Slaughter


Aaslyng, M.D.; Gade, P.B. (2001). Low stress pre-slaughter handling: effect of lairage time on the meat quality of pork. Meat Science 57 (1): 87-92, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: pens, duration, time, mental stress, prevention, handling, slaughter, pork, meat quality, water holding capacity, pH, exudative meat, temperature, time in holding pens, drip loss.


Alarcon-Rojo, A.D.; Gamboa, J.G.; Grado, A.; Rodriguez-Almeida, F.A. (2001). Changes in critical variables of the slaughter process and their effect on pork quality. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 126, ISSN: 0021-8812.

Keywords: meat science, group stunning, meat science, muscle biology, physicochemical, pork characteristics, pork quality, slaughter process, meeting abstract.


Beattie, V.E.; Burrows, M.S.; Moss, B.W.; Weatherup, R.N. (2002). The effect of food deprivation prior to slaughter on performance, behaviour and meat quality. Meat Science 62(4): 413-418, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: food deprivation, meat quality, feeding behavior, production performance, dietary vitamin-E, feed withdrawal, pork quality, carcass, weight, genotype, lairage, traits, stress.


Bonneau, M.; Squires, E.J. (2001). Use of entire males for pig production. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.178-202.

Keywords: androsterone, animal husbandry, animal production, animal welfare, boar taint, carcass grading, carcass quality, castration, consumer surveys, dark cutting meat, male animals, meat production, meat products, meat quality, pig manure, pig meat, processed products, production costs, quantitative analysis, quantitative techniques, reviews, sensory evaluation.


Chevillon, P. (2001). Pig welfare during pre-slaughter and stunning. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.145-158.

Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare, loading, reviews, slaughter, stress factors, stunning, transport of animals, unloading.


Costa, L.N.; Fiego, D.P.L.; Dall, O.S.; Davoli, R.; Russo, V. (2002). Combined effects of pre-slaughter treatments and lairage time on carcass and meat quality in pigs of different halothane genotype. Meat Science 61 (1): 41-47, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: breed, Italian, heavy meat hogs, pre-slaughter treatment, stocking density, skin damage, fighting, carcass quality, evaluation, halothane, genotype, lairage time, meat quality.


Daxenberger, A.; Hageleit, M.; Kraetzl, W.D.; Lange, I.G.; Claus, R.; Le Bizec, B.; Meyer, H.H. (2001). Suppression of androstenone in entire male pigs by anabolic preparations. Livestock Production Science 69 (2): 139-144, ISSN: 0301-6226.

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: boars, boar taint, Synovex H Plus, intramuscular implant, anabolic preparations, androstenone suppression, anabolic sex hormones, androstenone, slaughter, implantation site, hormone residues, above threshold values.


Eisemann, J.H.; Morrow, W.E.M.; See, M.T.; Davies, P.R.; Zering, K. (2002). Effect of feed withdrawal prior to slaughter on prevalence of gastric ulcers in pigs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (4): 503-506. ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3.

Keywords: feed withdrawal, gastric ulcers, incidence, scoring system, slaughter.


Fabrega, E.; Diestre, A.; Carrion, D.; Font, J.; Manteca, X. (2002). Effect of the halothane gene on pre-slaughter mortality in two Spanish commercial pig abattoirs. Animal Welfare 11(4): 449-452, ISSN: 0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: animal welfare, halothane gene, lairage, preslaughter, mortality rate, transport, quality.


Fabrega, E.; Manteca, X.; Font, J.; Gispert, M.; Carrion, D.; Velarde, A.; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J.L.; Diestre, A. (2002). Effects of halothane gene and pre-slaughter treatment on meat quality and welfare from two pig crosses. Meat Science 62(4): 463-472, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: breed, Pietrain, Large White x Pietrain, gilts, halothane genotype, pre-slaughter, meat quality, animal welfare, carcass quality, stress susceptibility, growth performance, feed withdrawal, muscle quality, pork quality, lean growth, genotype, transport, sensitivity.

 

Faucitano, L. (2001). Causes of skin damage to pig carcasses. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 39-45, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Abstract: Damage to the surface of the carcass after dehairing is a serious commercial problem, since it decreases the grade and subsequently the value of the carcass. In many countries, the incidence of skin damage on the carcass has not been considered to be a problem with high priority, as it seems to be easily solved by just trimming off the skin. However, the presence of an haematoma in the underlying tissue and its negative influence on meat quality must be taken into account. Some European Union (EU) countries are aiming at reducing the incidence of blemished carcasses in order to safeguard the image of the national pork sector for both domestic and exporting markets. Major factors responsible for the incidence of skin damage on the carcass are fighting among mixed groups of pigs and poor handling during the preslaughter stages. Recognition of the economical impact of these two factors on the slaughter pigs may lead to more welfare-friendly handling systems and to reduction in the practice of preslaughter mixing of animals.

Keywords: skin, damage, carcasses, carcass quality, measurement, meat quality, animal welfare, handling, animal husbandry, transport of animals, abattoirs.


Faucitano, L. (2001). Effects of preslaughter handling on the pig welfare and its influence on meat quality. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.52-71.

Keywords: animal welfare, carcass quality, loading, meat quality, pig meat, reviews, slaughter, stocking density, stress, transport of animals, unloading.


Geverink, N.A.; de Jong, I.C.; Lambooij, E.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Wiegant, V.M. (1999). Influence of housing conditions on responses of pigs to preslaughter treatment and consequences for meat quality. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 79(3):285-291, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: pig housing, meat quality, hydrocortisone, farrowing, finishing, handling, pens, stress, straw, litter, transport of animals, animal welfare.


Grandin, T. (2003). Transferring results of behavioral research to industry to improve animal welfare on the farm, ranch and the slaughter plant. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(3): 215-228, ISSN: 0168-1591.

NAL Call No.: QL750.A6.

Keywords: cattle, pigs, slaughter, restraint, handling, welfare, auditing, technology transfer.


Grandin, T. (2001). Solving return to sensibility problems after electrical stunning in commercial pork slaughter plants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 (5): 608-611, ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3.

Keywords:electronarcosis, slaughter, abattoirs, reflexes, eyes, animal welfare.


Hamilton, D.N.; Ellis, M.; Wolter, B.F.; McKeith, F.K.; Wilson, E.R. (2003). Carcass and meat quality characteristics of the progeny of two swine sire lines reared under differing environmental conditions. Meat Science 63 (2): 257-263, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: barrow, breed, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, gilt, sire lines, longissimus muscle, slaughter, production method, carcass quality, crowded environment, dressing percentage, environmental conditions, genetic differences, pork meat, drip loss, marbling fat content, meat product, pH, paleness, quality, softness, progeny, rearing environment, spacious environment.


Hamman, L.L.; Gentry, J.G.; Ramsey, C.B.; McGlone, J.J.; Miller, M.F. (2001). The effect of vitamin-mineral nutritional modulation on the pork quality of halothane carriers. Journal of Muscle Foods 12 (1): 37-51, ISSN: 1046-0756.

NAL Call No.: TX556 M4J68.

Keywords: feed supplements, genes, genetics, halothane, preslaughter stress, meat quality, minerals, muscles, nutrition, storage quality, vitamins, water holding capacity, meat color.


Hurd, H.S., McKean, J.D., Wesley, I.V., Karriker, L.A. (2001). The effect of lairage on Salmonella isolation from market swine. Journal of Food Protection 64 (7): 939-944, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Keywords: market pigs, lairage, transport, slaughter, abattoir, holding pens, Salmonella, isolation, fecal samples, distal colon, ileocecal lymph nodes, cecal contents, ventral thoracic lymph nodes, subiliac lymph nodes, carcass swabs, ELISA, detection, labeling techniques, food hygiene, food microbiology, food protection.


Jonsall, A.; Johansson, L.; Lundstrom, K. (2001). Sensory quality and cooking loss of ham muscle (M. biceps femoris) from pigs reared indoors and outdoors. Meat Science 57 (3): 245-250. ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: ham, meat quality, flavor, tastes, odors, water content, cooking quality, cooking losses, tenderness, farming, housing, pens, free range husbandry, pigs, alleles, genotypes, juiciness, outdoor rearing, acidulous taste, genetics.


Kerth, C.R.; Carr, M.A.; Ramsey, C.B.; Brooks, J.C.; Johnson, R.C.; Cannon, J.E.; Miller, M.F. (2001). Vitamin mineral supplementation and accelerated chilling effects on quality of pork from pigs that are monomutant or noncarriers of the halothane gene. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): 2346-2355, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: barrows, gilts, vitamin and mineral supplementation, finishing diet, growth, accelerated chilling of carcasses, carcass and muscle traits, halothane gene carrier versus noncarrier pigs, vitamin E, exudative meat, meat quality, pork quality.


Klont, R.E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Kurt, E.; Winkelman-Goedhart, H.A.; de Jong, I.C. (2001). Relationships between behavioral and meat quality characteristics of pigs raised under barren and enriched housing conditions. Journal of Animal Science 79 (11): 2835-43, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82

Abstract: In this study the effects of barren vs enriched housing conditions of pigs on their behavior during the lairage period (2-h holding period before slaughter), carcass characteristics, postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality were studied. The barren housing system was defined by common intensive housing conditions (i.e., with slatted floors and recommended space allowances), whereas the enriched environment incorporated extra space and straw for manipulation. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before transport and at the end of the lairage period. During the lairage period the percentage of time spent walking and fighting by the pigs was registered. Carcass characteristics such as weight, meat percentage, and backfat thickness were determined. At 5 min, 45 min, 4 h, and 24 h postmortem, pH, temperature, and lactate concentrations were determined in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Capillarization of the muscle, mean muscle fiber area, and color and drip loss after 2 and 5 d of storage were determined for both muscle types. Pigs from the barren environment had a significantly higher increase in cortisol from farm to slaughter, but no differences in behavior were observed during the lairage period. Carcass characteristics did not differ between pigs from barren and those from enriched housing conditions. Postmortem lactate formation was significantly lower in LL muscles of enriched pigs at 4 and 24 h postmortem. Capillary density and mean muscle fiber area did not differ between the groups of pigs. The percentage of drip loss at 2 and 5 d after storage of LL muscle samples from enriched-housed pigs was significantly lower than that of the barren-housed pigs. Similar tendencies were found for the BF muscle from pigs kept in an enriched environment, but these were not statistically significant. The housing system did not affect meat color. It is concluded that on-farm improvement of animal welfare by environmental enrichment can also lead to beneficial economic effects after slaughter by improving the water-holding capacity of pork.

Keywords: husbandry, handling, housing, meat standards, physiology, abattoirs, animal welfare, behavior, psychology, hydrocortisone, blood, hydrogen-ion concentration, lactic acid, metabolism, skeletal muscle chemistry.


Machado Filho, L.C.P. (2001). Pig welfare and meat quality. A Brazilian view. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.32-38.

Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare, cholesterol, consumer preferences, consumer surveys, consumption, flavor, food safety, meat quality, nutritive value, organic foods, public opinion, Brazil, South America.


Maes, D.G.; Deluyker, H.; Verdonck, M.; Castryck, F.; Miry, C.; Vrijens, B.; Ducatelle, R.; De Kruif, A. (2001). Non-infectious factors associated with macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in slaughter pigs from farrow-to-finish herds. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 148 (2): 41-6, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Abstract: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 150 randomly selected farrow-to-finish herds to investigate which non-infectious factors might act as risk indicators for the prevalence and severity of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in slaughter pigs. Data were collected during herd visits through inspections of the pigs and through interviews with the farmers. Macroscopic lung lesions of pneumonia and pleuritis were recorded at slaughter from 25 pigs per herd, and microscopic lung lesions of lymphohistiocytic infiltration were recorded from 10 pigs per herd. The median herd level prevalences were 24 per cent for pneumonia, 16 per cent for pleuritis and 60 per cent for lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Pneumonia lesions were negatively associated with pleuritis lesions and positively associated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Pleuritis lesions were negatively associated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration. The prevalence and the severity of pneumonia lesions were increased by a high frequency of purchasing gilts and by a slaughter date in January to February. The presence of a growing unit also increased the severity of pneumonia. The prevalence and the severity of pleuritis lesions were higher when there were more pig herds in the municipality, and when there were poor biosecurity measures, and their prevalence was increased by a slaughter date in January to February, and their severity by a slaughter date in March to April. An increase in the airspace stocking density in the finishing unit also increased the prevalence of pleuritis. The prevalence and the severity of lymphohistiocytic infiltration in the lung tissue were higher in herds purchasing gilts. Pigs raised in pens with slatted floors were also at higher risk of more severe lesions of lymphohistiocytic infiltration.

Keywords: lung, pathology, pleurisy, pneumonia, disease, epidemiology, cross-sectional studies, epidemiologic studies, prevalence, risk factors, seasons.


Matthews, J.O.; Southern, L.L.; Bidner, T.D.; Persica, M.A. (2001). Effects of betaine, pen space, and slaughter handling method on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science 79 (4): 967-974, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of betaine, pen space, and preslaughter handling method on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing barrows. For the growth trial, a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used: betaine (0 or 0.250%) and(or) pen space (m2/pig, adequate, 0.035 BW0.67 kg, or inadequate, 0.025 BW0.67 kg). Each treatment was replicated five times with four barrows per replicate. At trial termination, two barrows from each pen were selected to receive either minimal or normal preslaughter handling. Reducing pen space decreased (P < 0.05) overall ADFI. Betaine had no affect (P > 0.10) on overall ADG, ADFI, or gain:feed. Pigs fed betaine had decreased (P < 0.10) carcass length. Other carcass and ham measurements were not affected (P > 0.10) by betaine. Pigs with inadequate pen space had increased (P < 0.10) ultimate pH, subjective color, cooking loss (fresh and frozen chop), and shear force but decreased rectal temperature, loin muscle CIE L*, biceps femoris CIE b*, and drip loss. Pigs subjected to minimal preslaughter handling had decreased (P < 0.10) rectal temperature, plasma cortisol, loin muscle CIE b*, and fresh chop total loss (drip + cooking loss). Pigs fed betaine had increased (P < 0.01) initial pH and decreased (P < 0.10) drip loss (fresh chop). Cooking loss and total loss (frozen chop) were decreased in pigs fed betaine with adequate pen space but increased in pigs fed betaine with inadequate pen space (betaine x pen space, P < 0.01). Pigs fed betaine may have improved pork quality.

Keywords: pigs, betaine, stocking density, floor space, liveweight gain, feed conversion, feed intake, body temperature, animal husbandry, slaughter, dressing percentage, fat thickness, ham, pH, color, losses, blood plasma, urea, hydrocortisone, animal handling, marbling, drip loss.


Maw, S.J.; Fowler, V.R.; Hamilton, M.; Petchey, A.M. (2001). Effect of husbandry and housing of pigs on the organoleptic properties of bacon. Livestock Production Science 68 (2/3): 119-130. ISSN: 0301-6226,

NAL Call No.: SF1.L5.

Keywords: husbandry, housing, bacon, organoleptic traits, food quality, sensory evaluation, feeds, genotypes, ammonia, hygiene, dust, male animals, female animals, taste panels, straw, Scotland.


Mitchell, A.D.; Scholz, A.M.; Wang, P.C.; Song, H. (2001). Body composition analysis of the pig by magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Animal Science 79 (7): 1800-1813, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, in vivo, organs, tissue analysis, proteins analysis, applications, imaging method.


Morrow, W.E.M.; See, M.T.; Eisemann, J.H.; Davies, P.R.; Zering, K. (2002). Effect of withdrawing feed from swine on meat quality and prevalence of Salmonella colonization at slaughter. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (4): 497-502. ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3.

Keywords: feed withdrawal, pathogen, Salmonella, digestive system disease, redness score, assessment method, meat product, meat quality, slaughter.


Murray, A.; Robertson, W.; Nattress, F.; Fortin, A. (2001). Effect of pre slaughter overnight feed withdrawal on pig carcass and muscle quality. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (1): 89-97, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: market pigs, overnight fast, abattoir, lairage times, pig carcass, gut contents, longissimus thoracis muscle, carcass contamination, carcass quality, carcass skin damage, feed restriction, liveweight yield, muscle color, muscle quality, meat quality.


Murray, A.C. (2001). Reducing losses from farm gate to packer. A Canadian’s perspective. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.72-83.

Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare, carcass quality, carcass weight, carcass yield, handling, losses, meat quality, microbial contamination, mortality, reviews, slaughter, stocking density, transport of animals, wastage, North America.


Raj, A.B.M. (1999). Behaviour of pigs exposed to mixtures of gases and the time required to stun and kill them: welfare implications. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 144(7):165-168, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Keywords: pigs, stunning, animal welfare, animal behavior, time consciousness, argon, carbon dioxide, feasibility studies.


Rosenvold, K.; Andersen, H. J. (2003). The significance of pre-slaughter stress and diet on colour and colour stability of pork. Meat Science 63 (2): 199-209, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Abstract: The influence of pre-slaughter stress and a diet known to affect post mortem muscle metabolism or a standard diet (control pigs) on colour and colour stability of M. longissimus dorsi, M. biceps femoris and M. semimembranosus from 112 female pigs, free of the Halothane gene, was investigated. Pre-slaughter stress increased the early post mortem temperature in the 3 muscles, as well as the pH decline in control pigs, but not in pigs fed the experimental diet. Colour was measured on sliced samples after 0, 2 and 5 days retail display (1, 3 and 6 days post mortem, respectively) from the 3 muscles aged 1 day before cutting as well as on sliced M. longissimus dorsi samples aged 8 days before cutting (8, 10 and 13 days post mortem, respectively). Early post mortem pH was not a main determinant of the colour and colour stability, while the degree of pre-slaughter stress and especially its influence on temperature early post mortem was crucial in relation to colour development and colour stability. The discoloration rate was enhanced in M. longissimus dorsi aged for 8 days prior to retail display compared with samples aged for 1 day. However, the extent of the discoloration after 5 days of retail display was not inferior in muscle samples aged for 8 days due to a higher degree of blooming. Finally, present data indicate that 3-4 days ageing of pork prior to retail display results in the optimal colour stability.

Keywords: aging, color, diets, discoloration, exercise, muscles, pig meat, postmortem changes, slaughter, stability, storage, stress, temperature.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International

 

Scipioni, R.; Martelli, G. (2001). Consequences of the use of ensiled sugar beet pulp in the diet of heavy pigs on performances, carcass characteristics and nitrogen balance: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 90 (1-2): 81-91, ISSN: 0377-8401.

NAL Call No.: SF95.A55.

Keywords: heavy pigs, nutrition, animal feed, pressed beet pulp silage, nitrogen balance, barley, carcass characteristics, growth, live weight, organic matter digestibility, slaughter.


Shelton, J.L.; Hemann, M.D.; Strode, R.M.; Brashear, G.L.; Ellis, M.; McKeith, F.K.; Bidner, T.D.; Southern, L.L. (2001). Effect of different protein sources on growth and carcass traits in growing finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79 (9): 2428-2435, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: animal feed, protein, different protein source effects, soybean meal, carcass trait, growing finishing.


Sinclair, P.A..; Squires, E.J.; Raeside, J.I. (2001). Early postnatal plasma concentrations of testicular steroid hormones, pubertal development, and carcass leanness as potential indicators of boar taint in market weight intact male pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79 (7): 1877-1882, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: market pigs, breed, Yorkshire, male, early postnatal biochemical analysis, testicular steroid hormones, market weights, boar taint, potential indicators, carcass leaness, meat quality, pubertal development.


Stoier, S.; Aaslyng, M.D.; Olsen, E.V.; Henckel, P. (2001). The effect of stress during lairage and stunning on muscle metabolism and drip loss in Danish pork. Meat Science 59 (2): 127-131, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Abstract: The effect on meat quality of a low stress handling system (LSS) compared with a traditional handling system (TS) was investigated in Duroc x (Landrace x Yorkshire, n = 117) and (Hampshire x Duroc) x (Landrace x Yorkshire) pigs (n = 110) under commercial conditions. In the low-stress handling system the pigs were kept in groups of 15 during lairage and movement up to the stunner. Before the stunner the groups were divided into three groups of five pigs for the C02-stunning in a specially designed set-up. The pH and temperature were determined in m. longissimus dorsi (LD) and m. biceps femoris (BF) at various times post mortem. Immediately after exsanguination a biopsy was taken from the LD and analysed for the concentration of glycogen, lactate and creatine phosphate. The day after slaughter the pH was determined in the LD, BF, m. semimembranosus (SM) and m. semispinalis capitis (SC). The temperature was determined in the LD and BF, the internal reflectance was determined in the LD, SM and BF, the colour was determined in LD, the drip loss was determined in LD and BF, and the amount of blood splashing/bruising was evaluated in LD. There was a tendency for a higher concentration of creatine phosphate in the LSS-group (P=0.06). The pH in both the LD and BF on the day of slaughter decreased more slowly from 5 min post mortem to 40 min post mortem in the LSS-group than in the TS-group (P < 0.001). From 40 min to 6 h post mortem the rate of the pH decline was similar in the two groups producing the lowest pH-level in the TS group. The day after slaughter the pH was similar in the two groups in the LD and SC, whereas in the BF and SM it was lower in the LSS-group than in the TS-group. The drip loss was lower in the LSS-group in both LD (P < 0.01) and BF (P < 0.05) whereas the internal reflectance was only different in LD with the lowest value in the LSS-group (P < 0.001). The lightness (L*) was higher in the LSS-group (P < 0.05). There was no effect of stunning system on the amount of blood splashing/bruising in the LD. The study showed that by using a low stress stunning system it is possible to decrease drip loss, possibly by increasing the concentration of creatine phosphate and thereby delaying the acceleration of pH fall in muscles after death.

Keywords: breeds, crossbreds, Duroc, Danish Landrace, Hampshire, pens, abattoirs, stunning, stress, pork, water holding capacity, skeletal muscle, glycogen, lactic acid, phosphocreatine, color, pH, meat quality, postmortem changes, drip loss, low stress stunning, Denmark.


Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A. (2001). Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses. Journal of Food Protection 64 (1): 12-16, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses in Netherlands (date not given) were determined, and the efficacy of the usual cleaning and disinfection on the presence of Salmonella was estimated. Lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were sampled three times when pigs were present. Furthermore, these lairages were sampled after the usual cleaning and disinfection, whereas the lairage of one slaughterhouse was sampled an additional time after improved cleaning and disinfection. Samples were collected by swabbing floor and wall surfaces and collecting the residing fluids on the floor throughout the lairage. Salmonella was isolated in 70 to 90% of the samples when pigs were present. The usual cleaning and disinfection reduced the level of contamination with Salmonella to 25% positive samples, whereas improved cleaning and disinfection reduced this level to 10% positive samples. It is concluded that the waiting period in the lairage of at least 2 hours contains a substantial risk for slaughter pigs to become infected with Salmonella, especially for pigs originating from Salmonella-free herds. The usual cleaning and disinfection of the lairage were not sufficient to eliminate this risk, whereas an improved procedure for cleaning and disinfection still was unsatisfactory.

Keywords: abattoirs, cleaning and sterilizing, disinfection, microbial contamination, bacteria, serotypes, stress, salmonella, Netherlands.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International


Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Van Knapen, F. (2001). Salmonella in slaughter pigs: Prevalence, serotypes and critical control points during slaughter in two slaughter houses. International Journal of Food Microbiology 70 (3): 243-254, ISSN: 0168-1605.

NAL Call No.: QR115 I57.

Keywords: Salmonella contamination, slaughter, bacterial carcass contamination, immune system, lymph nodes, tonsils, liver, rectum, analysis, critical control points, disinfection, environmental samples, microbial analysis, food hygiene, food microbiology, food processing, pork, bacterial prevalence studies, meat product, meat quality, slaughter houses, Netherlands.


Van, O.M.; Warnants, N.; Boucque, C.V.; Delputte, P.; Depuydt, J. (2001). The preference of the consumer for pork from homozygous or heterozygous halothane negative animals. Meat Science 58 (3): 247-251, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: human, taste preferences, taste tests, swine, heterozygous halothane negative, homozygous halothane negative, meat industry, food quality, consumer preferences, cooking loss, drip loss, meat, quality, shear force.


Velarde, A.; Gispert, M..; Faucitano, L.; Alonso, P.; Manteca, X.; Diestre, A. (2001). Effects of the stunning procedure and the halothane genotype on meat quality and incidence of haemorrhages in pigs. Meat Science 58 (3): 313-319, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: halothane free, slaughter, abattoirs, stunning systems, head only, head to chest, electrical stunners, carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning system, meat quality, loin muscle, pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat, hematomas in the shoulders, loins and hams, halothane gene.


Warriss, P.D.; Brown, S.N. (2001). Pig welfare and meat quality: a United Kingdom view. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.17-19.

Keywords: animal welfare, consumer preferences, dark cutting meat, exudative meat, handling, meat quality, reviews, slaughter, stress, United Kingdom.


Wolter, B.F.; Ellis, M. (2001). The effects of weaning weight and rate of growth immediately after weaning on subsequent pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (3): 363-369, ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Keywords: backfat, carcass quality, growth rate, liveweight gain, heavy versus light pigs, weaning weight.



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