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General


Ault; D. (1999). Swine Source Book: Alternatives for Pork Producers, Alternative Swine Production Systems Program, University of Minnesota Extension Service: St. Paul, Minn.

NAL Call No.: SF395 S87 1999.

Keywords: hog systems, alternative production systems, economics, small and medium-sized pork producers, extension livestock specialists, community based agricultural organizations, commodity organizations.


Aumaitre, A.L. (2001). Technical and economic changes in pig production in the European Union: past, present and future trends. Pig News and Information 22 (1): 11N-20N. ISSN: 0143-9014.

NAL Call No.: SF391.P55.

Keywords: animal welfare, environmental protection, European Union, feed conversion efficiency, food safety, pig farming, pig feeding, reviews, trends.


Bahnson, P.B.; Michalak, M.M.; Miller, G.Y. (2001). Pork producers’ attitudes, knowledge, and production practices that relate to on-farm food safety. Journal of Food Protection 64 (12): 1967-72, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Abstract: A survey was distributed by mail to a random selection of Illinois pig farmers marketing 1,000 or more pigs in 1998 to assess their knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding on-farm food safety. Valid responses were received from 353 of the 946 surveys mailed (37.3%). Pork production accounted for more than 50% of gross agricultural revenues among 65.0% of respondents, and 91.2% were classified as “owner-operators.” Knowledge of food-borne pathogens was mixed, with correct responses to questions as follows: Trichina, 80.4%; Salmonella, 58.5%; Toxoplasma, 19.9%; and Campylobacter, 12.8%. Producers strongly agreed that food safety was a shared responsibility at every level of the food chain, including the farm level, with an average score for all steps in the pork chain of 4.5 on a scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). When asked whether third party verification of on-farm practices was important, 51.2% agreed and 48.8% either disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. Associations between demographic categories and knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety were detected for herd size, proportion of agricultural receipts from pig production, grower versus birth-to-market production, age categories, and whether the respondent owned the pigs or facilities. Many (53.4%) were willing to apply a suggested food safety practice, even if there was no net profit for the practice. Findings suggest that Illinois pork producers accept an important role in pork food safety and express a willingness to participate but have knowledge gaps that should be filled.

Keywords: data collection, food microbiology, knowledge, attitudes, practice, questionnaires, safety record, Illinois.


Baker, R.M.; Fisher, M.; Hemsworth, P.H. (2001). Farm Animals in Research: Can We Meet the Demands of Ethics, Welfare, Science and Industry? Proceedings of the Conference Held at the Waite and Roseworthy Campuses of the University of Adelaide, November 30, December 1, 2000, ANZCCART: Adelaide, SA..

NAL Call No.: HV4757 F39 2001.

Keywords: animal welfare, laboratory animals, cloning, transgenics, human-animal interactions, farm animal disease models, Australia, New Zealand.


Barcos, L.O. (2001). Recent developments in animal identification and the traceability of animal products in international trade. Revue Scientifique et Technique 20(2): 640-51, ISSN: 0253-1933.

NAL Call No.: SF781 R4.

Abstract: The author explores the variations in the domestic livestock populations world-wide between 1961 and 1998, and observes a marked increase in the swine population, as compared to other domestic species. Trends in international trade of live animals over the same period are also analysed; international trade involved 1% of livestock world-wide and the international meat market constituted 10% of total meat production. The various stages of the food chain are analysed, from farm to fork, with emphasis on those elements to which the concept of traceability is applicable; from the composition of bovines, to slaughter, and through the various products and sub-products all the way to the final product consumed. Against this background, the characteristics of identification systems for individual animals and animal products is described, as well as applications to traceback and trace forward. To conclude, the author details the factors which influence the various processes of identification and traceability, and thus must be considered when choosing a system. The wide variability amongst systems world-wide is noted and attributed to the differences in sanitary and economic or socio-cultural criteria. The author therefore recommends that work should begin on international harmonisation of such systems.

Keywords: animal identification systems, commerce, standards, international cooperation, trends, meat, standards, meat products, animal welfare, public health, quality control, safety, veterinary medicine.


Bartussek, H. (2000). How to measure animal welfare? The idea of an “Animal Needs Index” ANI-35L (Tiergerechtheitsindex TGI 35L): a practical tool for assessing farm animal housing conditions on farm level in respect to animals’ well being and behavioural needs - Austrian experiences. In: Diversity of Livestock Systems and Definition of Animal Welfare. Proceedings of the Second NAHWOA Workshop, Cordoba, Spain, 8-11 January 2000, Hovi, M.; Garcia Trujillo, R. (Eds.), University of Reading Library (RUL): Reading, UK, pp.135-142, ISBN: 0-7049-1092-6. Available online at http://www.veeru.reading.ac.uk/organic/proceedings.htm

Keywords: housing, animal welfare, livestock, behavior, organic farming, Austria.


Baumgartner, J.; Wudy, W.; Jozefowski-Cizek, B.; Prinz, M.; Troxler, J.(2002). How is the knowledge on behaviour, husbandry and welfare of the livestock transferred to the Austrian farmers? [Wie kommt das Wissen uber Verhalten, Haltung und Schutz von Nutztieren zum osterreichischen Landwirt?] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 89 (1): 8-16, ISSN: 0043-535X.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 T345.

Keywords: animal welfare, husbandry, economics, public demands, applied ethology, animal behavior, knowledge transmission from scientists to farmers, phone interviews, questionnaires, attitude, education, information sources, and contact persons concerning animal behaviour, insufficient transfer of knowledge, improvements, Austria, German language.


De Lange, C.F.; Marty, B.J.; Birkett, S.; Morel, P.; Szkotnicki, B. (2001). Application of pig growth models in commercial pork production. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 1-8, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: growth model, management strategies, grower finisher pig units, nutrition, animal environment interactions, body protein deposition, breeding programs, commercial pork production, feed intake, feeding strategies, management strategies.


Ginder, R.G. (1999). Alternative models for the future of pork production: presented to NE-165 June 5, 1995. In: Pork Production and Financial Standards: Technical Manual Iowa State University: Ames, Iowa States. Available online at http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/pdf%5Fview.pl?paperid=985.

NAL Call No.: SF397.3 P67 1999.

Keywords: economic aspects, marketing channels, law, legislation, handbooks, manuals, United States.


Halverson, M. (2000). The Price We Pay for Corporate Hogs Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy: Minneapolis, MN, 154p. Available online at http://www.iatp.org/hogreport/indextoc.html

NAL Call No.: HD9435 U52 H35 2000.

Keywords: pig farming, small farms, marketing, health, disease, public safety concerns, environmental impact, animal welfare, husbandry standards.


Hameenoja, P. (2001). Animal health and welfare, pig production. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum (Suppl. 95): 33-36, ISSN: 0065-1699.

Keywords: behavior, health, production, animal welfare, organic farming, roughage, space requirements.


Heleski, C.R.; Zanella, A.J.; Pajor, E.A. (2003) Animal welfare judging teams a way to interface welfare science with traditional animal science curricula? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(3): 279-289.

NAL Call No.: QL750.

Keywords: animal evaluation courses, animal science curricula, education, novel idea, conformation traits, animal welfare, welfare assessment, competitions, judging teams.


Holloway, I.A.; Waran, N.; Austin, E. (1999). Assessing public attitudes towards pig welfare in the UK. Pig Journal 44: 38-51, ISSN: 1352-9740.

NAL Call No.: SF971 P5.

Keywords: attitudes, animal welfare, consumer behaviour, pig farming, questionnaires.


Honeyman, M.S. (1996). Sustainability issues of U.S. swine production. Journal of Animal Science 74 (6):1410-1417, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call Number: 49 J82.

Abstract: The incorporation of livestock into agricultural systems ensures a more sustainable agriculture. Sustainable swine production systems are defined as those that combine production and management techniques to enhance profit and improve the ecological and socioeconomic surroundings. Over the long term, the systems should maintain or enhance the environment and resource base, the quality of life for the producers and society as a whole, the profit level of producers, and the quality of pork produced. Swine production in the United States is rapidly changing to fewer and larger production units. At the interface of sustainable agriculture and swine production are several levels of issues. Four levels of issues are the farm, the rural community, the society or consuming public, and the ecosystem or environment. By examining each level, long-term sustainability issues for U.S. swine production emerge. Some of these issues include swine care and husbandry, producer health, management and production systems, access to markets, information, technology and genetics, producer entrance requirements, specialization, manure utilization, industry structure, pork quality and leanness, and the impact of modern intensive systems on the environment, farms, and rural communities. The challenge beyond identifying issues is to incorporate sustainable concepts into profitable, ecologically based swine production systems. Several major groups of issues are discussed, including swine industry structure change issues, access and entrance issues, manure, by-product and nuisance issues, and pork quality issues. Many of these issues can be addressed. The solutions often rely on increased education, management, or technology applications. These processes provide broad opportunities for animal scientists. Examples of current solutions are quality assurance programs, segregated age rearing techniques, educational and promotional commodity programs, manure management programs, phase feeding, diet manipulation to alter manure nutrient concentrations, young producer assistance programs, producer networking, and environmental awareness activities. There are many more opportunities for improving the sustainability of U.S. swine production, when a long-term, issue-oriented viewpoint is maintained.

Keywords: pig farming, sustainability, pig manure, agricultural structure, rural economy, meat quality, application to land.


Horvath, G; Visnyei, L. (2001). Questionnaire assessment of the welfare of pigs. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 49 (1): 1-10, ISSN: 0236-6290.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 AC83.

Abstract: A questionnaire study was performed involving 76 farms with a total of 380,207 pigs to assess the welfare of pigs kept in Hungary based on the animal welfare legislation of the European Union. Most significant deficiencies were found in the fulfillment of the provisions relating to space requirements, the stall microclimate and the behavioural needs of the animals.

Keywords: husbandry, standards, animal welfare, standards, physiology, husbandry, methods,, housing, animal, questionnaires, swine, psychology, European Union, Hungary.


Huang, Y.H.; Lee, Y.P.; Yang, T.S. (2001). Optimal operation scale of hog production for farrow to finish farms. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (9): 1326-1330, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: marketing hogs, lowest production cost, greatest profit, family owned farrow to finish farms, farm expenses, veterinary medicine, labor, utilities, fuel, transportation, depreciation, stockmanship, herd management, feed conversion efficiency, mortality, quadratic regression models.


Kelley, T. (2001). Your one-stop modeling source: here is a handy reference of computer modeling programs available to the pork industry. Pork 21 (4): 16-19, ISSN: 0745-3787.

NAL Call No.: HD9435 P5.

Keywords: computer software, cost benefit analysis, financial management, early weaning, segregated early weaning, feasibility studies, growth, nutrition, lean-growth modeling reproductive performance, simulation models, waste management, reproduction, production, biosecurity, packing plant feasibility.


Krieter, J (2001). Computer simulation of costs and benefits of segregated early weaning (SEW) in a vertical pork production chain. DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift 108 (7): 303-6, ISSN: 0341-6593.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 D482.

Abstract: A simulation model was developed to quantify costs and benefits of segregated early weaning (SEW) compared to standard pork production in a vertically integrated system. The computer model considers the farrowing, fattening and slaughtering stage as well as the transportation of pigs between these stages. Input parameters relate to both biological and economic variables which were varied within a normal bandwidth (sensitivity analysis, high and low level). Model output concerns the production costs per slaughter-pig in each stage and for the chain as a whole. With standard pork production the costs per head accounted for 131.72. 28% of the total chain production costs were raised by the farrowing stage, 15% by weaning-to-fattening period (28 kg live weight) and 57% by the fattening stage (> 28 until 115 kg). Despite higher expenses for facilities, transportation and labour, SEW reduced the total chain production cost to 128.02 (low) and 121.32 (high) per head due to higher biological performance, lower medication and reduced fixed costs per unit. N- and P-excretion diminished by 13%. The results indicate that SEW may be an effective and beneficial alternative which meets some of the demands of pig producers and consumers such as effective production, good health and food safety.

Keywords: husbandry, economics, computer simulation, models, physiology, weaning, cost-benefit analysis, time factors.


Paarlberg, P.L.; Haley, M.M. (2001). Market concentration and vertical coordination in the pork industry: implications for public policy analysis. Agribusiness: an International Journal 17 (2): 197-212. ISSN: 0742-4477.

NAL Call No.: HD1401.A56.

Keywords: pork, meat and livestock industry, agricultural policy, economic impact, imperfect competition, structural change, marketing policy, vertical integration, market power.


Reynnells, R.; Blake, J. (2002). Future Trends in Animal Agriculture: Standards for Food Animal Production: Status, Well-being, and Social Responsibility. Proceedings, September 18, 2002, Washington, DC. Available online at http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/FTAAProceedings/standardsfoodanimal.pdf

NAL Call No.: aSF51 F88 2002.

Keywords: livestock, poultry, standards, future plans, farm representatives, commodity organizations, specialty markets.


Rollin, B.E. (2001). An ethicist’s commentary on the producer who is unwilling to euthanize sick pigs. Canadian Veterinary Journal 42 (1): 8, ISSN: 0008-5286.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 R3224.

Keywords: ethics, professional, euthanasia, pain, pentobarbital, administration and dosage, prevention and control, husbandry, mortality, physiopathology.


Rousing, T.; Bonde, M.; Sorensen, J.T. (2001). Aggregating welfare indicators into an operational welfare assessment system: A bottom up approach. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science (Supplementum 30): 53-57, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Keywords: sows, pregnant, animal welfare, assessment, definition, indicators, protocol, decision support, human animal relationships, loose housing.


Steinheimer, T.R.; Scoggin, K.D. (2001). Discriminant analysis of particulate material, PM10, from agricultural settings and commercial swine production facilities in Central Iowa using FTIR PAS. Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society 222 (1-2): ANYL50, ISSN: 0065-7727.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, PM10 particulate material, agricultural production setting, air quality monitoring, commercial swine production, Iowa, meeting abstract.


Stevenson, P. (2001). Animal welfare issues in the intensive farming of pigs in the European Union. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp. 4-10.

Keywords: abnormal behavior, animal housing, animal welfare, castration, genetic engineering, intensive husbandry, overcrowding, restricted feeding, reviews, selective breeding, sows, straw, tail biting, urinary tract diseases, European Union.


Sustainable Agriculture Network. (2001). Profitable Pork: Strategies for Hog Producers Sustainable Agriculture Network : Washington, D.C., 15p. Available online at http://www.sare.org/publications/hogs.htm

NAL Call No.: SF395.8 A1 P76 2001

Keywords: sows, finishing pigs, housing, alternative production systems.


Taylor, D.A. (2001). From pigsties to hog heaven? Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (7): A328-31, ISSN: 0091-6765.

Abstract: In the continuing transformation of U.S. agriculture, North Carolina finds itself on the front edge of change. Between 1989 and 1998, the number of hogs in the state’s pork industry quintupled, and so has the amount of hog waste that must be disposed of. Now the state has engaged private and public resources in a rapid search for better ways for handling hog waste. A technology review panel has approved the first round of proposals for a number of novel technologies to be developed through funds from a government-industry agreement. A second batch of proposals is expected to be approved by late summer.

Keywords: environmental pollution, prevention and control, manure, refuse disposal, animal welfare, facility design and construction, technology, trends, North Carolina.


Tiwari, R.; Tiwari, R. (2001). Knowledge of livestock owners in scientific pig rearing. Indian Journal of Animal Research 35 (1): 73-74, ISSN: 0367-6722.

NAL Call No.: QL1 I53.

Keywords: farm surveys, pig farmers, knowledge, feeding, breeding, health, animal care, need for more training, extension services.


Verhoog, H. (2000). Defining positive welfare and animal integrity. In: Diversity of Livestock Systems and Definition of Animal Welfare. Proceedings of the Second NAHWOA Workshop, Cordoba, Spain, 8-11 January 2000, Hovi, M.; Garcia Trujillo, R. (Eds.), University of Reading Library (RUL): Reading, UK, pp.108-119 120-134, ISBN: 0-7049-1092-6. Available online at http://www.veeru.reading.ac.uk/organic/proceedings.htm

Keywords: animal welfare, livestock, organic farming.


Vermeer, H.M.; Altena, H.; Bestman, M.; Ellinger, L.; Cranen, I.; Spoolder, H. A. M.; Baars, T. (2001). Organic pig farms in the Netherlands. In: Human-animal Relationship: Stockmanship and Housing in Organic Livestock Systems. Proceedings of the Third NAHWOA Workshop, Clermont-ferrand, France, October 21-24, 2000, Hovi, M.; Bouilhol, M. (Eds.), Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, University of Reading: Reading, UK, pp.144-145, ISBN: 0-7049-1094-2. Available online at http://www.veeru.reading.ac.uk/organic/proceedings.htm

Keywords: organic farming, pig farming, housing, Netherlands.


Wachenfelt, H. von (2001). The environmental load from outdoor areas and yards for pigs. Sustainable handling and utilisation of livestock manure from animals and plants. In: Proceedings, NJF-Seminar no. 320, January 16-19, Denmark, Rom, H.B.; Sorensen, C.G. (Eds.), DIAS Report, Animal Husbandry (No. 21): 24-33, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences: Tjele, Denmark, ISSN: 1397-9868.

Keywords: pig production, housing, piglet-finishing unit, semi-outdoor production, environmental impact, runoff water, drainage water, yards, barns, biochemical oxygen demand, suspended substances, total solids content, chemical oxygen demand, Sweden.


Webster, A.J.F (2001). Farm animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market. The Veterinary Journal 161(3) 229-237, ISSN: 1090-0233.

NAL Call No.: SF601.V484.

Keywords: review, scientific, ethical and economic factors, animal welfare, ethical matrix, wellbeing, autonomy, fitness, suffering, husbandry, legislation, free market, quality assurance schemes, quality control, independent audit.


Younie, D.; Wilkinson, J.M. (2001). Organic Livestock Farming. Papers Presented at Conference Held at the Heriod-watt University, Edinburgh and at the University of Reading, UK, February 9-19, 2001, 179 p., Chalcombe Publications: Lincoln, UK, ISBN: 0-948617-45-4.

Keywords: beef, dairy, swine, sheep, poultry, organic livestock farming, organic meat, marketing, health, animal welfare, consumer attitudes, grassland management. 


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