation, single housed.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Refining the traditional housing and handling of research macaques. (Monograph online available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~seelig/pef/new/new.html), 9p.
Descriptors: space utilization, social behavior, training.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). The Wisconsin Gnawing Stick. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(3/4):11.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: branches, perches, social housing, single house, foraging.

Reinhardt, V. (1996). Frequently asked questions about safe pair-housing of macaques. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(1):11.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: dominance, pairing, male pairs, stress, methods.

Reinhardt, V. (1995). Arguments for single-caging of rhesus macaques: Are they justified? Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 6(1):1-2, 7-8.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: familiarity, dominance, pairing, male pairs, stress, methods.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Caged rhesus macaques voluntarily work for ordinary food. Primates 35(1): 95-98.
Descriptors: food puzzles, motivation, preferences, foraging behavior.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Continuous pair-housing of caged Macaca mulatta: Risk evaluation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(1):1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: group housing, spatial behavior, dominance, social enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology 23(8):426-31.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: social housing, injury rate, animal welfare.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Enticing nonhuman primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology 12(3):307-312.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: food puzzles, group housed macaques, feeder boxes, foraging behavior.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Using the mesh ceiling in a food puzzle to encourage foraging behavior in caged rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 2(2):165-172.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging behavior, devices, food puzzle.

Reinhardt, V. and S. Hurwitz (1993). Evaluation of social enrichment for aged rhesus macaques. Animal Technology 44(1):53-57.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: pair formations, behavioral interactions, affiliative interactions.

Reinhardt, V., C. Liss, and C. Stevens (1996). Space requirement stipulations for caged non-human primates in the United States: A critical review. Animal Welfare 5(4):361-372.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: housing, guidelines, legislation, Animal Welfare Act.

Reinhardt, V., C. Liss, and C. Stevens (1995). Social housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks? Animal Welfare 4(4):307-328.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: group housing, separation, dominance, adjustment.

Reinhardt, V. and D. Seelig (1998). Environmental enhancement for caged rhesus macaques: A photographic documentation. Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, D.C., 47p.
NAL call number: HV4737 R45 1998
Descriptors: group housing, feeding and grooming devices, atypical behavior.

Schapiro, S.J. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1995). Behavioral effects of enrichment on singly-housed, yearling rhesus monkeys: An analysis including three enrichment conditions and a control group. American Journal of Primatology 35, no. 2: 89-101.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: physical, feeding, and sensory enrichment; species-typical behavior; activity.

Schapiro, S.J. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1994). Behavioral effects of enrichment on pair-housed juvenile rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 32(3):159-170.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: pair-housed monkeys, inanimate enhancement vs. companionship, behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, A.L. Kessel, and C.A. Shively (1993). Effects of enrichment and housing on cortisol response in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(3): 251-263.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: stress, social housing, inanimate enrichment, adrenal function.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, L.M. Porter, and S.A. Suarez (1996). Enrichment effects on rhesus monkeys successively housed singly, in pairs, and in groups. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 48(3/4):159-171.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: long-term effects, inanimate and social enrichment, preferences.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, S.A. Suarez, and L.M. Porter (1997). A comparison of the effects of simple versus complex environmental enrichment on the behaviour of group-housed, subadult rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 6(1):17-28.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: social housing, complexity, environmental enrichment.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, S.A. Suarez, and L.M. Porter (1996). Effects of social and inanimate enrichment on the behavior of yearling rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 40(3):247-260.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: laboratory primates, social conditions, effects on use of enrichment objects.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, S.A. Suarez, and L.M. Porter (1995). Maternal behaviour of primiparous rhesus monkeys: Effects of limited social restriction and inanimate environmental enrichment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 45(1/2):139-149.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: social restriction, maternal competance, infants, visual access to conspecifics.

Schapiro, S.J. and D. Bushong (1994). Effects of enrichment on veterinary treatment of laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 3(1):25-36.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: social housing, single housing, therapy length.

Schapiro, S.J. and A.L. Kessel (1993). Weight gain among juvenile rhesus macaques: A comparison of enriched and control groups. Laboratory Animal Science 43(4): 315-318.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Environmental enrichment techniques for captive primates are aimed at improving their psychological well-being. While behavioral variables are used to measure changes in psychological well-being, physiologic measures (e.g., heart rate, cortisol response) are sometimes gathered in addition to the behavioral evidence. Some of these physiologic indices measure acute changes in the animals' well-being, limiting their usefulness. Body weight, however, is a measure of physical well-being that may have meaning as a long-term indicator of psychological well-being. We therefore collected body weight data from two groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta group 1: n = 34, group 2: n = 30) every 8 weeks beginning at the age of 1 year, as they passed through various housing conditions as part of a program to develop a specific pathogen-free breeding colony. One-half of the subjects in each group received a variety of environmental enhancements during all housing conditions; the other half received no enrichment and served as controls. At the beginning of the study (age 1 year), control and enriched subjects did not differ in body weight. Among group-1 subjects, enriched animals weighed significantly more than controls after 4 months of enrichment, and the weight difference was maintained 24 months later. Enriched animals in group 2 never differed in weight from their controls. The order in which different types of enrichment were presented and the extra-cage environment of the two groups differed, which may account for this discrepancy. Group-1 enriched subjects were the only animals that weighed as much as free-ranging rhesus monkeys, and rates of weight gain among all groups of subjects were similar to several populations maintained under more naturalistic conditions.
Descriptors: body weight, enrichment effects, housing conditions, social behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., D.E. Lee-Parritz, L.L. Taylor, L. Watson, M.A. Bloomsmith, and A. Petto (1994). Behavioral management of specific pathogen-free rhesus macaques: group formation, reproduction, and parental competence. Laboratory Animal Science 44(3):229-234.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: compatability, dominance, aggression, separation.

Schapiro, S.J., P.N. Nehete, J.E. Perlman, M.A. Bloomsmith, and K.J. Sastry (1998). Effects of dominance status and environmental enrichment on cell-mediated immunity in rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 56(2/4):319-332.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: hierarchy, lymphocytes, toys, cytokines.

Schapiro, S.J., P.N. Nehete, J.E. Perlman, and K.J. Sastry (1997). Social housing condition affects cell-mediated immune responses in adult rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):147.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: immunosuppression, group housing, social behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., L.M. Porter, S.A. Suarez, and M.A. Bloomsmith (1995). The behaviour of singly-caged, yearling rhesus monkeys is affected by the environment outside of the cage. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 45(1/2):151-163.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: indoor vs. outdoor housing, social groups, naturalistic stimulation.

Schapiro, S.J., S.A. Suarez, L.M. Porter, and M.A. Bloomsmith (1996). The effects of different types of feeding enhancements on the behaviour of single-caged, yearling rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 5(2):129-138.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging behavior, environmental enrichment, macaques.

Schneider, M.L., C.F. Moore, S.J. Suomi, and M. Champoux (1991). Laboratory assessment of temperament and environmental enrichment in rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 25(3):137-156.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: standard cage vs. enriched environment, problem-solving, fearfulness.

Schneider, M.L. and S.J. Suomi (1992). Neurobehavioral assessment in rhesus monkey neonates (Macaca mulatta): Developmental changes, behavioral stability, and early experience. Infant Behavior and Development 15(2):155-177.
NAL call number: BF723 I6I53
Descriptors: development, stability, early experience, surrogate rearing, toys, fear.

Shimoji, M., C.L. Bowers, and C.M. Crockett (1993). Initial response to introduction of of a PVC perch by singly caged Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 32(4):8-11.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: perches, device, single housing.

Taylor, R.L., B.L. White, S.A. Ferguson, and Z.K. Binienda (1994). The use of foraging devices for environmental enrichment of individually housed rhesus monkeys in a laboratory colony. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 33(6):71-73.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: devices, foraging behavior, laboratory primates.

Taylor, W.J., D.A. Brown, W.L. Davis, and M.L. Laudenslager (1997). Novelty influences use of play structures by a group of socially housed bonnet macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 36(1):4-6.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: play, devices, social behavior.

Taylor, W.J. and M.L. Laudenslager (1998). Low-cost environmental enrichment plan for laboratory macaques. Lab Animal 27(4):28-31.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: psychological well-being, Animal Welfare Act, laboratory macaques.

Tustin, G.W., L.E. Williams, and A.G. Brady (1996). Rotational use of a recreational cage for the environmental enrichment of Japanese macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35(1):5-7.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: play, devices, housing, well-being.

Washburn, D.A., S. Harper, and D.M. Rumbaugh (1994). Computer-task testing of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the social milieu. Primates 35(3):343-351.
Descriptors: pair-housing, preference for computer interactions, cognition, psychology.

Yanagihara, Y., K. Matsubayashi, and T. Matsuzawa (1994). Environmental enrichment in Japanese monkeys: Feeding device and cage environment. Primate Research 10(2):95-104.
Descriptors: macaques, foraging behavior, devices.


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Marmosets and Tamarins

Beck Rupert, P.A. (1995). A study of environmental enrichment in groups of captive lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia & Leontopithecus chrysomelas). RATEL 22(4):112-126.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: enrichment devices, evaluation, golden lion tamarins, endangered species.

Box, H.O. and P. Smith (1995). Age and gender differences in response to food enrichment in family groups of captive marmosets (Callithrix, Callitrichidae). Animal Technology 46(1):11-18.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: food preferences, group and age differences, behavioral responses.

Buchanan Smith, H. (1994). Environmental enrichment in captive marmosets and tamarins. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 8:559-564.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: marmosets, tamarins, animal welfare, behavior.

Buchanan Smith, H.M. (1993). Environmental enrichment for captive marmosets and tamarins. Proceedings of Symposium of The Association of British Wild Animal Keepers 17:56-65.
NAL call number: SK351 A8
Descriptors: marmosets, tamarins, enrichment, review.

Buchanan-Smith, H.M., D.A. Anderson, and C.W. Ryan (1993). Responses of cotton-top tamarins (Saquinus oedipus) to faecal scents of predators and non-predators. Animal Welfare 2 (1):17-32.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptrors: olfactory enrichment, novel stimulus, curiosity, exploratory behavior.

Caine, N.G. and V.J. O'Boyle (1992). Cage design and configuration of play in red-bellied tamarins, Saguinus labiatus. Zoo Biology 11:215-220.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: social behavior, play, housing design.

Caine, N.G., M.P. Potter and E. Mayer (1992). Sleeping site selection by captive tamarins (Saguinus labiatus). Ethology 90(1):63.
NAL call number: QL750 E74
Descriptors: nesting, spatial use, social behavior, resting.

Castro, M.I., B. Beck, D. Kleiman, G. Ruiz Miranda, R. Carlos, and A.L. Rosenberger (1998). Environmental enrichment in a reintroduction program for golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., pp. 113-128.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: zoos, field research, survival, reintroduction, tamarins.

Garber, P.A. and U. Kitron (1997). Seed swallowing in tamarins: Evidence of a curative function or enhanced foraging efficiency? International Journal of Primatology 18(4):523-538.
NAL call number: QL737 P9I54
Descriptors: foraging enrichment, Saguinus geoffroyi, S. mystax, parasites.

Glick-Bauer, M. (1997). Behavioral enrichment for captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) through novel presentation of diet. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 36(1):1-3.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: food presentation, foraging behavior, diet, enrichment.

Heath, M. and S.E. Libretto (1993). Environmental enrichment for large scale marmoset units. Animal Technology 44(3):163-73.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: devices, social groups, sanitation, animal handling, technician role, Callithrix jacchus.

Kelley, K. (1993). Environmental enrichment for captive wildlife through the simulation of gum-feeding. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 4(3):1-2, 5-10.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: exudativory, gummivory, nutrition, wood feeders, therapeutic value, natural behaviors.

Kerl, J. and H. Rothe (1996). Influence of cage size and cage equipment on physiology and behavior of common marmosets. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35(3):10-13.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: spatial behavior, cage furnishings, physiological responses.

Kerl, J. (1997). Measuring psychological well-being: A methodological approach using heart rate telemetry, space utilization, and behavioral time budgets in common marmosets. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: physiology, spatial behavior, activity frequency, heart rate.

Kitchen, A.M. and A.A. Martin (1996). The effects of cage size and complexity on the behaviour of captive common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus jacchus. Laboratory Animals 30(4): 317-326.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Conditions of captivity of primates used in biomedical research may have deleterious effects on the welfare of the animals and consequently on the reliability of the research. We investigated the effects of cage size and cage complexity, two fundamental c characteristics of captive conditions, on the behaviour of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). We found an increase in the general level of activity and significant variation in the frequencies of specific behaviours with an increase in cage size and also with cage complexity. Stereotyped behaviours, which occurred in the small cages, were never exhibited in the large cages. The effect of the novelty of the changed conditions was also assessed and found to be significant for some behaviours. We also measured the time taken to capture an animal, a task frequently performed by the animal technician, under the various cage conditions. Capture time increased significantly in the larger cages, but the overall effect of the changes to the marmosets' housing conditions on the animal technician's work was not regarded as substantial. We conclude that the welfare of captive marmosets is enhanced by the provision of larger and more complex cages, and that such cages do not significantly affect the efficiency of the research laboratory.
Descriptors: laboratory marmosets, cage size, stereotypies, novelty, capture time.

LeBlanc, D. (1993) Tamarins also feed on exudates. The Shape of Enrichment 2(3):5.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: gummivory, nutrition, foraging behavior.

Rapaport, L.G. (1998). Optimal foraging theory predicts effects of environmental enrichment in a group of adult golden lion tamarins. Zoo Biology 17(3):231-244.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: foraging device, aggression, search time, task complexity, group housing.

Ruiz, J.C. (1993). Effects of the cohabitation time on scent marking: Behaviors in heterosexual adult pairs of the golden lion tamarin. Primate Report 37:15-18.
Descriptors: olfactory enrichment, pair bonding, social behavior.

Scott, L. (1997). Specific requirements of Callitrichidae species. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: space, social groupings, foraging needs, behavioral requirements.

Stafford, B.J., A.L. Rosenberger, and B.B. Beck (1994). Locomotion of free-ranging golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) at the National Zoological Park. Zoo Biology 13(4):333-344.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: zoos, foraging behavior, social behavior, reintroduction program.

Steen, Z. (1995). Effects of enriched food acquisition on activity budgets of two tamarin species at Adelaide Zoo. International Zoo News 42(5):284-298.
NAL call number: QL76 I58
Descriptors: golden lion tamarin, cotton top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, foraging, activity.

Wassel, K. and S. Race (1994). Tamarin enrichment at the Utica Zoo. The Shape of Enrichment 3(1):1-2.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: devices, tamarins, novelty stimulus.


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New World Monkeys

Adams, B.W., E.R. Adair, M.C. Olsen, and M.S. Fritz (1992). Two squirrel monkey toys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 31(4): 11-12.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: laboratory, devices, behavior.

Boinski S., C. Noon, S. Stans, R. Samudio, P. Sammarco, and A. Hayes (1994). The behavioral profile and environmental enrichment of a squirrel monkey colony. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(4): 1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: laboratory, devices, behavior.

Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (1997). Considerations for the housing and handling of New World primates in the laboratory. In: Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, Eighth Edition, 1997, V. Reinhardt, ed., Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, D.C., pp. 75-84.
NAL call number: SF406.3 C66 1997
Descriptors: climate, cage size, complexity, diet, foraging, social environment, handling.

Dettmer, E.L., K.A. Phillips, D.R. Rager, I.S. Bernstein, and D.M. Fragaszy (1996). Behavioral and cortisol responses to repeated captive and venipuncture in C. apella. American Journal of Primatology 38(4):357-362.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: training, stress, handling.

Fragaszy, D.M., J. Baer, and L. Adams-Curtis (1994). Introduction and integration of strangers into captive groups of tufted capuchins. International Journal of Primatology 15(3):399-420.
NAL call number: QL737 O9I54
Descriptors: social behavior, fear, aggression, subordinance.

Fuchs, E., C. Kirschbaum, D. Benisch, and A. Bieser (1997). Salivary cortisol: a non-invasive measure of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical activity in the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. Laboratory Animal 31(4) :306-311.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Salivary cortisol is a non-invasive and easy-to-assess measure of the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Here we report that salivary cortisol determination can be used in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) to monitor variations in HPA system activity induced by both housing and experimental conditions. Saliva cortisol assessment has several advantages over blood cortisol analysis such as stress-free frequent sampling, laboratory independence and lower costs. Therefore, this non-invasive measure can be the method of choice in primatological research projects and routine programmes related to the well-being of these laboratory animals.
Descriptors: cortisol, stress, wellbeing, laboratory primates.

Gebo, D. (1992). Locomotor and postural behavior in Allouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus. American Journal of Primatology 26(4):277-290.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: normal behavior, locomotion, howler monkey, capuchin.

Ludes, E. and J.R. Anderson (1995). 'Peat-bathing' by captive white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). Folia Primatologica 65(1):38-42.
NAL call number: QL737 P9F6
Descriptors: thermoregulation, grooming, litter, behavior.

Ludes, E. and J.R. Anderson (1996). Comparison of the behaviour of captive white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in the presence of four kinds of deep litter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 49(3): 293-303.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: litter, laboratory primates, foraging behavior, wood chips, ground cob, wood wool, garden peat, scattered feed.

Marriott, B.M., R.W. Marriott Jr., J. Norris, and D. Lee (1993). A semi-natural habitat for housing small, nonhuman primates. Journal of Medical Primatology 22(6):348-354.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: squirrel monkeys, laboratory primates, social housing.

McGivern, L. (1994). Small Primate Enrichment at the Calgary Zoo, Part 3: Patas and Spider Monkeys. The Shape of Enrichment 3(2):8-9.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoos, New World primates, patas monkey, spider monkey.

Spring, S.E., J.O. Clifford, and D.L. Tomko (1997). Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(3):72-75.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: toys, enrichment, well-being, social behavior, laboratory primates.

Stegenga, L. (1993). Modifying spider monkey behavior with the use of environmental variables. Shape of Enrichment 2(3):3-4.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: Ateles geoffroyi, zoos, devices, behavior.

Vermeer, J. (1997). The formation of a captive squirrel monkey group. International Zoo News 44:146-149.
NAL call number: QL76 I58
Descriptors: social behavior, aggression, dominance, monitoring.

Vitale, A. (1994). Individual differences in the manipulation of a jacket by socially housed tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Folia Primatologica 63(2):88-90.
NAL call number: QL737 P9F6
Descriptors: manipulanda, social behavior, jacket.


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Old World Monkeys

Adams, R.J. and W.E. Britz (1997). The baboon suite: novel method to increase the size of a baboon cage to meet the requirements for the care and use of laboratory animals. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(4):70.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: guidelines, spatial behavior, Animal Welfare Act.

Brent, L. and M. Belik (1997). The response of group-housed baboons to three enrichment toys. Laboratory Animals 31(1):81-85.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
The behaviour of group-housed baboons was compared before and after the provision of durable cage toys. One adult male hamadryas baboon and 13 adult female olive baboons living in a large enclosure were observed after they were given seven nylon bones, seven Kong toys and seven Plaque Attackers. Observations were conducted four times per week on each subject over a 6-week period. Abnormal, cage-directed, inactive and self-directed behaviours all significantly decreased after the provision of the toys, while enrichment-directed activities significantly increased. Aggression did not differ between the no toy and toy conditions. Approximately 26% of the baboons were using the toys at any one time, and use of the Kong toys and the bones was higher than that of the Plaque Attackers. Individuals who used enrichment structures already present were also those who used the new toys the most.
Descriptors: Papio, toys, social housing, Kong toys, bones, behavioral effects.

Brent, L. and A. Hughes (1997). The occurrence of abnormal behavior in group housed baboons. American Journal of Primatology 42(2): 96-97.

Brent, L. and D. Weaver (1996). The physiological and behavioral effects of radio music on singly housed baboons. Journal of Medical Primatology 25(5):370-374.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: radio, auditory enrichment, single housing.

Brent, L. and K.E. Long (1995). The behavioral response of individually caged baboons to feeding enrichment and the standard diet: A preliminary report. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 34(2):65-69.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: single housing, foraging behavior, nutrition, diet.

Buchanan-Smith, H. (1995). The effect of food distribution on captive old world primates. The Shape of Enrichment 4(1):12-13.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: food predictability, group behavior, foraging activity.

Crowell Comuzzie, D.K. (1993). Baboon vocalizations as measures of psychological well-being. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 32(3):5.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: auditory stimulus, vocalization diversity, frequency.

Johann, A., S. Reichler, and S. Duecker (1996). Experiences in the keeping of gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada): Bachelor groups. Zoologische Garten 66(3): 178-84.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: social housing, breeding strategies, behavioral enrichment, pair housed males.

Kessel, A.L. and L. Brent (1997). Rehabilitating a rheboon (Macaca mulatta X Papio hamadryas cynocephalus), from single housing to social housing: a case study. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):121.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: single housing, social housing, behavior.

Kessel, A.L. and L. Brent (1996). Space utilization by captive-born baboons (Papio sp.) before and after provision of structural enrichment. Animal Welfare 5(1):37-44.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: spatial behvior, structural complexity, baboons.

Kessel, A.L. and L. Brent (1995). An activity cage for baboons, Part II, Long-term effects and management issues. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 34(6):80-83.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: housing, environmental enrichment, behavior.

Kessel, A.L. and L. Brent (1995). An activity cage for baboons, Part I. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 34(1): 74-79.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: housing, adaptation, environmental enrichment.

Morland, H.S., M.A. Suleman, and E.B. Tarara (1992). Changes in male-female interactions after introduction of a new adult male in vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) groups. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 31(2):1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social housing, aggression, dominance, fear.

Neveu, H., and B.L. Deputte (1996). Influence of availability of perches on the behavioral well-being of captive, group-living mangabeys. American Journal of Primatology 38:175-185.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: perches, cage complexity, social behavior.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Species-adequate housing and handling conditions for old world nonhuman primates kept in research institutions. In Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, V. Reinhardt, ed., Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC., pp. 85-93.
NAL call number: SF406.3 C66 1997
Descriptors: social disposition, semi-arboreal lifestyles, environmental complexity.

Seier, J.V. and P.W. de Lange (1996). A mobile cage facilitates periodic social contact and exercise for singly caged adult vervet monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology 25(1):64-68.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: space, social behavior, Cercopithecus aethiops.

Smith, L.A. and D.S. Mills (1996). Evaluation of the provision of a forage box to increase the normal behaviour shown by captive Papio hamadrayas baboons within the optimal exhibit area of their enclosure. Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Guelph, Ontario, 1996:140.
NAL call number: SF756.7 I57 1996
Descriptors: zoos, enrichment, animal welfare, baboons.

Westergaard, G.C. (1992). Object manipulation and the use of tools by infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 106(4):398-403.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: containers, drinking utensils, sponges, play, foraging, tool use.


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Bibliography: Books and Conference Proceedings

American, Society Of Primatologists (1997). Twentieth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, San Diego, California, USA, June 27-July 1, 1997. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):86-158.
NAL call number: QL737 PA5

Abstracts and posters of 178 papers from studies of primate.
Descriptors: genetics, anatomy, evolution, social behavior, cognition and learning, physiology and behavior, neurobiology and neuroscience, conservation, ecology, enrichment, well-being.

Dickie, L. (1994). Environmental enrichment in captive primates: A survey and review. Dissertation, Darwin College, Department of Biological Anthropology and the University of Cambridge, 89p.
NAL call number: QL737 P9D53 1994
Descriptors: zoos, devices, behavior stimulation, review.

European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) (1997). Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/).
Descriptors: monitoring, housing, colony management, research applications, training animals.

Gibbons Jr., E.F., E.J. Wyers, and E. Waters, eds. (1994). Naturalistic Environments in Captivity for Animal Behavior Research. State University of New York Press: Albany, NY, 387p.
NAL call number: SF408.45 N38 1994
Descriptors: regulations, housing design, laboratories, zoos, psychologyical well-being.

Holst, B., ed. (1997). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, 372p.
Descriptors: zoo primates, laboratory primates, mammals, birds.

International Primatological Society (IPS) (1993). International guidelines for the acquisition, care, and breeding of nonhuman primates. Codes of practice 1-3 Primate Report 35: 3-29.
NAL call number: SF407 P7167
Descriptors: care, transport, housing, breeding.

National Research Council (1998). The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 168p.
NAL call number: SF407 P7P79 1988
Descriptors: guidelines, enrichment program elements, apes, cebids, prosimians, callitrichids, cercopithecids, research needs, sample plans.

National Research Council (1996). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 127p.
NAL call number: SF406 G95 1996
Descriptors: guidelines, laboratory animal housing, management, veterinary medicine, physical plant.

Novak, M.A. and A.J. Petto, eds. (1991). Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-Being in Captive Nonhuman Primates, American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C., 285p.
NAL call number: SF407 P7T49 1991
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, psychological wellbeing, group housing, zoos, laboratories.

Olfert, E.D., B.M. Cross, and A.A. McWilliam, (eds.), (1993). Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Volume 1 (2nd Edition). Canadian Council on Animal Care, Ottawa, Canada, 211p.
NAL call number: SF406 G85 1993
Descriptors: social and behavioral requirements, facility design, special practices.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (1998). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates: An Annotated Bibliography for Animal Care Personnel. 2nd ed. Animal Welfare Institute, PO Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007
Descriptors: guidelines and regulations, enrichment programs, inanimate enrichment, feeding enrichment, substrates, animate enrichment.

Shepherdson, D.J., J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, eds. (1998). Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., 350p.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: philosophy, animal welfare, zoo animals, environmental enrichment methods.

Tomasello, M. and J. Call, (eds.) (1997). Primate cognition. Oxford University Press: New York, 517p.
NAL call number: QL737 P9T65 1997
Descriptors: behavior, psychology, motivation, preference testing.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (1998). Title 9, Animal and Animal Products, Part 3, Standards, Subpart D, Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates , Section 3.81, Environmental enhancement to promote psychological well-being. 9 CFR 3.81
NAL call number: KF1681 A3C6
Descriptors: social grouping, environmental enrichment, restraint devices, exemptions.


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Articles from the Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter

NOTE: The following articles have been approved by USDA for inclusion in the newsletter and are in public domain. Although they have been reviewed editorially, they have not been peer reviewed. The views expressed are those of the authors.

Using Training to Enhance Animal Care and Welfare
Gail Laule (1993), Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 4(1): 2, 8-9

The Use of Behavioral Management Techniques to Reduce or Eliminate Abnormal Behavior
Gail Laule (1993), Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 4(4): 1-2, 8-11.

Environmental Enrichment for Captive Wildlife Through the Simulation of Gum Feeding
Kathy Kelly (1993), Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 4(3): 1-2, 5-10

Arguments for Single-caging of Rhesus Macaques: Are They Justified?
Viktor Reinhardt (1993), Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 6(1): 1-2, 7-8

Frequently Asked Questions About Safe Pair-housing of Macaques
Viktor Reinhardt (1996), Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(1): 11

The Wisconsin Gnawing Stick
Viktor Reinhardt (1997), Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(3-4): 11-12


To: Top of Document | Contents | Introduction | Using this Document | U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies | Organizations & Websites | Primate Centers & Animal Colonies | Listservs | Products and Suppliers | Audiovisuals | Journals & Newsletters | Bibliography | AWIC Newsletter Articles | Appendix A


Appendix A: USDA Final Rule on Environment Enhancement to Promote Psychological Well-Being--Section 3.81

In response to a Congressional amendment to the Animal Welfare Act, USDA must write regulations. The regulations explain what affected parties must do to comply with the amendment. USDA issues proposed rules which are published in Federal Register and open for public comment. After comments are received, USDA issues a final rule in which changes to the proposed rule may or may not be made based on public input. The final rule below is USDA justification for the new regulations and response to the many comments received by the department. The final rule is then incorporated into Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations.

02/15/91 Vol. 56, No. 32, Federal Register, Pages 6426-6505

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
9 CFR Part 3
[Docket No. 90-218]
RIN: 0579-AA20
Animal Welfare; Standards

AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA.
ACTION: Final rule.
Environment Enhancement to Promote Psychological Well-Being--Section 3.81

In proposed Sec. 3.81, titled "Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being," we proposed that dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities be required to develop, document, and follow a plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. We proposed to require that the plan be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides and as directed by the attending veterinarian. We also proposed to require that the plan be made available to APHIS, and, in the case of research facilities, to officials of any pertinent Federal funding agency. We proposed to require that the plan address certain specified areas, including: (1) Social grouping; (2) environmental enrichment; (3) special considerations of nonhuman primates requiring special attention; and (4) restraint devices.

A very large number of commenters supported in general the promotion of psychological well-being in nonhuman primates. A number of others requested that "psychological well-being" in nonhuman primates be defined. A number of commenters stated either that the term is undefinable and cannot be measured as an improvement for nonhuman primates, that it is impossible to establish valid standards for the animals' psychological well-being, that the proposed standards might be detrimental to nonhuman primates, that the proposed regulations regarding psychological well-being were excessive, or that the proposed standards were not based on scientific analyses. As we discussed in our proposal, what constitutes psychological well-being in each species and each primate does not lend itself to precise definition. As an agency, however, we are mandated by Congress to establish standards to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. As we discussed earlier, the information received from the expert committee on primates, consultations with HHS, other experts in primates, and the large number of comments received on the subject, demonstrate that the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates involves a balance of several factors or areas of concern. This concept involves sufficient space for the animals; methods to stimulate the animals and occupy some of their time, both physically and mentally (i.e., environment enrichment); and methods of social interaction with other nonhuman primates or humans.

The promotion of the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates is a critical component in our rewriting of the animal welfare regulations, and is one that we are specifically mandated to address under the Act. Statutorily, we have the responsibiLIty and obligation to establish such provisions as we believe are necessary for a physical environment to promote the animals' psychological well-being, but do not have the authority to interfere with actual research.

One commenter stated that the regulations should not limit resource materials for the development of environment enhancement plans to professional journals and reference guides. The regulations as proposed require adherence to such information sources as a minimum. They do not prohibit the use of other research sources in establishing the required plans.

A large number of commenters urged that the regulations include specific requirements for exercise and social grouping of nonhuman primates, as proposed in our original proposal. We disagree with the commenters that it would be in the best interests of nonhuman primates to impose uniform rigid standards on all facilities. Because of the diverse needs of varying species and individual animals, it might actually prove harmful to establish the same set of specific standards for all animals.

A small number of commenters stated that any release of nonhuman primates for exercise and social interaction should be documented. We do not consider such documentation necessary for enforcement purposes. With the requirement for a written plan, and inspections by Department personnel, we do not expect enforcement problems with the regulations as proposed.

We are making two additions to Sec. 3.81 as proposed to clarify our intent. That section requires that the plan for environment enhancement be made available to APHIS. It was our intent that the plan be made available upon request. We are therefore adding language to Sec. 3.81 as proposed to clarify that intent. Additionally, we are specifying that the required plan for environment enhancement must be an appropriate one.

Social Grouping.

We proposed in Sec. 3.81(a) that the environment enhancement plan include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates of species known to exist in social groups in nature. As proposed, such specific provisions must be in accordance with currently accepted professional standards, as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian.

A number of commenters opposed the proposed provisions regarding the social needs of nonhuman primates. Several commenters said the proposed provisions were vague and should be clarified, or that more specific criteria for meeting social needs should be set forth. Many others offered specific recommendations for addressing the animals' social needs. The proposed provisions regarding the social needs of primates were intentionally written so as to allow some flexibility and professional discretion to individual facilities in meeting the social needs of the animals. Exactly how the animals' social needs are met is of less importance than the fact that they are met.

One commenter stated that requiring that the social needs of nonhuman primates be met exceeds the intent of Congress. We do not agree with the commenter. In general, nonhuman primates are social animals, with the need for socialization constituting a significant component of their psychological makeup. Promotion of the animals' psychological well-being requires that their social needs be addressed.

A small number of commenters stated that caging nonhuman primates for their lifetime has proven to be advantageous both to the animals' care and to their welfare. We disagree that individually housing nonhuman primates, without addressing their psychological and social needs, is adequate to promote their psychological well-being. Such practices will not be in compliance with these regulations.

A number of commenters stated that social housing should not be mandatory, but rather should be one of the possible methods of enriching the animals' environment. Other commenters stated that multiple housing of animals is inappropriate in most cases . One commenter stated that socialization should be based on individual housing that allows for visual and auditory contact among nonhuman primates, rather than group housing. One commenter stated that, under the regulations as proposed, facilities might be precluded from housing only one nonhuman primate. We are making no changes based on these comments. The regulations as proposed do not specifically call for group housing of nonhuman primates. They do, however, require that the social needs of nonhuman primates be addressed. In most cases, we expect group housing to be the most efficient and appropriate method of ensuring that the animals' social needs are met.

Many commenters stated that social grouping would endanger the animals' welfare by increasing noise and fighting. We are making no changes based on these comments. The regulations in proposed Sec. 3.81(a)(3) require that nonhuman primates be compatible before being housed together. A number of other commenters, while supporting in general group housing of nonhuman primates, stated that in certain cases it might be inappropriate and detrimental. We agree that such situations might exist, and consider them to be already addressed in Sec. 3.81(a)(3) as proposed.

A small number of commenters stated that housing primates in groups will facilitate spread of infectious diseases. We consider the regulations as proposed adequate to prevent the spread of disease among group-housed animals. Section 3.81(a)(2) as proposed requires the isolation of nonhuman primates that have or are suspected of having a contagious disease. Additionally, the cleaning and sanitization requirements elsewhere in the regulations as proposed are designed to minimize disease introduction and spread.

A number of commenters expressed concern that group housing of nonhuman primates would result in increased physical and mental stress and trauma to animal handlers. As we discussed in our proposal, while we agree that housing primates in groups presents some logistical concerns that are not present when animals are housed individually, we believe that such concerns can be addressed by proper training of handlers and appropriate housing configurations.

A small number of commenters stated that meeting the requirements regarding the social needs of nonhuman primates will require facilities to increase their staffs. One commenter expressed concern that providing for group housing for primates will involve significant expense. We do not agree that compliance with the regulations as proposed will necessarily require large staffing increases. In any event, some additional staffing, if necessary, would not be unreasonable in response to the amendments to the Act. Whether additional staffing is needed will depend on how the facility meets the social needs of the nonhuman primates, on the physical configuration of the facility, and on the facility's method of operations. In some cases, housing animals in groups is less labor-intensive than housing them individually.

One commenter asserted that individually housing primates is appropriate in cases where the animal is used in experiments lasting 12 months or less. We are making no changes based on this comment. The Act does not distinguish between animals kept for a short term and those kept long-term, and requires minimum standards for all animals, regardless of the duration involved. The commenter presented no evidence to support the conclusion that individual housing for 12 months or less is not psychologically distressing to nonhuman primates, and we are not aware of scientific data supporting such a conclusion.

A small number of commenters stated that the fact that primates socialize in nature neither indicates nor suggests that they are psychologically harmed by eliminating contact with other nonhuman primates. We disagree. In general, nonhuman primates are social animals by nature. In providing for the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates, such social needs must be taken into account. Other commenters stated that social grouping has not been proven to assure psychological well-being or to prevent development of stereotypical behaviors. We are making no changes based on these comments. No practices or regulations can guarantee the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates in all cases. However, the most compelling evidence available indicates that certain practices, including housing nonhuman primates in groups, can promote psychological well-being. In general, housing in groups promotes psychological well-being more assuredly than does individual housing. On the other hand, individual housing has been demonstrated to give rise to significantly more stereotypical behavior than does group housing.

A small number of commenters recommended that compatible groups of nonhuman primates be required to remain together. Others recommended that primate infants remain with their dam for a minimum number of years, ranging from 2 years to 4 years. A small number of commenters recommended that the regulations allow primate families to be housed together. Others requested that such housing be required. One commenter stated that conspecifics should be housed together whenever possible. While we encourage such practices where possible, and nothing in the regulations as proposed prohibits them, we do not consider them practical in all cases. We are therefore making no changes based on these comments.

A small number of commenters suggested that behavioral scientists or animal psychologists may be more qualified than attending veterinarians to establish environment enhancement plans. Under the regulations as proposed, the attending veterinarian has responsibility for directing the development of the plan. However, nothing in the proposed regulations prohibits consultation with other animal experts. On the contrary, we expect the attending veterinarian to carry out whatever consultation and professional research he or she deems necessary to adequately advise the facility. One commenter stated that at research facilities, the environment enhancement plan should be designed based on consultation with and review by the Committee. As noted, the attending veterinarian may consult as necessary in directing development of the plan. Further, at research facilities, animal care programs are subject to annual review by the Committee.

A large number of commenters stated that group housing could significantly interfere with research where social grouping, or the lack of it, is a factor. Conversely, a very large number of commenters stated that exemptions for research should be allowed only if it can be documented that social housing is interfering with the research. Under Sec. 2.38(k)(1) of part 2 of the regulations, research facilities are required to comply with the standards in part 3, except in cases where exceptions are specified and justified in the research proposal to conduct the specific activity and are approved by the facility's Committee. This provision exists to safeguard approved research.

In order to make clear situations where group housing would not be appropriate, we proposed to specify in Secs. 3.81 (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) that the environment enhancement plan may provide that: (1) A nonhuman primate that exhibits vicious or overly aggressive behavior, or is debilitated because of age or other conditions should be housed separately; (2) a nonhuman primate or group of nonhuman primates that has or is suspected of having a contagious disease must be isolated from healthy animals in the colony as directed by the attending veterinarian; and (3) nonhuman primates may not be housed with other species of nonhuman primates or animals unless they are compatible, do not prevent access to food, water, and shelter by individual animals, and are not known to be hazardous to the health and well- being of each other. We also proposed that compatibility of nonhuman primates must be determined in accordance with generally accepted professional practices and actual observations, as directed by the attending veterinarian, to ensure that the animals are compatible. Additionally, we proposed that individually housed nonhuman primates must be able to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species, unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well- being. A small number of commenters expressed opposition to all individual housing of nonhuman primates. We consider it obvious that situations will arise where housing in groups is self-evidently more harmful than helpful, and are making no changes based on the comments.

A small number of commenters stated that the specific provisions described in the preceding paragraph should be deleted, because, according to the commenters, they all fall under the category of currently accepted professional standards. We consider th the provisions in question minimum standards applicable in all situations. We are therefore making no changes based on the comments.

Environmental Enrichment

In proposed Sec. 3.81(b), we proposed to require that the plan discussed above include provisions for enriching the physical environment in primary enclosures by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities, and to provide that species differences should be considered when determining the type or methods of enrichment. We provided in the proposal that examples of environmental enrichments include providing perches, swings, mirrors, and other increased cage complexities; providing objects to manipulate; varied food items; using foraging or task-oriented feeding methods; and providing interaction with the care giver or other familiar and knowledgeable person consistent with personnel safety precautions.

Many commenters stated that the regulations should list all of the specific areas that must be addressed in an environmental enrichment plan. Some commenters expressed concern that the lack of a guide in choosing environment enrichments could result in prolonged experimentation at the expense of the primates' health and research funds. A number of commenters submitted specific practices that they believed should be included in achieving environmental enrichment. One commenter recommended that the Department set forth an exhaustive list of unacceptable practices. The provisions in Sec. 3.81 of the proposal set forth broad standards that must be met to ensure the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. Section 3.81(b) is more specific, requiring enrichment of the physical environment by providing means of expressing species-typical activities. Examples of such enrichment are provided. Beyond this, however, we do not consider it appropriate to attempt to set forth an exhaustive list of methods of achieving environmental enrichment. Because of the many variables affecting how best to enrich the environment for species and animals that have different needs and that are held under differing conditions, such a listing would be unnecessarily restrictive, and would not allow for advances in animal behavioral research. Nor do we consider it possible or necessary to set forth a comprehensive list of unacceptable practices. Practices will be considered unacceptable if they do not promote compliance with the standards in Sec. 3.81 as proposed.

Several commenters recommended that a panel of experts in primatology should be formed to develop standardized plans for environmental enrichment of nonhuman primates. For the reasons set forth in the preceding paragraph, we do not consider it appropriate to attempt to set forth a comprehensive listing of specific standards for environmental enrichment. A committee of the nature described by the commenters was convened prior to the initiation of this rulemaking process. We have drawn on the recommendations of that committee in developing this rulemaking.

One commenter stated that the regulations should list what species-typical behaviors are required, because all behaviors are not possible in a cage. We do not consider such a change practical or necessary, and expect common sense, along with professional judgment, to assist in determining what behaviors can and should be promoted in caged animals.

One commenter stated that professional standards for environmental enrichment do not exist. We disagree. While we welcome additional research with regard to environmental enrichment, sufficient professional consensus already exists to make plans for such enrichment appropriate. A small number of commenters stated that there is no definable species-typical behavior in captive nonhuman primates. We disagree. Species-typical behavior has been defined in both wild and captive populations, and sufficient data exists to meet the standards as proposed.

Special Considerations

In Sec. 3.81(c) of the proposal, we proposed that certain categories of nonhuman primates must receive special attention regarding enhancement of their environment. We proposed to require facilities to provide for the special psychological needs of (1) infants and young juveniles, (2) those that show signs of being in psychological distress through behavior or appearance, (3) those used in research for which the Committee-approved protocol requires restricted activity, (4) individually housed nonhuman primates that are unable to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species, and (5) great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg).

As proposed, this special attention would be based on the needs of the individual species and in accordance with the instructions of the attending veterinarian. Some examples of special attention would be special feeding plans for juveniles, and increased one-on-one care for animals showing psychological distress.

A small number of commenters requested that additional criteria be provided as to what constitutes special attention. We are making no changes based on these comments. The form this special attention must take will depend to a great extent upon what form of environment enhancement is afforded all of the nonhuman primates in a facility under the required plan. Rather than restrict forms of special attention to a finite list, we consider it appropriate as proposed to base the special attention on the needs of the individual species, in accordance with the instructions of the attending veterinarian.

Several commenters stated that, at research facilities, the Committee and not the attending veterinarian should determine what special attention is necessary. We consider it appropriate in general to give responsibility for determining appropriate special attention to the attending veterinarian. However, the regulations do not prohibit consultation with the Committee.

A number of commenters addressed the requirement for special attention for nonhuman primates that show signs of being in psychological distress through behavior or appearance. A small number of commenters recommended that the term "psychological distress" be changed to "psychological pathology," because, according to the commenters, psychological distress can be of a transient or insignificant nature. We consider the term "psychological distress" to better convey our intent that facilities remedy even transient psychological disturbances than does the change recommended by the commenters, and are making no changes based on these comments. A small number of commenters stated that if a nonhuman primate exhibits stereotypical movements, such as hair pulling or similar signs of psychological distress, consultation with outside experts should occur. Under the regulations, a facility is required to provide adequate veterinary care to its animals. In certain cases, the attending veterinarian may consider it necessary to conduct outside consultation in administering such care. However, we do not consider it necessary or practical to include in the regulations a compendium of what constitutes adequate veterinary care. One commenter requested that the regulations include a definition of "psychological distress." We consider the provision in question to be clear as written. Any behavior or appearance that would indicate abnormal stress must be addressed.

One commenter requested that the regulations include examples of restricted activity in research situations that would require special attention. We are making no changes based on this comment. The nature of restricted activity deemed necessary under a research protocol is subject to approval by the Committee. We do not consider it appropriate to attempt to enumerate in the regulations examples of restrictions that are the responsibility of the Committee.

Several commenters recommended that the provisions in Sec. 3.81(c)(5) as proposed be broadened to require special attention for great apes other than those weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg). We are making no changes based on these comments. The special attention to be provided great apes over 110 lbs. is related to their need for additional space over that required for other great apes in Sec. 3.80. For this reason, we do not consider it necessary to require special attention for the smaller great apes.

Restraint Devices

We also proposed that the plan to be developed by the facility include provisions addressing restraint devices. We proposed that nonhuman primates must not be maintained in restraint devices unless required for health reasons as determined by the attending veterinarian, or by a research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. As proposed, maintenance under such restraint would be limited to the shortest period possible. We proposed that, in instances where long-term (more than 12 hours) restraint is required, the nonhuman primate must be provided the opportunity daily for unrestrained activity for at least one continuous hour during the period of restraint, unless continuous restraint is required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities.

A small number of commenters supported the proposed provisions regarding restraint devices as written. A small number of commenters stated that the proposed exercise period for restrained nonhuman primates is insufficient. Upon review of the comments, we continue to consider release for one continuous hour during the period of restraint adequate to promote the animal's well-being, and are making no changes based on these comments.

A small number of other commenters recommended that it be required that restrained nonhuman primates receive social contact with a conspecific primate during the exercise period, and that all animals placed in restraint devices with the approval of the facility's Committee be inspected by the Committee prior to the Committee's granting approval for use of the restraint device. We are making no changes based on these comments. The special needs of restrained animals are already addressed in Sec. 3.81(c) (3) as proposed. Further, the restraint of animals must be reviewed by the Committee at least twice annually, in accordance with part 2 of the regulations. Similarly, the recommendation of the commenter who suggested that the Committee be required to investigate alternatives before approving research protocols is already addressed in Sec. 2.31(d)(1)(ii) of part 2 of the regulations.

A small number of commenters expressed concern that requirements for the exercise of restrained animals would interfere with research protocols. Some of these commenters recommended that requirements for restrained animals be left to the Committee. We disagree that the provisions as proposed regarding restrained animals would interfere with research. Under Sec. 2.38(k)(1) of part 2 of the regulations, exceptions to the standards in part 3 may be made when such exceptions are specified and justified in the proposal to conduct an activity and are approved by the Committee. For this reason, we are not adopting the recommendation of the commenter who stated that continuous restraint for more than 12 hours should be prohibited in all cases.
A small number of commenters requested that the regulations differentiate between restriction of movement and restraint. We are making no changes based on these comments. The regulations as proposed clearly pertain to maintenance in restraint devices. We consider the reference adequate to convey our intent as written.

Exemptions--Section 3.81(e)

In Sec. 3.81(e)(1) of the proposal, we proposed that the attending veterinarian may exempt individual nonhuman primates from participation in environment enhancement plans because of their health or condition, or in consideration of their well-being, and must document the basis of such exemptions for each nonhuman primate. The basis of the exemption would have to be recorded by the attending veterinarian for each nonhuman primate. Unless the basis for an exemption is a permanent condition, it would be required that the attending veterinarian review the exemption at least every 30 days.

We proposed in Sec. 3.81(e)(2) of the proposal that the research facility's Committee may exempt individual nonhuman primates from some or all of the environment enhancement plans, for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal. We proposed to require that the basis of such exemption be documented in the approved proposal and be reviewed at appropriate intervals as determined by the Committee, but not less than annually.

We additionally proposed to require that records of any exemptions be maintained by the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility and be made available to USDA officials or officials of any pertinent funding Federal agency upon request.

A small number of commenters expressed opposition to what they termed "loopholes" in the regulations, which they stated would allow researchers to house animals in isolation merely by claiming necessity. As discussed above, we do not have the authority to interfere with approved research, and are making no changes based on these comments. Several commenters opposed exemptions of any sort. Permitting exemptions based on approved research protocols is consistent with the provisions of the Act that we not interfere with the design, outlines, or guidelines of actual research. It may be necessary to the health and well-being of the animals to allow for exemptions for medical reasons. We are therefore making no changes based on these comments.

A number of commenters stated that the provisions for exemptions will require excessive paperwork, will be costly, and will subject the attending veterinarian's opinion to unqualified review. Throughout these regulations, we have attempted to minimize recordkeeping requirements. However, we continue to consider it necessary in facilitating inspection and enforcement that exemptions from the environment enhancement plan granted by the attending veterinarian be documented and be subject to review by the Department. We do not agree that it is necessary, however, as one commenter recommended, that documentation of exemptions be provided to the Department. Under the proposed regulations, these records must be made available to APHIS upon request. We consider that provision adequate to ensure proper inspection and enforcement.

A small number of commenters stated that exemptions should be reviewed by the attending veterinarian "as needed," rather than every 30 days as proposed. We are making no changes based on these comments. Because of the importance accorded the promotion of the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates under the Act, and because medical conditions in many cases change frequently, we consider it necessary and appropriate to ensure that exemptions to the environment enhancement plan be reviewed on a regular basis, to ensure that the exemptions are not in effect any longer than is necessary.

A small number of commenters stated that the facility should designate the individual most qualified to grant exemptions, because the attending veterinarian may not be the most qualified individual available with regard to animal behavior, and seldom has contact with nondiseased primates. A small number of commenters stated that the Committee, and not the attending veterinarian, should have final authority at research facilities with regard to exemptions. We are making no changes based on these comments. The exemptions granted by the attending veterinarian will be for medical reasons, which he or she is qualified through training to assess.

Several commenters stated that the attending veterinarian should be permitted to exempt either individual nonhuman primates or groups of nonhuman primates from participation in the environment enhancement plan, and that exemptions for permanent conditions, including old age, should not need to be reviewed every 30 days. We do not agree. To ensure each nonhuman primate's participation in the environment enhancement plan to the fullest extent possible, exemptions need to be made on an individual basis, according to the health, condition, and well-being of the animal. No blanket exemptions for groups or conditions are acceptable.

Several commenters recommended that it be required that exemptions made by the Committee be reviewed every 30 days. We do not agree with the commenters' recommendation. Exemptions made by the Committee will be made for reasons relating to an approved research protocol. Such exemptions are not subject to as rapid change as exemptions for medical reasons, and do not need to be reviewed as often as those for medical reasons.


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