Behavior


Ahlstrom, S.; Jarvis, S.; Lawrence, A.B. (2002). Savaging gilts are more restless and more responsive to piglets during the expulsive phase of parturition. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (1): 83-91, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, piglets, maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, savaging, restlessness, responsiveness to piglets, farrowing, restrictive environments.


Amory, J.R.; Pearce, G.P. (2000). Alarm pheromones in urine modify the behaviour of weaner pigs. Animal Welfare 9 (2):167-175, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701 A557.

Keywords: restraint of animals, urine, escape responses, alarm pheromones, animal behavior, feeding behavior, vocalization, alert behavior, exploratory behavior.


Anil, L.; Anil, S; Deen, J. (2002). Relationship between postural behaviour and gestation stall dimensions in relation to sow size. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 77 (3): 173-181, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: The extent to which the size of the gestation stall, relative to the size of the sow, affects the normal basic postural behavioural needs of sows like standing, sitting and lying was assessed using 25 sows randomly selected from four farms. The postural behaviour of the animals was recorded using a time-lapse video recorder. The relationships of duration of postures, time taken for various postural changes and frequency of postural changes with stall measurements in relation to sow measurements were analysed. Negative correlations (P<0.01) were found between stall length relative to sow length and the duration of time for which the sows were standing. The relationships between the duration of postures and stall width relative to animal breadth were not different (P>0.05). The time taken to change from a standing to lying posture was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with stall length relative to animal length. Similar correlations (P<0.05) were noted between stall width relative animal breadth and the duration of postural change from standing to sitting and from sitting to standing. Stall width relative to animal breadth was negatively related to the frequency of postural change from standing to sitting (P<0.05). The results suggested that the freedom of movement of pregnant sows in stalls could be improved by a little increase in the space allowance within the stall.

Keywords: gestation, housing, movement, postural behavior, pregnancy, stall dimensions.


Beattie, V.E.; O'Connell, N.E. (2002). Relationship between rooting behaviour and foraging in growing pigs. Animal Welfare 11 (3): 295-303, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701 A557.

Keywords: unrestricted feeding, foraging, physical activity, restricted feeding, diurnal variation, diurnal activity, animal welfare.


Beattie, V.E.; Sneddon, I.A.; Walker, N.; Weatherup, R.N. (2001). Environmental enrichment of intensive pig housing using spent mushroom compost. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 35-42, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: In a comparative study which examined the effect of having access to mushroom compost in an otherwise barren environment there were three treatments and six replicates. The three treatments were (T1) control barren pen providing 0.7 m2 per pig with fully slatted floor, (T2) empty horizontal rack suspended above the pigs' heads and (T3) mushroom compost on rack as in treatment 2. Pigs released particles of compost from the rack by nosing the metal grid from below. Almost twice as many pigs with access to mushroom compost (T3) nosed the rack (P < 0.001) and the ground below the rack (P < 0.001) as pigs which had a rack with no mushroom compost (T2). Fewer pigs with mushroom compost were involved in behaviours directed at penmates such as nosing, biting and chewing penmates than pigs in treatments 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). In addition fewer pigs in T3 were involved in feeding behaviour than in T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). Percentages of tail-bitten animals which had to be removed were 11 and 24 for T1 and T2 respectively while T3 had < 1% removed because of tail biting (P < 0.05). Apparent food intake was higher (P < 0.05) and food conversion ratio tended to be poorer in T1 (P = 0.1). It is suggested that pigs will redirect rooting behaviour towards penmates and the feeder in the absence of any rooting substrate. Adding substrate to commercial finishing pens reduces this redirection of behaviour and improves welfare by minimizing injury through tail biting.

Keywords: housing, enrichment, mushroom compost, physical activity, aggressive behavior, tail biting, animal behavior, feed intake, feed conversion, animal welfare, rooting behavior.


Bornett, H.L.I.; Morgan, C.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mann, J. (2000). The effect of group housing on feeding patterns and social behaviour of previously individually housed growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (2):127-141. ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: housing, group effect, feeding behavior, feeding frequency, eating rates, time budgets, feed intake, social behavior, aggressive behavior, liveweight gain, feed conversion efficiency, individual housing.


Bornett, H.L.I.; Morgan, C.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mann, J. (2000). The flexibility of feeding patterns in individually housed pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 70 (3): 457-469. ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Keywords: feeding, unrestricted feeding, restricted feeding, feeding frequency, feeding habits, feed intake, liveweight gain, behavior, feed conversion, meal patterns, eating patterns, individual characteristics.


Boyle, L.A.; Leonard, F.C.; Lynch, P.B.; Brophy, P. (2000). Influence of housing system during gestation on the behaviour and welfare of gilts in farrowing crates. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 71 (3): 561-570, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Keywords: gilts, pig housing, farrowing pens, stalls, loose housing, litter, European Union, group size, animal welfare, physical activity, posture, skin lesions, heart rate, litter size, piglets, birth weight, fetal death, floor type.


Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Schouten, W.G.P. (2002). Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows B: validation by expert opinion. Journal of Animal Science 80 (7):1835-1845, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight welfare-relevant attributes of housing systems in relation to the animal's needs, and evidenced by scientific statements collected in a database. The model's predictions about welfare scores for 15 different housing systems and weighting factors for 20 attributes were compared with expert opinion, which was solicited using a written questionnaire for pig-welfare scientists. The experts identified tethering and individual housing in stalls as low welfare systems. The group of mid-welfare systems contained indoor group-housing systems and an individual-housing system with additional space and substrate. The five best systems were all systems with outdoor access and the provision of some kind of substrate such as straw. The highest weighting factors were given for the attributes “social contact,” “health and hygiene status,” “water availability,” “space per pen,” “foraging and bulk,” “food agonism,” “rooting substrate,” “social stability,” and “movement comfort.” The degree of concordance among the experts was reasonable for welfare scores of housing systems, but low for weighting factors of attributes. Both for welfare scores and weighting factors the model correlated significantly with expert opinion (Spearman's Rho: 0.92, P<0.001, and 0.72, P<0.01, respectively). The results support the validity of the model and its underlying procedure to assess farm animal welfare in an explicit and systematic way based on available scientific knowledge.

Keywords: sows, pregnant, behavior, health, housing, husbandry, animal welfare, computer techniques, foraging, hygiene, prediction, water availability.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Bradshaw, R.H.; Skyrme, J.; Brenninkmeijer, E.E.; Broom, D.M. (2000). Consistency of measurement of social status in dry-sows group-housed in indoor and outdoor systems. Animal Welfare 9(1):75-79, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: dominance, gilts, sows, social behavior, animal behavior, animal welfare, housing.


Bremermann, N. (2001). Comparing studies in regard of health, fattening efficiency and meat quality of pigs in the indoor and outdoor keeping respectively. [Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Gesundheit, Mastleistung und Fleischqualitat von Schweinen in der Stall- bzw. Freilandhaltung.] Klinik fur Klauentiere des Fachbereiches Veterinarmedizin der Freien Universitat Berlin: Berlin, Germany,116 p.

Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine indoor, outdoor and mixed kinds of keeping pigs and their influences on animal health, fattening efficiency and meat quality. Considering prevention of cruelty to animals and from a veterinarian and ethological point of view, exclusive outdoor keeping is the most profitable for pig health and well being. However, the outdoor keeping of pigs has its drawbacks such as the need for much space, a high expenditure of work, a high feed consumption and a low level of lean meat.

Keywords: crossbreds, thesis, animal health, animal welfare, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, finishing, meat quality, morbidity, piglets, seasons, Germany, German language.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Burne, T.H.J.; Murfitt, P.J.E.; Johnston, A.N.B. (2001). PGF2 alpha, induced nest building and choice behaviour in female domestic pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73 (4): 267-279, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: The domestic pig, Sus scrofa, builds a maternal nest in the day before parturition. A model for porcine nest building has been established, in which exogenously administered prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha is used to induce nesting behaviour in cyclic, pseudopregnant and pregnant pigs. This experiment was designed to examine the effect of PGF2 alpha on the preferences of non-pregnant gilts for pens bedded with straw compared with bare pens. Ten 6-month-old nulliparous female pigs (gilts) were tested in an arena, which consisted of four pens (1.8 m x 1.7 m), a neutral area (1.5 m x 3.4 m) and a start area (1.5 m x 3.4 m). Two of the pens contained 2 kg of fresh straw and the remainder of the testing arena was devoid of straw. On the first day of testing half of the pigs were given a control intramuscular injection of 3 ml 0.9% saline and the remainder were given an intramuscular injection of 15 mg PGF2 alpha and their behaviour scored for 1 h after treatment. On the following day the treatments were reversed, such that each pig was given both treatments (saline or PGF2 alpha ). There was no significant effect of the order of treatment on behaviour. After saline-treatment the pigs spent most of their time in the pens containing straw (59%) and the least amount of time in bare pens (5%). In the straw pens, saline-treatment induced bouts of oronasal contact with straw of a relatively long duration (11-100 s), which we interpret as foraging. In the hour after PGF2 alpha, treatment the pigs also spent most of their time in the pens containing straw (44%) and the least amount of time in bare pens (10%), but they interacted with the straw in a markedly different way. PGF2 alpha, treated pigs displayed bouts of oronasal contact with straw of a relatively short duration (2-10 s) which, together with high frequencies of pawing at straw, lifting and carrying straw in the mouth, we interpret as nest building behaviour. Superimposed on this is the finding that gilts spend more time in the neutral areas after PGF2 alpha, treatment than they did after saline-treatment. PGF2 alpha, treated pigs spent most of their time engaged in nesting behaviour within the straw pens but they also gathered and deposited straw in different areas of the test arena (neutral and start areas); behaviours not seen after saline-treatment. We conclude that pigs generally prefer a pen containing straw bedding to a bare pen but that PGF2 alpha alters the way they interact with straw, inducing behaviour similar to prepartum nest building.

Keywords: behavior, gilts, litter, nesting, pregnancy, prostaglandins.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Coleman, G.J.; Hemsworth, P.H.; Hay, M.; Cox, M. (2000). Modifying stockperson attitudes and behaviour towards pigs at a large commercial farm. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66(1-2):11-20, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: behavioral method, animal behavior, animal welfare, commercial pig farm, human-animal relationship, productivity, stockperson attitude, stockperson behavior, stockperson swine training program, productivity, animal welfare, fear in pigs, reproductive performance improvement, small, medium, and large commercial farms, Australia.


Cox, L.N.; Cooper, J.J. (2001). Observations on the pre-and post-weaning behaviour of piglets reared in commercial indoor and outdoor environments. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 75-86, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: A number of behavioural problems are associated with weaning piglets including belly nosing, ear and tail biting, and low intake of solid food. These appear to be less pronounced in piglets reared on outdoor systems, which initially consume more solid food and show less belly nosing and aggression than comparable indoor-reared piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate how these differences in post-weaning behaviour relate to the piglets’ pre-weaning behaviour in the two rearing environments. The study was carried out at a commercial pig unit, where piglets of the same genotype are born into conventional indoor or outdoor farrowing systems. In the intensive system, sows were singly housed prior to farrowing in crates and their piglets received a solid “creep” food prior to weaning. On the outdoor system, sows were allowed to build straw nests in arks for farrowing and both sow and piglets had access to pasture. Indoor and outdoor piglets were weaned at 24 (+/-3) days of age and mixed in straw-yard housing with access to a solid food. Prior to weaning, teat-directed activity was more common in indoor piglets than outdoor piglets. Outdoor piglets performed more rooting, standing and locomotion and were seen chewing the sows’ roll-nuts. Following weaning, outdoor-reared piglets performed more feeding and rooting, and less fighting than indoor-reared piglets. This study supports previous findings that undesirable activities such as fighting are less common in piglets weaned from outdoor systems, even when mixed with indoor piglets. In addition, outdoor-reared piglets were more likely to exploit solid food even though they did not have access to creep food prior to weaning.

Keywords: piglets, weaning, pig housing, farrowing pens, creep feeding, animal behavior, floor pens, agonistic behavior, tail biting, physical activity, age differences, teats, animal welfare, farrowing crates, farrowing arks.


Croney, C. (2001). Methods of assessing cognitive abilities of farm animals. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 32, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: behavior, cognition, production, animal well-being, olfactory learning, video task acquisition, meeting abstract.


Damm, B.I.; Bildsoe, M.; Gilbert, C.; Ladewig, J.; Vestergaard, K.S. (2002). The effects of confinement on periparturient behaviour and circulating prolactin, prostaglandin F2 alpha and oxytocin in gilts with access to a variety of nest materials. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76(2): 135-156, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: In a 2x2 factorial experiment, the effects of gestation and farrowing housing on: (1) periparturient behaviour and circulating prolactin, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha ) and oxytocin in gilts with access to peat, straw and branches, and (2) correlational relationships between the periparturient behaviour and hormones were studied. The treatments consisted of housing in stalls or pens from mating to day 110 of gestation followed by housing in farrowing crates or pens until after parturition. Landrace x Yorkshire gilts were observed from video recordings (n=25) from 20 h prepartum and blood sampled via jugular catheters (n=16) from 24 h prepartum until 2 h after the birth of the first piglet. There was an interaction between gestation and farrowing housing affecting the start of nest-building (P=0.03). Gilts that experienced a change in type of housing accommodation commenced nest-building closer to parturition than gilts that were penned both during gestation and at farrowing (both P<0.05). The housing environment did not affect the timing of termination of nest-building, behaviour during parturition, or the course of parturition. However, relative to base level, crated gilts sat more from 16 to 6 h prepartum, whereas this was the case for penned gilts only from 9 to 7 h prepartum. Crated gilts also tended to change posture more often (P=0.07) and to lay more in sternal recumbency (P=0.095). This suggests that familiarity with the environment in combination with space to move about and/or availability of materials is important in the timing of nest-building. Confinement during farrowing did not appear to impair feedback from the materials and the nest, although increased number of postural changes may reflect the motivation but inability to nest-build, or general discomfort in the crate. There was a development over time in postural and nest-building behaviours as well as in plasma concentrations of prolactin, PGF2 alpha (measured by the metabolite PGFM) and oxytocin, but there were only few effects of housing treatments on hormones or associations between behaviour and hormones. The results suggest that nest- building occurs independently of a prepartum rise in prolactin, but that oxytocin may be associated with the termination of nest-building as there was a negative correlation with nosing (P<0.01) and arranging of nest-building materials (P<0.001). Farrowing crate housing appeared to have fewer effects on periparturient behaviour and course of parturition than reported in previous studies where effects of confinement and provision of nest-building materials may have been confounded. Thus, provision of nest-building materials to crated sows may have beneficial effects on sow behaviour and welfare.

Keywords: behavior, farrowing houses, farrowing pens, gilts, hormone secretion, nesting, nests, oxytocin, parturition, prolactin, prostaglandin F2alpha.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Davies, Z.E.; Guise, H.J.; Penny, R.H.C.; Sibly, R.M. (2001). Effects of stone chewing by outdoor sows on their teeth and stomachs. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 149 (1): 9-11, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Keywords: sows, stones, animal behavior, teeth, stomach, disorders, injury, England.


Day, J.E.L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burfoot, A.; Chamberlain, H.L.; Edwards, S.A. (2002). The separate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (3):177-192, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: The aim of this experiment was to determine the interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and welfare of the growing/finishing pigs. Groups of pigs were exposed to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial design with two levels of handling (M: minimal and P: pleasant), and four levels of environmental enrichment (B: barren, C: chain, S: chopped straw, or T: destructible toy). Daily food intake was significantly affected by handling during 1-6 weeks with the P groups eating slightly more food than the M groups (1.88 vs. 1.75 kg/day; S.E.D.=0.077; P<0.05), however, this increased intake was not reflected in daily liveweight gain or food conversion ratio during the same period. The time taken for a group of pigs to exit their pen during a routine handling test was significantly affected by the handling treatments (46.2 vs. 37.8 s for P and M groups, respectively; S.E.D.=3.38; P<0.05). Behavioural time budgets, and postmortem muscle pH and stomach lesion scores were unaffected by treatment. These results suggest that pleasantly handled pigs are more difficult to move during routine husbandry tasks which may be mediated through their reduced fear of humans. 27 ref.

Keywords: behavior, animal welfare, environmental impact, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, finishing, live weight gain.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Day, J.E.L.; Burfoot, A.; Docking, C.M.; Whittaker, X.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Edwards, S.A. (2002). The effects of prior experience of straw and the level of straw provision on the behaviour of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (3): 189-202, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: breed, Large White x Landrace, behavior, aggression, housing, animal welfare, belly nosing, biting, ear chewing, finishing period, growing period, licking, pen mate directed behavior, play fighting, ploughing, prior straw experience, rooting, straw bed depth, straw directed behavior, tail biting.


Day, J.E.L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burfoot, A.; Whittaker, X.; Edwards, S.A. (2001). The development and validation of a complex ethogram to investigate the straw directed behaviour of growing pigs. Pig News and Information 22 (2): 49N-54N, ISSN: 0143-9014.

NAL Call No.: SF391.P55.

Keywords: behavior, animal welfare, experimental design, methodology, reliability, reviews, straw, United Kingdom.


Dybkjaer, L.; Olsen, A.N.W.; Moller, F.; Jensen, K.H. (2001). Effects of farrowing conditions on behaviour in multi-suckling pens for pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51 (2):134-141, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of housing farrowing sows in either crates (C-sows) or a get-away system (G-sows) until day 11 after farrowing on the subsequent behaviour in multi-suckling pens. Emphases were placed on nursing behaviour patterns of relevance for the piglets’ growth and survival in the multi-suckling pens. Ten groups of six sows were used. Behaviour was recorded for 24 h on days 1, 8 and 15 after the introduction to the multi-suckling pen. When the sows had farrowed in the get-away system, significantly more nursings were initiated in the multi-suckling pen. Furthermore, the G-sows terminated a significantly smaller percentage of the nursings in the multi-suckling pens and there was significantly less cross-suckling compared with pens with C-sows. G- sows also tended (P=0.08) to lose fewer piglets in the multi-suckling pens than C-sows. In conclusion, these results suggest that nursing behaviour in multi- suckling pens may be improved when the sows farrow in get-away systems as compared with crates.

Keywords: farrowing pens, growth, maternal behaviour, pig housing, piglets, preweaning period, sows, suckling, survival.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Ebenezer, I.S.; Vellucci, S.V.; Parrott, R.F. (2001). The differential effects of intravenously administered 8 OH DPAT on operant food intake in satiated and food deprived pigs are mediated by central 5 HT1A receptors. Physiology and Behavior 73 (1 2): 223-227, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1 P4.

Keywords: satiated pigs, fasted pigs, intravenous administration, 5 HT1A receptor agonist, 8 hydroxy 2 (di n propylamino) tetralin (8 OH DPAT), food intake, operant food intake, central 5 HT1A receptors.


Ekkel, E.D.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Hulsegge, B. (2001). The lying behavior of pigs; a basic study. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 15, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: behavior, lying behavior, posture, space requirements, meeting abstract.


English, P.R.; Grant, S.A.; McPherson, O.; Edwards, S.A.(1999). Evaluation of the effects of the positive “befriending” of sows and gilts (“pleasant” treatment) prior to parturition and in early lactation on sow behaviour, the process of parturition and piglet survival. In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, pp.132-136.

NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23.

Keywords: gilts, lactation, parturition, piglets, young animals, sows, survival, animal welfare, livestock, legislation, handling, stockmen, pregnancy.


Erhard, H.W., M. Mendl, and D.D. Ashley (1999). Aggression in pigs: an example of using basic research in an applied context. In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, pp.163-164.

NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23.

Keywords: animal welfare, livestock, legislation, aggressive behavior.


Erp-van der Kooij, E. van; Kuijpers, A. H.; Schrama, J. W.; Eerdenburg, F. J. C. M. van; Schouten, W. G. P.; Tielen, M. J. M. (2002). Can we predict behaviour in pigs? Searching for consistency in behaviour over time and across situations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (4): 293-305, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: Individual differences in animal behaviour could elucidate the differences in stress coping style, which have consequences for production, health and welfare. Therefore, individual behavioural differences in pigs and consistency of responses in different test situations were studied. If differences in behaviour reflect coping characteristics, then behaviour in one situation should predict behavioural reactions in other situations and at other times. In this study, a backtest was performed on 315 Great Yorkshire Dutch Landrace piglets at 3, 10 and 17 days of age. On day 3, groups of approximately 10 piglets per sow were formed, based on escape behaviour in the first backtest (backtest score): high resisting (HR, all scores >3), low resisting (LR, all scores <3), miscellaneous (MISC, various scores between 0 and 10) or original (OR) litters to determine if group composition would influence coping behaviour. In weeks 5-7 and/or 10-12, a human approach test (HAT), a novel object test (NOT), and an open door test (ODT) were performed with all pigs simultaneously, in the home pen. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the test results and a factor analysis was performed. Furthermore, data were analysed on pen level, and within MISC- and OR-pens on animal level, using multivariate linear models. Significant correlations were found between the backtests and between HAT, NOT and ODT. Backtest results on three ages loaded on the same factor, and HAT, NOT and ODT at one age also loaded on one factor. No differences were found in HAT, NOT and ODT for the different pens (HR, LR, MISC and OR). On animal level, animals with higher backtest scores also had higher HAT scores at 5-7 weeks (P<0.05) within the MISC-pens. At 10-12 weeks, no differences were found. This study suggests that there are consistencies in behaviour of pigs over time and across situations, so coping can be regarded as a trait variable. However, since correlations are well below one, we suggest that other factors such as time (development) and (test) situation may also play an important role in determining an individual's behavioural reaction. The absence of correlations between backtest and the group tests is explained by the theory that these different tests measure different aspects of the coping style.

Keywords: piglets, Landrace, Yorkshire, breed, behavior, breed differences, stress, stress response.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Farmer, C.; Palin, M.F.; Sorensen M.T.; Robert, S. (2001). Lactation performance and behaviour of Upton Meishan and Large White sows and litters. Livestock Production Science 70 (1-2): 179, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: sows, Upton Meishan, Large White, breed, lactation performance, litter behavior, milk energy content, nursing frequency, sow behavior, meeting abstract.


Gallagher, N.L.; Giles, L.R.; Wynn, P.C. (2002). The development of a circadian pattern of salivary cortisol secretion in the neonatal piglet. Biology of the Neonate 81 (2): 113-118, ISSN: 0006-3126.

NAL Call No.: QH301.B46.

Keywords: neonatal piglets, saliva, cortisol, glucocorticoid, secretion, circadian rhythm, behavior, escape attempts, vocalization, intensity, alternative to blood sampling.


Gardner, J.M.; Lange, C.F.M. de.; Widowski, T.M. (2001). Belly-nosing in early-weaned piglets is not influenced by diet quality or the presence of milk in the diet. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 73-80, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: piglets, early weaning, animal behavior, feed intake, liveweight, liveweight gain, diets, dried whey, milk substitutes, blood plasma, soybean oilmeal, fish meal, stereotyped behavior.


Gardner, J. M.; Duncan, I.J.H.; Widowski, T.M. (2001). Effects of social “stressors” on belly-nosing behaviour in early-weaned piglets: is belly-nosing an indicator of stress? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74 (2): 135-152, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: Belly-nosing is a behaviour pattern commonly observed in early-weaned piglets. Although belly-nosing has been referred to as an indicator of stress, the factors involved in its causation are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if the differences in stress at weaning influence the development of belly-nosing behaviour in piglets weaned at 12-14 days of age. To test this, we attempted to create varying degrees of stress at weaning, by subjecting piglets to different combinations of social stressors. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial, with group composition (mixed litters versus littermates) and density (0.15 m2 per pig (HD) versus 0.4 m2 per pig (LD)) as the main factors. Six replicates per treatment, of six piglets/replicate were used in three, 3-week trials (n = 144). Behaviour was recorded every 5 min during one 4 h period on day 1 and during two 4 h periods on days 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 post-weaning. Feed intake, water intake and growth rate were determined weekly. Blood was collected, from half of the piglets, on day 2 pre-weaning and days 3 and 10 post-weaning for neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios (N:L) and plasma cortisol concentrations. During the first week post-weaning, feed intake was higher for piglets housed at HD (P<0.05) but no other differences in performance were observed. Contrary to what was expected, aggression was greater for piglets housed at LD than those housed at HD overall, and on days 10 (P<0.05) and 17 (P<0.05) post-weaning. On day 3 post-weaning, variation in N:L was greater for piglets weaned with littermates (P< 0.05) and piglets housed at LD (P<0.05). On day 10 post-weaning, both mean plasma cortisol (P<0.05) and variation in N:L (P<0.05) were higher for piglets housed at LD. Although plasma cortisol, N:L and aggression were all suggestive of a greater stress response in piglets housed at LD, there were no differences in belly-nosing for any treatment (P>0.10). Belly- nosing did develop across all treatments by day 7 post-weaning. Belly-nosing does not appear to be a general behavioural indicator of stress.

Keywords: behavior, blood picture, feed intake, growth rate, hydrocortisone, lymphocytes, neutrophils, piglets, stress, water intake, weaning.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Gilbert, C.L.; Murfitt, P.J.; Burne, T.H. (2001). Effects of prostaglandin F2alpha treatment of pseudopregnant pigs on nest building and interactions with newborn piglets. Hormones and Behavior 39 (3): 206-215, ISSN: 0018-506X.

NAL Call No.: QP801.H7H64.

Keywords: gilts, prostaglandin (PG)F2alpha treatment, stimulates nest building, behavior, pseudopregnant nulliparous gilts, pseudopregnancy, exposure to newborn piglets, standing, pawing, rooting, lifting, carrying straw, scratching, savaging of piglets.


Glatz, P.C. (2001). Effect of different lighting sources on behavior and growth of weanling pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (2): 280-287, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7.

Keywords: behavior, growth, illumination, artificial lighting, wavelengths, feed intake, aggressive behavior, performance, body condition, red light, feed conversion efficiency, animal welfare.


Gonyou, H.W. (2001). The social behaviour of pigs. In: Social Behaviour in Farm Animals Keeling, L.J.; Gonyou, H.W. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.147-176, ISBN: 0-85199-397-4.

Keywords: abnormal behavior, husbandry, animal welfare, communication between animals, group interaction, group size, social behavior, social structure, social systems, space requirements.


Grandin, T. (2003). Transferring results of behavioral research to industry to improve animal welfare on the farm, ranch and the slaughter plant. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(3): 215-228, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: cattle, pigs, slaughter, restraint, handling, welfare, auditing, technology transfer.


Gregory, S.A.; Friend, T.H.; Piedrahitab, J.; Nevilla, C.H.; Walker, S. (2003). Behavioral variation among cloned pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(4): 321-331, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: genetics, clone, behavior, variation, resting, play, food preferences.


Groot, J. de; Ruis, M.A.W.; Scholten, J.W.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Boersma, W.J.A. (2001). Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs. Physiology and Behavior 73 (1/2): 145-158, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is common practice in intensive pig husbandry. Since pigs maintain a dominance hierarchy, mixing often leads to vigorous fighting. Apart from the negative impact that fighting has on welfare, there is evidence that the social stress associated with fighting suppresses immune function. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of mixing on specific long- term immune responses and protection against challenge infection after vaccination with pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were mixed pairwise with an unfamiliar same-gender conspecific or left undisturbed with a same-gender littermate at 3 days after vaccination with PRV. Half of the pigs were females (gilts) and half were castrated males (barrows). Mixing increased agonistic behaviour to the same degree in gilts and barrows. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and catecholamine excretion in urine were increased in mixed pigs, and these effects were independent of dominance status and gender. Subsequently, the effects of mixing, gender, dominance status and interactions between these factors on immune response parameters were studied. The main result was that mixed barrows showed suppressed immune responses after vaccination and increased clinical symptoms after challenge infection compared to control barrows. Mixed gilts however did not differ from control gilts. It also appeared that mixed dominants were more seriously affected than mixed subordinates were. We conclude that, in some pigs, social stress after mixing suppresses the immune response to a viral vaccine and consequently impairs protection against challenge infection. 59 ref.

Keywords: agonistic behavior, antiviral properties, catecholamines, gender relations, gilts, hydrocortisone, immune response, immunity, stress, vaccination, vaccines, Aujeszky virus, porcine herpesvirus.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Guy, J.H.; Rowlinson, P.; Chadwick, J.P.; Ellis, M.(2002). Behaviour of two genotypes of growing-finishing pig in three different housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (3):193-206, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: This trial compared the behaviour of 720 growing-finishing pigs, progeny of either indoor (Large White x Landrace) or outdoor (part-Meishan or part-Duroc) sows mated to Large White boars, when housed in either outdoor paddocks, straw yards or fully-slatted pens. Space allowance per pig in outdoor paddocks, straw yards and fully-slatted pens was 19.98, 1.63 and 0.55 m2, respectively with a group size of 20. Pigs were fed ad libitum from an average of 30-80 kg liveweight. Pig behaviour was observed during daylight for a total of 6 h, using both individual (focal) and group (scan) sampling. There were relatively few differences in behaviour between genotypes, although the outdoor genotype spent a higher proportion of observations in straw yards and fully-slatted pens engaged in social activity (P<0.05) compared to the indoor genotype. Pigs housed in straw yards spent significantly more time examining the floor and moving (P< 0.001), and significantly less time tail-biting (P<0.01) compared to those housed in fully-slatted pens, where a larger proportion of observation time was spent lying inactive (P<0.001). Pigs in outdoor paddocks spent a large proportion of observation time inside the shelter hut (0.69), where it was not possible to determine their behaviour, although rooting and exploring the floor was the most frequently observed behaviour when the pigs were outside. Interaction between genotype and housing system did not occur to any major degree. It is concluded that, for the housing systems used in this study, pig behaviour was enriched and welfare enhanced in straw yards compared to fully- slatted pens. Further research is needed, however, before any conclusions can be made regarding the behaviour of pigs in outdoor paddocks. 13 ref.

Keywords: Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Meishan, pig breeds, progeny animal behavior, housing, finishing, genotypes, slatted floors, tail biting.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Harris, M.J.; Li, Y.; Gonyou, H.W. (2001). Savaging in gilts and second parity sows: A study of seven commercial farms. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 15, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: sows, gilts, piglets, farrowing date, fear response, parity, piglet mortality, piglet savaging, vocalization, meeting abstract


Hay, M.; Orgeur, P.; Levy, F.; Le Dividich, J.; Concordet, D.; Nowak, R.; Schaal, B.; Mormede, P. (2001). Neuroendocrine consequences of very early weaning in swine. Physiology and Behavior 72 (1-2): 263-9, ISSN:0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the consequences of very early weaning of piglets on neuroendocrine variables and growth. Sixty piglets from eight litters were either weaned on Postnatal Day 6 (early weaning, or EW piglets) or left with their dam until normal weaning at Day 28 (control piglets, or C). At Days 5, 7, 11, 14, and 19, urine was collected between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. for the measurement of catecholamines, glucocorticoids, and creatinine. Compared with C, EW piglets displayed a transient increase in urinary cortisol on the day following separation from their dam (Day 7) (P<.05). Urinary norepinephrine (NE) was three times lower in EW compared to C piglets from Day 7 until Day 14 (P<.01) but there was no difference between the two groups on Day 19. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) did not differ between C and EW piglets on the day after weaning. Thereafter, EW piglets displayed a three times drop in urinary EPI as compared to C piglets until the end of the period (P<.01). Weaning induced an immediate reduction in food intake and growth rate and at Day 28, the body weight of EW piglets was 1.60 kg lower than that of C piglets (P<.0001). In conclusion, weaning of 6-day-old piglets results in a marked and prolonged suppression of the release of catecholamines. This result likely reflects physiological responses to insufficient energy intake after weaning, as reflected also by changes in thermoregulatory behavior. The transient increase in cortisol excretion in weanlings may be caused by both emotional distress and acute food deprivation.

Keywords: neurosecretory systems, physiology, weaning, aging, behavior, body weight, catecholamines, urine, chromatography, high pressure liquid, ion exchange, cortisone, hormones, hydrocortisone.


Held, S.; Mendl, M. (2001). Behaviour of the young weaner pig. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.273-297, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: age at weaning, aggressive behavior, husbandry, feeding behavior, housing, piglets, social behavior, stress, stress response, vocalization.


Held, S.; Mendl, M.; Devereux, C.; Byrne, R. (2001). Behaviour of domestic pigs in a visual perspective taking task. Behaviour 138 (11/12): 1337-1354, ISSN: 0005-7959.

Keywords: visual perspective, training, learning, food reward, problem solving, psychology.


Held, S.; Mendl, M.; Devereux, C.; Byrne, R.W. (2001). Studies in social cognition: from primates to pigs. Animal Welfare 10 (Suppl.): S209-S217, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: learning ability, foraging, food source, social dominance, experimental design, visual perspective, subordinate behavior, animal welfare.


Held, S.; Mendl, M.; Devereux, C.; Byrne, R.W. (2001). Testing social cognitive abilities of domestic pigs: Why and how. Advances in Ethology (36): 78, ISSN: 0931-4202.

Keywords: competitive foraging task, analytical method, animal welfare, cognitive ability, social behavior, social status, stress, visual perspective, meeting abstract.


Held, S.; Mendl, M.; Laughlin, K.; Burman, O. (2001). Cognition studies with pigs: Livestock cognition and its implication for production. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 32-33, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: behavior, cognition, production, animal well-being, meeting abstract.


Hemsworth, P.H. (2003). Human animal interactions in livestock production. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(3):185-198, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: dairy cattle, pigs, human-animal relationships, stockperson attitude, behavior, fear, productivity, welfare.


Herskin, M.S.; Jensen, K.H. (2000). Effects of different degrees of social isolation on the behaviour of weaned piglets for experimental purposes. Animal Welfare 9 (3): 237-249, ISSN: 0962-7286,

NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: piglets, weaning, group size, metabolism cages, animal behavior, fearfulness, escape responses, mental stress, housing, animal experiments, experimental design, animal welfare, Denmark.


Hillmann, E.; von Hollen, F.; Bunger, B.; Todt, D.; Schrader, L. (2003). Farrowing conditions affect the reaction of piglets toward novel environment and social confrontation at weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(2): 99-109, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: piglets, rearing, enrichment, weaning, behavior, novel environment, social encounter.


Holden, P.J.; McGlone, J.J. (1999). Animal welfare issues: swine. Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin 9(3/4): 9-11, ISSN: 1522-7553. Available online at http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/newsletters/v9n3/9n3holde.htm

NAL Call No.: aHV4701.A952

Keywords: pigs, animal welfare, pig housing, floor space, social dominance, stress factors, extensive livestock farming.


Horrell, R.I.; A’Ness, P.J.; Edwards, S.A.; Eddison, J.C. (2001). The use of nose-rings in pigs: consequences for rooting, other functional activities, and welfare. Animal Welfare 10 (1): 3-22, ISSN: 0962-7286,

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: sows, nose, extensive livestock farming, animal behavior, paddocks, damage, grazing, physical activity, mastication, animal welfare, frustration, stone chewing, bull rings, clip rings.


Hunter, E.J.; Jones, T.A.; Guise, H.J.; Penny, R.H.C.; Hoste, S. (2001). The relationship between tail biting in pigs, docking procedure and other management practices. The Veterinary Journal 161 (1): 72-79, ISSN: 1090-0233.

NAL Call No.: SF601.V484.

Abstract: The tail length (docked, tipped or undocked) and tail status (bitten or unbitten) of 27,870 pigs from 450 units was recorded at six UK abattoirs. A farm survey of the final finishing stage was used to investigate the relationship between management practice and tail biting. This showed that docking was the most important factor influencing the probability of being not bitten, with 2.4% of docked and 8.5% of long-tailed pigs being tail-bitten. The following factors reduced the probability of long-tailed pigs being tail-bitten; light straw provision, use of natural ventilation or artificially controlled natural ventilation (ACNV), mixed sex grouping, meal or liquid feeding, and use of double or multi-space feeders. Docked and long-tailed pigs provided with light straw and natural ventilation/ACNV had levels of tail biting of 1.2% and 4.3% respectively; 3.9% of docked pigs with artificial ventilation and no straw were tail-bitten. Long-tailed pigs fed via double or multi-space feeders also had 3.9% of tails bitten.

Keywords: behavior, animal, bites and stings, injuries, tail, surgery, husbandry, methods, epidemiology, questionnaires, England.


Hutson, G.D.; Ambrose, T.J.; Barnett, J.L.; Tilbrook, A.J. (2000). Development of a behavioural test of sensory responsiveness in the growing pig. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66(3):187-202, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: handling, animal behaviour, animal welfare, tests, sounds, vision, stress.


Jarvis, S.; Calvert, S.K.; Stevenson, J.; vanLeeuwen, N.; Lawrence, A.B. (2002). Pituitary adrenal activation in pre-parturient pigs (Sus scrofa) is associated with behavioural restriction due to lack of space rather than nesting substrate. Animal Welfare 1(4): 371-384, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Abstract: Previous research has shown that pre-parturient primiparous pigs (gilts) housed in behaviourally restrictive farrowing crates without straw redirect their nest-building behaviour to non-manipulable substrates such as the bars of the crate. These gilts also show elevated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, particularly around the peak of nest-building activity, when compared to gilts in larger pens that have been provided with a manipulable substrate (straw). It remains unclear whether these behavioural and physiological responses to crating result from the lack of a suitable nesting substrate or from the restricted space. This study investigated the effects of space (crate [C] versus pen [P]) and straw (straw [S] versus no straw [NS]) using a 2 x 2 factorial design. Thirty-four gilts were implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter at around 12 days before parturition. They were moved to one of the four environments five days before parturition, and blood sampling and recording of behaviour were carried out during the pre-parturient period. Penned gilts (P), irrespective of straw availability, spent more time standing and walking and performed more total substrate-directed behaviour than crated (C) gilts. When straw was not available to
penned gilts, a large proportion of their substrate-directed behaviour was redirected to the floor. Space also had an effect on ACTH and cortisol levels across the entire pre-parturient phase, with C gilts having higher levels than P gilts irrespective of straw availability, but particularly so at the peak of nest-building activity. There was no effect of straw on ACTH or cortisol levels. Overall, it appears that increased space, perhaps through allowing locomotion, increases substrate-directed behaviour of pre-parturient gilts. When space is available but straw is absent, pre-parturient gilts redirect their nest-building behaviourto the floor. The ability to express substrate-directed behaviour as a result of increased space is reflected in lower levels of indicators of physiological stress.

Keywords: sow, piglets, piglets, ACTH, animal welfare, cortisol, farrowing, gilt, nest building, environmental stimuli, prepartum behavior, straw, progesterone, stress.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International.


Jarvis, S.; Vegt, B.J. van der.; Lawrence, A.B.; McLean, K.A.; Deans, L.A.; Chirnside, J.; Calvert, S.K. (2001). The effect of parity and environmental restriction on behavioural and physiological responses of pre-parturient pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71 (3): 203-216, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, sows, farrowing, farrowing pens, litter, posture, maternal behavior, nesting, behavior patterns, behavior change, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, stress response, farrowing crates, periparturient behavior, restricted nest building.


Jensen, M.B.; Pedersen, L.J.; Hansen, S.W.; Munksgaard, L.; Ladewig, J.; Matthews, L. (2001). Effects of interrupted social contact on the social behaviour of calves and piglets. Behavioural Processes 56 (1): 23-9, ISSN: 0376-6357.

Keywords: calves, piglets, operant conditioning techniques, assessment, behavioral needs, social contact, social behavior, aggression, flank pushing.


Johnson, A.K.; Morrow, J.L.; Dailey, J.W.; McGlone, J.J. (2001). Behavior of outdoor sows 72 h after parturition: Relation to piglet mortality. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 15, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: outdoor farrowing, parturition, piglet mortality, sow, posture, lying, sitting, standing, meeting abstract.


Johnson, A.K.; Morrow-Tesch, J.L.; McGlone, J.J. (2001). Behavior and performance of lactating sows and piglets reared indoors or outdoors. Journal of Animal Science 79(10): 2571-2579, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82

Abstract: Two hundred eighty-seven lactating Newsham sows and their litters were used to determine the effects of intensive indoor (n = 147) and intensive outdoor (n = 140) production systems on sow and litter productivity and behavior. All sows were of contemporary age and fed a completely balanced sorghum-based diet. Behavior data were collected by live observation on 40 sows and litters (20 indoor and 20 outdoor) using a 5-min scan sample over a 4-h period in the afternoon (1400 to 1800). The durations of lying (90.0 vs 72.1 +/- 2.76% of time observed) and drinking (4.42 vs 1.41 +/- 0.6% of time observed) were higher (P < 0.01) among indoor than among outdoor lactating sows. Nursing interval and feeding and sitting behaviors were not different (P > 0.05) between production systems. Piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time walking (10.1 vs 5.2 +/- 1.72% of time observed) and engaged in play activity (5.0 vs 1.7 +/- 1.26% of time observed) when housed outdoors than indoors. Outdoor piglets had more (P < 0.05) nursing behaviors directed toward the sow (27.5 vs 20.3 +/- 2.02% of time observed) but time spent in contact with the sow did not differ between environments (38.8 vs 39.2 +/- 2.78% of time observed). Treatments did not influence (P > 0.05) any of the sow or piglet production parameters. In conclusion, outdoor-kept Newsham sows and their piglets showed a richer behavioral repertoire, but the diverse environments did not influence production parameters.

Keywords: sows, piglets, performance, animal behavior, animal housing, intensive production, duration, nursing, growth.


Jones, R.B.; Schofield, C.P.; White, R.P.; Wathes, C.M; Kristensen, H.H. (2001). The use of olfactory and other cues for social recognition by juvenile pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72 (4): 321-333, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: young animals, social behavior, discrimination, stimuli, smell, olfactory stimulation, ammonia, animal welfare, social discrimination, social preferences.


Jong, I.C. de; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M. (1999). Mixing induces long-term hyperthermia in growing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 69(3):601-605, ISSN: 0003-3561.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: hyperthermia, body temperature, heart rate, stress, animal welfare, physiology, animal behaviour, pig housing, aggression.


Jungbluth, T.; Stubbe, A. (1999). A new technique for the ethological improvement of intensive housing systems for pigs. In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 18-21 July, 1999, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, 14 p.

Keywords: animal behavior, chains, performance, straw, pig housing, animal welfare, equipment, housing, toys.


Karman, A.G.; Jousma, E.; Wiegant, V.M.; Van der Beek, E.M. (2001). Effect of housing conditions on vasopressin (VP) expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in pigs. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27 (1): 462, ISSN: 0190-5295.

Keywords: male, castrated, pigs, housing, concrete floor versus concrete with straw, stress response, autonomic, endocrine, cortisol, saliva, vasopressin, expression, slaughter, brain removal, formalin fixed, paraventricular nucleus, immunocytochemistry, image analysis, meeting abstract.


Kasanen, S.; Algers, B. (2002). A note on the effects of additional sow gruntings on suckling behaviour in piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75(2): 93-101, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: Yorkshire-Swedish Landrace, piglets, sows, behavior, suckling, vocalization, recorded sow grunts, playback, video recordings.


Klont, R.E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Kurt, E.; Winkelman-Goedhart, H.A.; de Jong, I.C. (2001). Relationships between behavioral and meat quality characteristics of pigs raised under barren and enriched housing conditions. Journal of Animal Science 79 (11): 2835-43, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82

Abstract: In this study the effects of barren vs enriched housing conditions of pigs on their behavior during the lairage period (2-h holding period before slaughter), carcass characteristics, postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality were studied. The barren housing system was defined by common intensive housing conditions (i.e., with slatted floors and recommended space allowances), whereas the enriched environment incorporated extra space and straw for manipulation. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before transport and at the end of the lairage period. During the lairage period the percentage of time spent walking and fighting by the pigs was registered. Carcass characteristics such as weight, meat percentage, and backfat thickness were determined. At 5 min, 45 min, 4 h, and 24 h postmortem, pH, temperature, and lactate concentrations were determined in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Capillarization of the muscle, mean muscle fiber area, and color and drip loss after 2 and 5 d of storage were determined for both muscle types. Pigs from the barren environment had a significantly higher increase in cortisol from farm to slaughter, but no differences in behavior were observed during the lairage period. Carcass characteristics did not differ between pigs from barren and those from enriched housing conditions. Postmortem lactate formation was significantly lower in LL muscles of enriched pigs at 4 and 24 h postmortem. Capillary density and mean muscle fiber area did not differ between the groups of pigs. The percentage of drip loss at 2 and 5 d after storage of LL muscle samples from enriched-housed pigs was significantly lower than that of the barren-housed pigs. Similar tendencies were found for the BF muscle from pigs kept in an enriched environment, but these were not statistically significant. The housing system did not affect meat color. It is concluded that on-farm improvement of animal welfare by environmental enrichment can also lead to beneficial economic effects after slaughter by improving the water-holding capacity of pork.

Keywords: husbandry, handling, housing, meat standards, physiology, abattoirs, animal welfare, behavior, psychology, hydrocortisone, blood, hydrogen-ion concentration, lactic acid, metabolism, skeletal muscle chemistry.


Koba, Y.; Tanida, H. (1999). How do miniature pigs discriminate between people? The effect of exchanging cues between a non-handler and their familiar handler on discrimination. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61(3):239-252, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: animal welfare, animal behaviour, perception, vision, colour, smell, odors, senses.


Larsen, V.A.; Kongsted, A.G. (2001). Outdoor pig production: production, feeding, reflections on grass cover. [Frilandssohold: produktion, foderforbrug, udsaetningsarsager og graesdaekke.] DJF Rapport, Husdyrbrug (No.30), Danmarks JordbrugsForskning: Tjele, Denmark, 46p., ISSN: 1397-9892.

Abstract: In 1996, the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences initiated the project “Outdoor pig production.” The project included identification and evaluation of different outdoor production systems on pig farms in Denmark and the implications for animal health and welfare, as well as environmental impact. In addition, the project focused on specific subjects such as piglet mortality, maintenance of pasture, feed consumption and requirements, nutrient balances, reproduction and management of the production in a broad sense. This report is based on the production results obtained in the 3rd year (1999), and also describes feed intake, health and culling of sows, and the level of grass cover. The production systems included single and group farrowing paddocks, dynamic and stable groups, natural service and artificial insemination, as well as outdoor and indoor facilities for serving and gestation. Arable land varied from 56 to 100 ha, and herd size varied from 117 to 391 sows. Three farms kept some weaned pigs for finishing. Production results varied considerably (8.3-10.3 weaned piglets/litter), and so did feed consumption (1542-1800 SFU/sow/year). Differences in production systems, stocking rates, and production levels resulted in significant variation in the nutrient surplus for nitrogen (114-306 kg N/ha) and phosphorus (9-60 kg P/ha). Outdoor piglet production required special attention with regard to feeding and grass maintenance in order to obtain an acceptable level of environmental pollution. During periods with unfavourable climatic conditions for grass growth, a higher level of grass cover can be maintained by increasing the area available per sow or moving sows to well-established pasture. Experiences with different grass mixtures indicated that a mixture of miniturf and white clover (Trifolium repens) was very suitable, providing a low dense cover. Feed intake was on average 20% higher than theoretical requirements of sows. Possible explanations include the waste of or the fact that feeds are supplied to groups of animals. It is important to consider the requirements of nutrients/energy unit to limit feed costs and environmental impact. In addition, the potential development of individual feeding systems should be considered. 31 ref.

Keywords: health, housing, production, animal welfare, environmental impact, feed intake, grassland management, grasslands, nutrient requirements, pastures, pig farming, feeding, piglet feeding, production costs, sows, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, Denmark, Danish language.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Maletinska, J.; Spinka, M. (2001). Cross-suckling and nursing synchronisation in group housed lactating sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75(1): 17-32., ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: sows, pig housing, group size, suckling, synchronization, litter size, age differences, lactation number, lactation stage, sow lactation, fostering, piglets.


Maletinska, J.; Spinka, M. (2001). Occurrence of allosucking in group housed lactating sows. Advances in Ethology (36): 210, ISSN: 0931-4202.

NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B.

Keywords: behavior, allosucking, lactation, litter age, litter size, nursing synchronization, meeting abstract.


Marchant, J.N.; Broom, D.M.; Corning, S. (2001). The influence of sow behaviour on piglet mortality due to crushing in an open farrowing system. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research. 72 (1): 19-28, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to establish what changes in posture by sows carried a high risk of piglet crushing in a group farrowing system during early lactation and also to determine what factors influenced the risk of crushing during lying down. A total of 24 Large White X Landrace sows were studied during the first 7 days of lactation in a group farrowing system. Cross-fostering was not carried out so as not to influence behaviour. Dead piglets were removed and cause of death ascertained from external observation and post-mortem examination. Sow and piglet behaviour was video-recorded continuously. A total of 268 piglets were born alive, with 67 liveborn piglets subsequently dying during the 7-day experimental period, 50 as a result of crushing. A total of 7425 posture changes were analysed and 11 types of posture change were identified, the most dangerous being lying down from standing and those involving swapping sides, or rolling over, whilst lying. Dangerous events during lying down were more likely to occur (1) in the first 24 h after farrowing, (2) when the sow lay down in the middle of the pen, (3) when the sow lay down without carrying out much piglet-directed pre-lying behaviour and (4) when the piglets were spread out but near to the sow. The amount of pre-lying behaviour decreased over time and crushing mortality also decreased. The results confirm that the piglets are most vulnerable to crushing during the first 24 h of life, when they are spending much of their time near the udder and have relatively poor mobility. Co-ordination of behaviour between the sow and her litter is important to reduce the risk of crushing. It is also important that the design of open farrowing systems incorporates knowledge about how crushing deaths occur in order to improve piglet welfare.

Keywords: sows, maternal behavior, posture, behavior patterns, perinatal mortality, age differences, puerperium, farrowing houses, farrowing pens, piglets.


Marchant, F.J.N. (2002). Piglet and stockperson directed sow aggression after farrowing and the relationship with a pre farrowing, human approach test. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (2): 115-132, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, sow, piglets, stockperson, aggression by sow, savaging, farrowing, conventional versus open system, human approach test, touching of snout, familiar, unfamiliar, heart rate, social rank, lactation, litter size, mortality, growth rate, survival.


Marchant, J.N.; Whittaker, X.; Broom, D.M. (2001). Vocalisations of the adult female domestic pig during a standard human approach test and their relationships with behavioural and heart rate measures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science.72 (1): 23-39, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, vocalization, animal behavior, locomotion, heart rate, interactions, human animal interactions


McGlone, J.J.; Fullwood, S.D. (2001). Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment. Journal of Animal Science 79 (6): 1466-1474, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts’ behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts’ immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune measures did not indicate that any treatments resulted in physiological effects indicative of stress.

Keywords: gilts, pregnancy, animal behavior, sexual reproduction, fiber, digesta, litters, feed rations, feeds, feed intake, duration, stress, animal welfare.


Meers, L.; Chedad, A.; Odberg, F.O.; Berckmans, D. (2001). The effect of a new foraging device on food related aggression in fattening pigs. Advances in Ethology (36): 216, ISSN: 0931-4202.

NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B.

Keywords: fattening pigs, behavior, foraging device, equipment, food related aggression, spatial distribution, meeting abstract.


Mendl, M.; Young, S.; Lawrence, A.B. (2001). A note on the effect of handling quality prior to mixing on behaviour at mixing in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71 (1): 81-86, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: animal behavior, aggressive behavior, handling, social behavior, social interaction, arousal, familiarity.


Meunier-Salaun, M.C. (2001). Fibre in diets of sows. In: Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition No.3, Garnsworthy, P.C.; Wiseman, J.(Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.323-339, ISBN: 1-897676-44-1.

Keywords: sows, behavior, feeding behavior, stereotypic, operant conditioning, motivation, diets, fiber, performance, physiological functions, reviews.


Meunier-Salaun, M.C. Edwards, S.A.; Robert, S. (2001). Effect of dietary fibre on the behaviour and health of the restricted fed sow. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (1/2): 53-69, ISSN: 0377-8401.

NAL Call No.: SF95.A55.

Keywords: sows, food restriction, feed rations, fiber, animal behavior, health, nutritional state, pregnancy, performance, hunger, aggressive behavior, feeding, energy intake, nutrient intake, glucose, insulin, volatile fatty acids, fermentation, stress, animal welfare, literature reviews.


Moinard, C.; Mendl, M.; Nicol, C.J.; Green, L.E. (2003). A case control study of on-farm risk factors for tail biting in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(4): 333-355, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: pig production, growing/finishing pigs, epidemiology, behavior, tail biting, tail docking, effects, welfare, stocking density, post-weaning mortality, England.


Morgan, C.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Chirnside, J.; Deans, L.A. (2001). Can information about solid food be transmitted from one piglet to another? Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (3): 471-478, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: When weaned early, piglets commonly take some time to accept solid food, resulting in a growth check and reduced welfare. The transmission of information about food between animals has been demonstrated in other species and it would be advantageous if this occurred in piglets. This experiment investigated the effects of pairing piglets that were consuming solid food with newly weaned piglets. Six litters of piglets did not receive solid food until weaning. In each litter four piglets (3 plus 1 spare) were weaned at 21 days of age and housed together for 7 days and offered one of two foods (3 litters per food). At 28 days of age the remaining piglets were weaned and four pairs of piglets were formed, such that there were three experienced animals paired with three inexperienced observers, each pair having visual contact and varying degrees of physical contact (1: none, 2: through wire mesh, 3: housed together), and a pair of inexperienced piglets (4: housed together) to act as controls. Food intake and weight gain were recorded over a period of 7 days. There was no effect of food type on food intake or live-weight gain of the pairs but the inexperienced pigs had higher gains on food 1 than food 2. The inexperienced pairs ate less food than the other pairs and the experienced/observer pairs that were housed together had the greatest weight gain. The level of variation between piglets was such that there were no significant effects of pairing treatment on the weight gain of the inexperienced animals. Total time spent feeding increased with time from pair formation. The number of simultaneous feeding events was higher for the experienced/observer pairs housed together than for the inexperienced pairs. This experiment has indicated that food intake is stimulated when an inexperienced piglet is housed with an experienced piglet and, with further work, this could be exploited to alleviate the weaning check. 16 ref.

Keywords: piglets, feeding, pair feeding, feed intake, food type, liveweight gain.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Morgan, C.A.; Nielsen, B.L.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mendl, M.T.(1999). Describing the social environment and its effects on food intake and growth. In: A Quantitative Biology of the Pig I. Kyriazakis (ed.), CAB International Wallingford, UK, ISBN: 0-85199-273-0, pp. 99-125.

NAL Call No.: IPM990717336.

Keywords: reviews, animal welfare, feeding behavior, group effect, stress, performance, growth, feed intake, environmental factors, pig feeding, housing.


O’Connell, N.E.; Beattie, V.E.; Weatherup, R.N. (2002). Influence of feeder type on the performance and behaviour of weaned pigs. Livestock Production Science 74(1): 13-17, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: pigs, weaning, performance, animal behavior, feed dispensers, water, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, growth rate, aggressive behavior, welfare.


O’Connell, N.E; Beattie, V.E. (1999). Influence of environmental enrichment on aggressive behaviour and dominance relationships in growing pigs. Animal Welfare 8(3): 269-279, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, animal behavior, dominance, environment, aggression, pig housing, suckling, body weight, social behaviour, animal welfare, age differences, husbandry.


Olsen, A.W.; Simonsen, H.B.; Dybkjaer, L. (2002). Effect of access to roughage and shelter on selected behavioural indicators of welfare in pigs housed in a complex environment. Animal Welfare 11(1): 75-87, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of roughage and shelter on certain welfare indicators in growing pigs that have access to ample straw and space. The effects of the two treatments were evaluated both by recording the pigs’ use of the various areas of the pen and by measuring the frequency of two specific behaviours, “aggression” and “play” that are considered to be significant indicators of welfare in pigs. Seven replicates were used, each involving 96 pigs. The pigs were randomly allocated to eight experimental pens at 10 weeks of age and were observed from 13 to 22 weeks of age. The two treatments, roughage and shelter, were distributed according to a 2x2 design in the pigs’ outdoor runs, four of which were located on each side of the barn (north side versus south side). The pigs spent most of their time in the straw- provided areas and the frequency of their aggressive behaviour was also the highest in these areas, suggesting that these locations were the most attractive to the pigs. The pigs with access to roughage showed a lower frequency of aggression (P<0.05) and spent more time in the outdoor area where the roughage was placed than those pigs with no access to roughage (P<0.05). No other effects of treatment were found on the length of time spent in the different pen locations. Play frequency decreased with age (P<0.05) and with increasing temperature (P<0.01). Moreover, when housed on the south side of the building, the pigs with access to shelter played more than those without (2.0 versus 1.0 events per hour (E=0.3); P<0.05); this suggests that the opportunity to regulate the body temperature by use of shade results in improved welfare. In conclusion, the pigs' behaviour indicated that their welfare was improved by free access to roughage and shelter.

Keywords: growing pigs, age differences, aggression, behavior, play, animal welfare, environmental temperature, physical activity, housing, roughage, straw, shelters.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Olsen, A.W. (2001). Behaviour of growing pigs kept in pens with outdoor runs. I. Effect of access to roughage and shelter on oral activities. Livestock Production Science 69 (3): 255-264, ISSN: 0301-6226,

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: behavior, pig housing, straw, shelter, aggressive behavior, roughage, silage, lesions, animal welfare.


Olsen, A.W.; Dybkjaer, L.; Simonsen, H.B. (2001). Behaviour of growing pigs kept in pens with outdoor runs. II. Temperature regulatory behaviour, comfort behaviour and dunging preferences. Livestock Production Science 69 (3): 265-278, ISSN: 0301-6226,

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: housing, animal behavior, body temperature, thermoregulation, shelter, excretion, orientation, roughage, duration, air temperature.


Olsson, I.A.S.; de Jonge, F.H.; Schuurman, T.; Helmond, F.A. (1999). Poor rearing conditions and social stress in pigs: repeated social challenge and the effect on behavioural and physiological responses to stressors. Behavioural Processes 46(3):201-215, ISSN: 0376-6357.

NAL Call No.: QL750 B4.

Keywords: stress, aggressive behavior, dominance, piglets, sows, aggression, pig housing, animal welfare.


Orgeur, P.; Hay, M.; Mormede, P.; Salmon, H.; Le Dividich, J.; Nowak, R.; Schaal, B.; Levy, F. (2001). Behavioural, growth and immune consequences of early weaning in one week old Large-White piglets. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 41 (4): 321-32, ISSN: 0926-5287.

NAL Call No.: QL1 R35

Abstract: Genetic improvement in sows’ prolificity is limited by their milk capacities, which do not allow all piglets to survive or grow normally. This experiment compared the behaviour, growth and immune responses of piglets that were weaned early at 6 days of age (EW) vs. control Large White piglets’ (C) suckled by their mothers. Behaviour of 9 litters of 5 to 8 piglets in each group were observed from d5 to d20. All piglets were weighed from birth to d74. Three piglets from each group were slaughtered on d36 for immunological analysis. Until they began to eat dry food, EW piglets walked and vocalised more than C piglets. After that time, when resting, they were less often lying down and more frequently in contact with littermates under the heater. Aggressive behaviour and belly-nosing were more frequent. They displayed a more marked growth check after weaning than did C piglets until 28 days of age. In EW piglets, at 36 days of age, there was a higher density of T- and B-lymphocytes in the gut epithelium and lamina propria, fespectively, in relation to the size of lymphoid follicles of Peyer's patches. The results indicate great behavioural adaptation capacities of very early-weaned piglets, together with earlier maturation of their gut immune system.

Keywords: physiology, aging, drinking behavior, feeding behavior, intestinal mucosa, immunology, growth and development, weaning, adaptation, newborn, growth and development, suckling, b-lymphocytes, t-lymphocytes, body weight, litter size, motor activity.


Otten, W.; Kanitz, E.; Tuchscherer, M. (2001). Prenatal stress in pigs: effects on growth, physiological stress reactions and immune function. Archiv fur Tierzucht 43 (Special): 159-164, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23.

Abstract: The effects of a daily restraint of sows during the last third of pregnancy on endocrine stress reactions, immune responses and growth of offspring were examined. Stress and immune reactions of piglets were tested using an immobilization and ACTH test at 3, 7, 21 and 35 days of age. Lower basal plasma cortisol and increased basal cortisol binding globulin concentrations at 3 days of age were found in piglets exposed to prenatal stress compared with the control piglets. Prenatal stress caused a decrease in the number of glucocorticoid receptors in the hypothalamus, enlargement of adrenal cortex and reduction in thymus weight one day after birth. Prenatal stress also suppressed immune functions on day 1 of life as shown by lower IgG levels and decreased in vitro lymphocyte response to T and B cell mitogens. In addition, piglets that were exposed to prenatal stress had a higher mortality after birth and a tendency for lower birth weights. Morphological, endocrine and immune effects of prenatal stress were observed only on the first days after birth. It is suggested that prenatal stress during late pregnancy in pigs affects the ontogeny of fetal neuroendocrine system via increased maternal stress hormone concentrations.

Keywords: piglets, fetal development, growth, immune response, mortality, pregnancy, stress.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Pageat, P. (2001). Pig appeasing pheromones to decrease stress, anxiety and aggressiveness. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1242 (1): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098-1133.

NAL Call No.: T223 A21.

Keywords: patents, mammary gland secretions, fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, reduction in stress, anxiety, aggressiveness.


Pajor, E.A.; Weary, D.M., Fraser, D., Kramer D.L. (1999). Alternative housing for sows and litters. 1. Effects of sow-controlled housing on responses to weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(2):105-121, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: sows, piglets, weaning, pig housing, piglet feeding, floor pens, animal behavior, vocalization, responses, weight losses, bites, liveweight gain, feed intake, litter weight, temperament, maternal behavior, animal welfare.


Puppe, B. (1996). Social dominance and rank relationships in domestic pigs: a critical review. [Soziale Dominanz- und Rangbeziehungen beim Hausschwein: eine kritische Ubersicht.] Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift 109 (11-12): 457-64, ISSN: 0005-9366.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45.

Abstract: Viewing dominance as an attribute of repeated agonistic interactions between two individuals, the present paper reviews theoretical approaches towards concepts of dominance, methods of measurement, and basic principles and problems connected with social dominance in domestic pigs. Domestic pigs are able to establish social organization structures during all stages of their ontogeny. According to definition, dominance relationships occur when a consistent asymmetry of the result of dyadic agonistic interactions can be assessed. This must not necessarily be connected immediately with a better availability of resources, or a high stability of existing dominance relationships, or a functional definition of dominance. When sociometric characteristics are calculated, it seems to be appropriate to use them for different levels of a biological system (individual, individual pair, group). Investigations of social behaviour and dominance in farm animals should take into account that mechanisms of social behaviour in confined environments are often carried out in parts only. Connections of the dominance concept with other concepts of behavioural regulation should be theoretically considered and further investigated by experimental studies. (91 Refs.).

Keywords: social behavior, social dominance, psychology.


Putten, G. van. (2000). An ethological definition of animal welfare with special emphasis on pig behaviour. In: Diversity of Livestock Systems and Definition of Animal Welfare, Proceedings of the Second NAHWOA Workshop, Cordoba, Spain, 8-11 January 2000, Hovi, M.; Garcia Trujillo, R. (Eds.), University of Reading Library (RUL): Reading, UK, pp.120-134, ISBN: 0-7049-1092-6. Available online at http://www.veeru.reading.ac.uk/organic/proceedings.htm

Keywords: animal welfare, organic farming, animal behavior, disease prevention.


Ramonet, Y.; Meunier-Salaun M.C.; Dourmad J.Y. (1999). High-fiber diets in pregnant sows: digestive utilization and effects on the behavior of the animals. Journal of Animal Science 77(3):591-599, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: fiber, pregnancy, sows, crude fiber, energy intake, mastication, behavior, appetite, feeding behavior, animal welfare.


Rand, J.S.; Noonan, G.J.; Priest, J.; Ainscow, J.; Blackshaw, J.K. (2002). Oral administration of a 12% sucrose solution did not decrease behavioural indicators of distress in piglets undergoing tail docking, teeth clipping and ear notching. Animal Welfare 11(4):395-404, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: breed, Large White x Landrace, newborn, piglets, analgesia, animal welfare, sucrose, tail docking, teeth clipping, pain, human infants, distress, management procedures.


Rizvi, S.; Nicol, C.J.; Green, L.E. (2000). A descriptive survey of the range of injuries sustained and farmers’ attitudes to vulva biting in breeding sows in south-west England. Animal Welfare 9(3): 273-280, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: sows, vices, pig farmers, farm surveys, farmers’ attitudes, bites, vulva, incidence, dry period, aggressive behavior, floor pens, competition for food.


Robert, S.; Bergeron, R.; Farmer, C.; Meunier-Salaun, M.C. (2002). Does the number of daily meals affect feeding motivation and behaviour of gilts fed high-fibre diets? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (2): 105-117, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, feeding behavior, motivation, operant conditioning tests, pushing a button, food reward, stereotypy, vacuum chewing, chain manipulation, nutrition, diets, feed intake, feeding frequency, number of meals, fiber.


Robert, S.; Martineau, G.P. (2001). Effects of repeated cross-fosterings on preweaning behavior and growth performance of piglets and on maternal behavior of sows. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 88-93, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: piglets, fostering, fighting, sows, skin lesions, maternal behavior, litter size, sucking, body weight, stress, animal welfare.


Rousing, T.; Bonde, M.; Sorensen, J.T. (2001). Aggregating welfare indicators into an operational welfare assessment system: A bottom up approach. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science (Supplementum 30): 53-57, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Keywords: sows, pregnant, animal welfare, assessment, definition, indicators, protocol, decision support, human animal relationships, loose housing.


Ruis, M.A.W.; Brake, J.H.A. te; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M. (2002). Implications of coping characteristics and social status for welfare and production of paired growing gilts. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (3): 207-231, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: This paper considers the question whether knowledge on individual coping characteristics of growing pigs may be used to improve welfare and production after mixing. Gilts with either reactive or proactive coping characteristics were identified according to behavioural resistance in a backtest, respectively, being low (LR) and high resistant (HR) in this test. At 7 weeks of age, several pairs of unfamiliar gilts were formed, and pairs and dominance relationships were studied over a 3-week period. The following pairs (combinations) were established: two LR gilts (LR/LR; n=12), two HR gilts (HR/HR; n=12), one LR and one HR gilt (LR gilt dominant: LR(d)/HR; n=11), and one LR and one HR gilt (HR gilt dominant: LR/HR(d); n=12). Results showed that on the day of mixing, aggression subsided less quickly and increases in body temperature were higher in LR/HR(d) and HR/HR pairs. Also, during the first week post-mixing, feed efficiency was lower and skin damage was higher in LR/HR(d) and HR/HR pairs. Mixing of two HR gilts caused highest levels of stress, indicated by greater catecholamine concentrations in urine following the day of mixing, and higher baseline levels of plasma ACTH at 1 week post-mixing. The lower tendency of gilts within HR/HR pairs to contact a novel object may present higher fearfulness. In contrast to those of LR/HR(d) pairs, responses of LR(d)/HR pairs revealed much lower levels of stress, which emphasized the importance of dominance relationships, being independent of coping characteristics of individual gilts. We speculate that in LR/HR pairs, dominant LR gilts were able to suppress aggressiveness of HR subordinates. HR or proactive gilts, however, may become aggressive when being dominant. General effects of social status, independent of combination, were also found. Compared to dominants, subordinates showed higher acute cortisol, body temperature and vocal responses to mixing. In the longer term, they showed a higher vocal and parasympathetic responsitivity towards the novel object, and their body growth was impaired. Measures not influenced by combination and social status included those of leukocyte subsets, prolactin, and average heart rates during novelty tests. To conclude, aggressive conditions in newly formed groups, and consequently welfare and production, may largely depend on coping characteristics of individual pigs, but also on dominance relationships. Accordingly, the practical value of the backtest is being discussed.

Keywords: gilts, animal welfare, feed conversion efficiency, group behavior, social status, mixing, aggression, dominants, subordinates, stress, stress response.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Ruis, M.A.; Brake, J.H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M. (2001). Adaptation to social isolation. Acute and long-term stress responses of growing gilts with different coping characteristics. Physiology and Behavior 73 (4): 541-51, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: The present experiment studied the acute and long term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low (LR) and high resistant (HR) in this test. At 7 weeks of age, 12 gilts of each type were socially isolated. Initially, isolation was stressful for both types of gilts, as shown by increased cortisol concentrations and decreased body temperatures. Moreover, both types reacted with increases in exploration and vocalizations. Stress responses to isolation, however, differed in magnitude and/or duration between LR and HR gilts, which was in line with expected reaction patterns on the basis of preferred ways of coping. The cortisol response to isolation was higher in LR gilts, and they generally showed more explorative behavior. HR gilts seemed to be more engaged in walking/running behavior in the first hour after isolation, they generally vocalized more and their noradrenaline excretion in urine was higher at 3 weeks after the start of isolation. Several responses to isolation in the longer term pointed to a prolonged higher general state of stress of HR gilts. Body temperature in HR gilts, for instance, did not recover during 3 weeks of isolation, but values returned to “normal” within 1 day in LR gilts. At 1 week of isolation, relatively high parasympathetic responsivity to novelty was observed in HR gilts, probably due to stress-related high sympathetic reactivity. A shift in percentages of leucocyte subsets, typically occurring under conditions of stress, only developed in HR gilts during isolation. Finally, gastric ulceration was found in one HR gilt, but did not occur in LR gilts. To conclude, LR and HR gilts differed in their strategies to adapt to social isolation, and especially for HR gilts, this procedure seemed to become a chronic stressor.

Keywords: adaptation, psychological physiology, social isolation, stress, acute disease, body temperature, chronic disease, fear, heart rate, hormones, blood, hydrocortisone, hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, organ weight, pituitary-adrenal system, stomach ulcer, pathology.


Ruis, M.A.W.; Groot, J. de., Brake, J.H.A. te.; Ekkel, E.D.; Burgwal, J.A. van de.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M. (2001). Behavioural and physiological consequences of acute social defeat in growing gilts: effects of the social environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (3): 201-225, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, animal behavior, social interaction, stress, social environment, pig housing, isolation, stress response, hydrocortisone, corticotropin, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, blood plasma, saliva, leukocyte count, granulocytes, heart rate, growth, social stress, social isolation, litter-mate pair housing, social support, habituation.


Schon, P.C.; Puppe, B.; Manteuffel, G. (2001). Classification of stress calls of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) using LPC- analysis and a self organizing neuronal network. Archiv fur Tierzucht 43 (Special): 177-183, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23.

Abstract: A procedure for characterization, classification and visualization of stress calls in domestic pigs is described. Starting from the acoustic model of sound production features were extracted from calls using the linear prediction method. This procedure, linear prediction coding (LPC), delivered an extremely compact short time representation of the call with a relatively low effort of calculation and a low number of features. A neuronal network was trained so that topological relations of the neurons represented the input vector space of the determined LPC-coefficients. This resulted in a feature map, where the positions of neurons allowed conclusions about the structure of input data. Visualizations of the clustering structure of calls were performed using various types of representations. It is concluded that this procedure allows the development of online monitoring stress calls in farm environments.

Keywords: monitoring, farm environment, stress calls, linear prediction coding, neuronal network.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Schonreiter, S.; Zanella, A.J. (2001). Assessment of cortisol in swine by saliva: new methodological approaches. Archiv fur Tierzucht 43 (Special): 165-170, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23.

Abstract: The common method of saliva sampling with cotton buds was compared with a new Oral Diffusion Sink (ODS) method. ODS method allowed continuous measuring without any manipulation of animals. Steroids from saliva were accumulated for 8 h with a defined flow rate through the ODS. After alcohol extraction all samples were analysed using a radioimmunoassay. Daily profile of cortisol concentration, as well as the effects of 2 stressors, social isolation and a 2-h transportation, were assessed in 10 German Landrace pigs. The concentration of cortisol in cotton buds was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. During social isolation, significantly higher cortisol concentrations and disintegration of the circadian rhythm were observed in cotton buds, but not in ODS. Highest cortisol concentrations were found during transportation 60 min after loading (18.9 plus or minus 3.9 nmol/litre). It is suggested that the ODS may be suitable for continuous monitoring of acute stress.

Keywords: German Landrace, breed, diagnostic techniques, hydrocortisone, saliva, sampling, stress, transportation, social isolation.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Schulze, V.; Roehe, R.; Looft, H.; Kalm, E. (2001). Effects of continuous and periodic feeding by electronic feeders on accuracy of measuring feed intake information and their genetic association with growth performances. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 118 (6): 403-416, ISSN: 0931-2668.

NAL Call No.: 442.8 Z35.

Keywords: electronic feeding stations, equipment, continuous feeding regime, periodic feeding regime, growth rate, backfat thickness, feed intake, estimation accuracy, measurement accuracy, feed intake behavior, feeder visits per day, time per day, time per visit.


Sneddon, I.A.; Beattie, V.E.; Dunne, L.; Neil, W. (2000). The effect of environmental enrichment on learning in pigs. Animal Welfare 9 (4): 373-383, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: pigs, learning ability, enrichment, housing, litter, straw, peat, stimuli responses, test rigs, animal welfare.


Spinka, M.; Stehulova, I.; Zacharova, J.; Illmann, G. (2001). Repeatability and laterality in pig maternal behaviour. Advances in Ethology (36): 266, ISSN: 0931-4202.

NAL Call No.: 410 Z35B.

Keywords: sows, piglets, distress calls, growth rate, lactation, laterality, maternal behavior, nursing behavior, nursing frequency, meeting abstract.


Straw, B.E.; Bartlett, P.; Perry, IA (2001). Flank or belly nosing in weaned pigs. Journal of Swine Health and Production 9 (1): 19-23. Available online at http://www.aasv.org/shap.html

NAL Call No.: SF971.N472.

Keywords: growth rate, animal behavior, behavior disorders, belly, body regions, sex differences, skin lesions, weaning weight, liveweight gain, nosing behavior.


Studnitz, M.; Jensen, K.H. (2002). Expression of rooting motivation in gilts following different lengths of deprivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (3): 203-213, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: Landrace x Yorkshire, breed, female, gilt, behavior, video recording, nose ring, rooting, animal welfare, concrete floor, peat covered floor, rooting, deprivation, duration, motivation, expression.


Sustr, P.; Spinka, M; Cloutier, S; Newberry, R.C. (2001). Computer-aided method for calculating animal configurations during social interactions from two-dimensional coordinates of color-marked body parts. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 33 (3): 364-70, ISSN: 0743-3808.

Abstract: In an experiment investigating the impact of preweaning social experience on later social behavior in pigs, we were interested in the mutual spatial positions of pigs during paired social interactions. To obtain these data, we applied a different colored mark to the head and back of each of 2 pigs per group and videotaped the pigs’ interactions. We used the EthoVision tracking system to provide x,y coordinates of the four colored marks every 0.2 sec. This paper describes the structure and functioning of a FoxPro program designed to clean the raw data and use it to identify the mutual body positions of the 2 animals at 0.2-sec intervals. Cleaning the data was achieved by identifying invalid data points and replacing them by interpolations. An algorithm was then applied to extract three variables from the coordinates: (1) whether the two pigs were in body contact; (2) the mutual orientation (parallel, antiparallel, or perpendicular) of the two pigs; and (3) whether the pig in the "active" position made snout contact in front of, or behind, the ear base of the other pig. Using these variables, we were able to identify five interaction types: Pig A attacks, Pig B attacks, undecided head-to-head position, "clinch" resting position, or no contact. To assess the reliability of the automatic system, a randomly chosen 5-min videotaped interaction was scored for mutual positions both visually (by 2 independent observers) and automatically. Good agreement was found between the data from the 2 observers and between each observer’s data and the data from the automated system, as assessed using Cohen’s kappa coefficients.

Keywords: behavior, computing methodologies, observation methods, social behavior, spatial behavior, observer variation, reproducibility of results, software, videotape recording.


Taylor, A.A.; Weary, D.M.; Lessard, M.; Braithwaite, L. (2001). Behavioural responses of piglets to castration: the effect of piglet age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73 (1): 35-43, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: piglets, castration, age, animal behavior, vocalization, pain, suckling, age differences, animal welfare, Netherlands.


Torrey, S.; Pajor, E.; Weaver, S.; Kuhlers, D.; Stewart, T. (2001). Effect of genetic selection for loin-eye area on belly-nosing and plasma cortisol in weanling Landrace pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 14-15, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: weanling pigs, Landrace, breed, plasma, cortisol, serotonin, gamma-coat-radioimmunoassay, detection method, farrowing date, genetic selection, belly-nosing, loin-eye area, handling, stress, lean growth, meeting abstract.


Turner, S.P., Edwards, S.A.; Bland, V.C. (June 1999). The influence of drinker allocation and group size on the drinking behaviour, welfare and production of growing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 68(4):617-624, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Keywords: pigs, nipple drinkers, ratios, drinking, water intake, aggressive behavior, group size, lesions, liveweight gain, diurnal variation, feed intake, feed conversion, animal welfare.


Turner, S.P.; Horgan, G.W.; Edwards, S.A. (2001). Effect of social group size on aggressive behaviour between unacquainted domestic pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74 (3): 203-215, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: pigs, aggressive behavior, social behavior, discrimination, group size, group effect, animal recognition.


Valros, A.E.; Rundgren, M.; Spinka, M.; Saloniemi, H.; Rydhmer, L.; Algers, B. (2002). Nursing behaviour of sows during 5 weeks lactation and effects on piglet growth. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 ( 2 ): 93-104, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: sows, piglets, Yorkshire, breed, behavior, growth, lactation, litter performance, live weight gain, maternal behavior, repeatability, suckling, successful nursings.


Van Erp, V.K.; Kuijpers, A.H.; Van Eerdenburg, F.J.; Tielen, M.J. (2001). A note on the influence of starting position, time of testing and test order on the backtest in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73 (4): 263-266, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: piglet, sow, behavior, coping behavior, stress, immune response.


Weary, D.M.; Pajor, E.A.; Bonenfant, M.; Ross, S.K.; Fraser, D.; Kramer, D.L. (1999). Alternative housing for sows and litters. 2. Effects of a communal piglet area on pre- and post-weaning behaviour and performance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(2):123-135, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: sows, piglets, housing, farrowing pens, floor pens, weaning, aggressive behavior, sow lactation, feeding frequency, suckling, creeps, creep feeding, liveweight gain, animal welfare, feed intake, animal behavior.


Weary, D.M.; Appleby, M.C.; Fraser, D. (1999). Responses of piglets to early separation from the sow. Applied Animal B ehaviour Science 63(4):289-300, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: piglets, sows, behavior, diets, age, age at weaning, separation, animal welfare.


Wechsler, B.; Frohlich, E.; Oester, H.; Oswald, T.; Troxler, J.; Weber, R.; Schmid, H. (1997). The contribution of applied ethology in judging animal welfare in farm animal housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53 (1/2): 33-43, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: pigs, cattle, poultry, farm animal housing systems, Swiss animal welfare legislation, veterinary, physiological and behavioural tests, animal welfare problems, housing systems, group cages for laying hens, electric cow- trainers, farrowing crates for sows, alternative housing systems, Switzerland.


Wemelsfelder, F.; Hunter, T.E.; Mendl, M.T.; Lawrence, A.B. (2001). Assessing the “whole animal”: A free choice profiling approach. Animal Behaviour 62 (2): 209-220, ISSN: 0003-3472.

Keywords: animal behavior, assessment, interaction with the environment, use of terms, animal personality, temperament, anthropomorphism, animal welfare, qualitative behaviour assessment, behavioral expression, animal welfare, inter and intraobserver reliability, testing.


Wemelsfelder, F. (2001). Qualitative welfare assessment: reading the behavioural expressions of pigs. In: Human-animal relationship: stockmanship and housing in organic livestock systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont-Ferrand, France, October 21-24, 2000, Hovi, M.; Bouilhol, M. (Eds.), Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, pp.16-22, ISBN: 0-7049-1094-2.

Keywords: behavior, animal welfare, organic farming, stockmen.


Whittaker, X.; Edwards, S.A.; Spoolder H.A.M.; Lawrence, A.B.;Corning, S. (1999). Effects of straw bedding and high fibre diets on the behaviour of floor fed group-housed sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63(1):25-39, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: behaviour, aggression, pens, feeds, litter, housing, management, feeding, social behavior, fiber, straw, sows, molasses, beet pulp, housing, animal welfare.


Whittemoore, C.T. (1998). Pig behaviour and welfare. In: The Science and Practice of Pig Production, Blackwell Science: Oxford; Malden, Mass, 2nd ed., pp.131-166, ISBN: 0-632-05086-1.

NAL Call No.: SF395 W48 1998.

Keywords: welfare, behavior, codes of practice, self-choice feeding, reproductive behavior, mating, parturition, nest building, nursing behavior, aggressive behavior, mixing, housing designs, feeding stations, locomotion, ingestion, elimination, injury, fighting, stress, pale soft exudative (PSE) meat, stereotypic behaviors, transportation, review.


Worobec, E.K.; Duncan, I.J.H.; Widowski, T.M. (1999). The effects of weaning at 7, 14, and 28 days on piglet behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2/3):173-182, ISSN:0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: animal welfare, behavior, piglets, weaning, age differences, husbandry, animal production, abnormal behaviour, aggressive behavior.


Xin, H. (1999). Assessing swine thermal comfort by image analysis of postural behaviors. Journal of Animal Science 77(Suppl. 2):1-9, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: image analysis, imagery, image processing, heat stress, animal behavior, cold stress, heat adaptation, animal welfare, physiology, posture.

 


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