Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, March 1999 *************************

Articles on General Primate Enrichment

"Articles on General Primate Enrichment" is a chapter from: Kreger, Michael D. (March 1999). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide. AWIC Resource Series No. 5. U.S. Depar t ment of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center, Beltsville, MD. E-mail: Contact us: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php .

The following are links to AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[ AWIC ] [ Main Contents ] [ Main Introduction ] [ Using this Resource Guide ] [ U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies ] [ Organizations & Websites ] [ Primate Centers & Animal Colonies ] [ Listservs ] [ Products and Suppliers ] [ Audiovisuals ] [ Journals & Newsletters ] [ Bibliography: Articles or Books/Conference Proceedings ] [ AWIC Newsletter Articles ] [ Appendix A ]


NOTE: Call numbers are included for publications contained in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlib r ary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials .

Anderson, J.R. and E. Visalberghi (1991). Primate psychological well-being: a comparative approach to environmental enrichment for captive primates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30(1/2): 195.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Desciptors: proceedings, veterinary ethology, behavior, veterinary ethology.

Appley, D.M., S.L. Knoblock, M.A. Luzzi, M.L. McFarland, T. Rakowski, and J.W. Streett (1997). A systematic approach to implementation of an enrichment program for primates. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 3 6 (4): 69.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: animal behavior, stress, housing, welfare.

Bayne, K.A.L. (1995). Wildlife management in the laboratory: Non-human primates. In: Wildlife Mammals as Research Models: In the laboratory and field. Proceedings of a seminar sponsored by Scientists Center for Animal Welfare at A merican Veterinary Medical Association meeting, July 12, 1994. K. Bayne and M. Kreger, eds., pp.3-11.

Bayne, K. (1991). Providing environmental enrichment to captive primates. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 13(11):1689-92, 94, 95.
NAL call number: SF601 C66
Descriptors: behavior, wellbeing, caging, toys, social behavior, stereotypies, locomotion, visual stimuli.

Bayne, K. (1991). Alternatives to continuous social housing. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4): 355-59.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Although social housing is desirable for social species of nonhuman primates, circumstances arise whereby social housing is precluded (for example, certain kinds of infectious disease or toxicologic research, when the health of the animal(s) would be com p romised by social housing, and animals which respond behaviorally in an inappropriate manner to social housing). Nonsocial alternatives that provide increased environmental complexity to the home cage should then be considered. Nonsocial "environmental e nrichment" schemes can be designed to enhance the expression of an individually housed nonhuman primate's locomotive/postural, manipulative, and foraging behaviors. In this way, nonsocial, but species-typical, behaviors can be promoted in the single cag e housing condition.
Descriptors: housing, husbandry, enrichment, exceptions.

Bayne, K.A.L., S.L. Dexter, J.K. Hurst, G.M. Strange, and E.E. Hill (1993). Kong toys for laboratory primates: Are they really an enrichment or just fomites? Laboratory Animal Science 43(1): 78-85.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Simple toys as enrichment devices have been associated with a rapid decline in their use by nonhuman primates. Other facets of toy presentation have not been described previously. For example, a comparison of the effect(s) of an enrichment device between two facilities should be validated if enrichment recommendations are to be made that affect diverse research facilities across the country. Additionally, a comparison of two methods of presentation (one highly accessible to the animal and the other less a ccessible) of the same enrichment device for potential differences in efficacy could provide direction in implementing an enrichment program based on simple toys. The handling of enrichment devices by nonhuman primates can lead to the spread of microbial contamination. The typical enrichment program rotates enrichment devices among animals to maximize the variety of stimuli available to each primate in the most economic manner. An adequate sanitation program is therefore pivotal to minimizing the potenti a l for enrichment devices to be fomites. We conducted three experiments that addressed these issues. The results confirmed that, alhtough the presence of a simple toy reduced behavioral pathology, there was variability in behavioral effect for an enrichme n t technique between facilities. Two methods of presentation (on floor and suspended) of a simple toy did not produce any significant differences in use. Finally, we demonstrated that microbial growth can persist on enrichment devices after they have been sanitized in a commercial cagewasher.
Descriptors: toys, sanitation versus environmental enrichment, microbial growth.

Bayne, K.A.L., S.L. Dexter, and G.M. Strange (1993). Effects of food treats and human interaction. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 32(2):6-9.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: human/animal interaction, social enrichment, positive reinforcement, novelty.

Bercovitch, F.B. and M.J. Kessler (1993). Primate facilities and environmental enrichment: An ecological and evolutionary perspective. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 7:435-439.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: primates, laboratory, enrichment.

Bloomsmith, M.A., L.Y. Brent, and S.J. Schapiro. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):372-377.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Before implementing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates, several issues should be considered. The assignment of enrichment tasks can be made to caretakers, a dedicated "enrichment technician," volunteer s , students or individuals with training in behavioral science. Determining the enrichment techniques to be used must take into account personnel time available; the species, age, sex, and individual histories of the nonhuman primates; and experimental pr o tocols for which animals are being maintained. Identifying the most beneficial way to use the available personnel time must be tailored for each institution. To meet federal regulations, records must be kept of the environmental enhancements available to each nonhuman primate. Good record-keeping will allow appropriate evaluation of the program. This evaluation should involve the animals' responses to the enrichment opportunity, cost and durability of enrichment items, human and nonhuman safety considera t ions, and personnel required. The well-being of captive nonhuman primates will be most improved if well-informed decisions are made in developing and managing environmental enrichment programs.
Descriptors: record keeping, evaluation, enrichment plans.

Bollen, K. (1995). Primate enrichment. Animal Keepers' Forum 22(5): 162.
NAL call number: QL77.5 A54
Descriptors: Burnet Park Zoo, enrichment strategies.

Bowditch, A.P., H.S. Crofts, N.G. Muggleton, P.C. Pearce, S. Prowse, and E.A.M. Scott (1997). Housing and behavioral testing conditions for long term studies. In: Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome, 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.dpz.gwdg.de:80/eupren/e u pren.htm [March 23, 1998]). European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).

Box, H.O., ed. (1991). Primate Responses to Environmental Change. Chapman and Hall: New York, 442p.
NAL call number: QL737 P9P74 1990
Descriptors: species differences, adaptation, nature, captivity, stress, distress, physiology.

Britt, A. (1993). Cage top feeding for primates. Shape of Enrichment 2(3): 11.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoos, laboratories, foraging behavior.

Carlson, S., P. Rama, D. Artchakov, and I. Linnankoski (1997). Effects of music and white noise on working memory performance in monkeys. Neuroreport 8(13): 2853-56.
It has been suggested that Mozart's music may have beneficial effects on the performance of cognitive tasks in humans. In the present study the effects of Mozart's piano music, white noise, simple rhythm and silence were studied on the performance of a d e layed response (DR) task in monkeys. The acoustic treatments were given for 15 min, either before or during DR testing. The acoustic treatments did not affect DR performance when given before testing. However, Mozart's piano music played during DR testin g caused a significant deterioration in the performance of the monkeys, whereas white noise improved it. It is suggested that Morzart's music serves as distractive stimulation during DR performance thus affecting working-memory-related neuronal processing and performance. White background noise, on the other hand, may improve DR performance by protecting against environmental distraction during testing.
Descriptors: nervous system, sensory stimulus, music, memory, background noise.

Clardy, B.E., A.W. Grady, and W.M. Taylor (1997). An economical enrichment device for nonhuman primates. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(4): 71.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: costs of enrichment, laboratory primates, behavior.

Crockett, C.M. and D.M. Bowden (1994). Challenging conventional wisdom for housing monkeys. Lab Animal 23(2):29-33.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory primates, animal welfare, cage size.

Crockett, C.M. (1998). Psychological well-being of captive nonhuman primates: lessons from laboratory studies. In: Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals D.J. Shepherdson, J.D. Mellen, and M. Hutchins, e ds., Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., pp. 129-152.
NAL call number: SF408 5435 1998
Descriptors: laboratory primates, psychological well-being, review.

Demlong, M. (1993). Another passive insect dispensor. The Shape of Enrichment 2(2):6-7.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: food enrichment, foraging behavior.

Dickie, L. (1997). Environmental enrichment in captive primates: a survey and review. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Z o o: Frederiksberg, pp. 337-355.
Descriptors: zoo primates, Europe, care, enrichment.

Dorian, C. (1993). Feeder logs, swings, and perches for primates. The Shape of Enrichment 2(2):3-5.
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: manipulanda, novelty, zoos.

Elliot, B. and S. Cook (1994). Environmental enrichment for non-human primates. Canadian Association of Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter 28(2): 36, 38-40.
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: lab primates, enrichment, animal wellbeing.

Farmer, K.H. and R.J. Young (1994). From rags to enrichment. Recycling paper. Ideas for environmental enrichment with primates. RATEL 21(6):202-203.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: waste paper, zoo primates.

Field, K.J., J. Denny, and G. Kubica (1992). Nonhuman primate socialization and environmental enrichment using a transfer tunnel. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 31(2):5-8.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: tunnel, social behavior, laboratory, exploratation.

Holmes, S.N., J.M. Riley, P. Juneau, D. Pyne, and G.L. Hofing (1995). Short term evaluation of a foraging device for non-human primates. Laboratory Animals 29(4):364-369.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: foraging behavior, laboratory, activity level, behavioral changes.

Jacobsen, L., R. Hamel, and J. Brown (1998). Internet resources in primatology. ILAR Journal 38(4):171-184.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: audiovisuals, directories, websites, listservs, electronic resources.

Laule, G. (1994). Use of positive reinforcement techniques in primates to enhance animal care, research, and enrichment. Canadian Association of Laboratory Animal Science Newsletter 28(2): 33-36.
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: animal training, rewards, conditioning, behavior, animal welfare.

Ludes, E. (1996). Welfare and environmental enrichment of captive primates. STAL 21(1): 25-39.
Descriptors: psychological wellbeing, species-specific behavior, laboratory and zoo primates.

Marriner, L.M. and L.C. Drickamer (1994). Factors influencing stereotyped behavior of primates in a zoo. Zoo Biology 13(3):267-275.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: rearing methods, repetitive motor patterns, atypical behavior, lemurs, tamarins, macaques, spider monkeys, baboons, apes.

Marriott, B.M., R.W. Marriott, J. Norris, and D. Lee (1993). A semi-natural habitat for housing small nonhuman primates. Journal of Medical Primatology 22(6):348-354.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: cage complexity, laboratory, activity levels.

Maxwell, J. (1993). Stimulating natural behavior: enrichment. Australian Primatology 7(4):17-18.
Descriptors: zoos, measuring behavior, activity.

Maxwell, J. (1993). Stimulating natural behaviors: enrichment for brains and hands. Shape of Enrichment 2(1):1-2
NAL call number: HV4737 S53
Descriptors: zoos, primates, environmental enrichment.

Murchison, M.A. (1993). Potential animal hazard with ring toys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 34(1):1-2.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: risks, choking, ring toys, devices.

Novak, M.A., A. Rulf, H. Munroe, K. Parks, C. Price, P. O'Neill, and S. J. Suomi (1995). Using a standard to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment. Lab Animal 24(6): 37-42.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory primates, methods, assessing enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Enticing non-human primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology 12:307-312.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: foraging behavior, activity levels, novelty stimulus.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (1998). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates: An Annotated Bibliography for Animal Care Personnel. 2nd ed. Animal Welfare Institute, PO Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007
Descriptors: guidelines and regulations, enrichment programs, inanimate enrichment, feeding enrichment, substrates, animate enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (1992). Quantitatively tested environmental enrichment options for singly-caged nonhuman primates: A review. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 6:374-383.
NAL call number: QL55 H8
Descriptors: animal welfare, assessing enrichment options.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Roberts (1997). Effective feeding enrichment for non-human primates: A brief review. Animal Welfare 6(3):265-272.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging, laboratories, feed processing, zoos, animal welfare.

Rosenblum, L.A. and M.W. Andrews (1995). Environmental enrichment and psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. In: Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research, Biology, and Management, B.T. Bennett, C.R. Abee, and R. Henr i ckson, eds., Academic Press: New York., pp. 101-112.
NAL call number: SF407 P7N66 1995
Descriptors: enrichment programs, behavior, devices, social groups.

Sambrook, T.D. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (1997). Control and complexity in novel object enrichment. Animal Welfare 6(3): 207-216.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: novelty, manipulanda, complexity, ecological approaches.

Sambrook, T.D. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (1996). What makes novel objects enriching? A comparison of the qualities of control and complexity. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35(4): 1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: novelty, manipulanda, complexity.

Schnell, C. R. and P. Gerber (1997). Training and monitoring of animals. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issu e s for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ [January 1999]). European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: positive reinforcement, rewards, observations.

Sokol, K.A. (1993). Commentary: thinking like a monkey--"primatomorphizing" an environmental enrichment program. Lab Animal 22(5):40-45.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory, environmental enrichment.

Swanson, J., M.D. Kreger, D.J. Berry, J. Lyons-Carter, and J. Larson (1992). Environmental enrichment information resources for nonhuman primates: 1987-1992. National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center: Beltsville, MD, 1 05p.
NAL call number: aZ7996.P85E58 1992
Descriptors: bibliography, information resources.

Taira, K., and E.T. Rolls (1996). Receiving grooming as a reinforcer for the monkey. Physiology and Behavior 59(6): 1189-1192.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Descriptors: grooming, social contact, positive reinforcement.

Visalberghi, E. and J.R. Anderson (1993). Reasons and risks associated with manipulating captive primates' social environments. Animal Welfare 2(1): 3-15.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: group housing, aggression, boredom, resource access.

Watts, E. and A. Meder (1996). Introduction and socialization techniques for primates. In: Wild Mammals in Captivity Principles and Techniques. D.G. Kleiman, M.E. Allen, K.V. Thompson, and S. Lumpkin, eds., University of Chi c ago Press:Chicago, pp. 67-77.
NAL call number: SF408 W55 1996
Descriptors: introductions, aggression, social behavior.

Weed J.L., Baker, S.C. Harbaugh, and J. Erwin (1995). Innovative enclosures for laboratory primates: evaluation of a "breeding condominium". Lab Animal 24(7): 28-32.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: housing, social interactions, laboratory.

Woolley, A.P.A.H. (1997). Requirements of biomedical research in terms of housing and husbandry: pharmacology and toxicology. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ [January 1999]). Euro p ean Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: social housing, isolation housing, experimental studies, husbandry.


The following are links to AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[ AWIC ] [ Main Contents ] [ Main Introduction ] [ Using this Resource Guide ] [ U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies ] [ Organizations & Websites ] [ Primate Centers & Animal Colonies ] [ Listservs ] [ Products and Suppliers ] [ Audiovisuals ] [ Journals & Newsletters ] [ Bibliography: Articles or Books/Conference Proceedings ] [ AWIC Newsletter Articles ] [ Appendix A ]

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http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/primates/primbibb.htm, April 13, 1999