Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, March 1999 *************************

Articles on Macaques

"Articles on Macaques" is a chapter from: Kreger, Michael D. (March 1999). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide. AWIC Resource Series No. 5. U.S. Department of Agricultu r e, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center, Beltsville, MD. E-mail: Contact us: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php .

The following are links to AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[ AWIC ] [ Main Contents ] [ Main Introduction ] [ Using this Resource Guide ] [ U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies ] [ Organizations & Websites ] [ Primate Centers & Animal Colonies ] [ Listservs ] [ Products and Suppliers ] [ Audiovisuals ] [ Journals & Newsletters ] [ Bibliography: Articles or Books/Conference Proceedings ] [ AWIC Newsletter Articles ] [ Appendix A ]

NOTE: Call numbers are included for publications contained in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL). While NAL does not sell audiovisuals or publications from its collection, materials may be borrowed by interlib r ary loan. Borrowing information can be found on the NAL website http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials .

Anderson, J.R., A. Rortais, and S. Guillemein (1994). Diving and underwater swimming as enrichment activities for captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 3(4): 275-83.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
In order to assess the environmental enrichment value of a small swimming pool for captive juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), observations of social and individual behaviours were made during baseline and experimental (pool) conditions. W hen the pool was available there was less social grooming and cage manipulation, and more play. Most of the monkeys engaged in diving and underwater swimming. The presence of pieces of banana at the bottom of the pool reduced these water-related activiti e s, whereas when raisins were spread along the bottom or when there was no food in the water, there was more diving and less aggression. Certain effects tended to vary with dominance status, but individual differences appeared more important than social s t atus in determining reactions to the water. The provision of a small swimming pool for captive macaques is an effective contribution to improving their welfare.
Descriptors: rhesus macaque, swimming pool, social behavior.

Bayne, K.A.L. and S. Dexter (1992). Removing an environmental enrichment device can result in a rebound of abnormal behavior in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 27:15.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: atypical behavior, importance of environmental enrichment, devices.

Bayne, K.A.L., S.L. Dexter, and H. Mainzer (1992). The use of artificial turf as a foraging substrate for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 1(1):39-53.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: substrate, foraging behavior, activity.

Bayne, K.A.L., J.K. Hurst, and S.L. Dexter (1992). Evaluation of the preference to and behavioral effects of an enriched environment on male rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science 42(1): 38-45.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Two environments were provided to laboratory rhesus monkeys to determine if the animals spent more time (for the purposes of this study, defined as the cage side preference) in an enriched cage side than an unenriched cage side. The side (right or left) o f a double-wide cage in which the animal spent the most time (as determined by Chi square analysis) was initially determined during baseline obsevations. The "nonpreferred" side was then enriched during the experimental phase of the study. The enrichment consisted of a perch, a Tug-A-Toy suspended inside the cage, a Kong toy suspended on the outside of the cage, and a grooming board mounted on the outside of the cage. No statistically significant changes in use of the enrichments were detected over time. Fifty percent of the animals switched cage side preference to the enriched side during the study. All subjects showed reduced behavioral pathology during exposure to the enriched environment with a return of behavioral pathology when the enrichments were removed.
Descriptors: preference testing, cage size, toys, laboratory animals.

Bayne, K.A.L., G.M. Strange, and S.L. Dexter (1994). Influence of food enrichment on cage side preference. Laboratory Animal Science 44(6): 624-29.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
A preference test paradigm was used to assess the value of two enrichment techniques for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): (1) a Kong toy stuffed with food treats and (2) a fleece board covered with particulate food. The duration of time spent i n the enriched cage side was compared with that spent in the unenriched cage side. Additionally, the number of cage side changes made during an observation interval and the duration and frequency of occurrence of select behaviors were recorded. Half the s u bjects altered their cage side preference during the experimental condition, and a fifth animal reversed side preference in the postexperimental phase. Subjects spent a mean time of 14% of a session engaged with the foraging devices. The occurrence of se v eral behaviors, including self-directed and locomotor activities, varied significantly with the experimental condition. These results were compared with data from a previous preference study of nonnutritive enrichments, and a hypothesis regarding the rel a tive value of different types of enrichment was developed.
Descriptors: Kong toy, foraging board, cage preferences, nonnutritive enrichment.

Blount, J.o.n.D. (1997). Pond-dipping and a 'brunch' of flowers: enrichment for Sulawesi crested macaques at Newquay Zoo. Ratel 24(4):135-137.
NAL call number: QL77.5 R37
Descriptors: Macaca nigra, zoos, flowers.

Boccia, M.L., M.L. Laudenslager, and M.L. Reite (1995). Individual differences in macaques' responses to stressors based on social and physiological factors: Implications for primate welfare and research outcomes. Laboratory Anim a ls 29(3):250-7.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Primates are used extensively in a variety of research settings. Federal regulations in the U.S. mandate that caretakers provide for the 'psychological well-being of laboratory primates'. One of the difficulties in implementing this law has been both in t he definition of psychological well-being and in the need to deal with each primate species and, in some cases, age or sex class, uniquely. Non-human primates exhibit distinct individual differences in their behavioural and physiological responses to exp e rimental challenges and caretaking procedures. We have been investigating what factors can predict some of these individual differences, and have found that factors both intrinsic and extrinsic are significant. Extrinsic factors found to predict individu a l differences in response to stressors include the nature and prior experience with the challenge, the presence of familiar peers and availability of social support. Intrinsic factors include cognitive interpretations of the challenge and temperamental d i fferences in reactivity. These studies highlight the importance of understanding the context and individual psychology of macaques in order to provide laboratory environments conducive to their welfare, and in order to understand the impact experimental a nd caretaking procedures are likely to have on the health and welfare of our subjects.
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, Macaca radiata, stress, individual differences, psychology.

Bowers, C.L., C.M. Crockett, and D.M. Bowden (1998). Differences in stress reactivity of laboratory macaques measured by heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. American Journal of Primatology 45(3): 245-61.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Some laboratory primates are more likely than others to react to anxiety-provoking stressors. Individuals that overreact to stressors may experience diminished psychological well-being and would be inappropriate for some experiments. The differences betw e en reactive and nonreactive individuals may be reflected in heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Using surface electrodes and radio telemetry, we measured these two cardiac variables in seven male and ten female singly caged longtailed ma c aques (Macaca fascicularis) when they were exposed to two stressors, a sudden noise (whistle test) and an unfamiliar technician wearing capture gloves (glove test). Behavior was videotaped during both tests. For the whistle test, cardiac data we r e recorded before, during, and after two 1 minute whistle blasts separated by 90 min. For the glove test, data were recorded in 1 minute blocks every 8 minutes over 96 minutes before, during, and after 1 minute exposure to the gloved technician. Heart pe r iod was decreased and RSA was suppressed during both the whistle and glove exposures. After the whistle test, the cardiac activity of most subjects returned to baseline levels within 10 minutes. The glove test produced more extended suppression, with gre a ter individual differences, than the whistle test. There were greater individual differences in RSA than in heart period. These enhanced individual differences were used to define stress reactors that differed from nonreactors in their cardiac data profi l es. Of 16 subjects that completed the glove test, five were identified as reactors.
Descriptors: stress, physiology, psychology, Macaca fascicularis.

Cardinal, B.R. and K.J. Stephen (1998). Behavioral effect of simple manipulable environmental enrichment on pair-housed juvenile macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37(1):1-3.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: enrichment devices, social housing, manipulanda.

Clark, A.S. and M.L. Schneider (1993). Prenatal stress has long-term effects on behavioral responses to stress in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology 26(5):293-304.
Descriptors: distress, social behavior, laboratory.

Crockett, C.M., R.U. Bellanca, C.L. Bowers and D.M. Bowden (1997). Grooming--contact bars provide social contact for individually-caged laboratory macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(6):53-60.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: individual housing, social behavior, devices.

Crockett, C.M., and D.M. Bowden (1994). Challenging conventional wisdom for housing monkeys. Lab Animal 23(2):29-33.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: social behavior, spatial behavior, performance standards, legislation.

Crockett, C.M., C.L. Bowers, D.M. Bowden, and G.P. Sackett (1994). Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult long-tailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology 32(2):73-94.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: gender, social behavior, laboratory housing.

Crockett, C.M., C.L. Bowers, M. Shimoji, M. Leu, D.M. Bowden, and G.P. Sackett (1995). Behavioral responses of longtailed macaques to different cage sizes and common laboratory experiences. Journal of Comparative Psychology 1 0 9(4):368-83.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
The authors tested the effects of varying cage size on the behavior of 10 female and 10 male Macaca fascicularis by singly caging them for 2 weeks in each of 5 cage sizes, ranging from approximately 20% to 148% of regulation size. Behavior in th e regulation cage size, a size 23% smaller, and a size 48% larger did not differ in any analysis. Locomotion was significantly less in the 2 smallest cage sizes. Abnormal behavior occurred only 5% of the time, did not increase as cage size decreased, and d id not change significantly over nearly 3 years. Disruption of the normal activity budget in the laboratory environment proved to be a useful indicator of psychological well-being. Moving to a new room and, to a lesser extent, moving into a new, clean ca g e, regardless of size, was associated with disrupted sleep the 1st night and suppressed activity, especially self-grooming, the next day.
Descriptors: cage size, activity, self-grooming, abnormal behavior levels.

Eaton, G.G., S.T. Kelley, M.K. Axthelm, S.P. Iliff-Sizemore, and S.M. Shiigi (1994). Psychological well being in paired adult female rhesus. American Journal of Primatology 33:89-99.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, group housing, well-being.

Estep, D.Q. and S.C. Baker (1991). The effects of temporary cover on the behavior of socially housed stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Zoo Biology 10(6):465-472.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: contact aggression, locomotion, copulation, affiliative behavior.

Fligiel, J. and V. Reinhardt (1994). Assessing group housing for an aged female rhesus macaque. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(4):10-12.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social behavior, older animals, laboratory housing.

Gust, D.A., T.P. Gordon, A.R. Brodie, and H.M. McClure (1994). Effect of a preferred companion in modulating stress in adult female rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 55:681-684.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Descriptors: distress, social behavior, physiological response.

Gust, D.A., T.P. Gordon, M.E. Wilson, A.R. Brodie, A. Ahmed-Ansari, H.M. McClure, and G.R. Lubach (1996). Group formation of female pig tailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology 39(4): 263-273.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: social behavior, group housing.

Holmes, S.N., J.M. Riley, P. Juneau, D. Pyne, and G.L. Hofing (1995). Short-term evaluation of a foraging device for non-human primates. Laboratory Animals 29(4):364-69.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
In the USA, any institution involved in using non-human primates for research has had, for regulatory reasons, to address the psychological needs of these animals. Enriching the environment through the use of foraging devices has been one method and a st u dy was designed to evaluate the short-term effect of a new foraging device on singly-housed cynomolgus monkeys. The study was divided into 3 one-week periods of observation: baseline, device filled with normal ration, and device filled with a novel food. Four behaviours were recorded: foraging, self-directed, hopper feeding, and other behaviours. During the observation periods the device was accepted in preference to the standard hopper style feeder and self-directed behaviours were significantly reduce d compared with the baseline period. Changing to a novel food re-kindled interest in the device and reduced the extinguishing effect: i.e. decrease in interest or use of the device. Based on this study, the feeder has been included with several other devi c es in a rotation programme.
Descriptors: novel food, feeder, Macaca fascicularis, cynomologus macaque, feeding behavior.

Kessel, A.L. and L. Brent (1998). Cage toys reduce abnormal behavior in individually housed pigtail macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(3):227-234.
NAL call number: HV4701 J68
As part of a behavioral intervention program that identifies and treats individual nonhuman primates exhibiting abnormal behavior, five individually housed pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were provided with multiple cage toys in an effort to reduce h igh levels of abnormal behavior. Ten 30-minute observations of each subject were conducted during the baseline condition, and again after novel toys were presented loose inside the cage, and attached to the outside of the cage. The new toys were used dur i ng 27% of the observation time. Kong ToysTM were used most consistently by the macaques during the 5-week observation period. Significant decreases in abnormal behavior and cage-directed behavior, as well as significantly increa s ed enrichment use, were evident after the toys were added. Several of the toys were quickly destroyed, and individual differences were evident in the levels of enrichment use and abnormal behavior. Providing multiple manipulable toys as enrichment for pi g tail macaques was effective in reducing abnormal behavior and was an important part of an environmental enrichment program for monkeys who could not be socially housed.
Descriptors: toys, placement on cage, abnormal behavior, single housing.

Lehman, S.M. and R.G. Lessnau (1992). Pickle barrels as enrichment objects for rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 392-97.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Two breeding groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in outdoor enclosures on Key Lois island were observed for 84 hours. Instantaneous scan sampling of a focal animal was used to gather data to test hypotheses concerning frequencies of agonistic and affiliative behaviors as well as differential use of pickle barrels as enrichment objects. Type of barrel used, behavior, and age/sex class of the animal were noted. Barrels were arranged three ways: unattached, on a swivel, and stationary. The behaviors of animals in an enriched environment were compared with control condition animals, which did not have pickle barrels. Animals in an enriched environment accounted for 60.8% (n = 56) of total affiliative contact, 62.2% (n = 399) of total so c ial grooming, and 26% (n = 5) of total agonistic noncontact. A total of 134 scans of barrel use were observed. Analyses of the data showed that swivel and stationary barrels were used the most (55% of all scans of barrel use). Yearlings, juvenile females , and old males used barrels most often (82.8% of all scans of barrel use), although they constituted only 39% of the enriched environment populations. In this study, pickle barrels provided enrichment for young and old animals of both sexes.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, agonistic and affiliative behavior, age of individual.

Leu, M., C.M. Crockett, C.L. Bowers, and D.M. Bowden (1993). Changes in activity levels of singly housed long tailed macaques when given the opoortunity to exercise in a larger cage. Journal of Comparative Psychology 109(4): 3 68.
NAL call number: BF671 J6
Descriptors: social behavior, activity level, exercise, spatial behavior.

Lincoln, H. III, M.W. Andrews, and L.A. Rosenblum (1995). Pigtail macaque performance on a challenging joystick task has important implications for enrichment and anxiety within a captive environment. Laboratory Animal Science 45(3): 264-8.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
The purpose of this study was to extend previous findings on joystick task engagement by a group of pigtail macaques. The goals were to determine the influence of task difficulty on daily levels of task activity and to test the hypothesis that previously identified preferences among identical devices at different locations derived largely from the level of anxiety induced at each location. It was found that the number of daily trials decreased when the task was made more difficult, with more time require d to complete each trial with the difficult task. Preferences among locations became more pronounced with the more difficult task. Analysis of errors made on devices at different locations supported the view that preferences did derive, at least in part, f rom levels of induced anxiety. Locations of enrichment devices may influence not only amount of use but also levels of anxiety in captive monkeys.
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, anxiety, preference, device location.

Lincoln, H. III, M.W. Andrews, and L.A. Rosenblum (1994). Environmental structure influences use of multiple video-task devices by socially housed pigtail macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41(1-2):135-43.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: video enrichment, perch provision, social housing, Macaca nemestrina.

Line, S.W., A.S. Clarke, H. Markowitz, and G. Ellman (1990). Responses of female rhesus macaques to an environmental en richment apparatus. Laboratory Animals 24(3):213-20.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Environmental enrichment devices are a potential way to enhance psychological well-being in laboratory animals. The effects of such devices need to be systematically evaluated before they are recommended for widespread use. The purpose of this research w a s to monitor the behavioural and physiological responses of adult female rhesus macaques to a simple enrichment device. The apparatus consisted of a box attached to the monkey's home cage that contained a radio and a food dispenser, which could be contro l led by the monkeys via contact detectors. Radio and food dispenser use were automatically recorded. Whole blood serotonin (WBS), plasma cortisol and abnormal behaviour were measured in 5 monkeys before, during and after a 20-week period in which the monk e y's cages were equipped with the device. All monkeys used the device (3 of the 5 subjects earned an average of more than 200 food pellets per day). Mean plasma cortisol and whole blood serotonin did not differ across sampling times, suggesting that the a p paratus had no effect on basal stress levels. There was an inverse relationship between apparatus use and cortisol levels in 76% of the samples, but only 3 of 17 coefficients were significant. There was a significant but small negative correlation betwee n apparatus use and self-abusive behaviour. This enrichment device was readily used by adult rhesus monkeys and could be adapted for use in a wide variety of laboratory settings.
Descriptors: food dispenser, stress, cortisol, abnormal behavior.

Line, S.W. and K.N. Morgan (1991). The effects of two novel objects on the behavior of singly caged adult rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):365-69.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Six female and six male adult rhesus macaques were given sticks and nylon balls as an attempt at simple cage enrichment. A latin square design was used to compare behavior during separate 4-week periods with each object and during a control period with n o object. Frequency and duration of 15 different behaviors were recorded. Resting was the most common activity which decreased slightly in duration when the stick or nylon ball was present (P < 0.02). The mean duration of stick use was longer than that of the nylon ball (P < 0.01). No other behaviors changed significantly, including the frequency of abnormal behaviors such as self-abuse, stereotypic acts, and bizarre postures. Generally, these objects were used infrequently and led to few changes in the behavior of singly-caged adult rhesus macaques. However, they did appear to stimulate activity for some individuals.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, sticks, nylon balls, behavioral changes.

Line, S.W., K.N. Morgan, and H. Markowitz (1991). Simple toys do not alter the behavior of aged rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology 10(6): 473-84.
NAL call number: AL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: toys, sticks, effectiveness, abnormal behavior.

Ljungberg, T., K. Westlund, and L. Rydn (1997). Ethological studies of well-being in two species of macaques after transition from single-cages to housing in social groups. In Abstracts of the Second EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop : The housing of non-human primates used for experimental and other scientific purposes: Issues for consideration, Rome 27.09.1996. (Monograph online available from: http://www.euprim-net.eu/ [March 23, 1998].) European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN).
Descriptors: social housing, compatability, behavior, mixed species.

Luttrell, L., L. Acker, M. Urben, and V. Reinhardt (1997). Training a large troop of rhesus macaques to cooperate during catching: Analysis of the time investment. Animal Welfare 3(2): 135-140.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: positive reinforcement, capture, handling, training, laboratory.

Lutz, C.K., and R.A. Farrow (1996). Foraging device for singly housed longtailed macaques does not reduce stereotypies. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 35(3):75-78.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: devices, atypical behavior, single housing.

Lutz, C.K. and M.A. Novak (1995). Use of foraging racks and shavings as enrichment tools for groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Zoo Biology 14(5):463-74.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: foraging, social behavior, devices.

Lynch, R. (1998). Successful pair housing of male macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37(1):4-6.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: social housing, aggression, dominance.

Murchison, M.A. and E. Renolt (1992). Food puzzle for single caged primates. American Journal Of Primatology 27(4):285-292.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: pigtailed macaques, foraging behavior, puzzles, peanut rewards, control.

Palombit, R.A. (1992). A preliminary study of vocal communication in wild long-tailed macaques: II. Potential of calls to regulate intragroup spacing. International Journal of Primatology 13(2):183-207.
NAL call number: QL737 P9I54
Descriptors: spatial behavior, social behavior, importance of vocal communication.

Parks, K. A. and M.A. Novak (1993). Observations of increased activity and tool use in captive rhesus monkeys exposed to troughs of water. American Journal of Primatology 29(1):13-25.
NAL call number: AL737 P9A5
Descriptors: standing water, running water, combination with novel objects, exploration, social contact, grooming, water enrichment.

Platt, D.M. and M.A. Novak (1997). Video stimulation as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(1/2):139-155.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: video games, video tapes, effects on social behavior, habituation, single housed.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Refining the traditional housing and handling of research macaques. (Monograph online available at http://pantheon.yale.edu/~seelig/pef/new/new.html), 9p.
Descriptors: space utilization, social behavior, training.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). The Wisconsin Gnawing Stick. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(3/4):11.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: branches, perches, social housing, single house, foraging.

Reinhardt, V. (1996). Frequently asked questions about safe pair-housing of macaques. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 7(1):11.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: dominance, pairing, male pairs, stress, methods.

Reinhardt, V. (1995). Arguments for single-caging of rhesus macaques: Are they justified? Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 6(1):1-2, 7-8.
NAL call number: aHV4701 A952
Descriptors: familiarity, dominance, pairing, male pairs, stress, methods.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Caged rhesus macaques voluntarily work for ordinary food. Primates 35(1): 95-98.
Descriptors: food puzzles, motivation, preferences, foraging behavior.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Continuous pair-housing of caged Macaca mulatta: Risk evaluation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(1):1-4.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: group housing, spatial behavior, dominance, social enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology 23(8):426-31.
NAL call number: QL737 P9J66
Descriptors: social housing, injury rate, animal welfare.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Enticing nonhuman primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology 12(3):307-312.
NAL call number: QL77.5 Z6
Descriptors: food puzzles, group housed macaques, feeder boxes, foraging behavior.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Using the mesh ceiling in a food puzzle to encourage foraging behavior in caged rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 2(2):165-172.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging behavior, devices, food puzzle.

Reinhardt, V. and S. Hurwitz (1993). Evaluation of social enrichment for aged rhesus macaques. Animal Technology 44(1):53-57.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: pair formations, behavioral interactions, affiliative interactions.

Reinhardt, V., C. Liss, and C. Stevens (1996). Space requirement stipulations for caged non-human primates in the United States: A critical review. Animal Welfare 5(4):361-372.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: housing, guidelines, legislation, Animal Welfare Act.

Reinhardt, V., C. Liss, and C. Stevens (1995). Social housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks? Animal Welfare 4(4):307-328.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: group housing, separation, dominance, adjustment.

Reinhardt, V. and D. Seelig (1998). Environmental enhancement for caged rhesus macaques: A photographic documentation. Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, D.C., 47p.
NAL call number: HV4737 R45 1998
Descriptors: group housing, feeding and grooming devices, atypical behavior.

Schapiro, S.J. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1995). Behavioral effects of enrichment on singly-housed, yearling rhesus monkeys: An analysis including three enrichment conditions and a control group. American Journal of Primatology 35, no. 2: 89-101.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: physical, feeding, and sensory enrichment; species-typical behavior; activity.

Schapiro, S.J. and M.A. Bloomsmith (1994). Behavioral effects of enrichment on pair-housed juvenile rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 32(3):159-170.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: pair-housed monkeys, inanimate enhancement vs. companionship, behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, A.L. Kessel, and C.A. Shively (1993). Effects of enrichment and housing on cortisol response in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37(3): 251-263.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: stress, social housing, inanimate enrichment, adrenal function.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, L.M. Porter, and S.A. Suarez (1996). Enrichment effects on rhesus monkeys successively housed singly, in pairs, and in groups. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 48(3/4):159-171.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: long-term effects, inanimate and social enrichment, preferences.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, S.A. Suarez, and L.M. Porter (1997). A comparison of the effects of simple versus complex environmental enrichment on the behaviour of group-housed, subadult rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 6 ( 1):17-28.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: social housing, complexity, environmental enrichment.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, S.A. Suarez, and L.M. Porter (1996). Effects of social and inanimate enrichment on the behavior of yearling rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 40(3):247-260.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: laboratory primates, social conditions, effects on use of enrichment objects.

Schapiro, S.J., M.A. Bloomsmith, S.A. Suarez, and L.M. Porter (1995). Maternal behaviour of primiparous rhesus monkeys: Effects of limited social restriction and inanimate environmental enrichment. Applied Animal Behaviour Scienc e 45(1/2):139-149.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: social restriction, maternal competance, infants, visual access to conspecifics.

Schapiro, S.J. and D. Bushong (1994). Effects of enrichment on veterinary treatment of laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare 3(1):25-36.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: social housing, single housing, therapy length.

Schapiro, S.J. and A.L. Kessel (1993). Weight gain among juvenile rhesus macaques: A comparison of enriched and control groups. Laboratory Animal Science 43(4): 315-318.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Environmental enrichment techniques for captive primates are aimed at improving their psychological well-being. While behavioral variables are used to measure changes in psychological well-being, physiologic measures (e.g., heart rate, cortisol response) are sometimes gathered in addition to the behavioral evidence. Some of these physiologic indices measure acute changes in the animals' well-being, limiting their usefulness. Body weight, however, is a measure of physical well-being that may have meaning a s a long-term indicator of psychological well-being. We therefore collected body weight data from two groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta group 1: n = 34, group 2: n = 30) every 8 weeks beginning at the age of 1 year, as they passed through various housing conditions as part of a program to develop a specific pathogen-free breeding colony. One-half of the subjects in each group received a variety of environmental enhancements during all housing conditions; the other half received no enrichment and s erved as controls. At the beginning of the study (age 1 year), control and enriched subjects did not differ in body weight. Among group-1 subjects, enriched animals weighed significantly more than controls after 4 months of enrichment, and the weight dif f erence was maintained 24 months later. Enriched animals in group 2 never differed in weight from their controls. The order in which different types of enrichment were presented and the extra-cage environment of the two groups differed, which may account f or this discrepancy. Group-1 enriched subjects were the only animals that weighed as much as free-ranging rhesus monkeys, and rates of weight gain among all groups of subjects were similar to several populations maintained under more naturalistic conditi o ns.
Descriptors: body weight, enrichment effects, housing conditions, social behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., D.E. Lee-Parritz, L.L. Taylor, L. Watson, M.A. Bloomsmith, and A. Petto (1994). Behavioral management of specific pathogen-free rhesus macaques: group formation, reproduction, and parental competence. Laboratory A n imal Science 44(3):229-234.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: compatability, dominance, aggression, separation.

Schapiro, S.J., P.N. Nehete, J.E. Perlman, M.A. Bloomsmith, and K.J. Sastry (1998). Effects of dominance status and environmental enrichment on cell-mediated immunity in rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 56(2 / 4):319-332.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: hierarchy, lymphocytes, toys, cytokines.

Schapiro, S.J., P.N. Nehete, J.E. Perlman, and K.J. Sastry (1997). Social housing condition affects cell-mediated immune responses in adult rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 42(2):147.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: immunosuppression, group housing, social behavior.

Schapiro, S.J., L.M. Porter, S.A. Suarez, and M.A. Bloomsmith (1995). The behaviour of singly-caged, yearling rhesus monkeys is affected by the environment outside of the cage. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 45(1/2):151-1 6 3.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: indoor vs. outdoor housing, social groups, naturalistic stimulation.

Schapiro, S.J., S.A. Suarez, L.M. Porter, and M.A. Bloomsmith (1996). The effects of different types of feeding enhancements on the behaviour of single-caged, yearling rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 5(2):129-138.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: foraging behavior, environmental enrichment, macaques.

Schneider, M.L., C.F. Moore, S.J. Suomi, and M. Champoux (1991). Laboratory assessment of temperament and environmental enrichment in rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 25(3):13 7 -156.
NAL call number: QL737 P9A5
Descriptors: standard cage vs. enriched environment, problem-solving, fearfulness.

Schneider, M.L. and S.J. Suomi (1992). Neurobehavioral assessment in rhesus monkey neonates (Macaca mulatta): Developmental changes, behavioral stability, and early experience. Infant Behavior and Development 15(2): 1 55-177.
NAL call number: BF723 I6I53
Descriptors: development, stability, early experience, surrogate rearing, toys, fear.

Shimoji, M., C.L. Bowers, and C.M. Crockett (1993). Initial response to introduction of of a PVC perch by singly caged Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 32(4):8-11.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: perches, device, single housing.

Taylor, R.L., B.L. White, S.A. Ferguson, and Z.K. Binienda (1994). The use of foraging devices for environmental enrichment of individually housed rhesus monkeys in a laboratory colony. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal S c ience 33(6):71-73.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: devices, foraging behavior, laboratory primates.

Taylor, W.J., D.A. Brown, W.L. Davis, and M.L. Laudenslager (1997). Novelty influences use of play structures by a group of socially housed bonnet macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 36(1):4-6.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: play, devices, social behavior.

Taylor, W.J. and M.L. Laudenslager (1998). Low-cost environmental enrichment plan for laboratory macaques. Lab Animal 27(4):28-31.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: psychological well-being, Animal Welfare Act, laboratory macaques.

Tustin, G.W., L.E. Williams, and A.G. Brady (1996). Rotational use of a recreational cage for the environmental enrichment of Japanese macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35(1):5-7.
NAL call number: SF407 P7L3
Descriptors: play, devices, housing, well-being.

Washburn, D.A., S. Harper, and D.M. Rumbaugh (1994). Computer-task testing of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the social milieu. Primates 35(3):343-351.
Descriptors: pair-housing, preference for computer interactions, cognition, psychology.

Yanagihara, Y., K. Matsubayashi, and T. Matsuzawa (1994). Environmental enrichment in Japanese monkeys: Feeding device and cage environment. Primate Research 10(2):95-104.
Descriptors: macaques, foraging behavior, devices.

The following are links to AWIC and other chapters in this publication:

[ AWIC ] [ Main Contents ] [ Main Introduction ] [ Using this Resource Guide ] [ U.S. Laws, Regulations, & Policies ] [ Organizations & Websites ] [ Primate Centers & Animal Colonies ] [ Listservs ] [ Products and Suppliers ] [ Audiovisuals ] [ Journals & Newsletters ] [ Bibliography: Articles or Books/Conference Proceedings ] [ AWIC Newsletter Articles ] [ Appendix A ]

Return to:
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library

USDA logo ARS logo NAL logo
The Animal Welfare Information Center, Contact us: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/contact.php
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/primates/primbibe.htm, April 13, 1999