Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, March 1999 *************************

Articles on Great Apes and Gibbons

"Articles on Great Apes and Gibbons" is a chapter from: Kreger, Michael D. (March 1999). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide. AWIC Resource Series No. 5. U.S. Departmen t of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center, Beltsville, MD. E-mail: Contact us: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php .

The following are links to AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[ AWIC ] [ Main Contents ] [ Main Introduction ] [ Using this Resource Guide ] [ U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies ] [ Organizations & Websites ] [ Primate Centers & Animal Colonies ] [ Listservs ] [ Products and Suppliers ] [ Audiovisuals ] [ Journals & Newsletters ] [ Bibliography: Articles or Books/Conference Proceedings ] [ AWIC Newsletter Articles ] [ Appendix A ]


NOTE: Call numbers are included for publications contained in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlib r ary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials .

Aureli, F. and F.B.M. DeWaal (1997). Inhibition of social behavior in chimpanzees under high density conditions. American Journal of Primatology 41(3):213-228.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: social behavior, crowding, captivity.

Baker, K.C. (1997). Straw and forage material ameliorate abnormal beahviors in adult chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 16(3):225-236.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: substrate, foraging behavior, zoos, activity.

Baker, K.C. and F. Aureli (1996). The neighbor effect: Other groups influence intragroup agonistic behavior in captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 40(3):283-291.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: social behavior, dominance, aggression.

Baker, K.C. (1996). Chimpanzees in single cages and small social groups: Effects of housing on behavior. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 35(3):71-74.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: social housing, foraging, dominance, abnormal behaviors.

Baker, K.C. (1997). Human interaction as enrichment for captive chimpanzees: A preliminary report. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):92.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: human-animal bond, social behavior, training.

Bettinger, T., J. Wallis, and T. Carter (1994). Spatial selection in captive adult female chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 13(2):167-176.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: spatial behavior, territoriality, zoos, social behavior.

Bloomsmith, M.A. and S.P. Lambeth (1995). Effects of predictable versus unpredictable feeding schedules on chimpanzee behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 44(1): 65-74.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: chimpanzees, timing, predictability of feeding, species-appropriate behavior.

Bloomsmith, M.A., S.P. Lambeth, A.M. Stone, and G.E. Laule (1997). Comparing two types of human interaction as enrichment for chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 42(2): 96.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: human-animal bond, training, social behavior.

Bloomsmith, M.A., G.E. Laule, P.L. Alford, and R.H. Thurston (1994). Using training to moderate chimpanzee aggression during feeding. Zoo Biology 13(6):557-566.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: human-animal bond, social behavior, dominance.

Brent, L. (1998). Destructible toys as enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(1):5-15.
NAL call number: HV4701 J68
The use of destructible objects or toys as enrichment for nonhuman primates has had promising results in terms of increased use and positive behavioral effect. The purpose of this project was to determine the use and durability of a number of inexpensive , destructible toys provided one at a time or several at once. Nine singly caged chimpanzees were provided with eight different toys made of plastic, vinyl, or cloth and the frequency of use of the toys was determined during 15 min trials twice per day. T h e toy was removed when it was destroyed or when it was not contacted during four trials. The chimpanzees contacted the toys for an average of 11 times per trial, and the use of the individual toys was significantly higher when provided one at a time rath e r than all at once. Use of the toys was fairly stable over time, and the toys remained in the cages an average of 3.2 days. The durability of the toys was related to the type of toy, i.e., more flexible cloth and vinyl toys lasted longer than rigid plast i c toys. The destructible toys were used significantly more often than other permanent cage toys or televisions. Toy use was not related to age, level of abnormal behavior or use of existing permanent toys or television. The implications of the results we r e related to the management of an environmental enrichment program, and indicate that the provision of flexible, inexpensive toys one at a time can be an effective method of enrichment for captive chimpanzees.
Descriptors: use, durability, timing, affects of age or abnormal behavior.

Brent, L. (1995). Feeding enrichment and body weight in captive chimpanzees. Journal of Medical Primatology 24(1):12-16.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Although positive behavioral consequences have been attributed to feeding enrichment, physiological changes may also occur. In this study, the body weight records of a large chimpanzee colony were reviewed to determine if body weight was affected by the i mplementation of a daily enrichment program, including food items offered three to four times per week. Comparing the mean body weight by age groups indicated that the weight of female chimpanzees was significantly greater after feeding enrichment but th a t male body weight did not differ.

Brent L. (1992). Woodchip bedding as enrichment for captive chimpanzees in an outdoor enclosure. Animal Welfare 1(3):161-170.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, juveniles, behavior, evaluation, woodchips.

Brent, L. and A.M. Stone (1996). Long-term use of televisions, balls, and mirrors as enrichment for paired and singly caged chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 39(2):139-45.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
The evaluation of environmental enrichment techniques for nonhuman primates over long periods of time has had mixed results. Some studies report rapid habituation to new enrichment items, while others note continued use. We have investigated the use of t h ree different enrichments that had been available to paired and singly caged chimpanzees for several years. Twenty subjects were observed during 200 hr of scan sampling while singly caged and while pair housed. Each subject had a variety of enrichments a v ailable and their use of a television, ball, and mirror were recorded. The chimpanzees had previous exposure to all of the items: televisions had been available for a mean of 22.75 months, balls had been available for 55.9 months, and mirrors had been av a ilable for 25.9 months. The results indicated that the chimpanzees continued to use the enrichments for small amounts of time (0.27%-1.53% of the observations) even after such prolonged exposure. Television and ball use were significantly higher than mir r or use. Housing condition was not a significant factor in the analyses, contrary to expectations. We concluded that several simple enrichment items may be effective in offering variety and choices to the nonhuman primate and can be one element in a compr e hensive environmental enhancement plan.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, laboratory, devices, enrichment plans.

Brown, D., J. Calcagno, K. Gold, and S. Thompson (1995). Effects of environmental enrichment on nonsocial and abnormal behavior of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1995:29-35.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: gorilla, zoos, behavior.

Brown, D. and K.C. Gold (1997). Effects of straw bedding on non-social and abnormal behavior of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Behavioral problems in captivity in general and their management. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen B. Holst, ed., Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg, pp 24-38.
Descriptors: gorilla, zoos, substrate, social behavior.

Burd L. and D. Moore (1991). Primate enrichment: using novel stimuli for behavioral modification in captive gibbons. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings 1991:505-511.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: Hylobates, housing, environmental enrichment.

Fritz, J. (1994). Introducing unfamiliar chimpanzees to a group or partner. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(1):5-7.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social behavior, dominance, social housing.

Fritz, J., S.M. Howell and M.L. Schwandt (1997). Colored light as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 36:(2):1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: novel stimulus, activity, behavior.

Gilloux, I., J. Gurnell, and D. Shepherdson (1992). An enrichment device for great apes. Animal Welfare 1(4): 279-289.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: gorilla, chimpanzee, puzzle feeders, behavioral response, feeding behavior.

Goff, C., S. Menkhus-Howell, J. Fritz, and B. Nankivell (1994). Space use and proximity of captive chimpanzee mother/offspring pairs. Zoo Biology 13(1):61-68.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: social housing, spatial behavior, pair bonds.

Heuer, A. and R. Hartmut (1998). Environmental enrichment for four subadult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in the Zoological Garden of Hanover. Zoologische Garten 68(2):119-133.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: manipulanda, habituation, novel objects.

Howell, S., E. Mittra, J. Fritz, and J. Baron (1997). The provision of cage furnishings as environmental enrichment at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. Newsletter of the Primate Foundation Of Arizona 9(2):1-5.
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, cage props, environmental enrichment, chimpanzees.

Kessel, A. and L. Brent (1996). Goldfish as enrichment for singly housed chimpanzees. Animal Technology 47(1):1-8.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: goldfish, habitiuation, laboratory chimps, aquariums.

Kessel, A.L., L. Brent, and T. Walljasper (1995). Shredded paper as enrichment for infant chimpanzees. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 34(4):4-6.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, infants, shredding paper.

Lambeth, S.P. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1992). Mirrors as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Animal Science 42(3):261-66.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
At many facilities, limitations of the physical environment have reduced the opportunity for captive chimpanzees to live in large, naturalistic social groups. Convex mirrors used to increase visual access of neighboring groups may improve the social envi r onment. This was tested in a study of 28 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) group-housed in conventional indoor/outdoor runs. A total of 47.8 hours of behavioral observations were conducted and comparisons made across three conditions: no mirror pres e nt, a mirror present with visual access to neighboring conspecifics, or a mirror present with visual access to the neighbors' empty run. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to neighboring animals, facial expressions, sexual, and agonistic behavio r s increased, whereas affiliative behaviour decreased compared with when no mirror was present. When the mirror gave subjects visual access to a neighbors' empty run, facial expressions and sexual behavior increased compared with when no mirror was presen t . When the mirror gave subjects visual access to a neighbor's empty run, agonism decreased compared with when a mirror gave subjects visual access to neighboring animals. When subjects had visual access to neighbors, they used the mirror 30% of the total data points; while they had visual access to the neighbors' empty run, they looked during 24% of the total data points. Juveniles' use of the mirror increased over time while adults' use remained stable. Adult males used the mirror less than did the othe r subjects. These findings indicate that a mirror allowing visual access to neighboring conspecifics has potential as an enrichment device that affects social behavior.
Descriptors: mirrors, visual access, age dependence, social behavior.

Lukas K.E., M.P. Hoff, and T.L. Maple (1995). Rotating gorilla troops through multiple exhibits at Zoo Atlanta's Ford African rainforest: A behavioral evaluation. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceeding s 1995:352-354.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: social behavior, novelty, zoo primates, gorillas.

Morris, A. and T. Bettinger (1991). Chimpanzee enrichment at the Tulsa Zoo. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings 1991:417-422.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, enrichment, zoos.

Ogden, J.J., D.G. Lindburg, and T.L. Maple (1994). A preliminary study of the effects of ecologically relevant sounds on the behaviour of captive lowland gorillas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 39(2):163-76.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: quiet, ventilation noise, caretaker sounds, vocalization playbacks, rainforest sounds, behavior, stress, age differences.

Pazol K.A. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1993). The development of stereotyped body rocking in chimpanzees reared in a variety of nursery settings. Animal Welfare 2(2):113-129.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, novel stimulus, social behavior, treatment.

Perkins, L. (1992). Variables that influence the activity of captive orangutans. Zoo Biology 11(3):177-186.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: zoos, social behavior, manipulanda, dominance.

Perret, K., H. Preuschoft, and S. Preuschoft (1995). The impact of zoo visitors on the behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoologische Garten 65(5):314-32.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: stress from visitors, effects on social behavior of chimpanzees, play.

Perret, K., S. Buechner, and H. Joerg a Adler (1998). Environmental enrichment programs for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in zoos. Zoologische Garten 68(2):95-111.
NAL call number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: tool use, foraging, social behavior, economic costs, benefits for wellbeing.

Preutz, J.D. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1992). Comparing two manipulable objects as enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 1(2): 127-137.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: devices, activity, behavior.

Rooney, M.B. and J. Sleeman (1998). Effects of selected behavioral enrichment devices on behavior of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(4):339-351.
NAL call number: HV4701 J68
Environmental complexity plays an integral role in the activity and psychological well-being of primates. The experiment described in this article evaluated the effects of nonintrusive, inexpensive, and easily managed behavioral enrichment devices on the behavior of a group of captive western lowland gorillas. Devices used included cardboard boxes containing food items, paper bags containing food items, burlap rags, willow, and maple browse. The enrichment devices increased foraging, social play, and sol i tary play behaviors. Sedentary behaviors decreased. Rags, bags, browse, and boxes did not statistically decrease the incidence of regurgitation/reingestation or coprophagy. Depending on the type of enrichment item used, the effects on agonism and manipul a tion of enrichment item were variable. To make informed management decisions about the psychological well being of captive animals, it is important to objectively quantify and examine the influences on their behavior.
Descriptors: manipulanda, toys, zoos.

Russon, A.E. and B.M. Galdikas (1993). Imitation in free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 107(2): 147-61.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: rehabilitation environments, learning, imitation.

Shefferly, N., J. Fritz , and S. Howell (1993). Toys as environmental enrichment for captive juvenile chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 32(2):7-9.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: toys, chimpanzees, laboratory.

Struthers, E.J., H. Harvey, and S. Walden (1997). Utilization of a sensory diet approach for enrichment and mitigation of abnormal behaviors in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 4 2(2):151.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: foraging, diet enrichment, stereotypies, behavior.

Sugiyama, Y. (1995). Drinking tools of wild chimpanzees at Bossou. American Journal of Primatology 37:263-269.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: wild chimpanzees, toolmaking, drinking, manipulanda.

Takemoto H, K. Kumazaki, and T. Matsuzawa (1996). Selectivity in feeding behavior of planted trees by captive chimpanzees. Primate Research 12(1):33-40.
Descriptors: diet, food preferences, foraging, zoos.

Takeshita, H. and J. Van Hooff (1996). Tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the Arnhem Zoo community. Japanese Psychological Research 38(3):163-173.
Descriptors: zoos, tool use, age, play.

Wood, W. (1998). Interactions among environmental enrichment, viewing crowds, and zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 17(3):211-230.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: zoos, visitors effects on behavior, foraging, object use, grooming, play.

Woods, S. (1995). Facilitation of problem solving, tool use, and affiliative social behaviors in captive gorillas. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1995:384-388.
NAL call number: QL76.5 U6A472
Descriptors: zoos, grooming, manipulanda, cognition.

Wood, W. (1997). Changes in grooming and play behavior across three levels of enviromental complexity in an intensively housed group of zoo chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):156.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: grooming, social behavior, play, complex housing, zoos.

Wright, B.W. (1995). A novel item enrichment program reduces lethargy in orangutans. Folia Primatologica 65(4):214-218.
NAL call number: QL737 P9F6
Descriptors: obesity, environmental enrichment, devices, novelty, zoos.

Wright, B.W. (1994). A comparative analysis of the effects of behavioral enrichment and the utilization of tools within and between captive groups of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and Bornean orangutans (Pong o pygmaeus pygmaeus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Suppl. 18:210-211.
Descriptors: abstract, tool use, manipulanda, social behavior.

Young, R.J., D. McNaught, and B. Richardson (1994). Hand-manipulated food dispensers for Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). RATEL 21(3):85-86.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: devices, zoos, foraging behavior.


The following are links to AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[ AWIC ] [ Main Contents ] [ Main Introduction ] [ Using this Resource Guide ] [ U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies ] [ Organizations & Websites ] [ Primate Centers & Animal Colonies ] [ Listservs ] [ Products and Suppliers ] [ Audiovisuals ] [ Journals & Newsletters ] [ Bibliography: Articles or Books/Conference Proceedings ] [ AWIC Newsletter Articles ] [ Appendix A ]

Return to:
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library


USDA logo ARS logo NAL logo
The Animal Welfare Information Center, Contact us: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/primates/primbibd.htm, April 13, 1999