Feeding


Almeida, F.R.; Mao, J.; Novak, S.; Cosgrove, J.R.; Foxcroft, G.R. (2001). Effects of different patterns of feed restriction and insulin treatment during the luteal phase on reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine parameters in cyclic gilts. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 200-212, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: gilts, litter mates, nutrition, reproduction, oocyte, follicle stimulating hormone, insulin like growth factor I, estradiol, insulin, hormone drug, leptin, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, triiodothyronine [T3], feed restriction, transcutaneous ultrasonography, estrus cycle, fertility, ovulation.


Andersen, I.L.; Boe K.E; Kristiansen, A.L. (1999). The influence of different feeding arrangements and food type on competition at feeding in pregnant sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(2):91-104, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: feeding, sows, aggression, bites, animal behaviour, animal welfare, animal experiments, animal housing, feed intake, dry feeding, dry feeds, wet feeding.


Anderson, B.K.; Augspurger, N.R.; Ellis, M.; Nuzback, D.E. (2001). Effect of iron supplementation and dietary iron source and level on bioavailability of iron in weanling pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 455, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: piglet, weaning, blood, hemoglobin, iron, bioavailability, dietary source, effect, supplement, meeting abstract.


Aumaitre, A.L.; Fernandez, J.A.; Wiseman, J. (2001). Special issue: The role of dietary fibre in pig production. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (1/2): 1-115, ISSN: 0377-8401.

NAL Call No.: SF95 A55.

Keywords: sows, amino acids, carcass composition, carcass quality, chemical composition, energy value, feeding behavior, feeds, nitrogen balance, nutrition physiology, feeding, pregnancy, production, protein digestibility, reproductive performance, ileal digestibility.


Austin, J.L.; Southern L.L. (2001). Swine Nutrition, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida,1009 p., ISBN: 0849306965.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 S95 2001.

Keywords: piglets, gilts, sows, boars, nutritional requirements, development, growth, genetics, feed additives, reproductive efficiency, environmental impacts, gastrointestinal tract, nutrient metabolism, feed types.


Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Hontecillsa-Magarzo, R.; Bregendahl, K.; Wannemuehler, M.J.; Zimmerman, D.R. (2001). Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid in nursery pigs of dirty and clean environments on growth, empty body composition, and immune competence. Journal of Animal Science 79 (3) 714-721, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: Early-weaned pigs (n = 64) averaging 5.3 +/- 0.3 kg and distributed into two environments (dirty and clean) were used to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance, immune competence, and empty body composition. A factorial (2 x 4) arrangement within a split-plot design, with four littermate pigs as the experimental unit for the environment, pig within litter as the experimental unit for dietary treatment, and d-0 body weight used as covariate, were used in data analysis. Diets were formulated to contain CLA at 0, 0.67, 1.33, or 2% and to exceed the NRC (1988) nutrient needs of pigs. Animals were given ad libitum access to feed for 7 wk in three phases (I, 1 to 2; II, 3 to 5; and III, 6 to 7 wk). Within phases, diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In Phase I, as dietary CLA concentration increased, ADG and ADFI decreased linearly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively). In Phase II, upon adaptation to dietary CLA supplementation, ADG increased quadratically (603, 623, 622, and 548 g/d; P < 0.01), ADFI decreased linearly (873, 840, 867, and 717 g/d; P < 0.02) and gain:feed ratio tended to increase linearly (691, 742, 715, and 763; P < 0.07). In Phase III, no differences in growth performance were attributed to either dietary or environmental treatments. The poor health status associated with the dirty environment induced a growth suppression; pigs in the clean room had a greater cumulative ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.01) than pigs in the dirty room. In Phase I, lower plasma urea nitrogen levels observed in pigs found in the dirty room (P < 0.03) indicated a lower protein intake caused by a lower ADFI. The effects of dietary CLA on peripheral phenotypic profiles of lymphocytes did not appear until d 42. However, as indicated by the growth suppression of pigs in the dirty room, the negative effects of the environmental challenge on pig health and growth had already appeared during phase I. On d 42, CLA induced a linear increase in percentages of CD8+ lymphocytes (21.7, 22.3, 28.0, and 32.7%, P < 0.001). These data suggest that a 42-d dietary CLA supplementation preceding a disease challenge could have prevented disease-associated growth suppression. Also, CLA-mediated amelioration of particular infectious diseases will depend on which CD8+ T cell subset (i.e., CD8alphaalpha immunoregulatory or CD8alphabeta-cytotoxic) is most influenced by dietary CLA supplementation.

Keywords: piglets, linoleic acid, isomers, early weaning, hygiene, body weight, cd8+ lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity, unrestricted feeding, liveweight gain, feed conversion, health, cd4+ lymphocytes, lymphocyte transformation, leukocyte count, body composition, blood plasma, urea, blood composition, glycoproteins.


Baynes, P.; Varley, M. (2001). Gut health: practical considerations. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management, Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.249-257, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: piglets, antibiotic digestive enhancers, antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs), gut health, antibiotic withdrawal, husbandry, hygiene, vaccination, in-feed enzymes, nutrition, increased nutrient and energy retention, organic acids, herb and spice formulations, probiotics, lactobacillus cultures, microflora, vitamin E, health, antibiotic residues, digestive tract mucosa, drug residues, growth promoters, immunity, piglets, public health, weaning, United Kingdom.


Blum, S.A.; Owen, K.Q.; Nelssen, J.L.; Goodband, R.D.; Tokach, M.D.; Blum, R.A.; Musser, R.E. (2001). Carnitine supplemented diets for gestating and lactating swine. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1247 (1): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098-1133.

NAL Call No.: T223 A21.

Keywords: patent, carnitine, diet supplementation, supplementation method, food supplement, gestation, lactation.


Bornett, H.L.I.; Morgan, C.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mann, J. (2000). The effect of group housing on feeding patterns and social behaviour of previously individually housed growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70 (2):127-141. ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: housing, group effect, feeding behavior, feeding frequency, eating rates, time budgets, feed intake, social behavior, aggressive behavior, liveweight gain, feed conversion efficiency, individual housing.


Bornett, H.L.I.; Morgan, C.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mann, J. (2000). The flexibility of feeding patterns in individually housed pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 70 (3): 457-469. ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Keywords: feeding, unrestricted feeding, restricted feeding, feeding frequency, feeding habits, feed intake, liveweight gain, behavior, feed conversion, meal patterns, eating patterns, individual characteristics.


Borysenko, M.; Fan, M.Z.; Archbold, T.; Atkinson, J.L.; Dewey,C.; Engelhardt, H. (2001). Dietary supplementation of different organic acids as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in the diets of early-weaned piglets. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 23, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: breed, Yorkshire, piglet, early weaned, digestive system, Lincomix, antiinfective drug, antibiotics, formic acid, dietary, fumaric acid, organic acids, dietary supplementation, diarrhea, average daily gain, blood urea nitrogen, feed efficiency, growth performance, low cost diet, organ weight gain, meeting abstract.


Bosi, P.; Han, I.K.; Jung, H.J.; Heo, K.N.; Perini, S.; Castellazzi, A.M.; Casini, L.; Creston, D.; Gremokolini, C. (2001). Effect of different spray dried plasmas on growth, lleal digestibility, nutrient deposition, immunity and health of early-weaned pigs challenged with E. coli K88. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (8): 1138-1143, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7.

Keywords: ileum, blood plasma, blood meal, digestibility, growth, nutrient availability, immune response, early weaning, escherichia coli, health, casein, protein hydrolysates, immunoglobulins, feed rations, performance, mortality, nitrogen, adhesion, intestinal mucosa, IgA, South Korea.


Bote, C.J.; Rey, A.I. (2001). Susceptibility of hepatic tissue of Iberian pigs is enhanced by free range feeding and reduced by vitamin E supplementation. Nutrition Research 21 (3): 541-549, ISSN: 0271-5317.

Keywords: breed, Iberian, dietary supplement, copper, vitamin E, confinement feeding system, free range feeding system, lipid oxidation, liver samples.


Brooks, P. H.; Moran, C. A.; Beal, J. D.; Demeckova, V.; Campbell, A. (2001). Liquid feeding for the young piglet. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management Varley, M. A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.153-178, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: piglets, diets, feed intake, fermentation, liquid diets, nutrition, feeding, water intake, weaning.


Bruininx, E.M.; van der Peet-Schwering, C.M.; Schrama, J.W.; den Hartog, L.A.; Everts, H.; Beynen, A.C. (2001). The IVOG feeding station: a tool for monitoring the individual feed intake of group-housed weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 85 (3-4): 81-7, ISSN: 0931-2439.

NAL Call No.: 389.78 Z3.

Abstract: Three batches of weanling pigs (total n=310 pigs) were used in a 34-day experiment to validate the use of an IVOG feeding station as a tool for monitoring individual feed intake of group-housed weanling pigs. An IVOG feeding station for weanling pigs consists of a single-space dry feeder placed on a load cell in combination with electronic identification. Data of 192 weanling pigs (18 pens) fed by IVOG feeding stations were used to develop a protocol for the screening of IVOG data. To assess the quality of the IVOG data, the feed intake per pen computed from the screened IVOG data was compared with the feed intake calculated from feed weighing. To assess the suitability of the use of IVOG feeding stations under practical pig husbandry conditions, performance of 96 weanling pigs fed by the IVOG feeding stations was compared with that of 118 weanling pigs that were fed using commercial single-space dry feeders (11 pens). Feed intake per pen computed from the IVOG data was similar to the feed intake calculated from feed weighing (average recovery 101.1%) for all test periods (p > 0.1). Furthermore, feed recovery did not differ among feeding stations (p > 0.1). During the first 13 days after weaning, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of weanling pigs fed by the single-space dry feeders was higher (p < 0.05) than that of weanling pigs fed by the feeding stations. Average daily gain and gain to feed ratios did not differ (p > 0.1) between both feeding systems. During the remaining 21 days and averaged over the entire experimental period, performance did not differ between the feeding systems (p > 0.1). It can be concluded that IVOG feeding stations for weanling pigs are a suitable tool to monitor individual feed intake of group-housed weanling pigs.

Keywords: husbandry, instrumentation, body weight, physiology, energy intake, growth and development, animal feed, feeding behavior, reproducibility of results, sensitivity and specificity, time factors, weaning record.


Cho, W.T.; Kim, Y.G.; Kim, J.D.; Chae, B.J.; Han, I.K. (2001). Effects of feeding extruded corn and wheat grain on growth performance and digestibility of amino acids in early-weaned pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (2): 224-230, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7.

Keywords: pigs, growth, performance, maize, extrusion, wheat, amino acids, digestibility, early weaning, feces, feed intake, ingredients, liveweight gain, feed conversion.


Coffey, R.D.; Cromwell, G.L. (2001). Use of spray-dried animal plasma in diets for weanling pigs. Pig News and Information 22 (2): 39N-48N, ISSN: 0143-9014.

NAL Call No.: SF391.P55.

Abstract: Spray-dried animal plasma is a byproduct of the meat packing industry and is considered by many to be an essential ingredient in the initial nursery diet for early-weaned pigs. With the exception of methionine, this protein source has a high concentration of amino acids. Also, spray-dried animal plasma contains a substantial amount of immunoglobulins, the most predominant being immunoglobulin G. Numerous studies have been conducted with weanling pigs to compare spray- dried animal plasma to various plant and animal protein sources. These comparative experiments have been conducted in a variety of housing environments, and represent a diversity of pig genetics, a broad range of plasma protein inclusion rates, and various plasma protein sources. In a vast majority of these studies, feeding spray-dried animal plasma has resulted in improved growth rate and feed intake. Studies conducted to determine the optimum inclusion rate of spray-dried animal plasma have been inconclusive, with the reported optimum dietary level ranging from 6 to 15%. The optimum inclusion rate of spray-dried animal plasma is likely dependent on many factors including age at weaning, level of environmental stress, health status, and complexity of the diet. Despite considerable research efforts, the specific mechanism(s) by which spray-dried animal plasma improves weanling pig performance remains unclear. Some have suggested that spray-dried animal plasma acts as a flavour or palatability enhancer, and elicits its effects solely through increasing feed intake. However, results from several different researchers have provided substantial evidence that plasma acts to improve the immunocompetence of the weaned pig, most likely mediated by the immunoglobulins found in spray-dried animal plasma.

Keywords: blood products, blood proteins, diets, feed additives, feed intake, growth, immune competence, reviews.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Collin, A.; Milgen, J. van.; Dubois, S.; Noblet, J. (2001). Effect of high temperature on feeding behaviour and heat production in group-housed young pigs. The British Journal of Nutrition 86(1): 63-70, ISSN: 0007-1145.

NAL Call No.: 389.8 B773.

Abstract: To assess the acclimation of pigs to heat stress, the effects of high (33 degrees C) or thermoneutral (23 degrees C) constant temperatures on feeding behaviour and components of energy balance were studied in group-housed young pigs. Three groups of five pigs were used at each temperature. After 1 week of adaptation, voluntary feed intake (VFI) and heat production (HP) were recorded for thirteen consecutive days. Animals were fed ad libitum. Fasting HP was measured on the last day. Average initial body weights (BW) were 21.4 and 20.9 kg at 23 and 33 degrees C respectively. Feeding behaviour was measured individually and rate of feed intake and characteristics of feeding behaviour were calculated. The O2 consumption, CO2 production and physical activity of the group were used to calculate total HP (HP(tot)) and its components, i.e. fasting HP (HP(fas)), HP due to physical activity (HP(act)) and thermic effect of feed (TEF). The BW gain and VFI were reduced by 37 and 30% respectively at 33 degrees C. The decrease in VFI corresponded to reduced consumption time (-34%) and size of the meals (-32%). Feeding behaviour was mostly diurnal (66% of the VFI), and the rate of feed intake (28 g/min) was not affected by temperature. Daily HP(tot), HP(fas) and TEF, expressed per kg metabolic weight (BW(0.60)), were significantly decreased at 33 degrees C by 22, 18 and 35% respectively, whereas HP(act) was not affected; TEF expressed per g feed was not affected (2 kJ/g). The decrease in HP(tot) at 33 degrees C was caused by a reduction in TEF and HP(fas) (kJ/d per/kg BW(0.60)), which are both related to reduction in VFI.

Keywords: environmental temperature, time, feeding behavior, heat production, housing, heat stress, feed intake, liveweight gain, water intake, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide, gas production, physical activity, energy balance, feeding.


Cooper, D.R.; Patience, J.F.; Zijlstra, R.T.; Rademacher, M. (2001). Effect of nutrient intake in lactation on sow performance: Determining the threonine requirement of the high producing lactating sow. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): 2378-2387, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: sows, large litters, reproductive performance, amino acid requirements, lysine, high production, lactation, lactation effects, nutrient intake, sow performance, threonine requirements.


Corrigan, B.P.; Wolter, B.F.; Ellis, M.; Moreland, S. (2001). Effect of three dietary growth promoting additives on performance of nursery pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 455, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: dietary additive, growth promoting additive, plant extract blend, CSP 250, antibiotic, zinc oxide, meeting abstract.


Cronin, G.M.; Leeson, E.; Cronin, J.G.; Barnett, J.L. (2001). The effect of broadcasting sow suckling grunts in the lactation shed on piglet growth. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (7): 1019-1023, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7.

Keywords: sows, suckling, sounds, lactation, piglets, growth, farms, housing, efficacy, growth rate, animal husbandry, creep feeding, liveweight gain


Danielsen, V.; Vestergaard, E.M. (2001). Dietary fibre for pregnant sows: effect on performance and behaviour. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (1/2): 71-80, ISSN: 0377-8401.

NAL Call No.: SF95.A55.

Keywords: sows, pregnancy, fiber, feeds, reproductive performance, animal behavior, barley, soybean oilmeal, ingredients, beet pulp, wheat bran, husks, oats, grass meal, solubility, energy intake, appetite, lactation, liveweight gain, farrowing, litter weight, weaning weight, eating, duration.


Dijk, A.J. van; Niewold, T.A.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Hees, J. van; Bot, P. de; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Beynen, A.C. (2002). Small intestinal morphology and disaccharidase activities in early-weaned piglets fed a diet containing spray-dried porcine plasma. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series A 49 (2): 81-86, ISSN: 0931-184X.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5.

Keywords: casein, diet, disaccharidases, feed intake, intestinal mucosa, liveweight gain, morphology, piglets, small intestine, villi.


Dijk, A.J. van; Everts, H.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Margry, R.J.C.F.; Beynen, A.C. (2001). Growth performance of weanling pigs fed spray-dried animal plasma: a review. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 263-274, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Abstract: Spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP), mostly of porcine origin, is frequently used as an ingredient of weanling piglets diets in order to improve feed intake and to reduce post-weaning diarrhoea. On the basis of 15 published studies it is concluded that dietary SDAP levels up to 6% increase both average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) in the first 2 weeks after weaning in a dose- dependent fashion. Up to 6% SDAP also reduces feed conversion ratio (FCR). The positive effect of SDAP on ADG and ADFI is much more pronounced in the first than the second week after weaning. There is no positive carry-over effect of SDAP feeding during the period of 2 weeks after weaning on growth performance thereafter. SDAP is an expensive protein source and an economic evaluation should be made before including SDAP in weanling piglets diets. Multiple regression analysis indicated that, apart from SDAP dose, baseline growth rate is an important determinant of the effect of SDAP on ADG, with high baseline growth rate being associated with small effects of SDAP. It should be stressed that SDAP is a non-sterilised product that might spread certain diseases after feeding it to pigs. Porcine plasma has more beneficial effects than bovine plasma. Possible modes of action are discussed. It is suggested that, in addition to improving feed palatability, SDAP reduces post-weaning intestinal disease by preventing attachment of pathogens.

Keywords: feed additives, feed intake, growth, liveweight gain, piglets, weaning.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Docic, A.; Bilkei, G. (2001). The effect of short term high feed intake on the onset of puberty in transported gilts. Swine Health and Production 9 (1): 25-27, ISSN: 1066-4963.

NAL Call No.: SF971 N472.

Abstract: A trial, involving 320 incoming gilts (approximately 160 days of age) was conducted to determine whether energy flushing combined with transport, regrouping, and exposure to boars influences the onset of puberty. The gilts were randomly divided into 2 groups. The flushed group (166 gilts) were both transported and energy flushed, and the transported group (154 gilts) were transported only. After transport, gilts were housed in small groups exposed to boars across an aisle. The onset of puberty was determined at slaughter one week after transport. Examination of the reproductive organs revealed that there were more follicles >4 mm and uterine mass was larger (P>.05) in the flushed group than in the transported group. Adrenal gland weight, ovarian weight, and uterine length did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that energy flushing increases follicular growth and uterine weight, which are indicators of puberty in gilts.

Keywords: gilts, feed intake, female animals, flushing, ovarian follicles, puberty, transport of animals.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Domacinovic, M.; Steiner, Z.; Bogut, I.; Mijic, P.; Kralik, D. (2001). Effect of different ways of improvement of feeding rations for piglets. Czech Journal of Animal Science 46 (10): 454-459, ISSN: 1212-1819.

NAL Call No.: 49.9 C33.

Keywords: piglets, enzymes, feed additives, feed conversion, feeds, liveweight gain, micronization, pig feeding.


Edmonds, M.S.; Baker, D.H. (2001). Effect of protein fluctuations and space allocation on performance of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 475, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: finishing, growing, protein, feed content, housing, space allocation, meeting abstract.


Estrada, A.; Drew, M.D.; Van Kessel, A. (2001). Effect of the dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium longum to early-weaned pigs on performance and fecal bacterial populations. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 141-148, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: piglets, oligosaccharides, bifidobacterium longum, supplementary feeding, early weaning, growth rate, postweaning interval, feces, fecal flora, liveweight gain, feed conversion, feed conversion efficiency, insulin-like growth factor.


Ferguson, N.S.; Lavers, G.; Gous, R.M. (2001). The effect of stocking density on the responses of growing pigs to dietary lysine. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (3): 459-469, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: body protein, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, floor space, single feeder bin, growth, lipids, live weight gain, lysine, nutrient requirements, protein retention, stocking density.


Gardner, J.M. Lange, C.F.M. de.; Widowski, T.M. (2001). Belly-nosing in early-weaned piglets is not influenced by diet quality or the presence of milk in the diet. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 73-80, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: piglets, early weaning, animal behavior, feed intake, liveweight, liveweight gain, diets, dried whey, milk substitutes, blood plasma, soybean oilmeal, fish meal, stereotyped behavior.


Georgsson, L.; Svendsen, J. (2001). One or two feeders for groups of 16 growing-finishing pigs: Effects on health and production. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (4): 257-264, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Keywords: finishing pigs, single-space feeders, multiple feeders, feeder access, health, skin lesions, daily weight gain, feed intake,


Gimenez-Rico, R.D. (2001). Formulating feeds for sows, feeding gestating sows with high fibre diets. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition Garnsworthy, P.C.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp. 67-85, ISBN: 1-897676-08-5.

Keywords: sows, welfare, energy consumption, energy value, feed formulation, feed intake, adlibitum feed intake, fiber, net energy, pregnancy, reproductive performance.


Hamilton, D.N.; Wolter, B.F.; Beverly, J.L.; Wilson, E.R Augspurger, N.R.; Ellis, M.; (2002). The effect of sire line on the feeding patterns of grow-finish pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (2):103-114, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, Large White, Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain, breeds, sires, genetic lines, line differences, body weight, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, number of feeder visits, feeder occupation, growth rate, lines, liveweight gain, longissimus dorsi, feeding.


Hamman, L.L.; Gentry, J.G.; Ramsey, C.B.; McGlone, J.J.; Miller, M.F. (2001). The effect of vitamin-mineral nutritional modulation on the pork quality of halothane carriers. Journal of Muscle Foods 12 (1): 37-51, ISSN: 1046-0756.

NAL Call No.: TX556 M4J68.

Keywords: feed supplements, genes, genetics, halothane, preslaughter stress, meat quality, minerals, muscles, nutrition, storage quality, vitamins, water holding capacity, meat color.


Han, I.K.; Lee, J.H.; Piao, X.S.; Li, D. (2001). Feeding and management system to reduce environmental pollution in swine production: Review. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (3): 432-444, ISSN: 1011- 2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: production, feeding systems, management systems, pollution, manure, nutrient excretion, feed additives, nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, enzymes, phytase, antibiotics, probiotics, organic acids, growth hormones, beta agonists, porcine somatotropin, synthetic amino acids in feed manufacturing, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility, nutrient excretion, phase feeding regimen, swine production.


Hay, M.; Orgeur, P.; Levy, F.; Le Dividich, J.; Concordet, D.; Nowak, R.; Schaal, B.; Mormede, P. (2001). Neuroendocrine consequences of very early weaning in swine. Physiology and Behavior 72 (1-2): 263-9, ISSN: 0031-9384.NAL Cal No.: QP1 P4.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the consequences of very early weaning of piglets on neuroendocrine variables and growth. Sixty piglets from eight litters were either weaned on Postnatal Day 6 (early weaning, or EW piglets) or left with their dam until normal weaning at Day 28 (control piglets, or C). At Days 5, 7, 11, 14, and 19, urine was collected between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. for the measurement of catecholamines, glucocorticoids, and creatinine. Compared with C, EW piglets displayed a transient increase in urinary cortisol on the day following separation from their dam (Day 7) (P<.05). Urinary norepinephrine (NE) was three times lower in EW compared to C piglets from Day 7 until Day 14 (P<.01) but there was no difference between the two groups on Day 19. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) did not differ between C and EW piglets on the day after weaning. Thereafter, EW piglets displayed a three times drop in urinary EPI as compared to C piglets until the end of the period (P<.01). Weaning induced an immediate reduction in food intake and growth rate and at Day 28, the body weight of EW piglets was 1.60 kg lower than that of C piglets (P<.0001). In conclusion, weaning of 6-day-old piglets results in a marked and prolonged suppression of the release of catecholamines. This result likely reflects physiological responses to insufficient energy intake after weaning, as reflected also by changes in thermoregulatory behavior. The transient increase in cortisol excretion in weanlings may be caused by both emotional distress and acute food deprivation.

Keywords: neurosecretory systems, physiology, weaning, aging, behavior, body weight, catecholamines, urine, chromatography, high pressure liquid, ion exchange, cortisone, hormones, hydrocortisone.


Hayes, D.J.; Jensen, H.H.; Fabiosa, J. (2002). Technology choice and the economic effects of a ban on the use of antimicrobial feed additives in swine rations. Food Control 13 (2): 97-101. ISSN: 0956-7135.

NAL Call No.: TP372.7 F66.

Keywords: antimicrobial feed additives, bans, regulations, animal rations, analysis, feed, preparation, economics, food safety, pork production, management, technology choices, swine industry, Europe, USA.


He, M.L.; Ranz, D.; Rambeck, W.A. (2001). Study on the performance enhancing effect of rare earth elements in growing and fattening pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 85 (7-8): 263-270, ISSN: 0931-2439.

NAL Call No.: 389.78 Z3.

Keywords: crossbred piglets, Deutsche Landrace X Pietrain, feeding study, increased performance, dietary supplements, rare earth elements, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase, calcium, cerium, chlorine, glucose, lanthanum, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, dietary supplement, sodium, thyroxine, total cholesterol, total protein, triglyceride, triiodothyronine, daily body weight gain.


Held, S.; Mendl, M.. (2001). Behaviour of the young weaner pig. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.273-297, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: age at weaning, aggressive behavior, husbandry, feeding behavior, housing, piglets, social behavior, stress, stress response, vocalization.


Hill, G.M.; Mahan, D.C.; Carter, S.D.; Cromwell, G.L.; Ewan, R.C.; Harrold, R.L.; Lewis, A.J.; Miller, P.S.; Shurson, G.C.; Veum, T.L. (2001). Effect of pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide with or without the inclusion of an antibacterial agent on nursery pig performance. Journal of Animal Science 79 (4): 934-941, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: piglets, zinc oxide, postweaning interval, early weaning, liveweight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, blood plasma, zinc, copper, antibacterial agent, carbadox, drug effects.


Honeyman, M.S.; Roush, W.B (1999). Supplementation of mid-gestation swine grazing alfalfa. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture14 (3): 103-108, ISSN: 0889-1893,

NAL Call No.: S605.5.A43.

Abstract: For four years (1991-1994), gestating gilts rotationally grazing alfalfa were compared to gilts in a drylot fed 1,800 g/d of a corn-soy diet (control). The dietary supplementation treatments for the grazing gilts were 1,260 g, 720 g, and 180 g of ground corn (70, 40, and 10% of the gilts' energy needs) plus 45 g of monosodium phosphate and 9 g of salt (sodium chloride) per day. All gilts were fed individually. In 1991 and 1992, the gilts were fed daily. In 1993 and 1994, the gilts were fed their weekly feed ration in three equal feedings on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Alfalfa paddocks were grazed for one week with a stocking rate of 62 gilts/ha/wk. All gilts had rings in their noses to minimize rooting. For the 42-d mid-gestation trial, the weight gain of the control gilts did not differ from the gain of the grazing gilts daily fed 720 g corn (40%) (P <.05). The interval feeding reduced gains compared to the daily feeding. Gilts daily fed 1,260 g corn/d (70%) gained more than the other grazing treatments (P <.05). The gilts daily fed 180 g corn/d (10%) gained less than all other treatments (P <.05) and had the greatest backfat loss (P <.05) for the 42-d trial. No major trends were noted in number of pigs born per litter or pig birth weight. After one week of grazing, alfalfa height decreased 14.7 cm and DM content of the remaining alfalfa increased 9%. Each grazing season, the alfalfa stand decreased 3.8 plants/m(2). Daily alfalfa intakes per gilt were calculated at 11.5 kg (3.2 kg DM) for 1991 and 1992, and increased to 16.3 kg (4.2 kg DM) for 1993 and 1994. These are composite intakes because all grazing gilts were commingled. Mid-gestation gilts rotationally grazing alfalfa need 720 g of corn per day plus phosphorus and salt to match weight gains of gestating gilts in a drylot fed 1,800 g/d of a corn-soy diet. Daily feeding, rather than interval feeding, resulted in greater weight gains and lower alfalfa intakes. The practice of grazing gestating sows has the advantages of no manure to haul, reduced purchased feed inputs, and inclusion of a soil-building crop like alfalfa in the crop rotation.

Keywords: sows, grazing, medicago sativa, feed supplements, rotational grazing, pregnancy, feed rations, stocking rate, liveweight gain, backfat, fat thickness, litter size, birth weight, plant height, dry matter, persistence, plant density, feed intake, Iowa.


Hong, J.W.; Kim, I.H.; Kwon, O.S.; Lee, S.H.; Bae, H.D.; Kang, S.J.; Yang, U.M. (2001). Effects of phytezyme supplementation on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (10): 1440-1443, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: breed, Duroc X Yorkshire X Landrace, growing pigs, phytase, dietary supplement, average daily gain, gain/feed, growth performance, nutrient digestibility.


Hong, J.W.; Kim, I.H.; Moon, T.H.; Kwon, O.S.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, Y.G. (2001). Effects of yucca extract and (or) far infrared emitted materials supplementation on the growth performance, serum characteristics and ammonia production of growing and finishing pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (9): 1299-1303, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: breed, Duroc x Yorkshire x Landrace, finishing, growing pigs, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, yucca extract, dietary supplement, average daily gain, far IR radiological materials, growth performance, nutrient digestibility.


Hyun, Y.; Ellis, M. (2001). Effect of group size and feeder type on growth performance and feeding patterns in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79 (4): 803-810, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The effects of four group sizes (2, 4, 8, and 12 pigs per pen) and two single-space feeder types (conventional and electronic feed intake recording equipment [FIRE]) on feed intake, growth performance, and feeding patterns were determined in growing pigs over a 4-wk period. A total of 416 hybrid pigs (barrows and gilts) were grown from 26.5 (SD = 1.6) to 47.8 (SD = 2.7) kg BW and given ad libitum access to a corn-soybean meal-based diet (17.4% CP, 0.9% lysine; 3,298 kcal ME/kg). The floor space allowance was 0.9 m2/pig for all treatments. Pigs using the electronic feeders had similar growth rates but lower feed intakes (P < 0.01) and higher gain:feed ratios (P < 0.01) compared to those using the conventional feeders. Barrows compared to gilts had higher growth rates (P < 0.05), numerically higher (P > 0.05) ADFI, and similar feed efficiency and feeding pattern. Feed intakes and growth rates were lowest (P < 0.05) for groups of 12 pigs but gain:feed ratio was not affected by group size. Daily feeder occupation time per pig was lower (P < 0.01) for groups of 12 than for groups of 2 or 4 pigs, and feed consumption rate was higher (P < 0.01) for groups of 12 than for groups of 4 pigs. The proportion of time spent eating was lower (P < 0.01) and the proportion of time spent standing was higher (P < 0.01) for pigs in groups of 12 compared to groups of 2. Correlations between ADG and ADFI and feed intake per visit were 0.29 and 0.30, respectively (P < 0.01), between ADG and ADFI and feed consumption rate were 0.27 and 0.31, respectively (P < 0.01), and between ADFI and feeder occupation time per day were 0.33 (P < 0.01). This study suggests that, in growing pigs given access to a single feeder, changes in feeding behavior with increasing group size were not sufficient to maintain feed intake and growth rate.

Keywords: pigs, group size, pig feeders, automatic feed dispensers, feed intake, feeding habits, floor space, feed conversion, body weight, liveweight gain, eating patterns, eating rates.


Jakobsen, K.; Hermansen, J.E. (2001). Organic farming, a challenge to nutritionists. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 10 (Supplement 1): 29-42, ISSN: 1230-1388.

NAL Call No.: SF1 J68.

Keywords: cattle, pigs, poultry, disease resistance, energy requirements, essential amino acids, livestock farming, minerals, organic farming, reviews, vitamins, Denmark.


Jefferson, W.A.; Kapp, A.M. (2001). Piglet milk feed delivery system. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1244 (2): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098-1133.

NAL Call No.: T223 A21.

Keywords: patent, orally administered, feed supplements, feeding stations, feed reservoir, spray nozzles, milk feed delivery system, disinfection, farm equipment


Kerth, C.R.; Carr, M.A.; Ramsey, C.B.; Brooks, J.C.; Johnson, R.C.; Cannon, J.E.; Miller, M.F. (2001). Vitamin mineral supplementation and accelerated chilling effects on quality of pork from pigs that are monomutant or noncarriers of the halothane gene. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): 2346-2355, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: barrows, gilts, vitamin and mineral supplementation, finishing diet, growth, accelerated chilling of carcasses, carcass and muscle traits, halothane gene carrier versus noncarrier pigs, vitamin E, exudative meat, meat quality, pork quality.


Kim, I.B.; Allee, G.L. (2001). Effect of carbohydrate sources in phase I and phase II pig starter diets. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (10): 1419-1424, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: weaned pigs, starter diets, carbohydrate by product, lactose, phase I starter diet, nutritional method, phase II starter diet, average daily gain, corn, animal feed, gain/feed ratio.


Kim, S.W.; Baker, D.H.; Easter, R.A. (2001). Dynamic ideal protein and limiting amino acids for lactating sows: The impact of amino acid mobilization. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: primiparous sows, experimental diets, underfed both energy and protein during lactation, threonine, lysine, valine, tissue mobilization, occurs during lactation, amino acids, dynamic ideal protein, body energetics.


Kim. S.W.; Easter, R.A. (2001). Nutritional value of fish meals in the diet for young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79 (7): 1829-1839, ISSN: 0021- 8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: menhaden fish meal, mackerel herring fish meal, threonine, serine, alanine, valine, histidine, lysine, arginine, average daily gain, replacement of spray dried porcine plasma, nutritional value evaluations.


Kim, J.H.; Heo, K.N.; Odle, J.; Han, I.K.; Harrell, R.J. (2001). Liquid diets accelerate in growth of early-weaned pigs and the effects are maintained to market weight. Journal of Animal Science 79 (2): 427-434, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: Piglets (n = 240, 11.0 +/- 0.1 d old, 3.93 +/- 0.05 kg) were allotted to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement to examine the effects of diet physical form and nursery environment during the first 14 d after weaning on growth to market weight. During the treatment period, pigs were housed (10 pigs/pen) in either a conventional hot nursery (30 degrees C) or a segregated-temperature nursery (cool ambient temp. of 24 degrees C, with enclosed hot-box hovers at 32 degrees C). Pigs in each environment were fed nutritionally identical diets in either liquid or dry-pellet form for 14 d. Subsequently, all pigs were fed identical dry diets and were housed in common grower-finisher facilities (penned by sex, five pigs/pen). At the end of the treatment period (d 14), pigs fed the liquid diet were 21% heavier than pigs fed the dry pellet diet (9.22 vs 7.60 kg; P < 0.001). Similarly, gain, feed intake, and gain/feed of liquid-fed pigs were 44%, 18%, and 22% greater, respectively, than observed for pigs fed the dry pellet diet. No main effect of environment was observed (P > 0.10); however, an interaction with diet physical form occurred during the early-nursery period (P < 0.01). Pigs fed the liquid diet showed better performance in the conventional nursery, whereas pigs fed the dry pellet diet were favored in the segregated temperature nursery. No major differences in growth performance or in ultrasound carcass measurements were detected during the growing-finishing period; however, the advantage in body weight of liquid-fed pigs gained during the first 2 wk postweaning was maintained to the end of the trial (113.9 vs 110.6 kg; P < 0.05). Pigs that were fed the early-nursery diet in liquid form reached market weight (110 kg) 3.7 d sooner than the dry-fed controls (P < 0.01). Estimates of lean gain (calculated from live ultrasound data) were unaffected, suggesting that composition of growth was not altered. Collectively, these results show that liquid feeding during early life can markedly accelerate piglet growth performance and that the growth advantage is maintained to market weight, with no evidence of compensatory gain in the dry-fed control pigs.

Keywords: piglets, early weaning, liquid diets, milk substitutes, pelleted feeds, environmental temperature, body weight, liveweight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, pigs, slaughter weight, age, backfat, fat thickness, muscles, area, lean.


King, R.H.; Eason, P.E.; Kerton, D.K.; Dunshea, F.R. (2001). Evaluation of solvent extracted canola meal for growing pigs and lactating sows. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52 (10): 1033-1041, ISSN: 0004-9409.

NAL Call No.: 23 Au783.

Keywords: growing finishing pigs, lactating sows, weanling pigs, animal feed, canola meal, solvent extracted, animal performance, carcass quality, feed efficiency, growth, lactation.


Klindt, J.; Yen, J.T.; Christenson, R.K. (1999). Effect of prepubertal feeding regimen on reproductive development of gilts. Journal of Animal Science 77 (8): 1968-1976, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The effect of prepubertal feed level on growth and reproductive development of gilts was investigated. At 13 wk of age, white crossbred gilts were penned individually and assigned to the following treatments: Ad lib, ad libitum intake from 13 to 25 wk of age (n = 64); Control, ad libitum intake from 13 wk of age until 100 kg BW and then 90% of ad libitum intake until 25 wk of age (n = 65); and Restricted, 74% of ad libitum intake from 13 wk to 25 wk of age (n = 64). Feed was formulated to primarily restrict energy intake. The study was replicated in two seasons. At 25 wk of age, gilts were moved to group pens, approximately 16 gilts/pen, allowed ad libitum access to feed, and estrus detection was initiated. Gilts were mated at first estrus and those recycling were remated. After mating, gilts were moved to gestation stalls and fed 1.5x maintenance. At 30 d of gestation, reproductive tracts were harvested, and numbers of corpora lutea (CL) and live embryos were recorded. From 13 to 25 wk of age, feed consumption was 258 for Ad lib, 251 for Control, and 189 kg/gilt for Restricted, and, from 13 wk of age until 30 d of gestation, total feed consumption was 367 for Ad lib, 356 for Control, and 299 kg/gilt for Restricted gilts. Age at puberty (196 d) and pregnancy (200 d) was not affected (P >.18) by treatment. However, the rate at which gilts attained puberty (e.g., percentage pubertal at 28 d) was greatest in Ad lib (75) and least in Control (61) gilts. Number of CL and live embryos at 30 d of gestation/gilt assigned to the study was unaffected (P >.21) by treatment. Quantity of feed consumed from 13 wk of age to 30 d of gestation per live embryo in gilts assigned to the study was 40.0 for Ad lib, 39.8 for Control, and 30.6 kg/gilt for Restricted gilts. These results indicate that moderate feed restriction of gilts during prepubertal development may increase efficiency of swine production without negative impact on reproductive performance through 30 d of gestation.

Keywords: gilts, pig feeding, puberty, plane of nutrition, energy intake, unrestricted feeding, restricted feeding, age differences, backfat, liveweight gain, estrus, detection, fat thickness, body weight, pregnancy rate, corpus luteum, litter size, feed conversion.


Knudsen, K.E.B. (2001). Development of antibiotic resistance and options to replace antimicrobials in animal diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60 (3): 291-299, ISSN: 0029-6651.

NAL Call No.: 389.9 N953.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial growth promoters, ban, enteric bacterial infections Oesophagostumum dentatum, Brachyspira hyodesenteriae, nematode infection, parasitic disease, dysentery, gut health, carbohydrates, dietary intake, feed structure, United Kingdom.


Kotara, D.; Fuchs, B. (2001). The effect of gelatinization degree and source of starch on the ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients and growth performance of early-weaned piglets. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 10 (Supplement 2): 163-170, ISSN: 1230-1388.

NAL Call No.: SF1 J68.

Keywords: piglets, cereal grains, diet, feces, starch gelatinization, ileum, nutrients, ontogeny, starch, ileal digestibility.


Kouba, M.; Hermier, D.; Le Dividich, J. (2001). Influence of a high ambient temperature on lipid metabolism in the growing pig. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 81-7, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: Large White x Landrace, breed, castrated male pigs, ad libitum fed, restricted fed, heat, housing, lipids, metabolism, growth and development, adipose tissue, anatomy, histology, analysis of variance, castration, chylomicrons, blood, lipids, blood, lipoprotein lipase.


Kuehne, M.; Koerner, U.; Wenzel, S. (2001). Tetracycline residues in meat and bone meals. Part 2: The effect of heat treatments on bound tetracycline residues. Food Additives and Contaminants 18 (7): 593-600, ISSN: 0265-203X.

NAL Call No.: TX553 A3F65.

Keywords: tetracycline residues, rendering plant, animal feed, meat meal, bone meal, preparation, heating, quantitative analysis, toxic food residue.


Kyriakis, S.C.; Giannakopoulos, C.G.; Alexopoulos, C.; Boscos, C.; Spais, A.; Saoulidis, K. (2001). The effect of salinomycin on certain blood parameters and milk quality of lactating sows. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 48 (6): 321-329, ISSN: 0931-184X.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5.

Keywords: gilts, lactating sows, salinomycin, antibiotic, dosage, feed additive, sow diet, total solids, ash, cholesterol, fat, lactose, lipids, protein, ultrasound, blood parameters, gestation, pregnancy, lactation, milk quality, chemical composition, increased piglet weight gain, piglet survival.


Laitat, M.; Vandenheede, M.; Desiron, A.; Canart, B.; Nicks, B. (1999). Comparison of feeding behaviour and performance of weaned pigs given food in two types of dry feeders with integrated drinkers. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 68(1):35-42, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56

Keywords: pigs, dry feeding, water intake, body weight, liveweight gain, pig feeders, feed intake, feed conversion, animal welfare.


Laspiur, J.P.; Trottier, N.L. (2001). Effect of dietary arginine supplementation and environmental temperature on sow lactation performance. Livestock Production Science 70 (1/2):159-165, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: sows, arginine, body temperature, environmental temperature, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, feed supplements, heart rate, heat stress, lactation, litter performance, litter weight, liveweight gain, lysine, pregnancy, respiration rate, weaning.


Lawlor, P.G.; Lynch, P.B.; O’ Doherty, J.V.; Caffrey, P.J. (2001). The effect of choice feeding complete diets on the performance of weaned pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 400, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: body weight, choice feeding, daily gain, growth performance, phase feeding, starter diet, weaner diet, meeting abstract.


Lawlor, P.G.; Lynch, P.B.; O'Doherty, J.V.; Caffrey, P.J. (2001). Effect of pre-weaning management and post-weaning nutrition on the performance of weaned pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 400, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: creep feed, feed, daily gain, feed intake, growth performance, litter size, post weaning nutrition, pre weaning management, meeting abstract.


Lawrence, B.; Hahn, J. (2001). Feeding swine without antibiotics requires broad approach. Feedstuffs 73 (44): 12-15, ISSN: 0014-9624.

NAL Call No.: 286.81 F322.

Keywords: antibiotics, pig feeding, animal husbandry, animal nutrition, feed additives, feed composition.


Lee, C.Y.; Lee, H.P.; Jeong, J.H.; Baik, K.H.; Jin, S.K.; Lee, J.H.; Sohn, S.H. (2002). Effects of restricted feeding, low-energy diet, and implantation of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol on growth, carcass traits, and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3 in finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science 80 (1): 84-93, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: finishing pigs, barrow, breed, Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc, estradiol-17-beta, hormone, drug, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, insulin-like growth factor I, circulating concentration, trenbolone acetate, anabolic drug, implantation, carcass traits, growth, low energy diet, restricted feeding.


Leser, T.D.; Amenuvor, J.Z.; Jensen, T.K.; Lindecrona, R.H.; Boye, M.; Moller, K. (2002). Culture independent analysis of gut bacteria: The pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68 (2): 673 690, ISSN: 0099-2240.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ap5.

Keywords: intestinal bacteria, diet, variety, age, herd health status, microbial analysis, ribosomal DNA sequencing, phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic linkages, phylotypes.


Lien, T.F.; Wu, C.P.; Wang, B.J.; Shiao, M.S.; Shiao, T.Y.; Lin, B.H.; Lu, J.J.; Hu, C.Y. (2001). Effect of supplemental levels of chromium picolinate on the growth performance, serum traits, carcass characteristics and lipid metabolism of growing finishing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (2): 289-296, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: growing finishing, chromium picolinate, mechanism of action, supplemental diet levels, carcass characteristics, growth performance, lipid metabolism, serum traits.


Liu, H.; Kim, I.B.; Touchette, K.J.; Newcomb, M.D.; Allee, G.L. (2001). The effect of spray dried plasma, lactose and soybean protein sources on the performance of weaned pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (9): 1290-1298, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: weanling pigs, spray dried plasma, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, extruded soybean protein concentrate, feed supplement, growth performance.


Llata, M. de la; Dritz, S.S.; Tokach, M.D.; Goodband, R.D.; Nelssen, J.L.; Loughin, T.M. (2001). Effects of dietary fat on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial environment. Journal of Animal Science 79 (10): 2643-2650, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: barrows, gilts, backfat, carcass quality, dietary fat, diets, finishing, growth rate, lean, liveweight, liveweight gain, lysine.


Martinez, G.R.; Pradal, R.P.; Castrejon, F.P.; Herradora, M.; Galvan, E.; Mercado, C. (2001). Persistence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky’s Disease virus and Blue Eye Disease virus in ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91 (4): 750-758, ISSN: 1364-5072.

NAL Call No.: QR1 J687.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky’s Disease, Blue Eye Disease, ensilages based on solid fraction of pig feces, disease transmission mechanisms, analysis, preparation, microbial persistence studies, microsilos.


Mavromichalis, I.; Webel, D.M.; Parr, E.N.; Baker, D.H. (2001). Growth promoting efficacy of pharmacological doses of tetrabasic zinc chloride in diets for nursery pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (3): 387-391, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: nursery pigs, zinc oxide, tetrabasic zinc chloride, dietary supplement, growth promoting agent, pharmacologic levels, weight gain, feed efficiency.


McGlone, J.J.; Fullwood, S.D. (2001). Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment. Journal of Animal Science 79(6): 1466-1474, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts’ behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P >0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts’ immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune measures did not indicate that any treatments resulted in physiological effects indicative of stress.

Keywords: gilts, pregnancy, behavior, housing, indoor versus outdoor production, sexual reproduction, fiber, digesta, litters, feed rations, feeds, feed intake, duration, stress, animal welfare.


Meulen, J. van der; Graaf, G.J. de; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Niewold, T.A. (2001). Effect of transportation stress on intramucosal pH and intestinal permeability. In: Digestive Physiology in Pigs. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, June 20-22, 2000, Lindberg, J.E.; Ogle, B. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.329-331, ISBN: 0-85199-517-9.

NAL Call No.: SF768.2 S95 S96 2000.

Keywords: blood flow, intestinal mucosa, permeability, pH, stress, transport of animals.


Meunier-Salaun, M.C. (2001). Fibre in diets of sows. In: Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition No.3, Garnsworthy, P.C.; Wiseman, J.(Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.323-339, ISBN: 1-897676-44-1.

Keywords: sows, behavior, feeding behavior, stereotypic, operant conditioning, motivation, diets, fiber, performance, physiological functions, reviews.


Meunier-Salaun, M.C.; Edwards, S.A.; Robert, S. (2001). Effect of dietary fibre on the behaviour and health of the restricted fed sow. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (1/2): 53-69, ISSN: 0377-8401.

NAL Call No.: SF95.A55.

Keywords: sows, food restriction, feed rations, fiber, animal behavior, health, nutritional state, pregnancy, performance, hunger, aggressive behavior, feeding, energy intake, nutrient intake, glucose, insulin, volatile fatty acids, fermentation, stress, animal welfare, literature reviews.


Min, T.S.; Kim, J.D.; Hyun, Y.; Sohn, K.S.; Heo, K.N.; Han, I.K. (2001). Effects of environmentally friendly agents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nutrient excretion and carcass characteristics in growing finishing pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (4): 540-547, ISSN: 1011- 2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: growing finishing pigs, yucca extract, mineral feed additive, acidifier, nonspecific immunostimulating anionic alkali solution, growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nutrient excretion, carcass characteristics, costs, effects on environment.


Morgan, C.A.; Nielsen, B.L.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mendl, M.T.(1999). Describing the social environment and its effects on food intake and growth. In: A Quantitative Biology of the Pig I. Kyriazakis (ed.), CAB International Wallingford, UK, ISBN: 0-85199-273-0, pp. 99-125.

NAL Call No.: IPM990717336.

Keywords: reviews, animal welfare, feeding behavior, group effect, stress, performance, growth, feed intake, environmental factors, pig feeding, housing.


Morgan, C.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Chirnside, J.; Deans, L.A. (2001). Can information about solid food be transmitted from one piglet to another? Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (3): 471-478, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: When weaned early, piglets commonly take some time to accept solid food, resulting in a growth check and reduced welfare. The transmission of information about food between animals has been demonstrated in other species and it would be advantageous if this occurred in piglets. This experiment investigated the effects of pairing piglets that were consuming solid food with newly weaned piglets. Six litters of piglets did not receive solid food until weaning. In each litter four piglets (3 plus 1 spare) were weaned at 21 days of age and housed together for 7 days and offered one of two foods (3 litters per food). At 28 days of age the remaining piglets were weaned and four pairs of piglets were formed, such that there were three experienced animals paired with three inexperienced observers, each pair having visual contact and varying degrees of physical contact (1: none, 2: through wire mesh, 3: housed together), and a pair of inexperienced piglets (4: housed together) to act as controls. Food intake and weight gain were recorded over a period of 7 days. There was no effect of food type on food intake or live-weight gain of the pairs but the inexperienced pigs had higher gains on food 1 than food 2. The inexperienced pairs ate less food than the other pairs and the experienced/observer pairs that were housed together had the greatest weight gain. The level of variation between piglets was such that there were no significant effects of pairing treatment on the weight gain of the inexperienced animals. Total time spent feeding increased with time from pair formation. The number of simultaneous feeding events was higher for the experienced/observer pairs housed together than for the inexperienced pairs. This experiment has indicated that food intake is stimulated when an inexperienced piglet is housed with an experienced piglet and, with further work, this could be exploited to alleviate the weaning check.

Keywords: piglets, feeding, pair feeding, feed intake, food type, liveweight gain.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Noblet, J.; Le Goff, G. (2001). Effect of dietary fibre on the energy value of feeds for pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (1/2): 35-52, ISSN: 0377-8401.

NAL Call No.: SF95.A55.

Keywords: energy value, feeds, fiber content, fiber, nutritive value, ingredients, byproducts, digestibility, lignin, wheat straw, pectins, liveweight, age, methane, digestion, metabolizable energy, energy balance, climatic factors, animal behavior, literature reviews.


Noblet, J.; Le Bellego, L.; Van Milgen, J.; Dubois, S. (2001). Effects of reduced dietary protein level and fat addition on heat production and nitrogen and energy balance in growing pigs. Animal Research 50 (3): 227- 238.

Keywords: growing pigs, crude fat, dietary, crude protein, dietary, nitrogen, diet, energy balance, feed utilization, heat production.


O’Connell, N.E. Beattie, V.E.; Weatherup, R.N. (2002). Influence of feeder type on the performance and behaviour of weaned pigs. Livestock Production Science 74(1): 13-17, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: pigs, weaning, performance, animal behavior, feed dispensers, water, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, growth rate, aggressive behavior, welfare.


Olesen, C.S.; Jorgensen, H.; Danielsen, V. (2001). Effect of dietary fibre on digestibility and energy metabolism in pregnant sows. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (3): 200-207, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Keywords: sows, dietary supplement, animal feed, digestibility, dried sugar beet pulp, energy metabolism, grass pellets, heat production, oats, wheat bran, pregnancy.


Partridge, G.G.; Gill, B.P. (2001). New approaches with pig weaner diets. In: Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition No. 3, Garnsworthy, P.C.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.205-237, ISBN: 1-897676-44-1.

Keywords: piglets, colostrum, diets, nutrition physiology, feeding, weaning, transition to post-weaning diet, animal welfare, health, review.


Penny, P.C.; Tibble, S. (2001). Response of weaned pigs housed in large groups to alternative feeding strategies. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 453, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: piglet, weaned, feeding systems, housing, large groups, meeting abstract.


Pinelli, S.A.; Scaife, J.R.; Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Valenzuela, J.R.; Celaya, H. (2001). Effect of supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C on immune response of sows and their litters in hot environments. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60 (OCA): 25A, ISSN: 0029-6651.

NAL Call No.: 389.9 N953.

Keywords: sow, piglets, litter, piglet, lymphocyte, immunoglobulin G, vitamin C, vitamin E, effect, supplementation, heat stress, hot environment, immune response, immunosuppression, lactation, meeting abstract.


Pollock, E.B.; Hopley, H.V. (2001). Hog feeder with adjustable feed control gates. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1248 (1): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098-1133.

NAL Call No.: T223 A21.

Keywords: patent, hog feeder, adjustable gate mechanism, feed hopper, dry hog feed, gravity dispensed, sliding cam arrangement, farm equipment.


Quiniou, N.; Noblet, J.; Milgen, J. van; Dubois, S. (2001). Influence of low ambient temperatures on heat production and energy balance of single-housed growing pigs fed ad libitum: a comparison with group-housed pigs. Animal Research 50 (4): 325-333, ISSN: 1627-3583.

Keywords: adaptation, housing, individual versus group, body weight, energy balance, energy consumption, energy intake, environmental temperature, heat production, physical activity, stocking rate, unrestricted feeding, feed intake, cold exposure.


Rachuonyo, H.A.; Allen,V.G.; Morrow-Tesch, J.L.; Dailey, J.W.; McGlone, J.J. (2001). Evaluation of forages for outdoor gestating sows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 276, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: behavior, nutrition, forage crops, buffalo grass, tall fescue, alfalfa, white clover, gestation, grazing, ground cover, manure, rooting, soil erosion, sustainable outdoor pig production, meeting abstract.


Ramonet, Y.; Meunier-Salaun M.C.; Dourmad J.Y. (1999). High-fiber diets in pregnant sows: digestive utilization and effects on the behavior of the animals. Journal of Animal Science 77(3):591-599, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: fiber, pregnancy, sows, crude fiber, energy intake, mastication, behavior, appetite, feeding behavior, animal welfare.


Rasmussen, H. (2001). Feeding device for feeding animals. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1253 (3): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098-1133.

NAL Call No.: T223 A21.

Keywords: piglets, feeding device, patent, design, pipe mounted on a frame, control bar, flexible material, slide bushing, adjusts to animals of different sizes.


Ratcliff, J. (2001). Genetically modified organisms in animal feed, a European perspective. In: Concepts in Pig Science Lyons, T.P.; Cole, D.J.A. (Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.39-45, ISBN: 1-897676-33-6.

Keywords: animal welfare, consumer attitudes, consumer behavior, consumer protection, feed additives, food safety, genetically engineered microorganisms, reviews, world markets, international trade, Europe.


Renaudeau, D.; Noblet, J. (2001). Effects of exposure to high ambient temperature and dietary protein level on sow milk production and performance of piglets. Journal of Animal Science 79 (6): 1540-1548, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The effects of high ambient temperature and level of dietary heat increment on sow milk production and piglet performance over a 28-d lactation were determined in 59 multiparous crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs kept at a thermoneutral (20 degrees C) or in a hot (29 degrees C) constant ambient temperature. Experimental diets fed during lactation were a control diet (NP; 17.6% CP) and two low-protein diets obtained by reduction of CP level (LP; 14.2% CP) or both reduction of CP and addition of fat (LPF; 15.2% CP); the NE:ME ratio was 74.3, 75.6, and 75.8% for NP, LP, and LPF diets, respectively. All diets provided 0.82 g of digestible lysine/MJ of NE, and ratios between essential AA and lysine were above recommendations. Creep feed was provided after d 21 of lactation. Reduction of CP level did not influence (P > 0.10) milk production, milk composition, or piglet performance. Despite higher nursing frequency (39 vs 34 sucklings per day), milk production decreased (P < 0.01) from 10.43 to 7.35 kg/d when temperature increased from 20 to 29 degrees C. At d 14, DM (18.6 vs 18.1%) and energy (4.96 vs 4.75 MJ/kg) contents in milk tended (P = 0.09) to be higher in sows kept at 29 degrees C. Over the 28-d lactation, piglet BW gain and BW at weaning decreased (P < 0.01) from 272 to 203 g/d and 9.51 to 7.52 kg, respectively, when temperature increased from 20 to 29 degrees C. Daily creep feed intake over the 4th wk of lactation was higher (P < 0.01) at 29 degrees C than at 20 degrees C (388 vs 232 g/litter, respectively), which was reflected in a greater increase in BW gain between wk 1 to 3 and wk 4 at the higher temperature (147 vs 130%); BW gain between weaning and d 14 postweaning was higher (P < 0.05) for piglets originating from sows kept at 29 degrees C (280 vs 218 g/d). In connection with their lower growth rate, DM (31.2 vs 33.0%), protein (15.5 vs 16.0%), lipid (12.3 vs 13.9%), and energy (8.39 vs 9.09 kJ/g) contents in weaned, slaughtered piglets were lower (P < 0.01) at 29 than at 20 degrees C. In conclusion, modification in the CP:NE ratio in order to decrease dietary heat increment did not affect milk production and piglet performance in thermoneutral or hot climatic conditions. Our results confirm the negative effect of high ambient temperatures on milk yield and emphasize the importance of creep feed supply to improve pre- and postweaning growth of piglets in these conditions, especially when weaning occurs after 3 wk of age.

Keywords: piglets, sows, milk yield, lactation, dietary protein, feeds, air temperature, performance, growth, heat stress, creep feeding, milk composition, energy content, liveweight gain, liveweight, weaning weight, pig feeding.


Robert, S.; Bergeron, R.; Farmer, C.; Meunier-Salaun, M.C. (2002). Does the number of daily meals affect feeding motivation and behaviour of gilts fed high-fibre diets? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (2): 105-117, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: gilts, feeding behavior, motivation, operant conditioning tests, pushing a button, food reward, stereotypy, vacuum chewing, chain manipulation, nutrition, diets, feed intake, feeding frequency, number of meals, fiber.


Rosenvold, K.; Andersen, H. J. (2003). The significance of pre-slaughter stress and diet on colour and colour stability of pork. Meat Science 63 (2): 199-209, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Abstract: The influence of pre-slaughter stress and a diet known to affect post mortem muscle metabolism or a standard diet (control pigs) on colour and colour stability of M. longissimus dorsi, M. biceps femoris and M. semimembranosus from 112 female pigs, free of the Halothane gene, was investigated. Pre-slaughter stress increased the early post mortem temperature in the 3 muscles, as well as the pH decline in control pigs, but not in pigs fed the experimental diet. Colour was measured on sliced samples after 0, 2 and 5 days retail display (1, 3 and 6 days post mortem, respectively) from the 3 muscles aged 1 day before cutting as well as on sliced M. longissimus dorsi samples aged 8 days before cutting (8, 10 and 13 days post mortem, respectively). Early post mortem pH was not a main determinant of the colour and colour stability, while the degree of pre-slaughter stress and especially its influence on temperature early post mortem was crucial in relation to colour development and colour stability. The discoloration rate was enhanced in M. longissimus dorsi aged for 8 days prior to retail display compared with samples aged for 1 day. However, the extent of the discoloration after 5 days of retail display was not inferior in muscle samples aged for 8 days due to a higher degree of blooming. Finally, present data indicate that 3-4 days ageing of pork prior to retail display results in the optimal colour stability.

Keywords: aging, color, diets, discoloration, exercise, muscles, pig meat, postmortem changes, slaughter, stability, storage, stress, temperature.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Schulze, V.; Roehe, R.; Looft, H.; Kalm, E. (2001). Effects of continuous and periodic feeding by electronic feeders on accuracy of measuring feed intake information and their genetic association with growth performances. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 118 (6): 403-416, ISSN: 0931-2668.

NAL Call No.: 442.8 Z35.

Keywords: electronic feeding stations, equipment, continuous feeding regime, periodic feeding regime, growth rate, backfat thickness, feed intake, estimation accuracy, measurement accuracy, feed intake behavior, feeder visits per day, time per day, time per visit.


Shelton, J.L.; Hemann, M.D.; Strode, R.M.; Brashear, G.L.; Ellis, M.; McKeith, F.K.; Bidner, T.D.; Southern, L.L. (2001). Effect of different protein sources on growth and carcass traits in growing finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): 2428-2435, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: animal feed, protein, different protein source effects, soybean meal, carcass trait, growing finishing.


Shoremi, O.I.; Adama, I.S. (2001). Utilization of wheat offals by weaner pigs in a warm environment. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (8): 804-806, ISSN: 0367-8318.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22.

Keywords: weaner pigs, wheat offal, substitute for maize grain, daily feed intake, daily body weight gain, feed cost per kg body weight gain.


Spencer, J.D.; Cabrera, R.; Graves, R.; Boyd, R.D.; Vignes, J.; Allee, G.L. (2001). Effect of early-weaning (14 vs. 19 d) on sow lactation performance during heat stress. II. Effect on milk replacer on piglet growth to weaning and 66 d of age. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 62, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: piglets, sows, milk replacer, piglet growth, weaning effect, heat stress, lactation, nutrition, meeting abstract.


Spoolder, H.A.M.; Edwards, S.A.; Corning, S. (1999). Effects of group size and feeder space allowance on welfare in finishing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 69(3):481-489, ISSN: 0003-3561.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: finishing, aggression, liveweight gain, feed dispensers, feeding, animal housing, lesions, pens, skin, skin lesions, weight gain, animal welfare, fattening performance, group size, feeding behavior.


Spreeuwenberg, M.A.; Verdonk, J.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Verstegen, M.W. (2001). Small intestine epithelial barrier function is compromised in pigs with low feed intake at weaning. Journal of Nutrition 131 (5): 1520-7, ISSN: 0022-3166.

NAL Call No.: 389.8 J82.

Abstract: Compromising alterations in gastrointestinal architecture are common during the weaning transition of pigs. The relation between villous atrophy and epithelial barrier function at weaning is not well understood. This study evaluated in vitro transepithelial transport by Ussing metabolic chambers, local alterations in T-cell subsets and villous architecture at low energy intake level and their relation with lactose/protein ratios in the diet. Pigs (n = 66, 26 d old) were sampled either at weaning (d 0), d 1, 2 or 4 postweaning. Piglets received one of three diets at a low energy intake level, which differed in lactose and protein ratio as follows: low lactose/high protein (LL/HP), control (C), or high lactose/low protein (HL/LP). Mean digestible energy intake was 648 kJ/pig on d 1, 1668 kJ/pig on d 2, 1995 kJ/pig on d 3 and 1990 kJ/pig on d 4 postweaning. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocytes ratio decreased after weaning (P < 0.05). Decreased paracellular transport (P < 0.01), greater villous height (P < 0.01), shallower crypts and lower villus/crypt ratios (P < 0.01) were observed on d 2 compared with d 0. Piglets consuming the HL/LP diet tended to have less paracellular transport (P < 0.10) and greater villous height (P < 0.10) compared with piglets fed the other diets. During the first 4 d postweaning, the effect of diet composition on mucosal integrity was not as important as the sequential effects of low energy intake at weaning. Stress and diminished enteral stimulation seem to compromise mucosal integrity as indicated by increased paracellular transport and altered T-cell subsets.

Keywords: dietary proteins, metabolism, small intestine, physiology, lactose, administration and dosage, metabolism, weaning, dietary proteins, administration and dosage, energy intake, epithelium, physiology, pathology, t-lymphocytes.


Turner, S.P., Edwards, S.A.; Bland, V.C. (1999). The influence of drinker allocation and group size on the drinking behaviour, welfare and production of growing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 68(4):617-624, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Keywords: pigs, nipple drinkers, ratios, drinking, water intake, aggressive behavior, group size, lesions, liveweight gain, diurnal variation, feed intake, feed conversion, animal welfare.


Turner, S.P.; Edwards, S.A. (1999). Methods of assessing adequacy of drinker provision in group-housed pigs. In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, pp.152-154.

NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23.

Keywords: animal welfare, livestock, legislation, animal housing, water, drinking, housing.


Van Kempen, T.; Park, B.; Hannon, M.; Matzat, P. (2001). Precision nutrition: Weighing feed ingredients correctly. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 81 (8): 726-730, ISSN: 0022-5142.

NAL Call No.: 382 So12.

Keywords: animal feed, feed scales, accuracies, equipment, animal diets, feed ingredients, correct weighing, feed mills, feed quality, quality feed mixing, cost.


Van Dijk, A.J.; Everts, H.; Nabuurs, M.J.; Margry, R.J.; Beynen, A.C. (2001). Growth performance of weanling pigs fed spray dried animal plasma: A review. Livestock Production Science 68 (2-3): 263-274, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: piglets, weanling, animal feed, feed additive, spray dried animal plasma, feed intake, post weaning diarrhea, review of literature, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, growth performance, costs.


Walton, J.R. (2001). Benefits of antibiotics in animal feed. In: Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition No. 3, Garnsworthy, P. C.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.11-37, ISBN: 1-897676-44-1.

Keywords: production, antiinfective agents, food hygiene, health, penicillin, tetracycline, human health, regulation, legislation.


Whittaker, X.; Edwards, S.A.; Spoolder H.A.M.; Lawrence, A.B.; Corning, S. (1999). Effects of straw bedding and high fibre diets on the behaviour of floor fed group-housed sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63(1):25-39, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: behaviour, aggression, pens, feeds, litter, housing, management, feeding, social behavior, fiber, straw, sows, molasses, beet pulp, housing, animal welfare.


Whittemore, C.T.; Green, D.M.; Knap, P.W. (2001). Technical review of the energy and protein requirements of growing pigs: Protein. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (3): 363-373, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: growing pig, review of literature, protein requirements, digestible protein, amino acid requirements, energy, absorption, retention, mathematical methods, algorithms.


Whittemore, E.C.; Kyriazakis, I.; Emmans, G.C.; Tolkamp, B.J. (2001). Tests of two theories of food intake using growing pigs: 1. The effect of ambient temperature on the intake of foods of differing bulk content. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (2): 351-360, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: growing pigs, ambient temperature, food intake, bulk content, food intake theories, tests.


Whittemore, E.C.; Emmans, G.C.; Tolkamp, B.J.; Kyriazakis, I. (2001). Tests of two theories of food intake using growing pigs. 2. The effect of a period of reduced growth rate on the subsequent intake of foods of differing bulk content. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (2): 361-373, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Abstract: The effect of a period of feeding on a high bulk food, upon the subsequent intake of foods of differing bulk content, was investigated in two experiments of the same design. The intention was to provide a severe test of the two current conceptual frameworks available for the prediction and understanding of food intake. In each experiment 40 male Manor Meishan pigs were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups at weaning. Each experiment was split into two periods, P1 (12 to 18 kg) and P2 (18 to 32 kg). The treatments, all with ad libitum feeding, were: a control food (C) given throughout (treatment CC); a medium bulk food (M) given throughout (treatment MM); a high bulk food (H) given in P1 and then C in P2 (treatment HC); H given in P1 and M in P2 (treatment HM). C was based on micronized wheat with 13.4 MJ digestible energy and 243 g crude protein per kg fresh food. In experiment 1 M contained 350 g/kg and H 560 g/kg of unmolassed sugar-beet pulp and in experiment 2 M contained 500 g/kg and H 700 g/kg of unmolassed sugar-beet pulp. Framework 1 predicted that food intake on the medium bulk food (M) would not be increased, whereas framework 2 predicted that intake on M would be increased after a period of feeding on H, compared with when M was offered continuously. In P1, both food intake (P<0.01) and growth (P<0.001) were severely limited on H compared with C. In experiment 1 growth was limited on M compared with C during the first 7 days of P1 (P<0.01) only. In experiment 2 intake (P < 0.001) and growth (P< 0.001) on M were limited throughout P1, compared with C but not thereafter. Therefore, in neither experiment did M cause a lower growth rate than C from 18 to 32 kg. In experiment 1 there was full adaptation to M after about 10 days from 12 kg. In experiment 2 adaptation was complete by the end of the first 7 days from 18 kg. In P2, food intake (P<0.001) and live-weight gain (P<0.05 and P < 0.001 in experiments 1 and 2, respectively) were increased on HC compared with CC. By the last 7 days of P2 intake was still higher (P < 0.01) but growth rate was no longer different to CC. Intake and gain were increased in P2 on HM compared with MM but, in general, these differences were small and not significant. In the first 7 days of P2, in experiment 1 pigs on HM had higher intakes (P < 0.001) and gains (P < 0.05) than those on MM, but in experiment 2 only intake was higher (P < 0.01) with no difference in gain. By the last 7 days of P2 there was no difference in either intake or gain between these two groups in either experiment. Pigs on HC increased intake by more than those on HM. There was, therefore, a significant interaction for food intake (P < 0.05, in experiment 1 and P < 0.001, in experiment 2) between prior and present food. The unexpected failure of either M food to limit growth throughout the experimental period meant that the results of these experiments could not be used as a strong test to reject either one of the frameworks. However, the ability of the pigs to compensate on M was less than that on C. The data provide some evidence that under conditions of compensation foods such as M may be limiting. This is in closer agreement with the framework that predicted that consumption of a limiting food will not increase after a period of feeding on a high bulk food (framework 1).

Keywords: Manor Meishan, breed, feed intake, feeding behavior, growth rate, liveweight gain, feeds, beet pulp, feeding.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Whittemore, C.T.; Green, D.M.; Knap, P.W. (2001). Technical review of the energy and protein requirements of growing pigs: food intake. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73(Part 1): 3-17, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: Food intake in pigs is highly variable across different production circumstances. This report concludes from a critical review of published observations that it was unrealistic to expect from the scientific literature purporting to express nutrient requirement any reasonable prediction of the particular food intake of groups of pigs. None the less, such knowledge is essential for the practical purposes of their day-to-day nutrition. The literature does however yield general principles from which may be derived: (a) the likely forms (but not the parameter values) of intake functions relating food intake to pig live weight; and (b) the likely factors involved in the modulation of food intake at any given live weight. Using these principles two methods for determining on-farm food intake from the use of simple and available records were proposed. The first requires knowledge only of start and final weight, the time elapsed, and total food intake: it involves two steps, the determination of a suitable growth curve followed by the fitting of a suitable food intake curve. The second method is appropriate in the absence of information on total food intake, and requires a minimum number of spot measurements through the growth period. Different functions were tested for the curve of best fit. As a further benefit it appeared that models could be constructed from the information presented that would speculate for diagnostic purposes upon the likely modulators of food intake. Such models could explore the constraints of gut capacity, the energetic requirements of maintenance and potential growth, the influence of excessive or inadequate environmental temperature, the quality of housing and stocking density.

Keywords: energy requirements, protein requirement, growth, feed intake, animal husbandry, nutrient requirements, nutritional state, liveweight, equations, mathematical models, literature reviews.


Xin, H.; Harmon, J.D.; Dong, H.; Harris, D.L.; Chepete, H.J.; Ewan, R.C.; Gramer, M.L. (1999). Effects of post-weaning nutritional conditions on isowean pigs. Transactions of the ASAE 42(5):1463-1469, ISSN: 0001-2351.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T.

Keywords: piglets, weight, nutrition, feeding, transport, physiology, animal welfare, water, body weight, transport of animals, management.


Xuan, Z.N.; Kim, J.D.; Heo, K.N.; Jung, H.J.; Lee, J.H.; Han, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.; Han, I.K. (2001). Study on the development of a probiotics complex for weaned pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (10): 1425-1428, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: dietary supplement, antibiotic, Ractocom, probiotics complex, diarrhea, avilamycin, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, growth performance, microbial population, nutrient digestibility.


Yang, J.S.; Lee, J.H.; Ko, T.G.; Kim, T.B.; Chae, B.J.; Kim, Y.Y.; Han, I.K. (2001). Effects of wet feeding of processed diets on performance, morphological changes in the small intestine and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (9): 1308-1315, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: breed, Yorkshire x Landrace x Duroc, feeding methods, small intestine, digestive system, morphology, nutritional method, expanded crumble diet, mash diet, pelleted diet, wet feeding, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, growth performance, nutrient digestibility.


Yin, Y.L.; McEvoy, J.D.; Schulze, H.; McCracken, K.J. (2001). Effects of xylanase and antibiotic addition on ileal and faecal apparent digestibilities of dietary nutrients and evaluating HCl insoluble ash as a dietary marker in growing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 95-103, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: growing pigs, xylanase, antibiotic, avoparcin, dietary supplement, crude protein, hydrochloric acid, insoluble ash, biomarker, neutral detergent fiber, non starch polysaccharide, wheat middling based diet, nutrient digestibility.


Zimmermann, B.; Bauer, E.; Mosenthin, R. (2001). Pro and prebiotics in pig nutrition: Potential modulators of gut health? Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 10 (1): 47-56, ISSN: 1230-1388.

NAL Call No.: SF1 J68.

Keywords: young pigs, stress, environmental conditions, probiotics, lactic acid producing bacteria, Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Eubacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, yeast, digestive system, microbial balance, oligosaccharides, fermentation.


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