Swine Health


Aarestrup, F.M. (1999). Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 12 (4): 279-85, ISSN: 0924-8579.

Abstract: Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine to limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

Keywords: anti-infective agents, administration and dosage, drug resistance, multiple, meat, microbiology.


Agrawal, M.C.; Jain, J.; Rao, K.N. (2001). Sudden death of piglets during immature schistosome infection. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (7): 681-682, ISSN: 0367-8318.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22.

Keywords: piglets, parasitic disease, Schistosoma incognitum, digestive system, intestines, liver, respiratory system, lungs, anaphylactic shock, prenatal sensitization, sudden death.


Alexopoulos, C. (2001). Association of Fusarium mycotoxicosis with failure in applying an induction of parturition program with PGF2alpha and oxytocin in sows. Theriogenology 55 (8): 1745-57, ISSN: 0093-691X.

NAL Call No.: QP251 A1T5.

Abstract: This trial was conducted in a farrow-to-finish pig unit from November 1999 to February 2000. Since November 1998 an induction-of-parturition program was applied in gilts and sows with PGF2alpha (2 mL Dinolytic, i.m.) 113 d post service, followed by oxytocin (1 mL Intertocine-S, i.m.) 24 h later. This program resulted in a high proportion of animals farrowing within the working hours of the day. At mid December 1999 splay-legs and edematous swelling and reddening of the vulva started to be observed in newborn piglets. A concurrent decline of parameters related to parturition also was noticed. Mycotoxicological analyses of the feeds revealed a co-occurring contamination with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For a 4-week period, sows were divided into two groups: (a) an induction-of-parturition and (b) a non-induction-of-parturition group. Significant differences were found between the two groups relating to prevalence of dystocia (<.05) and pregnancy duration (<.05). Moreover, it was found that prevalence of splay-legs and swelling of the vulva were highly correlated (<.05) with reduction of percentage of sows farrowing within the working day and increase of pre-weaning mortality. It was concluded that such an induction-of-parturition program should be avoided during a Fusarium mycotoxicosis.

Keywords: dinoprost, pharmacology, fusarium, mycotoxicosis, labor, induced parturition, oxytocin, disease, physiopathology, animal feed, analysis, fetal death, epidemiology.


Alexopoulos, C.; Karagiannidis, A.; Kritas, S.K.; Boscos, C.; Georgoulakis, I.E.; Kyriakis, S.C. (2001). Field evaluation of a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus spores on health status and performance of sows and their litters. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 48(3): 137-145, ISSN: 0931-184X.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z5.

Keywords: sows, piglets, late pregnancy, Paciflor, bioregulator, Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 spores, probiotic, body weight gain, farrowing, feed conversion ratio, growth, lactation, pregnancy.


Bach Knudsen, K.E. (2001). Development of antibiotic resistance and options to replace antimicrobials in animal diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60 (3): 291-9, ISSN: 0029-6651.

NAL Call No.: 389.9 N953.

Abstract: As there is a risk of developing antibiotic resistance, a number of commonly used antimicrobial growth promoters have been banned in the EU member states. This decision has put new emphasis on using the diet to control enteric bacterial infections of pigs. Dietary carbohydrates constitute a major proportion of diets for pigs, and the carbohydrate fraction has a diverse composition, with different properties in the gastrointestinal tract, some of which are of importance to gut health. Findings from different studies indicate that dietary carbohydrate composition influences the expression of swine dysentery and infection with nematode worms after experimental challenge with Brachyspira hyodesenteriae and Oesophagostumum dentatum respectively. In both cases the type, amount and physico-chemical properties of the carbohydrates entering the large intestine played an important role in the infection, and emerging data suggest a synergism between different porcine pathogens. There is also increasing evidence that the feed structure, which relates to the type of plant material in the diet and the way it is processed, can be used to reduce Salmonella prevalence at the herd level. However, it should be stressed that using the diet to manage gut health is not straightforward, since the expression of a pathogen in many cases requires the presence of other components of the commensal biota. (75 Refs.)

Keywords: antibiotics, ban, pharmacology, dietary carbohydrates, metabolism, enterobacteriaceae infections, nematode infections, disease, prevention and control, animal feed, dietary carbohydrates, analysis, drug resistance, drug effects, pathogenicity, European Union.


Barnett, P.V.; Carabin, H. (2002). A review of emergency foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. Vaccine 20 (11-12): 1505-1514, ISSN: 0264-410X.

NAL Call No.: QR189 V32.

Keywords: cattle, pigs, sheep, literature review, emergency foot-and-mouth disease vaccines, viral disease, vaccination, immunization-method, clinical signs, local virus replication, spread of infection.


Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Hontecillsa-Magarzo, R.; Bregendahl, K.; Wannemuehler, M.J.; Zimmerman, D.R. (2001). Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid in nursery pigs of dirty and clean environments on growth, empty body composition, and immune competence. Journal of Animal Science 79 (3) 714-721, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: Early-weaned pigs (n = 64) averaging 5.3 +/- 0.3 kg and distributed into two environments (dirty and clean) were used to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance, immune competence, and empty body composition. A factorial (2 x 4) arrangement within a split-plot design, with four littermate pigs as the experimental unit for the environment, pig within litter as the experimental unit for dietary treatment, and d-0 body weight used as covariate, were used in data analysis. Diets were formulated to contain CLA at 0, 0.67, 1.33, or 2% and to exceed the NRC (1988) nutrient needs of pigs. Animals were given ad libitum access to feed for 7 wk in three phases (I, 1 to 2; II, 3 to 5; and III, 6 to 7 wk). Within phases, diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In Phase I, as dietary CLA concentration increased, ADG and ADFI decreased linearly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively). In Phase II, upon adaptation to dietary CLA supplementation, ADG increased quadratically (603, 623, 622, and 548 g/d; P < 0.01), ADFI decreased linearly (873, 840, 867, and 717 g/d; P < 0.02) and gain:feed ratio tended to increase linearly (691, 742, 715, and 763; P < 0.07). In Phase III, no differences in growth performance were attributed to either dietary or environmental treatments. The poor health status associated with the dirty environment induced a growth suppression; pigs in the clean room had a greater cumulative ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.01) than pigs in the dirty room. In Phase I, lower plasma urea nitrogen levels observed in pigs found in the dirty room (P < 0.03) indicated a lower protein intake caused by a lower ADFI. The effects of dietary CLA on peripheral phenotypic profiles of lymphocytes did not appear until d 42. However, as indicated by the growth suppression of pigs in the dirty room, the negative effects of the environmental challenge on pig health and growth had already appeared during phase I. On d 42, CLA induced a linear increase in percentages of CD8+ lymphocytes (21.7, 22.3, 28.0, and 32.7%, P < 0.001). These data suggest that a 42-d dietary CLA supplementation preceding a disease challenge could have prevented disease-associated growth suppression. Also, CLA-mediated amelioration of particular infectious diseases will depend on which CD8+ T cell subset (i.e., CD8alphaalpha immunoregulatory or CD8alphabeta-cytotoxic) is most influenced by dietary CLA supplementation.

Keywords: piglets, linoleic acid, isomers, early weaning, hygiene, body weight, cd8+ lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity, unrestricted feeding, liveweight gain, feed conversion, health, cd4+ lymphocytes, lymphocyte transformation, leukocyte count, body composition, blood plasma, urea, blood composition, glycoproteins.


Cagienard, A.; Regula, G.; Danuser, J. (2002). The impact of different housing systems on the health and welfare of grower and finisher pigs. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Twentieth Anniversary Proceedings of a Meeting Held at University of Cambridge, UK, April 3-5, 2002, Menzies, F.D.; Reid, S.W.J. (Eds.), Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Roslin, UK, pp.120-126, ISBN: 0-948073-54-3.

Keywords: health, housing, husbandry, animal welfare, Switzerland.


Carr, J. (2001). Porcine respiratory disease syndrome. International Pig Topics 16 (5): 11-13.

NAL Call No.: SF391 I58.

Keywords: etiology, air flow, air quality, buildings, curtains, drug therapy, dust, environmental factors, fans, feeds, floors, gases, humidity, hygiene, insulation, litter, pig housing, respiratory diseases, stocking density, temperature, ventilation, water supply.


Carrasco, L.; Ruiz, V.E.; Gomez, V.J.; Salguero, F.J.; Bautista, M.J.; Macia, M.; Quezada, M.; Jover, A. (2001). Classical swine fever: Morphological and morphometrical study of pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Journal of Comparative Pathology 125 (1): 1-7, ISSN: 0021-9975.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 J82.

Keywords: breed, Large White x Landrace, classical swine fever, hog cholera, pulmonary intravascular macrophages, Golgi complexes, hyperplastic, macrophage, immune system, pulmonary intravascular macrophages, immunohistochemistry.


Carstensen, L.; Vaarst, M.; Roepstorff, A. (2002). Helminth infections in Danish organic swine herds. Veterinary Parasitology 106 (3): 253-64, ISSN: 0304-4017.

NAL Call No.: SF810.V4.
Abstract: In nine organic swine herds, faecal excretion and pasture contamination by parasite eggs/larvae were studied in a period from March to October 1999. It was shown that the organic pigs were infected with Ascaris suum (28% of weaners, 33% of fatteners, 4% of sows), Trichuris suis (4% of weaners, 13% of fatteners, <1% of sows) and Oesophagostomum spp. (5% of weaners, 14% of fatteners, 20% of sows) whereas no infections with Hyostrongylus rubidus, Metastrongylus spp. or Strongyloides ransomi were detected. Moreover, no pigs showed clinical signs of infestations with scabies or lice. In the soil samples, very few Trichuris eggs were found throughout the season, whereas Ascaris eggs were found in 14% of the soil samples from sow pastures and in 35% from slaughter pig pastures, with the first infective eggs being recorded in July and the maximum number in August. Infective Oesophagostomum larvae were found in the grass samples in increasing numbers from May to October. Single herd cases of exceptionally high parasite infection levels are described in relation to herd management procedures.
Keywords: organic swine herds, disease, parasitology, Helminths, Oesophagostomum larvae, epidemiology, interviews, parasite egg count, seasonal effects, Denmark.


Chianini, F.; Majo, N.; Segales, J.; Dominguez, J.; Domingo, M. (2001). Immunohistological study of the immune system cells in paraffin embedded tissues of conventional pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 82 (3-4): 245-255, ISSN: 0165-2427.

NAL Call No.: SF757.2 V38.

Keywords: healthy conventionally reared pigs, immune system histology, baseline data, tissue samples, lungs, tonsils, lymph nodes (mediastinal, mesenteric, inguinal and submandibular), pancreas, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, ileum and stomach, T cells, B cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, formalin, fixative, paraffin, embedding agent, immunohistochemistry, avidin biotin peroxidase method, analytical method.


Cowart, R.P.; Casteel, S.W. (2001). An Outline of Swine Diseases: A Handbook, 2nd ed., Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 191 p.

NAL Call No.: SF971 C695 2001.

Keywords: swine medicine, veterinarian’s role in swine production, health management techniques,etiology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, disease control, toxic agents, North America.


Cullen, P.; Chattin, S.E.; Clift, R.E.; Mathew, A.G. (2001). Effects of environment and management conditions on antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with swine. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 101: 750, ISSN: 1060-2011.

NAL Call No.: QR1 A5.

Keywords: pathogens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, serovar typhimurium, antibacterial drugs, apramycin sulfate, ceftiofur sodium, nalidixic acid, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, drug resistance, cold stress, heat stress, overcrowding, intermingling, poor sanitation, meeting abstract.


Davies, Z.E.; Guise, H.J.; Penny, R.H.C.; Sibly, R.M. (2001). Effects of stone chewing by outdoor sows on their teeth and stomachs. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 149 (1): 9-11, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Keywords: sows, stones, animal behavior, teeth, stomach, disorders, injury, England.


De Jong, J.C.; Heinen, P.P.; Loeffen, W.L.; Van Nieuwstadt, A.P.; Claas, E.C.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Bijlsma, K.; Verweij, C.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Fouchier, R.A.; Kimman, T.G. (2001). Antigenic and molecular heterogeneity in recent swine influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates with possible implications for vaccination policy. Vaccine 19 (31): 4452- 4464, ISSN: 0264-410X.

NAL Call No.: QR189 V32.

Keywords: antigenic drift, swine influenza, antigenic heterogeneity, molecular heterogeneity, strain H1N1, strain H3N2, influenza vaccine, efficacy, swine influenza virus infection, respiratory system disease, viral disease, vaccination.


Dee, S. (2001). Technologies that improve the health and performance of nursery pigs. The Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 23 (2): S19-S24.ISSN: 0193-1903.

NAL Call No.: SF601.C66.

Keywords: pig farming, animal health, performance, animal husbandry, disease control, production.


Dee, S.A.; Molitor, T.W.; Rossow, K.D. (2000). Epidemiological and diagnostic observations following the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from a breeding herd of pigs by the test and removal protocol. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 146 (8): 211-213, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: SF601 I4.

Keywords: diagnosis, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, finishing, pregnancy, lymph nodes, sows, epidemiology, disease control, viral diseases, sow breeding herd.


Dee, S. (2001). Miscellaneous conditions of nursery pigs. The Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 23 (2): S14-S18, ISSN: 0193-1903.

NAL Call No.: SF601.C66.

Keywords: bacterial diseases, staphylococcus hyicus, mange, scabies, vitamin deficiencies, vitamin E, mineral deficiencies, selenium, mycotoxins, mycotoxicosis, sodium, poisoning, carbadox, behavior problems, tail biting, greasy pig disease, sodium ion toxicosis.


Dewey, C. (2002). Sows need individual attention. Journal of Swine Health and Production 10 (4): 146.

NAL Call No.: SF971 N472. Available online at http://www.aasv.org/shap.html

Keywords: sows, housing, health, performance, animal welfare.


Dionissopoulos, L.; De Lange, C.F.M.; Dewey, C.E.; MacInnes, J.I.; Friendship, R.M. (2001). Effect of health management strategy during rearing on grower-finisher pig performance and selected indicators of immune system stimulation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (2): 179-187, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Abstract: The effects of health management strategy during rearing on subsequent growth performance and indicators of immune system stimulation in grower-finisher (G-F) pigs were evaluated. Pigs of approximately 25 kg body weight (BW) were sourced from three different management systems: (1) a farrow-to-finish unit with identified respiratory problems (Conventional), (2) segregated early weaned (SEW; piglets sourced from multiple sow herds), and (3) a minimal disease farrow-to-finish operation (MD). The pigs were of similar genetic background and were housed under similar conditions until slaughter. During the grower phase, MD had the highest average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05), while it was similar for SEW and Conventional (P > 0.10). Feed to gain (F:G) was similar for MD and SEW (P > 0.10), and poorest for Conventional (P < 0.05). During the finisher phase, SEW had the lowest ADG, and the poorest F:G (P < 0.05), these parameters were similar for Conventional and MD (P > 0.10). Over the entire G-F period, performance of MD pigs was better than that of Conventional and SEW pigs. Performance depressions appeared related to the degree of anterior-ventral lung atelectasis, antibody titers to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, thymus size, plasma insulin-like growth factor levels, stomach ulceration, nasal turbinate damage, and microbial burden. The current study shows that the growth depressing effects of exposure to infectious organisms can be substantial in G-F pigs.

Keywords: pigs, immune system, animal husbandry, animal health, growth rate, carcass quality, respiratory diseases, early weaning, insulin-like growth factor, interleukins, IgG.


Docic, A.; Bilkei, G. (2001). The effect of vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on health and some production parameters in outdoor and indoor units. Pig Journal 47: 23-34, ISSN: 1352-9749.

NAL Call No.: SF971 P5.

Abstract: This trial was conducted to determine the effect of M. hyopneumoniae (MH) vaccination (Respisure) on indoor and outdoor pigs. A total of 430 piglets were randomly allocated to vaccinated or non-vaccinated indoor or outdoor groups (G). The trial was conducted during spring-summer, under pleasant continental weather conditions. The majority of the indoor animals showed positive titres at slaughter against MH, whereas the vaccinated and unvaccinated outdoor piglets showed more than 90% negative results. Unvaccinated indoor piglets presented significantly more lung lesions (P<0.001). The MH antibody titres were positively correlated (P<0.05) with the severity of lung lesions at slaughter. ADG of the unvaccinated indoor group was significantly different from the other groups (P< 0.001). These results suggest that under unfavourable indoor environments, vaccination of pigs against MH is one way to improve production. In outdoor units, MH vaccination, even with high MH prevalence, fails to significantly improve performance of the animals.

Keywords: antibody testing, extensive husbandry, immunization, lesions, liveweight gain, lungs, pig housing, piglets, respiratory diseases, vaccination.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Done, S. (2001). Enteric and respiratory diseases in the young weaned piglet. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management, Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: bacterial diseases, digestive system diseases, early weaning, growth promoters, piglets, reference works, respiratory diseases, reviews, risk factors, vaccination, vaccines, viral diseases, wasting disease, weaning.


Edrington, T.S.; Harvey, R.B.; Farrington, L.A.; Nisbet, D.J. (2001). Evaluation of subtherapeutic use of the antibiotics apramycin and carbadox on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella infection in swine. Journal of Food Protection 64 (12): 2067-2070, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Keywords: antibiotics, apramycin carbadox, amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, Salmonella, drug resistance.


Fangman, T.J.; Hardin, L.E.; Grellner, G.; Carlson, M.S.; Zulovich, J.M.; Coleman, J.L. Perry, IA (2001). Performance and disease status of pigs grown in a wean-to-finish facility compared to pigs grown in a conventional nursery and grower-finisher. Journal of Swine Health and Production 9 (2): 71-76.

NAL Call No.: SF971.N472. Available online at http://www.aasv.org/shap.html

Keywords: pigs, performance, growth rate, health, husbandry, rearing techniques, groups.


Fernandez, S; Sarkunas, M; Roepstorff, A (2001). Survival of infective Ostertagia ostertagi larvae on pasture plots under different simulated grazing conditions. Veterinary Parasitology 96 (4): 291-299, ISSN: 0304-4017.

NAL Call No.: SF810.V4.

Abstract: This study was carried out to examine the survival of infective Ostertagia ostertagi larvae (L(3)) on pasture under different simulated conditions of grazing, i.e. mixed grazing of cattle and nose-ringed sows, or grazing by cattle alone. Standardised pats of cattle faeces containing O. ostertagi eggs were deposited on three types of herbage plots, which were divided into zone 1: faecal pat; zone 2: a circle extending 25cm from the edge of the faecal pat; zone 3: a circle extending 25cm from the edge of zone 2. For “tall herbage” (TH) plots, the herbage in zone 2 was allowed to grow naturally, while the herbage in zone 3 was cut down to 5-7cm fortnightly, imitating a cattle-only pasture. For “short herbage” (SH) plots, the herbage in both zones 2 and 3 were cut down to 5-7cm fortnightly, imitating mixed grazing of cattle and sows. The grass in the “short herbage and scattered faeces” (SH/SF) plots were cut as for SH plots, and the faeces were broken down 3 weeks after deposition and scattered within zone 2, imitating the rooting behaviour of co-grazing sows. Five faecal pats from each plot group were collected on monthly basis, along with the herbage from zones 2 and 3 cut down to the ground. Infective larvae were then recovered from both faeces and herbage. The numbers of L(3) recovered from zone 1 were higher in the TH plots than in the other two groups and, furthermore, the larval counts from SH plots were always higher than from SH/SF plots. The three groups followed a similar pattern during the season regarding numbers of L(3) in zone 2, and no clear patterns between plot types were obtained. The presence of L(3) in zone 3 was almost negligible. Important differences were seen throughout the study from the biological point of view; more L(3) were able to survive in faeces on the TH plots, presumably reflecting a better protection from heat and desiccation compared to those in the other plots. The overall results support the idea that mixed grazing of cattle and pigs favour the reduction of O. ostertagi larval levels in pasture. This reduction is mainly due to the grazing behaviour of pigs, which by grazing up to the very edge of the cattle faeces, will either expose the larvae in faeces to adverse environmental summer conditions or ingest cattle parasite larvae, or both.

Keywords: disease, parasitology, Ostertagiasis transmission, Poaceae, mixed grazing, cattle and swine, feces, weather.


Fukawa, K.; Kusuhara, S. (2001). The genetic and non genetic aspects of leg weakness and osteochondrosis in pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (1): 114-122, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: leg weakness, culling, breeding pigs, evaluation, subjective scoring systems, osteochondrosis lesions, leg joints, scored optically, radiographically, histologically, heritable traits, confinement, nutrition.


Funk, J.A; Davies, P.R; Gebreyes, W. (2001). Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica prevalence in three-site swine production systems in North Carolina, USA. Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114 (9-10): 335-8, ISSN: 0005-9366.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45.

Abstract: The goal of this study was to identify risk factors associated with increased fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica (SE) in groups of market swine reared in large three-site production units. We conducted an intensive, long-term investigation of potential management and environmental risk factors operating during the growing phase of pig production. Data regarding finisher site characteristics, biosecurity protocols, group growth performance, medication usage, and environmental temperature were collected. Results indicate that SE infection is common. Risk factors were identified at both the finisher site and group level. Biosecurity and hygiene practices (absence of a toilet, more than 2 people present at a finisher site daily, and other domestic species at the site), environmental temperature (winter and spring seasons, increased temperature variability, and below median high temperature the day of sampling), and production performance (above median feed conversion) were associated with elevated SE prevalence. In addition, an association between the floor space allowances per pig at the time of sampling (a measure of the number of pigs sold prior to sampling) was identified, with greater space allowance associated with decreased prevalence. The results of this study identify potential management practices for evaluation for SE control and suggest caution in interpretation of fecal culture results when sampling from different marketing groups in swine production systems.

Keywords: feed, microbiology, Salmonella infections, etiology, Salmonella enterica, isolation and purification, feces, microbiology, hygiene, infection control, epidemiology, prevalence, North Carolina.


Gareis, M. (2001). A simple HPLC method for the determination of the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and B in blood serum of swine. Food Additives and Contaminants 18 (7): 635-643, ISSN: 0265-203X.

NAL Call No.: TX553 A3F65.

Keywords: ochratoxins A, ochratoxins B, blood serum, serum acidification, chemical analysis, food residue, mycotoxin, quantitative analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, simple method, analysis, meat.


Garkavenko, O.; Obriadina, A.; Meng, J.; Anderson, D.; Benard, H.J.; Schroeder, B.A.; Khudyakov, Y.E.; Fields, H.A.; Croxson, M.C. (2001). Detection and characterisation of swine hepatitis E virus in New Zealand. Journal of Medical Virology 65 (3): 525-529, ISSN: 0146-6615.

Keywords: hepatitis E virus, characterization, detection, strain AF 110390, feces, digestive system, RNA fragments, antibody, ELISA serology test, analytical method, New Zealand.


Georgsson, L.; Svendsen, J. (2001). One or two feeders for groups of 16 growing-finishing pigs: Effects on health and production. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A Animal Science 51 (4): 257-264, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Keywords: finishing pigs, single-space feeders, multiple feeders, feeder access, health, skin lesions, daily weight gain, feed intake,


Groot, J. de; Jong, I.C. de; Prelle, I.T.; Koolhaas, J.M. (2001). Immunity in barren and enriched housed pigs differing in baseline cortisol concentration. Physiology and Behavior 71 (3/4): 217-223, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: It was shown in a recent study that barren housed pigs (small pens, no substrate) have a blunted circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol, as compared to enriched housed pigs (large pens with daily fresh bedding). In the light period, enriched housed pigs showed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol in saliva than barren housed pigs, whereas in the dark period, cortisol concentrations were low in both enriched and barren housed pigs. In the present study, the immunological consequences of the difference in baseline salivary cortisol concentration in the light period were evaluated. Three successive replicates of 24 pigs were used in the experiment. It appeared that leukocyte and lymphocyte distributions, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation following ConcanavalineA (ConA) stimulation in the assay using purified lymphocytes were not affected. However, barren and enriched housed pigs, did show a different proliferation response to ConA in the whole blood assay. At day 2 of culture, proliferation was higher in barren housed pigs than in enriched housed pigs, whereas day 4 of culture, proliferation was higher in enriched housed pigs than in barren housed pigs. Lymphocyte proliferation at day 2 of culture in the whole blood assay, correlated negatively with plasma cortisol levels, which might thus explain the higher proliferation in barren housed pigs at day 2 of culture. The in vivo humoral and cellular (delayed type hypersensitivity, DTH) immune response to KLH was not affected by housing conditions. We conclude that, although baseline salivary cortisol concentrations differ between enriched and barren housed pigs, immune function appears to be relatively unaffected.

Keywords: Dutch Landrace, Dutch Yorkshire, breed, circadian rhythm, concanavalin A, delayed type hypersensitivity, hydrocortisone, immune response, immunity, leukocytes, lymphocyte transformation, lymphocytes, housing, saliva.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Groot, J. de; Ruis, M.A.W.; Scholten, J.W.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Boersma, W.J.A. (2001). Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs. Physiology and Behavior 73 (1/2): 145-158, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is common practice in intensive pig husbandry. Since pigs maintain a dominance hierarchy, mixing often leads to vigorous fighting. Apart from the negative impact that fighting has on welfare, there is evidence that the social stress associated with fighting suppresses immune function. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of mixing on specific long term immune responses and protection against challenge infection after vaccination with pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were mixed pairwise with an unfamiliar same-gender conspecific or left undisturbed with a same-gender littermate at 3 days after vaccination with PRV. Half of the pigs were females (gilts) and half were castrated males (barrows). Mixing increased agonistic behaviour to the same degree in gilts and barrows. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and catecholamine excretion in urine were increased in mixed pigs, and these effects were independent of dominance status and gender. Subsequently, the effects of mixing, gender, dominance status and interactions between these factors on immune response parameters were studied. The main result was that mixed barrows showed suppressed immune responses after vaccination and increased clinical symptoms after challenge infection compared to control barrows. Mixed gilts however did not differ from control gilts. It also appeared that mixed dominants were more seriously affected than mixed subordinates were. We conclude that, in some pigs, social stress after mixing suppresses the immune response to a viral vaccine and consequently impairs protection against challenge infection. 59 ref.

Keywords: agonistic behavior, antiviral properties, catecholamines, gender relations, gilts, hydrocortisone, immune response, immunity, stress, vaccination, vaccines, Aujeszky virus, porcine herpesvirus.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Hameenoja, P. (2001). Animal health and welfare, pig production. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Supplementum (Suppl. 95 ): 33-36. ISSN: 0065-1699.

Keywords: behavior, health, production, animal welfare, organic farming, roughage, space requirements.


Hammond, J.M.; Jansen, E.S.; Morrissy, C.J.; Goff, W.V.; Meehan, G.C.; Williamson, M.M.; Lenghaus, C.; Sproat, K.W.; Andrew, M.E.; Coupar, B.E.; Johnson, M.A. (2001). A prime boost vaccination strategy using naked DNA followed by recombinant porcine adenovirus protects pigs from classical swine fever. Veterinary Microbiology 80 (2): 101-119, ISSN: 0378-1135.

NAL Call No.: SF601 V44.

Keywords: piglets, weaned pigs, vaccination, classical swine fever virus, naked plasmid DNA, gp55/E2 gene, preventative method, prime boost vaccination strategy.


Harvey, R.B.; Hume, M.E.; Droleskey, R.E.; Anderson, R.C.; Nisbet, D.J. (2001). Antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter isolated from swine. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 60, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords, pathogen, Campylobacter, antibacterial drugs, amikacin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, lincomycin, neomycin, tetracycline, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic sensitivity, meeting abstract.


Heinonen, M.; Grohn, Y.T.; Saloniemi, H.; Eskola, E.; Tuovinen, V.K. (2001). The effects of health classification and housing and management of feeder pigs on performance and meat inspection findings of all-in-all-out swine-finishing herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (1/2): 41-54. ISSN: 0167-5877.

NAL Call No.: SF601.P7.

Keywords: finishing, herds, health, pig housing, animal husbandry, performance, meat quality, pork, mortality, abscesses, pneumonia, arthritis.


Henryon, M.; Berg, P.; Jensen, J.; Andersen, S. (2001). Genetic variation for resistance to clinical and subclinical diseases exists in growing pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (3): 375-387. ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: selective breeding, breeding value, disease resistance, genetic variation, heritability diarrhea, digestive system disease, lameness, bone disease, muscle disease, respiratory diseases.


Herpin, P.; Hulin, J.C.; Le Dividich, J.; Fillaut, M. (2001). Effect of oxygen inhalation at birth on the reduction of early postnatal mortality in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 5-10, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: piglets, newborn, breed, Pietrain X Large White, farrowing, asphyxia, stillbirths, oxygen inhalation, survival, birth, early postnatal mortality, metabolism, oxygen supply.


Hurd, H.S; Gailey, J.K.; McKean, J.D.; Rostagno, M.H. (2001). Experimental rapid infection in market swine following exposure to a Salmonella contaminated environment. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (8): 1194-7, ISSN: 0002-9645.

Keywords: salmonella infections, animal, transmission, growth and development, disease, microbiology, abattoirs, feces, gastrointestinal system, lymph nodes.


Jank, B.; Rath, J. (2002). Antibiotic-resistance management on the farm. Trends in Microbiology 10 (1): 11-2, ISSN: 0966-842X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 T74.

Keywords: swine, cattle, chickens, husbandry, drug resistance, microbial, genetics, drug resistance, bacterial, genetics, antibiotics, glycopeptide, adverse effects, kanamycin kinase, genetics, plants, genetically modified, vancomycin, therapeutic use, European Union.


Joachim, A.; Dulmer, N.; Daugschies, A.; Roepstorff, A. (2001). Occurrence of helminths in pig fattening units with different management systems in Northern Germany. Veterinary Parasitology 96 (2): 135-146, ISSN: 0304-4017.

NAL Call No.: SF810.V4.

Keywords: helminthoses, animal parasitic nematodes, ascaris suum, oesophagostomum, trichuris, strongylidae, disease prevalence, feces, helminth ova, seasonal variation, pig farming, finishing, pig housing, barns, pens, floor type, flubendazole, chemoprophylaxis, fecal egg count, barn age, Germany.


Jones, P.H.; Roe, J.M.; Miller, B.G. (2001). Effects of stressors on immune parameters and on the faecal shedding of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in piglets following experimental inoculation. Research in Veterinary Science.70 (1): 9-17. ISSN: 0034-5288.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312.

Abstract: The study examined the effects of stressors on the responses of 3 and a half-week old piglets that had been given an oral dose of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and a novel harmless antigen (ovalbumin). Removal from the sow (WEAN), a short-term cold stressor (12 degrees C for 48 hours) (TEMP) and mixing with non-littermates (MIX) were assessed in terms of the effects on faecal shedding of ETEC, immune responses, weight gain and an ACTH stimulation test. WEAN and TEMP reduced weight gain and all stressors increased faecal shedding of ETEC. All stressors increased the IgG responses to F4(K88)ac antigens and WEAN and TEMP increased the IgA responses to the same antigens, probably as a result of increased intestinal proliferation of ETEC. None of the stressors, however, had significant effects on antibody responses to ovalbumin or on lymphocyte proliferation assays. The results indicate that stressors influence the faecal shedding of ETEC in young piglets by a mechanism that may not involve modulation of immune responses.

Keywords: piglets, escherichia coli, experimental infections, stress, shedding, feces, immune response, liveweight gain, weaning, cold stress, mixing.


Kaden, V., Schurig, U., Steyer, H. (2001). Oral immunization of pigs against classical swine fever. Course of the disease and virus transmission after simultaneous vaccination and infection. Acta Virologica 45 (1): 23-29, ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85.

Keywords: vaccination, classical swine fever, oral immunization, preventative method.


Kalita, G.; Roychoudhury, R.; Goswami, R.N. (2002). Causes of pre-weaning mortality in piglets. Indian Veterinary Journal 79 (1): 82-83, ISSN: 0019-6479.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN2.

Keywords: abscesses, colostrum, foot and mouth disease, gastroenteritis, intestinal obstruction, mortality, pericarditis, piglets, pneumonia, preweaning period, stroke, trauma, husbandry practices, hygiene, supplemental heating.


Kavanagh, N.T. (1998). Swine practice: planning for the 21st century. Swine Health and Production 6 (4): 165-169, ISSN: 1066-4963.

NAL Call No.: SF971 N472.

Keywords: pig farming, veterinarians, meat production, pig meat, health, food safety, animal welfare, environment, laboratory diagnosis, vaccines, drugs, veterinary education, veterinary services, disease.


Kelly, H.R.C.; Bruce, J.M.; Edwards, S.A.; English, P.R.; Fowler, V.R. (2000). Limb injuries, immune response and growth performance of early-weaned pigs in different housing systems. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 70(1):73-83, ISSN: 0003-3561.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: housing, immune response, trauma, antibody formation, bursitis, feet, immunoglobulins, indicators, pens, pig housing, animal welfare, legs, lameness, growth, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, fattening performance.


Kraglund, H.O.; Roepstorff, A.; Gronvold, J. (2001). The impact of season and vegetation on the survival and development of Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae in pasture plots. Parasitology 123 (4): 415-23, ISSN: 0031-1820.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P21.

Abstract: Pats of pig faeces containing known numbers of Oesophagostomum dentatum eggs were placed on plots with bare soil, short or tall herbage on 8 occasions during 1 year. The number of eggs and larvae and the relative distribution of larvae in faeces, soil and herbage was monitored for 1 year after deposition. On 2 occasions soil from 8 selected plots was given to pigs, which were later slaughtered and examined for the presence of adult O. dentatum. Less than 1% of the deposited eggs could be recovered as infective larvae. The highest recoveries were generally made on tall herbage plots. The majority of infective larvae was found within the faecal pats, which indicates that infective O. dentatum larvae, to a large extent, do not disperse onto the herbage or into soil. The infective larval stage was reached only when the mean temperature in the weeks post-deposition was above 10 degrees C. This stage was reached within 1 week when the mean weekly temperature was above 13 degrees C. After the winter period no infective larvae could be recovered from any plots and no parasitic worms could be isolated from pigs fed soil from 8 selected plots.
Keywords: disease, parasitology, Oesophagostomum larvae, feces, parasite egg count, plants, seasonal variation, soil, temperature.


Kelly, J.A.; Amass, S.F.; Ragland, D.; Spicer, P.M.; Alvarez, R.M. (2001). BioClean tests for assessment of sanitation levels in pork production facilities. Journal of Swine Health and Production 9 (5): 207-213.

NAL Call No.: SF971.N472.

Keywords: disinfection, pig housing, testing, accuracy, pig feeders, floors, walls.


Knudsen, K.E.B. (2001). Development of antibiotic resistance and options to replace antimicrobials in animal diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60 (3): 291-299, ISSN: 0029-6651.

NAL Call No.: 389.9 N953.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial growth promoters, ban, enteric bacterial infections Oesophagostumum dentatum, Brachyspira hyodesenteriae, nematode infection, parasitic disease, dysentery, gut health, carbohydrates, dietary intake, feed structure, United Kingdom.


Kraglund, H.O.; Roepstorff, A.; Gronvold, J. (2001). The impact of season and vegetation on the survival and development of Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae in pasture plots. Parasitology 123 (4): 415-23, ISSN: 0031-1820.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P21.

Abstract: Pats of pig faeces containing known numbers of Oesophagostomum dentatum eggs were placed on plots with bare soil, short or tall herbage on 8 occasions during 1 year. The number of eggs and larvae and the relative distribution of larvae in faeces, soil and herbage was monitored for 1 year after deposition. On 2 occasions soil from 8 selected plots was given to pigs, which were later slaughtered and examined for the presence of adult O. dentatum. Less than 1% of the deposited eggs could be recovered as infective larvae. The highest recoveries were generally made on tall herbage plots. The majority of infective larvae was found within the faecal pats, which indicates that infective O. dentatum larvae, to a large extent, do not disperse onto the herbage or into soil. The infective larval stage was reached only when the mean temperature in the weeks post-deposition was above 10 degrees C. This stage was reached within 1 week when the mean weekly temperature was above 13 degrees C. After the winter period no infective larvae could be recovered from any plots and no parasitic worms could be isolated from pigs fed soil from 8 selected plots.
Keywords: disease, parasitology, Oesophagostomum larvae, feces, parasite egg count, plants, seasonal variation, soil, temperature.


Kugelberg, C.; Johansson, G.; Sjogren, U.; Bornstein, S.; Wallgren, P. (2001). Infectious diseases and ectoparasites of (outdoor) slaughter pigs. [Infektionssjukdomar och ektoparasiter hos slaktsvin.] Svensk Veterinartidning 53 (4):197-204, ISSN: 0346-2250.

NAL Call No.: 41.9 SV23.

Abstract: Two organic pig herds, 50 sows on each with piglets reared to slaughter weight, were studied and health status recorded over a 3-month period. One herd (herd A) had experienced carcass condemnations because of arthritis caused by erysipelas, but this had been controlled by vaccination. The general health status of the pigs was considered good. Blood samples showed higher protein levels than in conventionally reared pigs, but this did not appear to be related to disease. During the period there were 4 (1.4%) condemnations for respiratory diseases (pneumonia and pleurisy). Serology indicated that Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotypes 2 and 3) were present, but at low levels, in the herds. The level of condemnations for arthritis and other joint disease was 1.2% in herd A and 10.4% in herd B. The condemnations were linked to the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is recommended that outdoor pigs should be vaccinated against erysipelas. The herds did not take routine measures against parasites. There was no clinical evidence of mange despite the presence of antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in both herds (4% in herd B and 25% in herd A). It is recommended that herds should be cleared of mange before switching to an organic production system.

Keywords: organic production, husbandry, carcass condemnation, epidemiology, organic farming, disease, outdoor husbandry, vaccine programs, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Swedish language.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Lamontagne, L.; Page, C.; Larochelle, R.; Longtin, D.; Magar, R. (2001). Polyclonal activation of B cells occurs in lymphoid organs from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infected pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 82 (3 4): 165-181, ISSN: 0165-2427.

NAL Call No.: SF757.2 V38.

Keywords: specific pathogen free pigs, experimental infection, viral disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, antibodies, serum, viral RNA, ELISA assay, detection method, ELISPOT assay, analytical method, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, polymerase chain reaction, cytofluorometry, cell sorting method, humoral immune response.


Leeb, B.; Leeb, C.; Troxler, J.; Schuh, M. (2001). Skin lesions and callosities in group-housed pregnant sows: animal-related welfare indicators. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51 (Supplementum 30): 82-87, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Abstract: An on-farm investigation of 55 herds of pregnant sows housed in various group- housing systems was carried out. Management factors, pen design and abnormalities of the integument of 1177 pregnant sows were examined. The arithmetic mean of injured body regions was 1.49 as a total value per sow, 0.94 on the front part of the body and 0.56 on the rear part of the body. Group size, the design of the feeding place and area per sow (within stable groups) showed a significant influence on the extent of lesions. The limbs displayed 3.53 callosities on average per sow. In littered systems the prevalence of callosities was significantly lower. Callosities were positively correlated with decubital lesions. This investigation showed that lesion patterns on the skin do act as indicators of welfare. An adequately designed feeding area, good management and the maintenance of groups with established social ranks can minimize fighting. A smooth lying area and the opportunity to move around reduce the incidence of callosities. 21 ref.

Keywords: sows, housing, animal welfare, floor litter, skin lesions, trauma, injury, management, behavior, feeding area, fighting.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Leon E.A.; Madec, F.; Taylor, N.M.; Kobisch, M. (2001). Seroepidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms. Veterinary Microbiology 78 (4): 331-41, ISSN: 0378-1135.

NAL Call No.: SF601 V44.

Abstract: A prospective study was carried out on three intensive farrow-to-finish farms. The aims were to estimate the incidence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection, to determine when pigs become infected and the pattern of transmission of infection and to verify the relationship between seroconversion and clinical signs. One batch of pigs per farm was followed from farrowing-to-slaughter. Blood samples were taken at 10, 27, 70, 94, 125 and 147 days of age, from 44, 48 and 44 pigs per farm. Colostrum and blood samples were also taken from the sows. Animals were checked clinically once a week and coughing rates were recorded. Antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were detected by a blocking ELISA. At 27, 70 and 94 days of age most pigs on the three farms were seronegative, suggesting that no circulation of M. hyopneumoniae occurred during the growing period. Thereafter, a high proportion of pigs seroconverted, indicating that infection occurred soon after the transfer of the animals to the finishing houses. Differences were detected between farms in the incidence of seroconversion. Seropositive pigs were widely distributed among the finishing pens, suggesting that in addition to direct contact, other methods of transmission, such as indirect or airborne transmission, may have been important. Coughing started at around the same time as seroconversion. The results showed that the critical period for the transmission of M. hyopneumoniae is around the beginning of the finishing period, when pigs have low concentrations of antibodies against the agent.

Keywords: mycoplasma, isolation and purification, pneumonia, epidemiology, disease, transmission, antibodies, bacterial, blood, colostrum, immunology, cough, etiology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, incidence, seroepidemiologic studies, France.


Letellier, A.; Messier, S.; Lessard, L.; Chenier, S.; Quessy, S. (2001). Host response to various treatments to reduce Salmonella infections in swine. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 65 (3): 168-172, ISSN: 0830-9000.

NAL Call No.: SF601 C24.

Keywords: evaluation, probiotics, prebiotics, vaccination, Salmonella, typhimurium, goblet cell, ileum mucus, small intestine, villus, whole blood phagocytes, immunoglobulin A, flow cytometry, cytophotometry, histopathology, host response, local immunity, phagocytosis, rate, vaccination.


Lim, Y.K.; Takada, A.; Tanizaki, T.; Ozaki, H.; Okazaki, K.; Kida, H. (2001). Mucosal vaccination against influenza: Protection of pigs immunized with inactivated virus and ether split vaccine. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 48 (4): 197-203, ISSN: 0047-1917.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6446.

Keywords: immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, ether split vaccine, mucosal vaccination, preventative method, immunity, antibody response, virus emergence.


MacKenzie, K.; Bishop, S.C. (2001). Developing stochastic epidemiological models to quantify the dynamics of infectious diseases in domestic livestock. Journal of Animal Science 79 (8): 2047-2056, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: stochastic model, disease transmission, microparasitic infection, hypothetical epidemics, pig farm, decision making, control strategies, probability of an epidemic, mathematical model, disease dynamics, disease quantification, disease resistance, model development.


Maes, D.G.; Deluyker, H.; Verdonck, M.; Castryck, F.; Miry, C.; Vrijens, B.; Ducatelle, R.; De Kruif, A. (2001). Non-infectious factors associated with macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in slaughter pigs from farrow-to-finish herds. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 148 (2): 41-6, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Abstract: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 150 randomly selected farrow-to-finish herds to investigate which non-infectious factors might act as risk indicators for the prevalence and severity of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in slaughter pigs. Data were collected during herd visits through inspections of the pigs and through interviews with the farmers. Macroscopic lung lesions of pneumonia and pleuritis were recorded at slaughter from 25 pigs per herd, and microscopic lung lesions of lymphohistiocytic infiltration were recorded from 10 pigs per herd. The median herd level prevalences were 24 per cent for pneumonia, 16 per cent for pleuritis and 60 per cent for lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Pneumonia lesions were negatively associated with pleuritis lesions and positively associated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Pleuritis lesions were negatively associated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration. The prevalence and the severity of pneumonia lesions were increased by a high frequency of purchasing gilts and by a slaughter date in January to February. The presence of a growing unit also increased the severity of pneumonia. The prevalence and the severity of pleuritis lesions were higher when there were more pig herds in the municipality, and when there were poor biosecurity measures, and their prevalence was increased by a slaughter date in January to February, and their severity by a slaughter date in March to April. An increase in the airspace stocking density in the finishing unit also increased the prevalence of pleuritis. The prevalence and the severity of lymphohistiocytic infiltration in the lung tissue were higher in herds purchasing gilts. Pigs raised in pens with slatted floors were also at higher risk of more severe lesions of lymphohistiocytic infiltration.

Keywords: lung, pathology, pleurisy, pneumonia, disease, epidemiology, cross-sectional studies, epidemiologic studies, prevalence, risk factors, seasons.


Martinez, G.R.; Pradal, R.P.; Castrejon, F.P.; Herradora, M.; Galvan, E.; Mercado, C. (2001). Persistence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky’s Disease virus and Blue Eye Disease virus in ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91 (4): 750-758, ISSN: 1364-5072.

NAL Call No.: QR1 J687.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky’s Disease, Blue Eye Disease, ensilages based on solid fraction of pig feces, disease transmission mechanisms, analysis, preparation, microbial persistence studies, microsilos.


McDonald, L.C.; Chen, M.T.; Lauderdale, T.L.; Ho, M.. (2001). The use of antibiotics critical to human medicine in food producing animals in Taiwan. Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection 34 (2): 97-102, ISSN: 1684-1182.

Keywords: swine, poultry, antibiotics, avilomycin, avoparcin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, vancomycin, virginiamycin, ziracin, public health concerns, resistance in human pathogens, Taiwan.


Mendoza, M.M.; Ramirez, H.M.; Duenas, J.J.; Duenas, J.S. (2001). Pig paramyxovirus of the blue eye disease binding to a 116 kDa glycoprotein expressed in pig neuronal membranes. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 48 (7): 489-499, ISSN: 0931-1793.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52.

Keywords: pig paramyxovirus, blue eye disease, neonatal pigs, adult pigs, reproductive function, pigs, neurological damage, nervous system, brainstem, cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, neuronal membrane, olfactory bulb, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, F protein, beta galactosidase, carbohydrate, glycoprotein receptor, expression, hemagglutinin neuraminidase protein, mannosidase, neuraminidase, polyclonal antibodies, trypsin.


Mouttotou, N.; Hatchell, F.M.; Green, L.E. (1999). Foot lesions in finishing pigs and their associations with the type of floor. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 144(23):629-632, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Keywords: floors, floor coverings, foot injuries, hoof and claw injuries, prevention and control, abattoirs, animal husbandry, animal welfare.


Nath, D.R.; Deka, D.; Saikia, S.; Mili, D.C. (2001). Studies on preweaning mortality of piglets in an organized farm. Indian Journal of Animal Health 40 (2):.133-136, ISSN: 0019-5057.

NAL Call No.: SF1 I4.

Keywords: piglets, causes of death, disease surveys, preweaning period, mortality, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, debility and inanition, agalactia, foot-and-mouth, seasonal variation, Assam, India.


Nishida, A.; Ogawa, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Wakoh, K.; Suzuki, K.; Shibata, T.; Kadowaki, H.; Shinohara, H.; Ohtomo, Y. (2001). A hopeful prospect for genetic improvement of chronic disease resistance in swine. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14 (Special Issue): 106-110, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: disease resistance, genetic improvement, atrophic rhinitis, respiratory system disease, chronic infectious diseases, mycoplasma pneumonia, bacterial disease, antibody productivity, back fat thickness, daily body weight gain, delayed type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity, phenotype, selection.


Orgeur, P.; Hay, M.; Mormede, P.; Salmon, H.; Le Dividich, J.; Nowak, R.; Schaal, B.; Levy, F. (2001). Behavioural, growth and immune consequences of early weaning in one week old Large-White piglets. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 41 (4): 321-32, ISSN: 0926-5287.

NAL Call No.: QL1 R35

Abstract: Genetic improvement in sows’ prolificity is limited by their milk capacities, which do not allow all piglets to survive or grow normally. This experiment compared the behaviour, growth and immune responses of piglets that were weaned early at 6 days of age (EW) vs. control Large White piglets’ (C) suckled by their mothers. Behaviour of 9 litters of 5 to 8 piglets in each group were observed from d5 to d20. All piglets were weighed from birth to d74. Three piglets from each group were slaughtered on d36 for immunological analysis. Until they began to eat dry food, EW piglets walked and vocalised more than C piglets. After that time, when resting, they were less often lying down and more frequently in contact with littermates under the heater. Aggressive behaviour and belly-nosing were more frequent. They displayed a more marked growth check after weaning than did C piglets until 28 days of age. In EW piglets, at 36 days of age, there was a higher density of T- and B-lymphocytes in the gut epithelium and lamina propria, fespectively, in relation to the size of lymphoid follicles of Peyer's patches. The results indicate great behavioural adaptation capacities of very early-weaned piglets, together with earlier maturation of their gut immune system.

Keywords: physiology, aging, drinking behavior, feeding behavior, intestinal mucosa, immunology, growth and development, weaning, adaptation, newborn, growth and development, suckling, b-lymphocytes, t-lymphocytes, body weight, litter size, motor activity.


Osterberg, J; Ekwall, S.J.; Nilsson, I.; Stampe, M.; Engvall, A.; Wallgren, P. (2001). Eradication of Salmonella Yoruba in an integrated pig herd. Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114 (9-10): 331-334, ISSN: 0005-9366.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45.

Abstract: An integrated SPF herd with 320 sows was found infected with Salmonella Yoruba during an annual control among sows, aiming to verify freedom from Salmonella infections. It is believed that the infection was introduced to the herd by purchase of feed. The herd performed an age segregated rearing system. Sows and piglets were reared at a central farm, while growers (25-100 kg body weight) were reared at sub-estates. The growers were free from the infection, and as a consequence a specially designed eradication program was designed. Farrowing and weaning were defined as periods of risk for sows and piglets, respectively. Consequently sows were isolated and individually tested for presence of Salmonella one week before and one week after farrowing. The offspring were tested one week post weaning. To verify freedom from disease among piglets they were also tested another time before transfer to the uninfected sub-estates. Piglets with undefined status regarding Salmonella were denoted animals at risk and not transferred to the sub-estates. Instead they were transferred to a third estate, rented to house pigs at risk. The program was successful. It allowed full production during performance, and the herd was declared free from S. Yoruba seven and a half months after the initial diagnosis.

Keywords: salmonella infections, prevention and control, disease, feed, microbiology, isolation and purification, specific pathogen-free


Otake, S.; Dee, S.A.; Rossow, K.D.; Deen, J.; Joo, H.S.; Molitor, T.W.; Pijoan, C. (2002). Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by fomites (boots and coveralls). Journal of Swine Health and Production 10 ( 2 ): 59-65, ISSN: 1066-4963.

NAL Call No.: SF971 N472.

Keywords: disease transmission, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, experimental infection, contaminated fomites, boots, coveralls, contaminated hands, showering, sanitation.


Otten, W.; Kanitz, E.; Tuchscherer, M. (2001). Prenatal stress in pigs: effects on growth, physiological stress reactions and immune function. Archiv fur Tierzucht 43 (Special): 159-164, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23.

Abstract: The effects of a daily restraint of sows during the last third of pregnancy on endocrine stress reactions, immune responses and growth of offspring were examined. Stress and immune reactions of piglets were tested using an immobilization and ACTH test at 3, 7, 21 and 35 days of age. Lower basal plasma cortisol and increased basal cortisol binding globulin concentrations at 3 days of age were found in piglets exposed to prenatal stress compared with the control piglets. Prenatal stress caused a decrease in the number of glucocorticoid receptors in the hypothalamus, enlargement of adrenal cortex and reduction in thymus weight one day after birth. Prenatal stress also suppressed immune functions on day 1 of life as shown by lower IgG levels and decreased in vitro lymphocyte response to T and B cell mitogens. In addition, piglets that were exposed to prenatal stress had a higher mortality after birth and a tendency for lower birth weights. Morphological, endocrine and immune effects of prenatal stress were observed only on the first days after birth. It is suggested that prenatal stress during late pregnancy in pigs affects the ontogeny of fetal neuroendocrine system via increased maternal stress hormone concentrations.

Keywords: piglets, fetal development, growth, immune response, mortality, pregnancy, stress.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Otten, W.; Kanitz, E.; Tuchscherer, M.; Nurnberg, G. (2001). Effects of prenatal restraint stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and sympatho-adrenomedullary axis in neonatal pigs. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (2): 279-287, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: Studies in rodents and primates strongly indicate that prenatal stress affects the survival, behaviour and physiology of the offspring. Stressful stimuli during gestation may have a direct or hormone mediated effect on the development of stress systems in the fetal organism, resulting in an altered coping during stressful situations. The present study was conducted to elucidate prenatal stress effects in domestic pigs on the responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system as well as on morbidity, mortality and growth of the offspring. Pregnant sows were subjected to a restraint stress for five minutes daily during the last five weeks of gestation. Endocrine reactions of the piglets were tested at 3, 7, 21 and 35 days of age using an immobilization test and an ACTH challenge test. Prenatally stressed piglets showed lower basal plasma cortisol and increased corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) concentrations at 3 days of age, indicating decreased free cortisol concentrations after birth. Cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation and catecholamine levels after immobilization were not affected by the stress treatment of the sows. Piglets from stressed sows tended to have lower noradrenaline: adrenaline ratios at three days of age compared with the control piglets. In addition, stressed sows tended to have lower litter weights after birth. The morbidity and mortality during the suckling period was higher in the prenatally stressed litters, as shown by a higher frequency of diseased and perished piglets per litter. We suppose that prenatal stress during late gestation in pigs alters the development of the HPA system and impairs the vitality of the offspring.

Keywords: sows, piglets, hypothalamic releasing hormones, stress, stress response, litter weights, morbidity, mortality.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Predicala, B.Z.; Maghirang, R.G.; Jerez, S.B.; Urban, J.E.; Goodband, R.D. (2001). Dust and bioaerosol concentrations in two swine-finishing buildings in Kansas. Transactions of the ASAE 44 (5): 1291-1298, ISSN: 0001-2351.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T.

Keywords: housing, air quality, air temperature, ammonia, artificial ventilation, carbon dioxide, dust, natural ventilation, particle size distribution, relative humidity.


Rautiainen, E.; Wallgren, P. (2001). Aspects of the transmission of protection against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from sow to offspring. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 48 (1): 55-65, ISSN: 0931-1793.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Z52.

Keywords: sows, piglets, passive immunity, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, colostrum, antibody concentration variation, farrowing, offspring transmission, transmission of protection.


Rizvi, S.; Nicol, C.J.; Green, L.E. (2000). A descriptive survey of the range of injuries sustained and farmers’ attitudes to vulva biting in breeding sows in south-west England. Animal Welfare 9(3): 273-280, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: sows, vices, pig farmers, farm surveys, farmers’ attitudes, bites, vulva, incidence, dry period, aggressive behavior, floor pens, competition for food.


Rodriguez Vivas, L.; Ortega Pacheco, A.; Machain Williams, C.Y.; Santos Ricalde, R.(2001). Gastrointestinal parasites in sows kept in two production systems (indoor and outdoor) in

the Mexican tropics.[Parasitos gastrointestinales en marranas mantenidas en dos sistemas de produccion (interior y exterior) en el tropico mexicano.] Livestock Research for Rural Development 13 (5):1-9, ISSN: 0121-3784. Available online at http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/

NAL Call No.: SF55 D44L582.

Abstract: In many countries, there is an increasing interest in outdoor pig production. However, gastrointestinal parasitism (GIP) is a problem, because they reduce the productive performance of the animals. The research reported in this paper compared the egg and oocyst excretion from GIP, weight changes during pregnancy and lactation, and litter performance of sows kept in two production systems (outdoor vs. indoor). Eighteen primiparous sows of similar origin were divided in two groups: six were kept in an indoor system and twelve in an outdoor system. Samples of faeces were taken from each sow according to the following scheme: sample one (at mating), sample two to seven (at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days of gestation), sample eight (at farrowing) and sample nine (15 days after farrowing). The samples were analysed using the centrifuge flotation and McMaster technique. Isospora were prevalent in 94 and 41% of the sows in the outdoor and indoor systems, respectively. The sows in the outdoor system had a higher excretion of oocysts from Isospora (1224) than sows kept indoors (206). There was no effect of production system on weight changes of the sows during pregnancy and lactation, and on litter performance. Trichuris and Strongylidae showed prevalences less than or equal to 33% and they did not have a defined excretion.

Keywords: disease prevalence, epidemiology, faeces, farrowing, helminthoses, lactation, litter

performance, liveweight, pig farming, pregnancy, sows, surveys, Isospora, Strongylidae, Trichuris

Mexico, Spanish language.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Roepstorff, A.; Murrell, K.D.; Boes, J.; Petkevicius, S. (2001). Ecological influences on transmission rates of Ascaris suum to pigs on pastures. Veterinary Parasitology 101 (2): 143-153. ISSN: 0304-4017.

NAL Call No.: SF810.V4.

Keywords: parasitic nematodes, ascaris suum, helminth ova, oesophagostomum dentatum, nematode larvae, spatial distribution, soil, deposition site, disease transmission, sentinel animals, temporal variation, pig housing, pastures, animal husbandry, outdoor rearing, Denmark.


Seidler, T.; Alter, T.; Kruger, M.; Fehlhaber, K. (2001). Transport stress, consequences for bacterial translocation, endogenous contamination and bactericidal activity of serum of slaughter pigs. Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114 (9-10): 375-7, ISSN: 0005-9366.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45.

Abstract: On transport and at the abattoir animals are confronted with a lot of stressors, such as sound/noise, crowding/mixing, pollutants and infectious agents that act on the organism. After transport stress an endogenous contamination is often seen in slaughter carcasses and presents a hazard for the consumer. These events are often correlated with a rise in endotoxin level (Misawa et al., 1995; Morales et al., 1992) and a modified immune response. Previous own investigations confirm this hypothesis (Zucker and Kruger, 1998, Seidler et al., 2000). The attempt was made to investigate the impact of selected stressors (short term transport (1 h), long term transport (7-8 hrs), high temperature, high humidity and intense handling/moving) on bacterial translocation, endogenous contamination, endotoxin levels and bactericidal activity of body fluids.

Keywords: bacterial infections, bacterial translocation, physiology, endotoxins, blood, stress, disease transmission, abattoirs, husbandry methods, humidity, stress.


Stark, K.D.C.; Boyd, H.B.; Mousing, J. (2002). Risk assessment following the hypothetical import of dioxin contaminated feed for pigs: An example of quantitative decision support under emergency conditions. Food Control 13 (1): 1-11, ISSN: 0956-7135.

NAL Call No.: TP372.7 F66.

Keywords: pig feeds, dioxin contaminated, food residue, emergency conditions, food control, food toxicology, hypothetical import, risk assessments, chemical analysis, human health risks, meat product, toxic chemical residues, quantitative decision support, risk models, applications, Europe, Belgium, Denmark.


Stark, K.D. (2001). Veterinary epidemiology, a key to sustainable pig production in Switzerland. Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 143 (2): 63-8, ISSN: 0036-7281.

Keywords: enzootic pneumonia, epidemiology, animal welfare, models, theoretical, prevention and control, eradication program, risk assessment, Switzerland.


Stege, H.; Christensen, J.; Nielsen, J.P.; Willeberg, P. (2001). Data quality issues and alternative variable screening methods in a questionnaire based study on subclinical Salmonella enterica infection in Danish pig herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 48 (1): 35-54, ISSN: 0167-5877.

NAL Call No.: SF601 P7.

Keywords: finishing pigs, risk factors, Salmonella enterica, bacteria, herd prevalence, Danish Salmonella Control program, blood samples, seroprevalence, data analysis, questionnaire based study, assessment method, serological analysis, screening method.


Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A. (2001). Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses. Journal of Food Protection 64 (1): 12-16, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses in Netherlands (date not given) were determined, and the efficacy of the usual cleaning and disinfection on the presence of Salmonella was estimated. Lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were sampled three times when pigs were present. Furthermore, these lairages were sampled after the usual cleaning and disinfection, whereas the lairage of one slaughterhouse was sampled an additional time after improved cleaning and disinfection. Samples were collected by swabbing floor and wall surfaces and collecting the residing fluids on the floor throughout the lairage. Salmonella was isolated in 70 to 90% of the samples when pigs were present. The usual cleaning and disinfection reduced the level of contamination with Salmonella to 25% positive samples, whereas improved cleaning and disinfection reduced this level to 10% positive samples. It is concluded that the waiting period in the lairage of at least 2 hours contains a substantial risk for slaughter pigs to become infected with Salmonella, especially for pigs originating from Salmonella-free herds. The usual cleaning and disinfection of the lairage were not sufficient to eliminate this risk, whereas an improved procedure for cleaning and disinfection still was unsatisfactory.

Keywords: abattoirs, cleaning and sterilizing, disinfection, microbial contamination, bacteria, serotypes, stress, salmonella, Netherlands.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Thomsen, L.E.; Mejer, H.; Wendt, S.; Roepstorff, A.; Hindsbo, O. (2001). The influence of stocking rate on transmission of helminth parasites in pigs on permanent pasture during two consecutive summers. Veterinary Parasitology 99 (2): 129-46, ISSN: 0304-4017

NAL Call No.: SF810 V4.

Abstract: This study was made to elucidate the transmission of nematode infections in outdoor pigs at different stocking rates during two consecutive seasons. Five pigs (Group 1A) inoculated with low doses of Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis and five helminth-naive pigs (Group 1B) were turned out together in June 1996 on each of four pastures at stocking rates of 100, 240 (two pastures) and 576m(2) per pig, respectively. The pigs were slaughtered in early October, and pasture infectivity was subsequently measured using helminth-naive tracer pigs (Tracer). In 1997, 10 helminth-naive pigs were turned out on each pasture in May (Group 2) and again in August (Group 3), and allowed to graze for 12 weeks. The percentage of grass cover was reduced considerably at the high stocking rate in comparison to the other stocking rates. Transmission of all three helminths was observed on all pastures. In 1996, the O. dentatum faecal egg counts and worm burdens were significantly higher in pigs at the high stocking rate compared to pigs at the other stocking rates. O. dentatum did not survive the winter and pigs of Group 2 were inoculated with 3000 larvae each to reintroduce this parasite. Ascaris suum ELISA values and worm counts were highest at the high stocking rate in 1997 (Group 3). Transmission of T. suis was not significantly influenced by stocking rate. The results indicate that transmission of O. dentatum, and to some extent A. suum is influenced by stocking rate. However, both A. suum and T. suis eggs are still expected to constitute a high risk of infection on intensively used pastures where eggs may accumulate for years. The relationship between host density and helminth transmission seems more complex for grazing/rooting pigs than for grazing ruminants. This may be due to the differences in behaviour of the animals and the resulting differences in microclimate of the developing eggs/larvae.

Keywords: Helminthiasis, transmission, growth and development, body weight, epidemiology, feces, parasitology, parasite egg count, Denmark.


Tsiloyiannis, V.K.; Kyriakis, S.C.; Vlemmas, J.; Sarris, K. (2001). The effect of organic acids on the control of porcine post weaning diarrhoea. Research in Veterinary Science 70 (3): 287-293, ISSN: 0034-5288.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312.

Keywords: piglets, disease, post weaning diarrhoea syndrome, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, organic acids, efficacy, antibacterial drug, dietary supplement, citric acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, lincomycin, malic acid, propionic acid, spectinomycin, lincospectin, feed conversion, mortality, weight gain.


Van, N.A. (2001). Mathematical modelling of pseudorabies virus (syn. Aujeszky's disease virus) outbreaks aids eradication programmes: A review. Veterinary Quarterly 23 (1): 21-26, ISSN: 0165-2176.

NAL Call No.: SF601.V46.

Keywords: pseudorabies virus, Aujeszky’s disease virus, viral disease, susceptible infectious recovered model, mathematical model, eradication program, vaccination, Netherlands.


Van, N.A.; De Jong, M.C.; Kersten, A.J.; Kimman, T.G.; Verheijden, J.H. (2001). An analysis of a presumed major outbreak of pseudorabies virus in a vaccinated sow herd. Epidemiology and Infection 126 (1): 119-128, ISSN: 0950-2688.

NAL Call No.: RA651 A1E74.

Keywords: sows, pseudorabies virus, outbreak, viral disease, vaccination, immunization method, Monte Carlo simulation, mathematical model.


Van, N.A.; De Jong, M.C.; Schoevers, E.J.; Van Oirschot, J.T.; Verheijden, J.H. (2001). Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs. Veterinary Microbiology 80 (4): 303-12, ISSN: 0378-1135.

NAL Call No.: SF601 V44.

Abstract: Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally derived antibodies was significantly above 1. To exclude the difference in husbandry conditions as a cause for this discrepancy, we quantified and compared the transmission of PRV in both groups under identical experimental conditions. Whereas none of the SPF sentinel pigs became infected (R=0, significantly<1), all conventional sentinel pigs did become infected (R=2.5, significantly>1). Moreover, only one SPF pigs shed virus in saliva, the mean cumulative titre being almost a 100-fold less than in conventional pigs (17 pigs, P=0.003). In addition, the mean proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to PRV antigens was significantly higher in SPF pigs than in conventional pigs at all points studied (P<0.0001). Moreover, the virus-neutralising antibody titre after vaccination was significantly higher in SPF pigs than in conventional pigs. We conclude that the discrepancy in transmission between vaccinated SPF pigs and vaccinated conventional pigs cannot be attributed to the experimental conditions.

Keywords: Herpesvirus 1, pseudorabies, transmission, specific pathogen-free organisms, immunology, disease, vaccination, antibodies, viral, biosynthesis, immunity, maternally-acquired, lymphocyte transformation, prevention and control, virus replication.


Van, R.K.; Labarque, G.; De Clercq, S.; Pensaert, M.. (2001). Efficacy of vaccination of pigs with different H1N1 swine influenza viruses using a recent challenge strain and different parameters of protection. Vaccine 19 (31): 4479-4486, ISSN: 0264-410X.

NAL Call No.: QR189 V32.

Keywords: vaccination, viruses, swine influenza, strain H1N1, strain H3N2, efficacy, swine influenza virus infection, protective immunity.


Visscher, A.H.; Janss, L.L.G; Niewold, T.A.; de Greef, K.H. (2002). Disease incidence and immunological traits for the selection of healthy pigs. A review. Veterinary Quarterly 24 (1): 29-34, ISSN: 0165-2176.

NAL Call No.: SF601.V46.

Abstract: Disease is a major issue in animal production systems and society demands that the use of medicines and vaccines be reduced. This review describes the breeding approaches that could be used to improve disease resistance and focuses especially on their application to pigs. Disease reduction by genetic means has certain advantages through cumulative and permanent effects, and direct and indirect selection methods are available. Direct selection for disease incidence requires, besides a unique pig identification and disease registration system, challenge routines that are inconvenient in intensive pig production. Indirect selection for the expression of immune capacity may be an alternative but requires detailed knowledge of the different components of the immune system. There is ample opportunity for genetic improvement of the immune capacity because immune traits show substantial genetic variation between pigs. We therefore conclude that indirect selection via immune traits is very interesting, also for practical implementation, and that there is an urgent need for knowledge, within lines, about the genetic relationships between immune capacity traits and resistance to specific diseases or to disease incidence in general. Furthermore, knowledge about the relationship between immune system traits and production traits is needed as well as knowledge about the effect of selection on the epidemiology of disease at a farm/population level and on the host-pathogen interaction and coevolution.

Keywords: genetic selection, disease resistance, immune capacity traits, direct and indirect selection, variation.


Wallgren, P.; Melin, L. (2001). Weaning systems in relation to disease. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management, Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.309-316, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: piglets, early weaning, digestive system, production technology, hygiene, environmental conditions, health, husbandry, disease resistance, early weaning, susceptibility, Escherichia coli, Sweden.


Walton, J.R. (2001). Benefits of antibiotics in animal feed. In: Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition No. 3, Garnsworthy, P. C.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.11-37, ISBN: 1-897676-44-1.

Keywords: production, antiinfective agents, food hygiene, health, penicillin, tetracycline, human health, regulation, legislation.


Wee, S.H.; Lee, C.G.; Joo, H.D.; Kang, Y.B. (2001). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Trichinella spiralis antibodies and the surveillance of selected pig breeding farms in the Republic of Korea. Korean Journal of Parasitology 39 (3): 261-264. ISSN: 0368-6809.

Keywords: Trichinellosis, parasitic disease, zoonosis, larval excretory secretory product antigens, ELISA, detection method, labeling, Western blot analysis, detection method, pig breeding farm, surveillance, public health importance.


Wierup, M. (2001). The Swedish experience of the 1986 year ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, with special reference to animal health, disease prevention, productivity, and usage of antimicrobials. Microbial Drug Resistance 7 (2): 183-190, ISSN: 1076-6294.

Keywords: pigs, beef, poultry, health, disease, ban, antimicrobial growth promoters, zinc oxide, improved management practices, disease prevention, antimicrobial resistance, health, productivity, Sweden.


Wolf, P.J. van der.; Wolbers, W.B.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Heijden, H.M.J.F. van der.; Koppen, J.M.C.C.; Hunneman, W.A.; Schie, F.W. van.; Tielen, M.J.M. (2001). Herd level husbandry factors associated with the serological Salmonella prevalence in finishing pig herds in the Netherlands. Veterinary Microbiology 78 (3): 205-219, ISSN: 0378-1135.

NAL Call No.: SF601.V44.

Keywords: pigs, salmonella, infections, disease prevalence, finishing, animal husbandry, serological surveys, pork, risk factors, risk assessment, elisa, antigens, calibration, questionnaires, fermentation, disinfection, diagnosis, tylosin, growth promoters, liver, seroprevalence, Netherlands.


Yoo, H.S.; Lee, B.J.; Chang, B.S.; Lee, Y.S.; Park, B.K. (2001). Effect of enrofloxacin Na against pathogens related to the respiratory and alimentary diseases in suckling and weanling piglets. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 63 (1): 67- 72, ISSN: 0916-7250.

NAL Call No.: SF604 J342.

Keywords: piglet, suckling, weanling, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, pathogen, bacteria, enrofloxacin sodium, antibacterial drug, dosage, feed additive, intramuscular injection, diarrhea., disease prevention, disease therapy.


Yu, I.T.; Lin, J.; Wu, J.F.; Yen, H.T.; Lee, S.L.; Yang, T.S. (2002). Reevaluation of the necessity of iron injection to newborn piglets. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 15 (1): 79-83, ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL Call No.: SF55 A78A7.

Keywords: piglets, iron dextran, injection, creep feed, supplemented with iron, immune response, endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha, average daily gain, iron injection does not contribute to performance, unnecessary practice.


Zhang, J.; Osborne, V.; Fan, M.; Hacker, R. (2001). Improving the viability of piglets with oxygen. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 276, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: oxygen therapy, therapeutic method, growth, mortality, movement, postnatal period, temperature, viability, weight gain, meeting abstract.


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