Housing


American Society of Agricultural Engineers (2000). Swine Housing: Proceedings of the First International Conference: October 9-11, 2000, Des Moines, Iowa, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE publication 701P0001, 401 p., ISBN: 1-892769-10-7.

NAL Call No.: SF396.3 S952 2000.

Keywords: swine housing, production, new and traditional systems for farrowing, wean-to-finish, finishing facilities, animal welfare, environment.


Andresen, N.; Ciszuk, P.; Ohlander, L. (2001). Pigs on grassland: Animal growth rate, tillage work and effects in the following winter wheat crop. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 18 (4): 327-343, ISSN: 0144-8765.

NAL Call No.: S605.5 B5.

Keywords: growing pigs, stocking rate, winter wheat, growth rate, feed conversion, pig tillage work, high soil moisture content, dry conditions, nitrogen fertilization, soil management method.


Anil, L.; Anil, S; Deen, J. (2002). Relationship between postural behaviour and gestation stall dimensions in relation to sow size. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 77 (3): 173-181, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: The extent to which the size of the gestation stall, relative to the size of the sow, affects the normal basic postural behavioural needs of sows like standing, sitting and lying was assessed using 25 sows randomly selected from four farms. The postural behaviour of the animals was recorded using a time-lapse video recorder. The relationships of duration of postures, time taken for various postural changes and frequency of postural changes with stall measurements in relation to sow measurements were analysed. Negative correlations (P<0.01) were found between stall length relative to sow length and the duration of time for which the sows were standing. The relationships between the duration of postures and stall width relative to animal breadth were not different (P>0.05). The time taken to change from a standing to lying posture was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with stall length relative to animal length. Similar correlations (P<0.05) were noted between stall width relative animal breadth and the duration of postural change from standing to sitting and from sitting to standing. Stall width relative to animal breadth was negatively related to the frequency of postural change from standing to sitting (P<0.05). The results suggested that the freedom of movement of pregnant sows in stalls could be improved by a little increase in the space allowance within the stall.

Keywords: gestation, housing, movement, postural behavior, pregnancy, stall dimensions.


Anonymous (2001). Scientists’ assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS 4 (1) 3-52.ISSN: 1088-8705.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.J68.

Keywords: dairy cows, bulls, veal calves, pigs, chickens, animal welfare, emotions, abnormal behavior, animal housing, stocking density, space requirements, floor type, diet, animal behavior, animal health, intensive livestock farming, sows, pregnancy, piglets, weaning, broilers, battery husbandry, feather pecking, restricted feeding, mortality, hens, Netherlands, consensus between scientists, conceptual framework.


Barnett, J.L.; Hemsworth, P.H.; Cronin, G.M.; Jongman, E.C.; Hutson, G.D. (2001). A review of the welfare issues for sows and piglets in relation to housing. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52 (1): 1-28, ISSN: 0004-9409.

NAL Call No.: 23 Au783.

Keywords: sows, piglets, housing, animal husbandry, farrowing, farrowing pens, animal welfare, farming, literature reviews.


Bauer, L. (1999). Hogs, hoop houses, and holistic management: a diversified crop/livestock farm. In: Small Farming Systems for the Midwest and Reintegrating Agriculture and Community in the Midwest. Proceedings of a Two-Part Seminar Series, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Fall 1998 and Spring 1999, R. Olson and L. Bauer (eds.), Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems: Lincoln, USA, pp.23-28.

NAL Call No.: S494.4 A65 S63 1999.

Keywords: pig farming, animal welfare, environmental protection, alternative farming, environmental impact, social impact, economic impact, case studies, small farms, family farms.


Beattie, V.E.; Sneddon, I.A.; Walker, N.; Weatherup, R.N. (2001). Environmental enrichment of intensive pig housing using spent mushroom compost. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 35-42, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: In a comparative study which examined the effect of having access to mushroom compost in an otherwise barren environment there were three treatments and six replicates. The three treatments were (T1) control barren pen providing 0.7 m2 per pig with fully slatted floor, (T2) empty horizontal rack suspended above the pigs' heads and (T3) mushroom compost on rack as in treatment 2. Pigs released particles of compost from the rack by nosing the metal grid from below. Almost twice as many pigs with access to mushroom compost (T3) nosed the rack (P < 0.001) and the ground below the rack (P < 0.001) as pigs which had a rack with no mushroom compost (T2). Fewer pigs with mushroom compost were involved in behaviours directed at penmates such as nosing, biting and chewing penmates than pigs in treatments 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). In addition fewer pigs in T3 were involved in feeding behaviour than in T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). Percentages of tail-bitten animals which had to be removed were 11 and 24 for T1 and T2 respectively while T3 had < 1% removed because of tail biting (P < 0.05). Apparent food intake was higher (P < 0.05) and food conversion ratio tended to be poorer in T1 (P = 0.1). It is suggested that pigs will redirect rooting behaviour towards penmates and the feeder in the absence of any rooting substrate. Adding substrate to commercial finishing pens reduces this redirection of behaviour and improves welfare by minimizing injury through tail biting.

Keywords: housing, enrichment, mushroom compost, physical activity, aggressive behavior, tail biting, animal behavior, feed intake, feed conversion, animal welfare, rooting behavior.


Borell, E. von; Bockisch, F.J.; Buscher, W.; Hoy, S.; Krieter, J.; Muller, C.; Parvizi, N.; Richter, T.; Rudovsky, A.; Sundrum, A.; Weghe, H. (2001). Critical control points for on-farm assessment of pig housing. Livestock Production Science 72 (1/2):177-184, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Abstract: Animal and environmental care, health, product safety and consumer acceptance are factors that are becoming increasingly important for the assessment of pig housing. It can be foreseen that housing conditions will undergo a documentation and certification process as part of a quality assurance scheme according to international standards (ISO-9000 Series, Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards, 1994). As already implemented for the food processing industry, critical control points (CCP, based on the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point concept) have to be defined in order to objectively assess animal housing based on sound scientific data. The German working group “Animal Husbandry and Animal Welfare” of the German Society of Animal Production (DGFZ) has proposed a concept for the “Assessment of Animal Housing and Management according to Welfare and Environmental Criteria”. Based on this concept, CCP and critical management points (CMP) have been developed for the categories health, behaviour, management and environmental impact. These criteria are intended to be used primarily by the farmer as an internal on farm assessment scheme. In the long run this concept of housing assessment through critical control and management points, measurable parameters and tolerance limits can be further developed and utilized by government agencies, consumer organizations and commodity groups that have an interest to evaluate, monitor and licence housing systems.

Keywords: health, husbandry, animal welfare, farming, pig housing, quality assurance schemes, international standards, product safety, consumer acceptance, reviews.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Boyle, L.A.; Leonard, F.C.; Lynch, P.B.; Brophy, P. (2002). Effect of gestation housing on behaviour and skin lesions of sows in farrowing crates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (2): 119-134, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: Group housing systems for pregnant sows are set to become more popular, but there is evidence that this development could influence the welfare of sows in farrowing crates. A study was designed to assess the effect of gestation accommodation on behaviour, welfare and farrowing performance of sows in farrowing crates. Multiparous sows were housed loose (L) in groups of four with feeding stalls (n=24) or individually in gestation stalls (S) (n=24) from one month postservice. On day 110 of pregnancy, sows were moved to farrowing crates where they remained until 28 days postpartum. Behaviour was recorded on the first day in the crate and on day 10 of lactation. Posture changing frequency was recorded for 2 h prior to and for the duration of farrowing. Skin lesions were scored from 0 to 6 at 34 locations on the body the day before and the day after entry to the crate, postfarrowing, during weeks 2 and 3 of lactation and at weaning. On the first day in the crate, S sows made significantly more attempts to lay down per lay down event than L sows (P<0.05). They also spent more time standing inactively (P<0.01) and less time lying laterally (P<0.05). During parturition, L sows changed posture more often than S sows (P< 0.05) and they showed a higher frequency of ventral and lateral lying as well as dog- sitting on day 10 of lactation (P<0.05). The forelimb lesion score of S sows was significantly higher than L sows the day after entry to the crate and postfarrowing (P<0.01). Loose housing during gestation resulted in improved manoeuvering ability and comfort of sows in the farrowing crate with beneficial implications for skin health. However, L sows were more restless during parturition and in early lactation suggesting that loose housing may have a negative influence on sow welfare in farrowing crates at these times.

Keywords: animal behavior, animal welfare, farrowing houses, farrowing pens, loose housing, pregnancy, skin lesions, sows, wounds, group size, posture, physical activity, farrowing, skin lesions, animal welfare, sow lactation, litter size, piglets, perinatal mortality, birth weight, weaning weight.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Boyle, L.A.; Regan, D.; Leonard, F.C.; Lynch, P.B.; Brophy, P. (2000). The effect of mats on the welfare of sows and piglets in the farrowing house. Animal Welfare 9(1):39-48, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: farrowing, piglets, sows, feet, floors, skin lesions, slipping, slatted floors, weaning, pig housing, animal welfare.


Boyle, L.A.; Leonard, F.C.; Lynch, P.B.; Brophy, P. (2000). Influence of housing system during gestation on the behaviour and welfare of gilts in farrowing crates. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 71 (3): 561-570, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Keywords: gilts, pig housing, farrowing pens, stalls, loose housing, litter, European Union, group size, animal welfare, physical activity, posture, skin lesions, heart rate, litter size, piglets, birth weight, fetal death, floor type.


Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Schouten, W.G.P. (2002). Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows B: validation by expert opinion. Journal of Animal Science 80 (7):1835-1845, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight welfare-relevant attributes of housing systems in relation to the animal's needs, and evidenced by scientific statements collected in a database. The model's predictions about welfare scores for 15 different housing systems and weighting factors for 20 attributes were compared with expert opinion, which was solicited using a written questionnaire for pig-welfare scientists. The experts identified tethering and individual housing in stalls as low welfare systems. The group of mid-welfare systems contained indoor group-housing systems and an individual-housing system with additional space and substrate. The five best systems were all systems with outdoor access and the provision of some kind of substrate such as straw. The highest weighting factors were given for the attributes “social contact,” “health and hygiene status,” “water availability,” “space per pen,” “foraging and bulk,” “food agonism,” “rooting substrate,” “social stability,” and “movement comfort.” The degree of concordance among the experts was reasonable for welfare scores of housing systems, but low for weighting factors of attributes. Both for welfare scores and weighting factors the model correlated significantly with expert opinion (Spearman's Rho: 0.92, P<0.001, and 0.72, P<0.01, respectively). The results support the validity of the model and its underlying procedure to assess farm animal welfare in an explicit and systematic way based on available scientific knowledge.

Keywords: sows, pregnant, behavior, health, housing, husbandry, animal welfare, computer techniques, foraging, hygiene, prediction, water availability.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Spruijt, B.M. (2001). Development of a decision support system for assessing farm animal welfare in relation to husbandry systems: strategy and prototype. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (3): 321-337, ISSN: 1187-7863.

NAL Call No.: BJ52.5 J68.

Keywords: swine, farm animal welfare, decision making strategy, scientific knowledge, Evolutionary Prototyping Method, housing system, biological needs of the animals, welfare model, weighting factors, heuristic rules, mathematical models.


Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A. (1999). Overall welfare assessment of pregnant sow housing systems based on interviews with experts. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 47(2):93-104, ISSN: 0028-2928.

NAL Call No.: 12 N3892.

Keywords: animal welfare, feeding, group size, models, sows, stalls, tethering, housing, decision making.


Bradshaw, R.H.; Skyrme, J.; Brenninkmeijer, E.E.; Broom, D.M. (2000). Consistency of measurement of social status in dry-sows group-housed in indoor and outdoor systems. Animal Welfare 9(1):75-79, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: dominance, gilts, social behavior, animal behaviour, sows, animal welfare, housing.


Bremermann, N. (2001). Comparing studies in regard of health, fattening efficiency and meat quality of pigs in the indoor and outdoor keeping respectively. [Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Gesundheit, Mastleistung und Fleischqualitat von Schweinen in der Stall- bzw. Freilandhaltung.] Klinik fur Klauentiere des Fachbereiches Veterinarmedizin der Freien Universitat Berlin: Berlin, Germany,116 p. Publication Year: 2001

Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine indoor, outdoor and mixed kinds of keeping pigs and their influences on animal health, fattening efficiency and meat quality. Considering prevention of cruelty to animals and from a veterinarian and ethological point of view, exclusive outdoor keeping is the most profitable for pig health and well being. However, the outdoor keeping of pigs has its drawbacks such as the need for much space, a high expenditure of work, a high feed consumption and a low level of lean meat.

Keywords: crossbreds, thesis, animal health, animal welfare, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, finishing, meat quality, morbidity, piglets, seasons, Germany, German language.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Brumm, M.C.; Ellis, M.; Johnston, L.J.; Rozeboom, D.W; Zimmerman, D.R. (2001). Interaction of swine nursery and grow-finish space allocations on performance. Journal of Animal Science 79 (8): 1967-72, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible interaction of nursery space allocations and grow-finish space allocations in swine. In Exp. 1, crowding was achieved by varying the number of pigs per pen. During the nursery phase, decreasing the space allocation (0.16 m2/pig vs 0.25 m2/pig; 8 and 12 pens per treatment, respectively) by increasing the number of pigs per pen (18 vs 12) resulted in a decrease in daily feed intake (0.609 vs 0.683 kg/d; P < 0.001) and daily gain (0.364 vs 0.408 kg/d; P < 0.001). Pigs were mixed within nursery treatment groups and reassigned to grow-finish pens (6 pens per treatment) at the end of the 35-d nursery period providing either 0.56 m2/pig (14 pigs/pen) or 0.78 m2/pig (10 pigs/pen). Crowding during the grow-finish phase decreased daily feed intake (P < 0.003) and daily gain (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, space allocations of 0.16 m2/pig vs 0.23 m2/pig during the nursery phase (24 pens per treatment) resulted in a decrease in daily feed intake (0.612 vs 0.654 kg/d; P < 0.005) and daily gain (0.403 vs 0.430 kg/d; P < 0.001). Pigs remained in the same (social) groups when moved to the grow-finish phase. Unlike Exp. 1, there was no effect of crowding during the grow-finish phase (0.60 m2/pig vs 0. 74 m2/pig) on daily feed intake or daily gain. The difference in results between experiments suggests that the response to crowding during the grow-finish phase may depend in part on whether pigs are mixed and sorted following movement from the nursery.

Keywords: housing, growth, development, body weight record.


Burne, T.H.J.; Murfitt, P.J.E.; Johnston, A.N.B. (2001). PGF2 alpha, induced nest building and choice behaviour in female domestic pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73 (4): 267-279, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: The domestic pig, Sus scrofa, builds a maternal nest in the day before parturition. A model for porcine nest building has been established, in which exogenously administered prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha is used to induce nesting behaviour in cyclic, pseudopregnant and pregnant pigs. This experiment was designed to examine the effect of PGF2 alpha on the preferences of non-pregnant gilts for pens bedded with straw compared with bare pens. Ten 6-month-old nulliparous female pigs (gilts) were tested in an arena, which consisted of four pens (1.8 m x 1.7 m), a neutral area (1.5 m x 3.4 m) and a start area (1.5 m x 3.4 m). Two of the pens contained 2 kg of fresh straw and the remainder of the testing arena was devoid of straw. On the first day of testing half of the pigs were given a control intramuscular injection of 3 ml 0.9% saline and the remainder were given an intramuscular injection of 15 mg PGF2 alpha and their behaviour scored for 1 h after treatment. On the following day the treatments were reversed, such that each pig was given both treatments (saline or PGF2 alpha ). There was no significant effect of the order of treatment on behaviour. After saline-treatment the pigs spent most of their time in the pens containing straw (59%) and the least amount of time in bare pens (5%). In the straw pens, saline-treatment induced bouts of oronasal contact with straw of a relatively long duration (11-100 s), which we interpret as foraging. In the hour after PGF2 alpha, treatment the pigs also spent most of their time in the pens containing straw (44%) and the least amount of time in bare pens (10%), but they interacted with the straw in a markedly different way. PGF2 alpha, treated pigs displayed bouts of oronasal contact with straw of a relatively short duration (2-10 s) which, together with high frequencies of pawing at straw, lifting and carrying straw in the mouth, we interpret as nest building behaviour. Superimposed on this is the finding that gilts spend more time in the neutral areas after PGF2 alpha, treatment than they did after saline-treatment. PGF2 alpha, treated pigs spent most of their time engaged in nesting behaviour within the straw pens but they also gathered and deposited straw in different areas of the test arena (neutral and start areas); behaviours not seen after saline-treatment. We conclude that pigs generally prefer a pen containing straw bedding to a bare pen but that PGF2 alpha alters the way they interact with straw, inducing behaviour similar to prepartum nest building.

Keywords: behavior, gilts, litter, nesting, pregnancy, prostaglandins.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Buscher, W.; Kluge, J.; Frosch, W. (2001). Comparison of room- and floor heating in piglet houses. Agrartechnische Forschung 7 (1/3): E1-E5, ISSN: 0948-7298.

Abstract: After two years of investigations, different ventilation- and heating systems for piglet houses can now be evaluated comprehensively. In addition to the economic viability of the variants, the lying behaviour, indoor air quality, and the emission of noxious gases have been taken into account. As compared with standard fans, low-energy “EC fans” allow electricity consumption to be reduced by an average of more than 50%. With regard to heating energy, gas burners instead of hot-water floor heating with gas boilers also enabled consumption to be reduced by more than 50%. Floor heating, however, is advantageous for the lying behaviour of young piglets and the air quality parameters.

Keywords: piglets, housing, air quality, boilers, electrical energy, emission, energy requirements, floors, heating, thermal energy, toxic gases, ventilation.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Cagienard, A.; Regula, G.; Danuser, J. (2002). The impact of different housing systems on the health and welfare of grower and finisher pigs. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Twentieth Anniversary Proceedings of a Meeting Held at University of Cambridge, UK, April 3-5, 2002, Menzies, F.D.; Reid, S.W.J. (Eds.), Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Roslin, UK, pp.120-126, ISBN: 0-948073-54-3.

NAL Call No.: SF780.9 S63.

Keywords: health,, housing, husbandry, animal welfare, Switzerland.


Carroll, J.A.; Matteri, R.L.; Dyer, C.J.; Beausang, L.A.; Zannelli, M.E. (2001). Impact of environmental temperature on response of neonatal pigs to an endotoxin challenge. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62 (4): 561-566, ISSN: 0002-9645.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A.

Keywords: piglets, environmental temperature, cold, endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides, newborn animals, immune response, stress response, hypothermia, body temperature, prolactin, blood serum, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, immune therapeutic agents.


Chiu, S.T. (2001). Pigsty with an excretion area. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1249 (4): No Pagination, ISSN: 0098-1133.

NAL Call No.: T223 A21.

Keywords: patent, housing design, excretion area, prevents lying down in excretion area.


Cox, L.N.; Cooper, J.J. (2001). Observations on the pre-and post-weaning behaviour of piglets reared in commercial indoor and outdoor environments. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 72 (1): 75-86, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: A number of behavioural problems are associated with weaning piglets including belly nosing, ear and tail biting, and low intake of solid food. These appear to be less pronounced in piglets reared on outdoor systems, which initially consume more solid food and show less belly nosing and aggression than comparable indoor-reared piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate how these differences in post-weaning behaviour relate to the piglets’ pre-weaning behaviour in the two rearing environments. The study was carried out at a commercial pig unit, where piglets of the same genotype are born into conventional indoor or outdoor farrowing systems. In the intensive system, sows were singly housed prior to farrowing in crates and their piglets received a solid “creep” food prior to weaning. On the outdoor system, sows were allowed to build straw nests in arks for farrowing and both sow and piglets had access to pasture. Indoor and outdoor piglets were weaned at 24 (+/-3) days of age and mixed in straw-yard housing with access to a solid food. Prior to weaning, teat-directed activity was more common in indoor piglets than outdoor piglets. Outdoor piglets performed more rooting, standing and locomotion and were seen chewing the sows’ roll-nuts. Following weaning, outdoor-reared piglets performed more feeding and rooting, and less fighting than indoor-reared piglets. This study supports previous findings that undesirable activities such as fighting are less common in piglets weaned from outdoor systems, even when mixed with indoor piglets. In addition, outdoor-reared piglets were more likely to exploit solid food even though they did not have access to creep food prior to weaning.

Keywords: piglets, weaning, pig housing, farrowing pens, creep feeding, animal behavior, floor pens, agonistic behavior, tail biting, physical activity, age differences, teats, animal welfare, farrowing crates, farrowing arks.


Day, J.E.L.; Burfoot, A.; Docking, C.M.; Whittaker, X.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Edwards, S.A. (2002). The effects of prior experience of straw and the level of straw provision on the behaviour of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76 (3): 189-202, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: breed, Large White x Landrace, behavior, aggression, housing, animal welfare, belly nosing, biting, ear chewing, finishing period, growing period, licking, pen mate directed behavior, play fighting, ploughing, prior straw experience, rooting, straw bed depth, straw directed behavior, tail biting.


Day, J.E.L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burfoot, A.; Chamberlain, H.L.; Edwards, S.A. (2002). The separate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (3):177-192, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: The aim of this experiment was to determine the interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and welfare of the growing/finishing pigs. Groups of pigs were exposed to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial design with two levels of handling (M: minimal and P: pleasant), and four levels of environmental enrichment (B: barren, C: chain, S: chopped straw, or T: destructible toy). Daily food intake was significantly affected by handling during 1-6 weeks with the P groups eating slightly more food than the M groups (1.88 vs. 1.75 kg/day; S.E.D.=0.077; P<0.05), however, this increased intake was not reflected in daily liveweight gain or food conversion ratio during the same period. The time taken for a group of pigs to exit their pen during a routine handling test was significantly affected by the handling treatments (46.2 vs. 37.8 s for P and M groups, respectively; S.E.D.=3.38; P<0.05). Behavioural time budgets, and postmortem muscle pH and stomach lesion scores were unaffected by treatment. These results suggest that pleasantly handled pigs are more difficult to move during routine husbandry tasks which may be mediated through their reduced fear of humans. 27 ref.

Keywords: behavior, animal welfare, environmental impact, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, finishing, live weight gain.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Docic, A.; Bilkei, G. (2001). The effect of vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on health and some production parameters in outdoor and indoor units. Pig Journal 47: 23-34, ISSN: 1352-9749.

NAL Call No.: SF971 P5.

Abstract: This trial was conducted to determine the effect of M. hyopneumoniae (MH) vaccination (Respisure) on indoor and outdoor pigs. A total of 430 piglets were randomly allocated to vaccinated or non-vaccinated indoor or outdoor groups (G). The trial was conducted during spring-summer, under pleasant continental weather conditions. The majority of the indoor animals showed positive titres at slaughter against MH, whereas the vaccinated and unvaccinated outdoor piglets showed more than 90% negative results. Unvaccinated indoor piglets presented significantly more lung lesions (P<0.001). The MH antibody titres were positively correlated (P<0.05) with the severity of lung lesions at slaughter. ADG of the unvaccinated indoor group was significantly different from the other groups (P< 0.001). These results suggest that under unfavourable indoor environments, vaccination of pigs against MH is one way to improve production. In outdoor units, MH vaccination, even with high MH prevalence, fails to significantly improve performance of the animals.

Keywords: antibody testing, extensive husbandry, immunization, lesions, liveweight gain, lungs, pig housing, piglets, respiratory diseases, vaccination.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Dong, H.; Tao, X.; Lin, J.; Li, Y.; Xin, H. (2001). Comparative evaluation of cooling systems for farrowing sows. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 17 (1): 91-96, ISSN: 0883-8542.

NAL Call No.: S671.A66.

Abstract: The field studies reported here compare the performance of three cooling systems for relieving farrowing/lactating sows of heat stress under the warm and humid production climate in southern China. The comparative systems included (1) tunnel ventilation (TV) with vertical head-zone ventilation (HZV) vs. TV with HZV and drip cooling (DC), (2) TV only vs. TV with DC, and (3) horizontal air mixing (HAM) only vs. HAM and DC. For the HZV, a perforated overhead air duct was used to create an air velocity of 0.6 to 0.8 m/s (118 to 157 ft/min) in the head zone of the sow. The paired tests were conducted successively in an experimental commercial farrowing barn housing 42 sows. Body temperature (T(b)) and respiration rate (RR) of the sows were used to evaluate the efficacy of the systems. The results indicate that sows under TV + DC or TV + HZV + DC had significantly lower T(b) than those under TV only or TV + HZV (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). DC under HAM was less effective for T(b) reduction (P > 0.05). DC reduced RR in all cases, 42% under TV (P < 0.01), 41% under TV + HZV (P < 0.01), and 22% under HAM (P > 0.05). It was concluded that TV with DC provides the most cost-effective cooling scheme.

Keywords: sows, farrowing, farrowing houses, artificial ventilation, tunnel ventilation, vertical head-zone ventilation, drip cooling, horizontal air mixing evaporative cooling, air flow, velocity, mixing, body temperature, respiration rate, Hubei, Southern China.


Dybkjaer, L.; Olsen, A.N.W.; Moller, F.; Jensen, K.H. (2001). Effects of farrowing conditions on behaviour in multi-suckling pens for pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51 (2):134-141, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of housing farrowing sows in either crates (C-sows) or a get-away system (G-sows) until day 11 after farrowing on the subsequent behaviour in multi-suckling pens. Emphases were placed on nursing behaviour patterns of relevance for the piglets’ growth and survival in the multi-suckling pens. Ten groups of six sows were used. Behaviour was recorded for 24 h on days 1, 8 and 15 after the introduction to the multi-suckling pen. When the sows had farrowed in the get-away system, significantly more nursings were initiated in the multi-suckling pen. Furthermore, the G-sows terminated a significantly smaller percentage of the nursings in the multi-suckling pens and there was significantly less cross-suckling compared with pens with C-sows. G- sows also tended (P=0.08) to lose fewer piglets in the multi-suckling pens than C-sows. In conclusion, these results suggest that nursing behaviour in multi- suckling pens may be improved when the sows farrow in get-away systems as compared with crates.

Keywords: farrowing pens, growth, maternal behaviour, pig housing, piglets, preweaning period, sows, suckling, survival.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Edmonds, M.S.; Baker, D.H. (2001). Effect of protein fluctuations and space allocation on performance of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 475, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: finishing, growing, protein, feed content, housing, space allocation, meeting abstract.


Evans, M. (2001). Practical management and housing of the young weaned piglet. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management, Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.299-307, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: piglets, early weaning, husbandry, production, nutrition, housing, feeding.


Ferguson, N.S.; Lavers, G.; Gous, R.M. (2001). The effect of stocking density on the responses of growing pigs to dietary lysine. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 73 (3): 459-469, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: body protein, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, floor space, single feeder bin, growth, lipids, live weight gain, lysine, nutrient requirements, protein retention, stocking density.


Frampton, A.V.; Ellis, M.; Hollis, G.; Curtis, S.E. (2001). Effect of hut design on farrowing and lactation performance of pigs housed in a hoop structure. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 33, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: behavior, animal well-being, farrowing, hut design, effect, hoop structure, housing, lactation, lactation performance, meeting abstract.


Gallmann, E.; Brose, G.; Hartung, E.; Jungbluth, T. (2001). Influence of different pig housing systems on odor. Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research 44 (9): 237-44, ISSN: 0273-1223.

NAL Call No.: TD420 A1P7.

Abstract: The odor emissions from two different housing systems were determined during three fattening periods from October 1999 to November 2000 by analyzing weekly samples by means of dynamic olfactometry. The objects of the investigations were a standard housing system with fully slatted floor and forced ventilation (FF) compared with a kennel housing system with natural shaft ventilation (KN) in parallel operation. Only little data but with a wide range of odor emission values are available from the literature and these are difficult to compare and interpret, because of missing standards in presenting the results and experimental conditions. Therefore minimum requirements for measuring odor emissions from livestock buildings have been derived. In the scope of the measurements during the first two fattening periods (October 1999 to June 2000), no differences in odor emissions could be determined with mean values related to the livestock units (1 LU = 500 kg life weight) of 85 (FF) /87 (KN) in period A and 60 (FF) / 61 (KN) (OU/s)LU(-1) in period B. The overall range of the results of all measurements in periods A and B was 4 to 355 (OU/s)LU(-1). In period C (August-November 2000), the system FF showed higher odor emissions with 193 (28-550) compared to system KN with 105 (25-218) (OU/s)LU(-1). The air flow rates and odor concentrations at the three different naturally ventilated exhaust shafts of system KN differed considerably from each other. Odor measurement techniques with a higher temporal resolution than olfactometry are necessary to give evidence for the main factors influencing the odor formation and release.

Keywords: air pollution, prevention and control, housing, odors, air movements, environmental monitoring, facility design, construction, ventilation.


Geverink, N.A.; de Jong, I.C.; Lambooij, E.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Wiegant, V.M. (1999). Influence of housing conditions on responses of pigs to preslaughter treatment and consequences for meat quality. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 79(3):285-291, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: pig housing, meat quality, hydrocortisone, farrowing, finishing, handling, pens, stress, straw, litter, transport of animals, animal welfare.


Gregory, N.G.; Devine, C.D. (1999). Survey of sow accommodation systems used in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 42(2):187-194, ISSN: 0028-8233.

NAL Call No.: 23 N4892.

Keywords: animal welfare, farrowing, buildings, pens, pregnancy, sows, weaning, pig housing.


Groot, J. de; Jong, I.C. de; Prelle, I.T.; Koolhaas, J.M. (2001). Immunity in barren and enriched housed pigs differing in baseline cortisol concentration. Physiology and Behavior 71 (3/4): 217-223, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: It was shown in a recent study that barren housed pigs (small pens, no substrate) have a blunted circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol, as compared to enriched housed pigs (large pens with daily fresh bedding). In the light period, enriched housed pigs showed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol in saliva than barren housed pigs, whereas in the dark period, cortisol concentrations were low in both enriched and barren housed pigs. In the present study, the immunological consequences of the difference in baseline salivary cortisol concentration in the light period were evaluated. Three successive replicates of 24 pigs were used in the experiment. It appeared that leukocyte and lymphocyte distributions, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation following ConcanavalineA (ConA) stimulation in the assay using purified lymphocytes were not affected. However, barren and enriched housed pigs, did show a different proliferation response to ConA in the whole blood assay. At day 2 of culture, proliferation was higher in barren housed pigs than in enriched housed pigs, whereas day 4 of culture, proliferation was higher in enriched housed pigs than in barren housed pigs. Lymphocyte proliferation at day 2 of culture in the whole blood assay, correlated negatively with plasma cortisol levels, which might thus explain the higher proliferation in barren housed pigs at day 2 of culture. The in vivo humoral and cellular (delayed type hypersensitivity, DTH) immune response to KLH was not affected by housing conditions. We conclude that, although baseline salivary cortisol concentrations differ between enriched and barren housed pigs, immune function appears to be relatively unaffected. 28 ref.

Keywords: Dutch Landrace, Dutch Yorkshire, breed, circadian rhythm, concanavalin A, delayed type hypersensitivity, hydrocortisone, immune response, immunity, leukocytes, lymphocyte transformation, lymphocytes, housing, saliva.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Guy, J.H.; Rowlinson, P.; Chadwick, J.P.; Ellis, M.(2002). Behaviour of two genotypes of growing-finishing pig in three different housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (3):193-206, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: This trial compared the behaviour of 720 growing-finishing pigs, progeny of either indoor (Large White x Landrace) or outdoor (part-Meishan or part-Duroc) sows mated to Large White boars, when housed in either outdoor paddocks, straw yards or fully-slatted pens. Space allowance per pig in outdoor paddocks, straw yards and fully-slatted pens was 19.98, 1.63 and 0.55 m2, respectively with a group size of 20. Pigs were fed ad libitum from an average of 30-80 kg liveweight. Pig behaviour was observed during daylight for a total of 6 h, using both individual (focal) and group (scan) sampling. There were relatively few differences in behaviour between genotypes, although the outdoor genotype spent a higher proportion of observations in straw yards and fully-slatted pens engaged in social activity (P<0.05) compared to the indoor genotype. Pigs housed in straw yards spent significantly more time examining the floor and moving (P< 0.001), and significantly less time tail-biting (P<0.01) compared to those housed in fully-slatted pens, where a larger proportion of observation time was spent lying inactive (P<0.001). Pigs in outdoor paddocks spent a large proportion of observation time inside the shelter hut (0.69), where it was not possible to determine their behaviour, although rooting and exploring the floor was the most frequently observed behaviour when the pigs were outside. Interaction between genotype and housing system did not occur to any major degree. It is concluded that, for the housing systems used in this study, pig behaviour was enriched and welfare enhanced in straw yards compared to fully- slatted pens. Further research is needed, however, before any conclusions can be made regarding the behaviour of pigs in outdoor paddocks.

Keywords: Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Meishan, pig breeds, progeny animal behavior, housing, finishing, genotypes, slatted floors, tail biting.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Halverson, M.K.; Honeyman, M.S. (1997). Humane, sustainable feeder pig production: transferring a technology developed in Sweden to Midwestern hog farms. In: Livestock Environment 5, Volume 2. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, 29-31 May, 1997, Bottcher, R.W.; Hoff, S.J. (eds.), American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), St Joseph, Michigan, pp. 401-408, ISBN: 0-929355-84-9.

Keywords: cooperative project, housing, production, animal welfare, deep litter housing, farm models, humane, sustainable, feeder pig production, Swedish farm model, regulations, management intensive, deep-bedded, group housing system, pregnant, farrowing, and nursing sows and litters, animal welfare, maternal behavior, semi-natural, Iowa State University, Armstrong Research and Demonstration Farm, Minnesota, Iowa.


Hamilton, D.N.; Ellis, M.; Wolter, B.F.; McKeith, F.K.; Wilson, E.R. (2003). Carcass and meat quality characteristics of the progeny of two swine sire lines reared under differing environmental conditions. Meat Science 63 (2): 257-263, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: barrow, breed, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, gilt, sire lines, longissimus muscle, slaughter, production method, carcass quality, crowded environment, dressing percentage, environmental conditions, genetic differences, pork meat, drip loss, marbling fat content, meat product, pH, paleness, quality, softness, progeny, rearing environment, spacious environment.


Harris, D.L. (2000). Multi-site Pig Production Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa, 1st ed., 217 p.

NAL Call No.: SF395 H297 2000.

Keywords: isowean, disease control, housing, policy decision making, immunity, breeding stock production, performance.


Hartung, E.; Jungbluth, T.; Buscher, W. (2001). Reduction of ammonia and odor emissions from a piggery with biofilters. Transactions of the ASAE 44 (1): 113-118, ISSN: 0001-2351.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T.

Keywords: air filters, biofilters, air flow, air pollution, air quality, ammonia, housing, environmental control, long term experiments, odor emission, odor reduction, pollution control, Germany.


Heinonen, M.; Grohn, Y.T.; Saloniemi, H.; Eskola, E.; Tuovinen, V.K. (2001). The effects of health classification and housing and management of feeder pigs on performance and meat inspection findings of all-in-all-out swine-finishing herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49 (1/2): 41-54. ISSN: 0167-5877.

NAL Call No.: SF601.P7.

Keywords: finishing, herds, health, pig housing, animal husbandry, performance, meat quality, pork, mortality, abscesses, pneumonia, arthritis.


Holden, P.J.; McGlone, J.J. (1999). Animal welfare issues: swine. Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin 9(3/4):9-11, ISSN: 1522-7553.

NAL Call No.: aHV4701.A952.

Keywords: pigs, animal welfare, pig housing, floor space, social dominance, stress factors, extensive livestock farming.


Honeyman, M.S.; Koenig, F.W.; Harmon, J.D., Lay, D.C. Jr.; Kliebenstein, J.B.; Richard, T.L.; Brumm, M.C. (1999). Managing market pigs in hoop structures. In: Pork Industry Handbook, Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University: Stillwater, Oklahoma, PIH 138, August 1999, 8p.,

NAL Call No.: SF391 P6.

Keywords: growing finishing pigs, housing, hoop structures, lower cost structures, disadvantages, planning details, ventilation, cooling, feeding, feeders, pig performance, manure management, bedding, health.


Honeyman, M.S.; Harmon, J.D.; Larson, M.E.; Penner, A.D. (2001) A two year summary of finishing-pigs’ performance in hoop structures and confinement during winter and summer in Iowa. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 46, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: housing, bedded-hoop-structures, confinement, feed efficiency, finishing pig performance, leanness, summer, weaning, winter, extension, Iowa, meeting abstract.


Honeyman, M.S.; Roush, W.B. (2002). The effects of outdoor farrrowing hut type on prewean piglet mortality in Iowa. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 17(2): 92-95, ISSN: 0889-1893.

NAL Call No.: S605.5 A43.

Keywords: outdoor pig production, housing, farrowing hut design, floorless farrowing huts, arc-style hut, wooden modified A frame hut, steel inverted U frame hut, plastic igloo-style hut, blunt-top hut, piglet prewean mortality, crushing, bedding, oat straw, recycled newsprint, Iowa.


Honeyman, M.S.; Harmon, J.D.; Kliebenstein, J.B.; Richard, T.L. (2001). Feasibility of hoop structures for market swine in Iowa: pig performance, pig environment, and budget analysis. Applied engineering in agriculture 17(6): 869-874, ISSN: 0883-8542.

NAL Call No.: S671 A66.

Keywords: alternative swine production, housing, hoop structures, bedding, corn stalks, straw, wood shavings, manure management, pig performance, average daily gain, environmental monitoring, economics.


Honeyman, M.S.; Kent, D. (2001). Performance of a Swedish deep-bedded feeder pig production system in Iowa. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 16(2): 50-56, ISSN: 0889-1893.

NAL Call No.: S605.5.A43.

Abstract: At the Iowa State University Armstrong Research and Demonstration Farm in southwestern Iowa, a Swedish feeder pig production system was studied and demonstrated for 2-1/2 years. The system is based mainly on straw bedding, simple buildings, and intensive management. The system was designed to minimize pig stress and use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in the feed. Gestating and breeding sows were group-housed in a hooped structure with individual feeding stalls. Large round bales of cornstalks were used for bedding. Farrowing, lactation, and nursery phases were housed in a remodeled hog house. Cubicles with rollers and oat straw bedding were used for farrowing. Two groups of Yorkshire x Landrace sows bred to Hampshire boars produced feeder pigs in the system. Conception rates averaged 95%, and litter size averaged 11.3 live pigs/litter. Sows were allowed to select their own bedded farrowing cubicle. Prewean pig mortality, mostly from crushing, was high (29%), occurring primarily in the first 3 days. At 2 weeks of age the cubicles were removed and group lactation occurred. After group lactation the average pig weaning weight was 10.4 kg at 33.9 days of age. At weaning the sows were removed, and the pigs remained in the bedded farrowing/lactation room for 24 additional days. The pigs weighed 24.8 kg at 60 days of age, and overall nursery phase average daily weight gain was 549 g/day. Overall pig health was excellent with no major clinical diseases confirmed. The demonstration exceeded reproductive performance measures of typical small- and mid-sized Iowa farms.

Keywords: pigs, deep litter housing, performance, alternative farming, animal husbandry, straw, sustainability, pig housing, intensive production, stress, medicated feeds, pregnancy, farrowing, lactation, litter size, conception rate, mortality, weaning weight, liveweight gain, reproductive performance, Iowa.


Honeyman, M.S.; McGlone, J.J.; Kliebenstein, J.B.; Larson, B.E. (2001). Outdoor pig production. In: Pork Industry Handbook, Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University: Stillwater, Oklahoma, PIH 145, September 2001, 9p.,

NAL Call No.: SF391 P6.

Keywords: sow, gilts, production systems, intensive outdoor pig production, housing, floorless huts, intensive management, bedding, soil erosion control, feeding, behavior, fencing, health, parasitic infections, breeding, genetics, economics.


Hornauer, N.; Haidn, B.; Schon, H. (2001). Outdoor climate kennel housing: functional areas and their frequentation by fattening pigs. Agrartechnische Forschung 7 (1/3): E37-E42, ISSN: 0948-7298.Abstract: Animal behaviour was analysed under practical conditions in an outdoor-climate kennel house with a partially slatted floor, an outdoor climate stall with a littered dung area, and a conventional warm stall. No fundamental differences were found. However, influences of the outdoor- and stall climate, the animal weight, and the functional areas were shown. Good of the kennel in the summer is decisive for success. In comparison with the conventional warm stall, the percentage of the different modes of behaviour is similar.

Keywords: behavior, housing, ventilation, climate, farmyard manure, kennels, slatted floors.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Jensen, H.F.; Andersen, B.H. (1999). Outdoor ecological production of pigs in climate tents. In: Organic Agriculture, the Credible Solution for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the 12th International IFOAM Scientific Conference, Mar Del Plata, Argentina, November 15-19, 1998, D. Foguelmanand and W. Lockeretz (eds.), IFOAM: Tholey-Theley, Germany, pp.242-244, ISBN: 3-934055-03-6.

NAL Call No.: S605.5 I45 1998.

Keywords: climate, extensive production, extensive husbandry, organic farming, housing, animal welfare, pigs.


Johnson, A.K.; Morrow-Tesch, J.L.; McGlone, J.J. (2001). Behavior and performance of lactating sows and piglets reared indoors or outdoors. Journal of Animal Science 79(10): 2571-2579, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: Two hundred eighty-seven lactating Newsham sows and their litters were used to determine the effects of intensive indoor (n = 147) and intensive outdoor (n = 140) production systems on sow and litter productivity and behavior. All sows were of contemporary age and fed a completely balanced sorghum-based diet. Behavior data were collected by live observation on 40 sows and litters (20 indoor and 20 outdoor) using a 5-min scan sample over a 4-h period in the afternoon (1400 to 1800). The durations of lying (90.0 vs 72.1 +/- 2.76% of time observed) and drinking (4.42 vs 1.41 +/- 0.6% of time observed) were higher (P < 0.01) among indoor than among outdoor lactating sows. Nursing interval and feeding and sitting behaviors were not different (P > 0.05) between production systems. Piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time walking (10.1 vs 5.2 +/- 1.72% of time observed) and engaged in play activity (5.0 vs 1.7 +/- 1.26% of time observed) when housed outdoors than indoors. Outdoor piglets had more (P < 0.05) nursing behaviors directed toward the sow (27.5 vs 20.3 +/- 2.02% of time observed) but time spent in contact with the sow did not differ between environments (38.8 vs 39.2 +/- 2.78% of time observed). Treatments did not influence (P > 0.05) any of the sow or piglet production parameters. In conclusion, outdoor-kept Newsham sows and their piglets showed a richer behavioral repertoire, but the diverse environments did not influence production parameters.

Keywords: sows, piglets, performance, animal behavior, animal housing, intensive production, duration, nursing, growth.


Jones, J.B.; Wathes, C.M.; Persaud, K.C.; White, R.P.; Jones, R.B. (2001). Acute and chronic exposure to ammonia and olfactory acuity for n-butanol in the pig. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71 (1): 13-28, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Abstract: An associative learning method (using a food reward) was developed to measure pigs’ olfactory acuity for n-butanol, a standard odourant in human olfactometry. Six of 8 intact Duroc x Landrace crossbred male pigs were used for the study. The pigs could press two operant paddles but it only received a food reward when it pressed the one over which n-butanol was released. Once each pig had reached a training criterion (10 consecutive roots on the correct paddle on each of two consecutive sessions) this method was used to assess the impact of acute and chronic exposure to an atmosphere containing approximately 40 parts per million (ppm) ammonia gas, compared to fresh air, on its ability to perceive different concentrations of n-butanol. These were presented using a staircase pattern, i.e. if the pig gained or failed to gain a food reward on two consecutive occasions the concentration was reduced or increased, respectively. Acute exposure for approximately 45 minutes to about 40 ppm ammonia had no effect (P>0.05) on the lowest detected concentration (LDC) of n-butanol in six pigs. The geometric mean LDC was 1.23 parts per trillion (ppt) in approximately 40 ppm ammonia and 2.09 ppt in fresh air. The LDC of three pigs increased, i.e. acuity fell, from 5.1 to 175.5 ppt over 24 days of exposure to approx equal to 40 ppm ammonia. Ammonia had no effect on one of the other pigs and the high variability in the LDC for the remaining two pigs produced no meaningful assessment of its impact. Subsequent removal to fresh air for a further 24 days led to partial recovery of acuity in one of the three pigs that had shown evidence of olfactory impairment but not in the other two. Collectively our findings suggest that chronic, but not acute, exposure to approx equal to 40 ppm ammonia can interfere with olfactory perception in some pigs (50% of our sample) and that this loss of acuity is not necessarily reversible.

Keywords: ammonia, butanol, smell, air pollution, housing, olfactory stimulation.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Jonsall, A.; Johansson, L.; Lundstrom, K. (2001). Sensory quality and cooking loss of ham muscle (M. biceps femoris) from pigs reared indoors and outdoors. Meat Science 57 (3): 245-250. ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: ham, meat quality, flavor, tastes, odors, water content, cooking quality, cooking losses, tenderness, farming, housing, pens, free range husbandry, pigs, alleles, genotypes, juiciness, outdoor rearing, acidulous taste, genetics.


Jungbluth, T.; Stubbe, A. (1999). A new technique for the ethological improvement of intensive housing systems for pigs. In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 18-21 July, 1999, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, USA, 14 p.

Keywords: animal behavior, chains, performance, straw, pig housing, animal welfare, equipment, housing, toys.


Kelly, H.R.C.; Bruce, J.M.; Edwards, S.A.; English, P.R.; Fowler, V.R. (2000). Limb injuries, immune response and growth performance of early-weaned pigs in different housing systems. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 70(1):73-83, ISSN: 0003-3561.

NAL Call No.: SF1 A56.

Keywords: housing, immune response, trauma, antibody formation, bursitis, feet, immunoglobulins, indicators, pens, pig housing, animal welfare, legs, lameness, growth, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, fattening performance.


Klont, R.E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Kurt, E.; Winkelman-Goedhart, H.A.; de Jong, I.C. (2001). Relationships between behavioral and meat quality characteristics of pigs raised under barren and enriched housing conditions. Journal of Animal Science 79 (11): 2835-43, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82

Abstract: In this study the effects of barren vs enriched housing conditions of pigs on their behavior during the lairage period (2-h holding period before slaughter), carcass characteristics, postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality were studied. The barren housing system was defined by common intensive housing conditions (i.e., with slatted floors and recommended space allowances), whereas the enriched environment incorporated extra space and straw for manipulation. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before transport and at the end of the lairage period. During the lairage period the percentage of time spent walking and fighting by the pigs was registered. Carcass characteristics such as weight, meat percentage, and backfat thickness were determined. At 5 min, 45 min, 4 h, and 24 h postmortem, pH, temperature, and lactate concentrations were determined in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Capillarization of the muscle, mean muscle fiber area, and color and drip loss after 2 and 5 d of storage were determined for both muscle types. Pigs from the barren environment had a significantly higher increase in cortisol from farm to slaughter, but no differences in behavior were observed during the lairage period. Carcass characteristics did not differ between pigs from barren and those from enriched housing conditions. Postmortem lactate formation was significantly lower in LL muscles of enriched pigs at 4 and 24 h postmortem. Capillary density and mean muscle fiber area did not differ between the groups of pigs. The percentage of drip loss at 2 and 5 d after storage of LL muscle samples from enriched-housed pigs was significantly lower than that of the barren-housed pigs. Similar tendencies were found for the BF muscle from pigs kept in an enriched environment, but these were not statistically significant. The housing system did not affect meat color. It is concluded that on-farm improvement of animal welfare by environmental enrichment can also lead to beneficial economic effects after slaughter by improving the water-holding capacity of pork.

Keywords: husbandry, handling, housing, meat standards, physiology, abattoirs, animal welfare, behavior, psychology, hydrocortisone, blood, hydrogen-ion concentration, lactic acid, metabolism, skeletal muscle chemistry.


Kouba, M.; Hermier, D.; Le Dividich, J. (2001). Influence of a high ambient temperature on lipid metabolism in the growing pig. Journal of Animal Science 79 (1): 81-7, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: Large White x Landrace, breed, castrated male pigs, ad libitum fed, restricted fed, heat, housing, lipids, metabolism, growth and development, adipose tissue, anatomy, histology, analysis of variance, castration, chylomicrons, blood, lipids, blood, lipoprotein lipase.


Krieter, J. (2002). Evaluation of different pig production systems including economic, welfare and environmental-aspects. Archiv fur Tierzucht 45 (3): 223-235, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23.

Keywords: sows, animal welfare, computer simulation, economic analysis, environment, excretion, farming systems, farrowing, finishing, nitrogen metabolism, phosphorus, waste management, pig farming, housing, slatted floors, straw, group size, production costs, simulation models, slaughter, weaning.


Larson, M.E.; Honeyman, M.S. (2001). The effects of housing system and physical environment on post-weaning pig performance. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 45-46, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: early weaned piglets, growth, performance, hoop structures, housing, mechanically ventilated, confinement, nursery, physical environment, post-weaning pig performance, meeting abstract.


Larsen, V.A.; Kongsted, A.G. (2001). Outdoor pig production: production, feeding, reflections on grass cover. [Frilandssohold: produktion, foderforbrug, udsaetningsarsager og graesdaekke.] DJF Rapport, Husdyrbrug (No.30), Danmarks JordbrugsForskning: Tjele, Denmark, 46p., ISSN: 1397-9892.

Abstract: In 1996, the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences initiated the project “Outdoor pig production.” The project included identification and evaluation of different outdoor production systems on pig farms in Denmark and the implications for animal health and welfare, as well as environmental impact. In addition, the project focused on specific subjects such as piglet mortality, maintenance of pasture, feed consumption and requirements, nutrient balances, reproduction and management of the production in a broad sense. This report is based on the production results obtained in the 3rd year (1999), and also describes feed intake, health and culling of sows, and the level of grass cover. The production systems included single and group farrowing paddocks, dynamic and stable groups, natural service and artificial insemination, as well as outdoor and indoor facilities for serving and gestation. Arable land varied from 56 to 100 ha, and herd size varied from 117 to 391 sows. Three farms kept some weaned pigs for finishing. Production results varied considerably (8.3-10.3 weaned piglets/litter), and so did feed consumption (1542-1800 SFU/sow/year). Differences in production systems, stocking rates, and production levels resulted in significant variation in the nutrient surplus for nitrogen (114-306 kg N/ha) and phosphorus (9-60 kg P/ha). Outdoor piglet production required special attention with regard to feeding and grass maintenance in order to obtain an acceptable level of environmental pollution. During periods with unfavourable climatic conditions for grass growth, a higher level of grass cover can be maintained by increasing the area available per sow or moving sows to well-established pasture. Experiences with different grass mixtures indicated that a mixture of miniturf and white clover (Trifolium repens) was very suitable, providing a low dense cover. Feed intake was on average 20% higher than theoretical requirements of sows. Possible explanations include the waste of or the fact that feeds are supplied to groups of animals. It is important to consider the requirements of nutrients/energy unit to limit feed costs and environmental impact. In addition, the potential development of individual feeding systems should be considered. 31 ref.

Keywords: health, housing, production, animal welfare, environmental impact, feed intake, grassland management, grasslands, nutrient requirements, pastures, pig farming, feeding, piglet feeding, production costs, sows, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, Denmark, Danish language.

Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Lay, D.C. Jr.; Haussmann, M..F.; Daniels, M..J. (2000). Hoop housing for feeder pigs offers a welfare-friendly environment compared to a nonbedded confinement system. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS 3(1):33-48, ISSN: 1088-8705.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.J68.

Keywords: housing, litter, stocking density, behavior, play, winter, abnormal behavior, summer, lameness, wounds, physical activity, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, respiration rate, liveweight gain, feed conversion, animal welfare.


Lemay, S.P.; Guo, H.; Barber, E.M.; Chenard, L. (2001). Performance and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs submitted to reduced nocturnal temperature. Transactions of the ASAE 44 (4): 957-965, ISSN: 0001-2351.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T.

Abstract: During summer months, elevated barn temperature reduces pig growth rate by decreasing feed intake. Two trials were conducted over two summers to evaluate the effect of reduced nocturnal temperature on the performance and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs. Control rooms had a typical temperature setpoint while the temperature setpoint for treatment rooms was 6 deg C lower. In Saskatchewan, a reduced temperature setpoint resulted in a lower nocturnal room temperature (1.6 deg C cooler over eight weeks), while it had no influence on room daytime temperature. The average daily temperature fluctuation in treatment rooms was increased by 2.1 deg C. The lower nocturnal temperature also resulted in a higher relative humidity (+3%) and lower CO2 and NH3 concentrations. During trial 1, pig average daily gain (ADG) in the treatment room was increased by 5.2%. For trial 2, feed intake was 3.2% higher in treatment rooms, which increased ADG by 2.1% on average over eight weeks. The ADG increase averaged 3.6% during the last four weeks of trial 2. However, no statistical differences were found for pig performance, feed conversion, and backfat thickness (P>0.05). The results suggest that healthy pigs are not negatively affected by a large daily temperature fluctuation (up to 14.8 deg C) as long as this fluctuation is progressively achieved. 18 ref.

Keywords: backfat, carcass quality, diurnal variation, fattening performance, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake, heating, liveweight gain, nocturnal activity, housing, temperature.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Linden, A.; Andersson, K.; Oskarsson, A. (2001). Cadmium in organic and conventional pig production. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40 (3): 425-431, ISSN: 0090-4341.

NAL Call No.: TD172 A7.

Keywords: growing/finishing pigs, organic versus conventionally raised, outdoor versus indoor, cadmium, soil content, water content, liver, kidney,graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, analytical method, toxicology.


Marchant, J.N.; Broom, D.M.; Corning, S. (2001). The influence of sow behaviour on piglet mortality due to crushing in an open farrowing system. Animal Science: an International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research. 72 (1): 19-28, ISSN: 1357-7298.

NAL Call No.: SF1.A56.

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to establish what changes in posture by sows carried a high risk of piglet crushing in a group farrowing system during early lactation and also to determine what factors influenced the risk of crushing during lying down. A total of 24 Large White X Landrace sows were studied during the first 7 days of lactation in a group farrowing system. Cross-fostering was not carried out so as not to influence behaviour. Dead piglets were removed and cause of death ascertained from external observation and post-mortem examination. Sow and piglet behaviour was video-recorded continuously. A total of 268 piglets were born alive, with 67 liveborn piglets subsequently dying during the 7-day experimental period, 50 as a result of crushing. A total of 7425 posture changes were analysed and 11 types of posture change were identified, the most dangerous being lying down from standing and those involving swapping sides, or rolling over, whilst lying. Dangerous events during lying down were more likely to occur (1) in the first 24 h after farrowing, (2) when the sow lay down in the middle of the pen, (3) when the sow lay down without carrying out much piglet-directed pre-lying behaviour and (4) when the piglets were spread out but near to the sow. The amount of pre-lying behaviour decreased over time and crushing mortality also decreased. The results confirm that the piglets are most vulnerable to crushing during the first 24 h of life, when they are spending much of their time near the udder and have relatively poor mobility. Co-ordination of behaviour between the sow and her litter is important to reduce the risk of crushing. It is also important that the design of open farrowing systems incorporates knowledge about how crushing deaths occur in order to improve piglet welfare.

Keywords: sows, maternal behavior, posture, behavior patterns, perinatal mortality, age differences, puerperium, farrowing houses, farrowing pens, piglets.


Marchant, J.N.; Rudd, A.R.; Mendl, M.T.; Broom, D.M.; Meredith, M.J.; Corning, S.; Simmins, P.H. (2000). Timing and causes of piglet mortality in alternative and conventional farrowing systems. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 147 (8): 209-214, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Abstract: The causes and timing of piglet mortality were studied in different farrowing systems. In the first experiment 198 litters were observed in 3 systems, 2 of which allowed the sows to move freely, and one restricted sows in conventional crates. More piglets were weaned from the conventional crates than from the open systems and they grew more quickly. More than half liveborn mortality occurred during the first 4 days after parturition. In the open systems, 17 and 14% of the piglets born alive were crushed, compared with only 8% in the crates. In the second experiment, 29 sows and litters were studied in detail in a communal pen system during the first 7 days of lactation. Three-quarters of the liveborn mortality was due to crushing. The total number of piglets dying per litter, including stillbirths, was significantly associated with the total litter size and the sow's parity. The percentage liveborn mortality was significantly associated with the parity and body length of the sows and with the within-litter variation in the birth weight of the piglets. Individual birth weight was closely associated with percentage survival. Only 28% of piglets weighing less than 1.1 kg at birth survived to 7 days. 38 ref.

Keywords: farrowing, mortality, piglets, birth weight, body length, litter size, parturition, sows, stillbirths, survival, farrowing pens, farrowing houses. gain.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Maw, S.J.; Fowler, V.R.; Hamilton, M.; Petchey, A.M. (2001). Effect of husbandry and housing of pigs on the organoleptic properties of bacon. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 119-130. ISSN: 0301-6226,

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: husbandry, housing, bacon, organoleptic traits, food quality, sensory evaluation, feeds, genotypes, ammonia, hygiene, dust, male animals, female animals, taste panels, straw, Scotland.


Mayland, A.P.; Sibly, R.M.; Guise, H.J. (1999). Pen sizes allowing heavily pregnant sows to turn without difficulty. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 145(13):373-374, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Keywords: pregnancy, sows, legislation, pens, animal housing, animal welfare, gilts, housing, farrowing houses, farrowing pens, size.


McGlone, J.J.; Borell, E.H. von; Deen, J.; Johnson, A.K.; Levis, D.G.; Meunier-Salaun, M.; Morrow, J.; Reeves, D.; Salak-Johnson, J.L.; Sundberg, P.L. (2004). Review: compilation of the scientific literature comparing housing systems for gestating sows and gilts using measures of physiology, behavior, performance, and health. Professional Animal Scientists 20(2): 105-107, ISSN: 1080-7446.

NAL Call No.: SF51.P76

Keywords: literature review, pregnant gilts, gestating sows, housing systems, tether, group housing, outdoor housing, comparisons, health, physiology, performance, behavior, oral-nasal-facial behaviors (ONF), blood cortisol, heart rate, meta-analyses.


McGlone, J.J.; Fullwood, S.D. (2001). Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment. Journal of Animal Science 79 (6): 1466-1474, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts’ behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts’ immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune measures did not indicate that any treatments resulted in physiological effects indicative of stress.

Keywords: gilts, pregnancy, animal behavior, sexual reproduction, fiber, digesta, litters, feed rations, feeds, feed intake, duration, stress, animal welfare.


Moeller, S.J.; Irvin, K.M.; Black, K.R.; Neal, S.M. (2001). The impact of farrowing crate design on litter performance traits in swine. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (Supplement 1): 276-277, Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science and the Poultry Science Association, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, July 24-28, 2001, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J822.

Keywords: piglet, sow, farrowing crate design, lactation, litter performance, mortality, parity, meeting abstract.


Mouttotou, N.; Hatchell, F.M;. Green, L.E. (1999). Foot lesions in finishing pigs and their associations with the type of floor. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 144(23):629-632, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Keywords: floors, floor coverings, foot injuries, hoof and claw injuries, prevention and control, abattoirs, animal husbandry, animal welfare.


Nilzen, V.; Babol, J.; Dutta, P.C.; Lundeheim, N.; Enfalt, A.C.; Lundstrom, K. (2001). Free range rearing of pigs with access to pasture grazing: effect on fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation products. Meat Science 58 (3): 267-285, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Abstract: The influence of free-range rearing, RN genotype and sex on different pig meat quality traits, including intramuscular fatty acid composition and levels of lipid oxidation products, were studied. A total of 60 Hampshire crossbred pigs were reared outdoors for two months with access to green feed, while 60 others were kept indoors, in a 120-m2-large pen, throughout the rearing period. From these 120 animals a subsample of 44 animals was chosen for meat quality analysis. Of the three factors studied, the RN genotype had the largest influence on basic technological meat quality traits, whereas the rearing conditions and sex had limited effects. However, outdoor rearing resulted in higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the intramuscular fat (P = 0.026) and in an increased level of vitamin E (P = 0.030) compared with the pigs that had been reared indoors. The sex and RN genotype of the animals also had an effect on the fatty acid profile: females had higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.003) as well as lower levels of saturated fatty acids (P = 0.011) than castrated males. Carriers of the RN(-) allele expressed a higher sum of omega-3 fatty acids (P = 0.047) and C22:5 (P = 0.012) than did the non-carriers. In a storage study where meat from free-range and indoor reared pigs was stored for 3 months at, 20 degrees C, it was shown that the lipid oxidation product malondialdehyde was formed at increased levels in animals that had a higher lean meat percentage than others, i.e. females that were carriers of the RN(-) gene and that were reared outdoors.

Keywords: free range husbandry, grazing, pastures, pig farming, pens, body fat, polyenoic fatty acids, long chain fatty acids, vitamin content, alpha-tocopherol, halothane susceptibility, genotypes, sex differences, pork, storage quality, lipids, oxidation, aldehydes, meat quality, water holding capacity, protein content, intramuscular fat, malondialdehyde, RN genotype.


O’Connell, N.E; Beattie, V.E.(1999). Influence of environmental enrichment on aggressive behaviour and dominance relationships in growing pigs. Animal Welfare 8(3): 269-279, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, animal behavior, dominance, environment, aggression, pig housing, suckling, body weight, social behaviour, animal welfare, age differences, husbandry.


Olsen, A.W.; Simonsen, H.B.; Dybkjaer, L. (2002). Effect of access to roughage and shelter on selected behavioural indicators of welfare in pigs housed in a complex environment. Animal Welfare 11(1): 75-87, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of roughage and shelter on certain welfare indicators in growing pigs that have access to ample straw and space. The effects of the two treatments were evaluated both by recording the pigs’ use of the various areas of the pen and by measuring the frequency of two specific behaviours, “aggression” and “play” that are considered to be significant indicators of welfare in pigs. Seven replicates were used, each involving 96 pigs. The pigs were randomly allocated to eight experimental pens at 10 weeks of age and were observed from 13 to 22 weeks of age. The two treatments, roughage and shelter, were distributed according to a 2x2 design in the pigs’ outdoor runs, four of which were located on each side of the barn (north side versus south side). The pigs spent most of their time in the straw- provided areas and the frequency of their aggressive behaviour was also the highest in these areas, suggesting that these locations were the most attractive to the pigs. The pigs with access to roughage showed a lower frequency of aggression (P<0.05) and spent more time in the outdoor area where the roughage was placed than those pigs with no access to roughage (P<0.05). No other effects of treatment were found on the length of time spent in the different pen locations. Play frequency decreased with age (P<0.05) and with increasing temperature (P<0.01). Moreover, when housed on the south side of the building, the pigs with access to shelter played more than those without (2.0 versus 1.0 events per hour (E=0.3); P<0.05); this suggests that the opportunity to regulate the body temperature by use of shade results in improved welfare. In conclusion, the pigs' behaviour indicated that their welfare was improved by free access to roughage and shelter.

Keywords: growing pigs, age differences, aggression, behavior, play, animal welfare, environmental temperature, physical activity, housing, roughage, straw, shelters.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Olsen, A.W. (2001). Behaviour of growing pigs kept in pens with outdoor runs. I. Effect of access to roughage and shelter on oral activities. Livestock Production Science 69 (3): 255-264, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: behavior, pig housing, straw, shelter, aggressive behavior, roughage, silage, lesions, animal welfare.


Olsen, A.W.; Dybkjaer, L.; Simonsen, H.B. (2001). Behaviour of growing pigs kept in pens with outdoor runs. II. Temperature regulatory behaviour, comfort behaviour and dunging preferences. Livestock Production Science 69 (3): 265-278, ISSN: 0301-6226,

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: housing, animal behavior, body temperature, thermoregulation, shelter, excretion, orientation, roughage, duration, air temperature.


Pajor, E.A.; Weary, D.M., Fraser, D., Kramer D.L. (1999). Alternative housing for sows and litters. 1. Effects of sow-controlled housing on responses to weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(2):105-121, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: sows, piglets, weaning, pig housing, piglet feeding, floor pens, animal behavior, vocalization, responses, weight losses, bites, liveweight gain, feed intake, litter weight, temperament, maternal behavior, animal welfare.


Phillips, P.A.; Fraser, D.; Pawluczuk, B. (2000). Floor temperature preference of sows at farrowing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67(1-2):59-65, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: management, animal welfare, environmental preference, equipment design, farrowing pen, floor temperature preference, selection, parturition, thermal environment, preference, selection, thermoregulation.


Quiniou, N.; Noblet, J.; Milgen, J. van.; Dubois, S. (2001). Modelling heat production and energy balance in group-housed growing pigs exposed to low or high ambient temperatures. The British Journal of Nutrition 85 (1): 97-106. ISSN: 0007-1145.

NAL Call No.: 389.8 B773.

Abstract: The effects of ambient temperature (T; 12-29 degrees C), body weight (BW; 30-90 kg) and metabolisable energy intake (ME) on components of energy balance were studied in seven groups of Pietrain X Large White barrows kept in a respiratory chamber. In Expt 1 (groups 1, 2 and 3), T varied in a cyclic way from 22 degrees C to 12 degrees C and then from 12 degrees C to 22 degrees C with three or four consecutive days at each of 22, 19, 16, 14 and 12 degrees C. Similarly, in Expt 2 (groups 4, 5 and 6), T varied from 19 to 29 degrees C and then from 29 to 19 degrees C with three or four consecutive days at each of 19, 22, 25, 27 and 29 degrees C. In both experiments, pigs were offered feed ad libitum. In Expt 3, pigs (group 7) were exposed to the thermic conditions of Expt 1 but their feed allowance was adjusted on a BW basis to the ad libitum intake recorded at 19 and 22 degrees C in Expt 1. Groups 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 were used over two successive cycles with initial average BW of 37 kg at cycle 1 (four pigs per group) and 63 kg at cycle 2 (three pigs per group). Groups 3 and 6 were studied at an intermeDairy stage of growth; their initial BW was 45 kg. The O2 and CO2 concentrations, physical activity and feed intake were continuously and simultaneously measured and used to calculate total heat production (HP; HP(tot)), HP due to physical activity (HP(act)), activity-free HP (HP0), and thermic effect of feed. HP was modelled as a non-linear function with T, BW and ME as predictors. Results indicate that all components of HP were proportional to BW0.60. Physical activity was minimal between 19 and 27 degrees C (8% ME). The estimated lower critical temperature was 24 degrees C. Between 24 and 12 degrees C, total thermic effect of feed decreased from 31 to 16% ME, but the short-term thermic effect of feed (5.1% ME) remained constant. Equations for prediction of HP(tot), HP(act) and HP0 according to BW, T and ME are proposed and evaluated according to literature values; values for the feed cost of thermoregulation in pigs are proposed.

Keywords: heat production, energy balance, pig housing, environmental temperature, cyclic fluctuations, body weight, metabolizable energy, energy intake, energy metabolism, feed intake, physical activity, equations, mathematical models, specific dynamic action, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide, gas production, body temperature regulation.


Quiniou, N.; Noblet, J.; Milgen, J. van; Dubois, S. (2001). Influence of low ambient temperatures on heat production and energy balance of single-housed growing pigs fed ad libitum: a comparison with group-housed pigs. Animal Research 50 (4): 325-333, ISSN: 1627-3583.

Keywords: adaptation, housing, individual versus group, body weight, energy balance, energy consumption, energy intake, environmental temperature, heat production, physical activity, stocking rate, unrestricted feeding, feed intake, cold exposure.


Ramesh, V.; Saseendran, P.C.; Thomas, C.K. (2001). Effect of housing systems on the reproductive performance of sows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71 (4): 378-380, ISSN: 0367-8318.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of 3 types of housing systems namely, conventional house with wallowing tank (Control T1), conventional house with sprinklers (T2) and range system (T3) on the reproductive performance of sows wherein 18 were reared under each system. A significantly lower (P<0.01) air temperature was observed in sprinkler system (33.0 deg C) and range (34.35 deg C). There was no significant difference in relative humidity between the groups. The weight of sows at the time of breeding, one week after farrowing and at weaning were significantly lower (P<0.05) in treatment group T2 (95.55 plus or minus 2.38, 116.58 plus or minus 4.5 and 110.27 plus or minus 4.43 kg, respectively) when compared to T3(111.58 plus or minus 7.48, 138.97 plus or minus 8.32 and 129.54 plus or minus 8.22 kg, respectively) and T1 (114.44 plus or minus 4.56, 141.14 plus or minus 6.67 and 137.36 plus or minus 6.41 kg, respectively). Significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of oestrus occurrence, breeding success and intensity of oestrus were observed in T2 and T3 groups than T1 group. The gestation length and postweaning oestrus period were similar. The litter size at birth and weaning in T3(9.38 plus or minus 0.33 and 6.92 plus or minus 0.05) and T2(9.11 plus or minus 0.31 and 6.44 plus or minus 0.34) sows were significantly (P<0.01) higher than T1(7.09 plus or minus 0.68 and 4.63 plus or minus 0.70, respectively). Between T2 and T3 there was no significant difference. The litter weight at birth and weaning (14.35 plus or minus 0.52 kg and 63.84 plus or minus 4.04kg), respectively, in T3 group of sows were found to be significantly (P<0.01) higher than T1. In the present study the reproductive performance of pigs maintained under sprinkler under conventional system. 13 ref.

Keywords: sows, housing, relative humidity, temperature, comparisons, conventional house with wallowing tank, conventional house with sprinklers, range system, reproductive performance, litter size, litter weight, estrus, pregnancy, weaning weight.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Ramesh, V.; Saseendran, P.C.; Thomas, C.K. (2001). Effect of housing systems on the reproductive performance of gilts. Indian Veterinary Journal 78 (6): 509-512, ISSN: 0019-6479.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 IN22.

Abstract: In the present study the reproductive performance of pigs maintained under sprinkler system (T2) was found to be better than the pigs maintained under conventional system with wallows and almost at par with the range system. In fact, in certain cases like improvement of microclimate and age at puberty, the sprinkler system appeared to give better results than the range.

Keywords: birth weight, conception rate, environmental temperature, gilts, litter size, mortality, estrus, pig housing, puberty, relative humidity, reproductive performance, sprinklers, weaning weight.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Rantzer, D.; Svendsen, J. (2001). Slatted versus solid floors in the dung area: comparison of pig production system (moved versus not moved) and effects on hygiene and pig performance, weaning to four weeks after weaning. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51 (3): 175-183, ISSN:: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Abstract: The effect of weaning pigs in pens with slatted versus solid floor dung alleys, and of moving at weaning, was studied on pigs from 201 litters. Weaning was at 5 weeks and no litters were mixed. Four treatments were performed: slatted+moved, slatted+not moved, solid+moved and solid+not moved. Pen hygiene was significantly better in the slatted floor pens and morbidity significantly lower. There were no significant differences in mortality or in daily weight gain. Escherichia coli-associated diarrhoea was the major cause of disease and death and joint inflammation was also of importance. It was concluded that slatted flooring improved pen hygiene and reduced morbidity due to gastrointestinal diseases. In addition, moving the pigs at weaning to cleaned, slatted floor pens may further reduce disease problems.

Keywords: housing, diarrhea, floors, gastrointestinal diseases, Escherichia coli, hygiene, joint diseases, liveweight gain, morbidity, mortality, slatted floors, weaning.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Rantzer, D.; Svendsen, J. (2001). Slatted versus solid floors in the dung area of farrowing pens: effects on hygiene and pig performance, birth to weaning. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal Science 51 (3): 167-174, ISSN: 0906-4702.

NAL Call No.: S3.A27.

Abstract: The effect of slatted versus solid floors in the dung area of farrowing pens on the health and production of pigs from birth to weaning was studied on a research farm which has a small integrated herd with 50-60 sows in production. In half of the farrowing pens, evenly distributed within a unit, the plastic slats were glued together to form a solid surface and only urine drainage was allowed. A total of 201 litters were studied during 1996-99. Pen hygiene in the slatted floor pens in general was significantly better in all trials, and there was a demonstrably higher amount of bacteria in the solid floor pens. Total mortality from birth to weaning was significantly higher for the solid floor treatment group, primarily due to more traumatic injuries and more infection losses. No significant treatment effects on morbidity and daily weight gain were observed. In conclusion, even in a closed herd with batch farrowing, good general hygiene level and good herd immunity, a small change such as solid flooring in the dung area can negatively affect pig health and production before weaning.

Keywords: farrowing pens, floor type, slatted floors, solid floors, hygiene, mortality, housing, piglets, diseases, trauma.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Renaudeau, D.; Noblet, J. (2001). Effects of exposure to high ambient temperature and dietary protein level on sow milk production and performance of piglets. Journal of Animal Science 79 (6): 1540-1548, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: The effects of high ambient temperature and level of dietary heat increment on sow milk production and piglet performance over a 28-d lactation were determined in 59 multiparous crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs kept at a thermoneutral (20 degrees C) or in a hot (29 degrees C) constant ambient temperature. Experimental diets fed during lactation were a control diet (NP; 17.6% CP) and two low-protein diets obtained by reduction of CP level (LP; 14.2% CP) or both reduction of CP and addition of fat (LPF; 15.2% CP); the NE:ME ratio was 74.3, 75.6, and 75.8% for NP, LP, and LPF diets, respectively. All diets provided 0.82 g of digestible lysine/MJ of NE, and ratios between essential AA and lysine were above recommendations. Creep feed was provided after d 21 of lactation. Reduction of CP level did not influence (P > 0.10) milk production, milk composition, or piglet performance. Despite higher nursing frequency (39 vs 34 sucklings per day), milk production decreased (P < 0.01) from 10.43 to 7.35 kg/d when temperature increased from 20 to 29 degrees C. At d 14, DM (18.6 vs 18.1%) and energy (4.96 vs 4.75 MJ/kg) contents in milk tended (P = 0.09) to be higher in sows kept at 29 degrees C. Over the 28-d lactation, piglet BW gain and BW at weaning decreased (P < 0.01) from 272 to 203 g/d and 9.51 to 7.52 kg, respectively, when temperature increased from 20 to 29 degrees C. Daily creep feed intake over the 4th wk of lactation was higher (P < 0.01) at 29 degrees C than at 20 degrees C (388 vs 232 g/litter, respectively), which was reflected in a greater increase in BW gain between wk 1 to 3 and wk 4 at the higher temperature (147 vs 130%); BW gain between weaning and d 14 postweaning was higher (P < 0.05) for piglets originating from sows kept at 29 degrees C (280 vs 218 g/d). In connection with their lower growth rate, DM (31.2 vs 33.0%), protein (15.5 vs 16.0%), lipid (12.3 vs 13.9%), and energy (8.39 vs 9.09 kJ/g) contents in weaned, slaughtered piglets were lower (P < 0.01) at 29 than at 20 degrees C. In conclusion, modification in the CP:NE ratio in order to decrease dietary heat increment did not affect milk production and piglet performance in thermoneutral or hot climatic conditions. Our results confirm the negative effect of high ambient temperatures on milk yield and emphasize the importance of creep feed supply to improve pre- and postweaning growth of piglets in these conditions, especially when weaning occurs after 3 wk of age.

Keywords: piglets, sows, milk yield, lactation, dietary protein, feeds, air temperature, performance, growth, heat stress, creep feeding, milk composition, energy content, liveweight gain, liveweight, weaning weight, pig feeding.


Ruis, M.A.; te Brake, J.H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M. (2001). Adaptation to social isolation. Acute and long-term stress responses of growing gilts with different coping characteristics. Physiology and Behavior 73 (4): 541-51, ISSN: 0031-9384.

NAL Call No.: QP1.P4.

Abstract: The present experiment studied the acute and long term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low (LR) and high resistant (HR) in this test. At 7 weeks of age, 12 gilts of each type were socially isolated. Initially, isolation was stressful for both types of gilts, as shown by increased cortisol concentrations and decreased body temperatures. Moreover, both types reacted with increases in exploration and vocalizations. Stress responses to isolation, however, differed in magnitude and/or duration between LR and HR gilts, which was in line with expected reaction patterns on the basis of preferred ways of coping. The cortisol response to isolation was higher in LR gilts, and they generally showed more explorative behavior. HR gilts seemed to be more engaged in walking/running behavior in the first hour after isolation, they generally vocalized more and their noradrenaline excretion in urine was higher at 3 weeks after the start of isolation. Several responses to isolation in the longer term pointed to a prolonged higher general state of stress of HR gilts. Body temperature in HR gilts, for instance, did not recover during 3 weeks of isolation, but values returned to “normal” within 1 day in LR gilts. At 1 week of isolation, relatively high parasympathetic responsivity to novelty was observed in HR gilts, probably due to stress-related high sympathetic reactivity. A shift in percentages of leucocyte subsets, typically occurring under conditions of stress, only developed in HR gilts during isolation. Finally, gastric ulceration was found in one HR gilt, but did not occur in LR gilts. To conclude, LR and HR gilts differed in their strategies to adapt to social isolation, and especially for HR gilts, this procedure seemed to become a chronic stressor.

Keywords: adaptation, psychological physiology, social isolation, stress, acute disease, body temperature, chronic disease, fear, heart rate, hormones, blood, hydrocortisone, hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, organ weight, pituitary-adrenal system, stomach ulcer, pathology.


Schon, H.; Hornauer, N.; Haidn, B. (2001). Animal health in outside climate housing with kennels for fattening pigs. Agrartechnische Forschung 7 (1/3): E11-E14, ISSN: 0948-7298.

Keywords: health, climate, finishing, kennels, housing, nasal flora, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida.


Sharp, J.T. ; Hinrichs, C.C. (2001). Farmer support for publicly funded sustainable agriculture research: the case of hoop structures for swine. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 16(2): 81-88, ISSN: 0889-1893.

NAL Call No.: S605.5.A43.

Abstract: Environmental and social concerns about the use of capital-intensive agricultural technologies have fueled questions about the process, impact, and future direction of the system that is largely responsible for developing these technologies, that is, publicly funded agricultural research at U.S. land-grant universities. Although social scientists have analyzed the public agricultural research system and farmers' attitudes towards various capital-intensive agricultural technologies, there has been less research on farmers' attitudes toward publicly funded research that focuses specifically on lower-input agricultural technologies that contribute to sustainability goals. This research examines farmers' attitudes toward publicly funded research on one such low-input technology, deep-bedded hoop structures for swine production. With lower capital costs and purported environmental and management advantages, hoop structures have been promoted to and adopted by growing numbers of Midwest swine producers. The study hypotheses draw on published theories of the treadmill of technology, and of innovation adoption and diffusion. Using a 1997 mail survey of Iowa swine producers (n = 298), we examined factors associated with producers' attitudes toward publicly funded research on hoop structures and found that 40% were supportive of the research, 40% were opposed, and 20% were undecided. Of the variables examined, the producer's assessment of hoop structures' contribution to sustainability, number of external knowledge sources about hoop structures, and formal education were each significantly related to support for publicly funded hoop-structure research. Two farm structure variables, marketings and percentage of income from farming, were not significantly related in this study. Future research on farmers' attitudes toward public sector agricultural research should take account of farmers' views of potential impacts of the specific technologies being researched and developed, and the nature of farmers' ties to the land-grant university system. This study clarifies the importance of farmers' perceptions and concerns about specific agricultural technologies in directing public agricultural research planning and policy toward broader sustainability goals.

Keywords: pigs, agricultural research, sustainability; research support, farmers’ attitudes, pig housing, low input agriculture, innovation adoption, diffusion of information, Iowa.


Stabenow, B.; Manteuffel, G. (2002). A better welfare for nursing sows without increased piglet loss applying peri-parturition short term crating. Archiv fuer Tierzucht 45 (1): 53-60, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23.

Keywords: sows, nursing, freedom to move, animal welfare, animal well-being, piglet loss, crushing, farrowing crates, short term crating, peri-parturition, alternative to conventional systems.


Tanaka, A.; Xin, H. (1997). Thermal characteristics of a hoop structure for swine production. Transactions of the ASAE 40 (4): 1171-1177, ISSN: 0001-2351.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T.

Abstract: The thermal performance of a low-cost, hoop-type swine building (3.55 X 5.7 X 10.3 m) was evaluated under the winter weather conditions of Central Japan. The hoop building had two curved roofs made from 2.5 cm diameter tubular steel pipes each covered with a reflective film. There was a 20 cm air space between the inner and outer covers, through which the exhaust air flowed. A positive- pressure ventilation fan and an air distribution duct were used to supply the fresh air. The evaluation was conducted for three opening configurations of the air distribution duct (one, two, or four holes on a cross-section of the duct) and presence or absence of an internal curtain. Furthermore, the effect of replacing the reflective film with a PVC film for the east side cover on solar transmission and thus the internal temperature rise was quantified. The building was simulated to house 30 pigs at a body weight of 70 kg. Resistive heating wire was used simulate the sensible heat generation of the pigs at 131.5 W/pig at 10 degrees C temperature. The inside temperature averaged 6.9 degrees C higher than the outside temperature during the minimum ventilation period. As the exhaust air passed through the double-layer air space, 25.4% of exhaust heat transferred back into the building and 74.6% lost to the outside. When replacing the reflective covers with the PVC film covers on the east side, the internal temperature rise increased to an average of 7.6 degrees C with a maximum of 12.7 degrees C. The magnitude of temperature rise was proportional to the transmitted solar radiation, as evidenced by the higher temperature rise during the day and significantly reduced temperature rise at night. To eliminate the effects of cold, nocturnal radiation, the PVC film cover should be covered by the regular reflective cover at night. One-holed air duct had a tendency to produce drafts in the pig occupied zone (POZ 1.2 X 0.7 m), whereas four-holed air duct tended to have less mixing effects on the air. In comparison, the combination two-holed air duct and use of the internal curtain was found to be the best in achieving warmer air temperature and minimizing drafts in POZ.

Keywords: housing, design, thermal properties, heating systems, artificial ventilation, air temperature, air flow, energy requirements, Japan.


University of Minnesota Extension Service (2001). Hogs Your Way: Choosing a Hog Production System in the Upper Midwest, Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture: St. Paul, MN, 82 p.

NAL Call No.: SF395.8 A14 H65 2001.Available online at

at http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/livestocksystems/DI7641.html

Keywords: farrowing facilities, management, production systems, comparisons, Swedish deep-straw farrowing, Swedish deep-straw and pasture farrowing system, deep-straw hoop structures, combining pasture and hoop structure production, pasture farrowing, confinement farrowing and finishing, confinement farrowing and contract finishing, selecting a system, decision making, Midwest.


Von-Borell, E.; Bockisch, F.J.; Buscher, W.; Hoy, S.; Krieter, J.; Muller, C.; Parvizi, N.; Richter, T.; Rudovsky, A.; Sundrum, A.; Weghe, H. Van den (2001). Critical control points for on-farm assessment of pig housing. Livestock Production Science 72(1/2): 177-184, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: housing, evaluation, certification, quality controls, animal welfare, animal husbandry, animal health, animal behavior, environmental impact, monitoring.


Weary, D.M.; Pajor, E.A.; Bonenfant, M.; Ross, S.K.; Fraser, D.; Kramer, D.L. (1999). Alternative housing for sows and litters. 2. Effects of a communal piglet area on pre- and post-weaning behaviour and performance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(2):123-135, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: sows, piglets, housing, farrowing pens, floor pens, weaning, aggressive behavior, sow lactation, feeding frequency, suckling, creeps, creep feeding, liveweight gain, animal welfare, feed intake, animal behavior.


Wechsler, B.; Frohlich, E.; Oester, H.; Oswald, T.; Troxler, J.; Weber, R.; Schmid, H. (1997). The contribution of applied ethology in judging animal welfare in farm animal housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53 (1/2): 33-43, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: pigs, cattle, poultry, farm animal housing systems, Swiss animal welfare legislation, veterinary, physiological and behavioural tests, animal welfare problems, housing systems, group cages for laying hens, electric cow- trainers, farrowing crates for sows, alternative housing systems, Switzerland.


Wulbers-Mindermann, M.; Algers, B.; Berg, C.; Lundeheim, N.; Sigvardsson, J. (2002). Primiparous and multiparous maternal ability in sows in relation to indoor and outdoor farrowing systems. Livestock Production Science 73(2/3): 285-297, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: sows, farrowing, housing, liveweight, backfat, thickness, parturition, mortality, piglets, duration, litter weight, growth rate, litters.


Xin, H. (1999). Assessing swine thermal comfort by image analysis of postural behaviors. Journal of Animal Science 77(Suppl. 2):1-9, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: image analysis, imagery, image processing, heat stress, animal behavior, cold stress, heat adaptation, animal welfare, physiology, posture.


Zhang, Y.; Barber, E.M.; Ogilvie, J.R. (2001). Commissioning livestock buildings: the needs and challenges. Transactions of the ASAE 44 (1): 129-136, ISSN: 0001-2351.

NAL Call No.: 290.9 Am32T.

Keywords: air flow, housing, building construction, design, guidelines, housing, standards, ventilation, infiltration, exfiltration, system ventilation capacity, ventilation effectiveness, air distribution, maximum heating, cooling capability.


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