Legislation


Bach Knudsen, K.E. (2001). Development of antibiotic resistance and options to replace antimicrobials in animal diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60 (3): 291-9, ISSN: 0029-6651.

NAL Call No.: 389.9 N953.

Abstract: As there is a risk of developing antibiotic resistance, a number of commonly used antimicrobial growth promoters have been banned in the EU member states. This decision has put new emphasis on using the diet to control enteric bacterial infections of pigs. Dietary carbohydrates constitute a major proportion of diets for pigs, and the carbohydrate fraction has a diverse composition, with different properties in the gastrointestinal tract, some of which are of importance to gut health. Findings from different studies indicate that dietary carbohydrate composition influences the expression of swine dysentery and infection with nematode worms after experimental challenge with Brachyspira hyodesenteriae and Oesophagostumum dentatum respectively. In both cases the type, amount and physico-chemical properties of the carbohydrates entering the large intestine played an important role in the infection, and emerging data suggest a synergism between different porcine pathogens. There is also increasing evidence that the feed structure, which relates to the type of plant material in the diet and the way it is processed, can be used to reduce Salmonella prevalence at the herd level. However, it should be stressed that using the diet to manage gut health is not straightforward, since the expression of a pathogen in many cases requires the presence of other components of the commensal biota. (75 Refs.)

Keywords: antibiotics, ban, pharmacology, dietary carbohydrates, metabolism, enterobacteriaceae infections, nematode infections, disease, prevention and control, animal feed, dietary carbohydrates, analysis, drug resistance, drug effects, pathogenicity, European Union.


Hayes, D.J.; Jensen, H.H.; Fabiosa, J. (2002). Technology choice and the economic effects of a ban on the use of antimicrobial feed additives in swine rations. Food Control 13 (2): 97-101. ISSN: 0956-7135.

NAL Call No.: TP372.7 F66.

Keywords: antimicrobial feed additives, bans, regulations, animal rations, analysis, feed, preparation, economics, food safety, pork production, management, technology choices, swine industry, Europe, USA.


Kuzma, C.D. (2001). Activists begin legal assault against industrial hog farming. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (8): 1246, ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3.

Keywords: husbandry, legislation and jurisprudence, animal welfare, environment, waste products, water pollutants.


Lara, A.; Kelly, P.W.; Lynch, B. (2001). Environmental and animal welfare regulations and the Irish pig industry. Rural Economy Situation and Outlook Series No.6, Rural Economy Research Centre: Teagasc Dublin, Irish Republic, 48 p., ISBN: 1-84170-171-8.

Keywords: production, animal welfare, constraints, environmental impact, legislation, pig farming, production economics, regulations, European Union.


Mellor, D.J.; Stafford, K.J. (2001). Integrating practical, regulatory and ethical strategies for enhancing farm animal welfare. Australian Veterinary Journal 79 (11): 762-768, ISSN: 0005-0423.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72.

Keywords: assessment of animal welfare, societal expectations, welfare standards, regulation, ethical strategies, welfare management, nutrition, environment, health, behavior, mental needs of animals, science, acceptable standards, economics, New Zealand.


Pellini, T.; Morris, J. (2001). A framework for assessing the impact of the IPPC directive on the performance of the pig industry. Journal of Environmental Management 63 (3): 325-33, ISSN: 0301-4797.

NAL Call No.: HC75 E5J6.

Abstract: New European Union legislation on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is being implemented in the United Kingdom, enacted by the Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 and its statutory instruments, the Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000. This legislation incorporates previously unregulated installations in the food and intensive livestock sectors, such as pig installations above a given threshold size. IPPC requires that installations adopt Best Available Techniques and follow General Binding Rules of good practice in order to manage their environmental effects. IPPC has significant potential impacts for both the environmental and financial performance of the pig industry. In this context, the paper discusses the IPPC implementation process as it applies to the sector and presents a methodological framework for assessing the environmental and cost benefit implications of the new regulations.

Keywords: agriculture, manure, public policy, water pollution, prevention and control, husbandry, conservation of natural resources, cost-benefit analysis, Europe, guideline adherence, water pollution, economics.


Savard, M. (2000). Modelling risk, trade, agricultural and environmental policies to assess trade-offs between water quality and welfare in the hog industry. Ecological Modelling 125(1):51-66, ISSN: 0304-3800.

NAL Call No.: QH541.15 M3E25.

Keywords: models, risk, international trade, agricultural policy, environmental policy, water quality, animal welfare, pig farming, meat and livestock industry, pollution, optimization, trade liberalization, imports, nitrogen, phosphates.


Spoolder, H.A.M.; Corning, S.; Edwards, S.A. (1999). The specification of stocking density in relation to the welfare of finishing pigs. In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, pp.150-151.

NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23.

Keywords: finishing, stocking density, animal welfare, livestock, legislation, animal behaviour.


Swinkels, J.W.G.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M. (2001). Weaning in practice. In: The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management Varley, M.A.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, pp.317-324, ISBN: 0-85199-532-2.

NAL Call No.: SF396.5 W43 2001.

Keywords: ammonia, husbandry, animal welfare, legislation, 1998 Dutch legislation, housing, piglets, weaning, behavioral need, stress.

 

Walton, J.R. (2001). Benefits of antibiotics in animal feed. In: Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition No. 3, Garnsworthy, P. C.; Wiseman, J. (Eds.), Nottingham University Press: Nottingham, UK, pp.11-37, ISBN: 1-897676-44-1.

Keywords: production, antiinfective agents, food hygiene, health, penicillin, tetracycline, human health, regulation, legislation.


Webster, A.J.F (2001). Farm animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market. The Veterinary Journal 161(3) 229-237, ISSN: 1090-0233.

NAL Call No.: SF601.V484.

Keywords: review, scientific, ethical and economic factors, animal welfare, ethical matrix, wellbeing, autonomy, fitness, suffering, husbandry, legislation, free market, quality assurance schemes, quality control, independent audit.


Wechsler, B.; Frohlich, E.; Oester, H.; Oswald, T.; Troxler, J.; Weber, R.; Schmid, H. (1997). The contribution of applied ethology in judging animal welfare in farm animal housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53 (1/2): 33-43, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: pigs, cattle, poultry, farm animal housing systems, Swiss animal welfare legislation, veterinary, physiological and behavioural tests, animal welfare problems, housing systems, group cages for laying hens, electric cow- trainers, farrowing crates for sows, alternative housing systems, Switzerland.


Wierup, M. (2001). The Swedish experience of the 1986 year ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, with special reference to animal health, disease prevention, productivity, and usage of antimicrobials. Microbial Drug Resistance 7 (2): 183-190, ISSN: 1076-6294.

Keywords: pigs, beef, poultry, health, disease, ban, antimicrobial growth promoters, zinc oxide, improved management practices, disease prevention, antimicrobial resistance, health, productivity, Sweden.



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