Boivin, X., J.A. Lensink, C.A. Tallet, and I.A. Veissier (2003). Stockmanship and farm animal welfare. Animal Welfare 12(4): 479-492. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Abstract: Human factors (attitudes, personality traits, self-esteem, job satisfaction) strongly determine our behavior towards animals, animal production and animal welfare. Recent studies have emphasised positive human contacts as indicators of a stockperson's positive attitude towards animals and towards animal welfare in general. Stockmanship can be improved by careful selection of people and/or by training. However, little is known of the biological basis of the effect of stock handling procedures on the welfare of animals. The animal's perception of the stockperson (based both on emotional responses and cognitive aspects such as anticipation, recognition and categorisation), and the existence of sensitive periods in an animal's life, need to be explored in more depth, especially under farm conditions. We need to consider the complexity of human behavior (eg husbandry practices, balance between positive and negative interactions, predictability, controllability) and its effect on animal welfare from the animal's point of view throughout its whole life. This paper identifies the importance of positive human contacts for both animals and stockpeople, and highlights the challenge to maintain such positive contacts despite the trend in modern agriculture to increase the number of animals per stockperson. This requires better knowledge of animal genetics, socialisation to humans during sensitive periods, and management of the social group. We emphasise the ethical importance of the human-animal relationship in the context of farm animal welfare and productivity.
Descriptors: animal husbandry: agriculture, behavior, veterinary medicine: medical sciences, animal production, animal welfare, fear, human animal interaction, human animal relationship, perception , stockmanship.


Carr, J. (2009). Herramientas basicas para controlar el ambiente en las explotaciones. [Environmental medicine tool box.]. SUIS(57): 24...37. ISSN: 1699-7867.
Abstract: After 25 years of practicing veterinary medicine, the lesson I have learnt is that (excluding PMWS) almost all of the day to day conditions/disorders of the pig can be traced back to problems with stockmanship and man's manipulation of the pig's environment. Even in cases of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a biosecurity breach lies at the bottom of the problem There is no excuse for pre- or postweaning diarrhoea, pneumonia or lameness issues on most farms. The majority of reproductive issues must be resolved by the stockperson. The veterinarian must recognize the impact of the environment in management of stress of pigs under their care and take positive holistic action to resolve the underlying issues, rather than just reaching for a convenient quick fix of medicine.
Descriptors: aetiology, animal health, diarrhoea, disease control, disease prevention, environmental factors, hygiene, lameness, pig housing, pneumonia, reproductive disorders, risk factors, stress, swine diseases, pigs, Porcine circoviruses.
Language of Text: Spanish, LS=English.


Darekar, S.D., C.V. Savalia, and V.K. Sharma (2007). Antomicrobial residues in food stuffs of animal origin: public health concern. Veterinary World 6(4): 115-118. ISSN: 0972-8988.
NAL Call Number: SF604 .V48
Abstract: Antimicrobial drugs are used to control, prevent and treat infection and to enhance animal growth and feed efficiency. Treatment of animals reared for food, especially pigs and poultry, is generally directed at groups or herds of animals. Currently, approximately 80% of all food-producing animals receive medication for part or most their lives. The main infectious diseases treated are enteric and pulmonary infections, mastitis and skin and organ abscesses. The prevalence of pathogens on farms depends on many factors, not least the type of husbandry, the environmental pressure on a farm and the standard of stockmanship. Factors related to farm management help to minimize the use of antimicrobials. However, even if well managed, the increased density of livestock or poultry in intensive rearing operations requires an aggressive approach to disease control, which can lead to heavy prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial use. However, there has been some concern about the use of antimicrobial in food animals resulting in residues in foodstuff of animal origin. Tissue residue means drug, pesticide or toxic breakdown product remaining in edible tissue, milk or egg after natural or technological processes of removal have been occurred. Residues in milk, meat and eggs are antibacterial drugs, hormones, growth promoters, pesticides, heavy metals and industrial chemicals.
Descriptors: aetiology, animal diseases, antibacterial agents, antiinfective agents, disease control, disease prevention, domestic animals, drug residues, drug therapy, drug toxicity, eggs, food contamination, food hygiene, food safety, growth promoters, heavy metals, intensive production, livestock, meat, milk, pesticide residues, poisoning, pollutants, pollution, poultry, public health, synthetic hormones, toxicity .


Dong, G.Z. and J.R. Pluske (2007). The low feed intake in newly-weaned pigs: problems and possible solutions. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 20 (3): 440-452. ISSN: 1011-2367.
NAL Call Number: SF55.A78A7
Abstract: The low feed intake immediately after weaning is responsible for villous atrophy and reduced growth rate in newly-weaned pigs. Overcoming this drawback will produce beneficial results for swine producers, and this warrants an understanding of the factors affecting the feed intake in newly-weaned pigs. In fact, a plethora of factors exert influences on feed intake in newly-weaned pigs, and these factors encompass health status, creep feeding, weaning age, mixing of litters, environment, dietary nutrient level and balance, palatability of ingredients, forms of diet presentation, water supply and quality, and stockmanship. Due to the complexity of the factors that affect the feed intake of weaned pigs, a comprehensive approach should be adopted to overcome the low feed intake problem right after weaning. It warrants mention that it is almost impossible to completely restore the feed intake just after weaning to preweaning level in terms of energy intake through dietary means which are available for being practiced economically and/or technically in current swine production. However, a refined dietary regime will certainly alleviate the low feed intake problem in the immediate postweaning period.
Descriptors: development, nutrition, water quality, growth rate, health status, water supply, feed intake, weaning age, villous atrophy, creep feeding, litter mixing, dietary nutrient level, dietary balance, ingredient palatability, diet presentation form, stockmanship status.


Grandin, T. (2007). Introduction: effect of customer requirements, international standards and marketing structure on the handling and transport of livestock and poultry. T. Grandin Livestock Handling and Transport, CABI: Wallingford, UK, (Ed.3): 1-18 p. ISBN: 9781845932190; 1845932196.
NAL Call Number: SF88 .L58 2007
Abstract: This chapter discusses the increasing awareness of animal welfare around the world and outlines the effective auditing programmes on animal handling, truck loading and unloading and transport stocking density by large, corporate meat buyers. The importance of stockmanship and economic losses from bruising, weight loss and death losses in cattle and meat quality losses in pigs are also discussed.
Descriptors: animal welfare, death, livestock, livestock transporters, losses, meat quality, stocking density, stocking rate, transport of animals, cattle, pigs.


Heleski, C.R., A.G. Mertig, and A.J. Zanella (2006). Stakeholder attitudes toward farm animal welfare. Anthrozoos 19(4): 290-307. ISSN: 0892-7936.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Abstract: We developed a survey to measure attitudes toward farm animal welfare, then targeted two US groups considered highly influential in this area: veterinary college faculty members with large animal/food animal emphasis (VCF) and animal science faculty members (ANS). The survey was conducted via e-mail. E-mail addresses were gathered from 58 animal science departments and 27 veterinary college websites. Our respondents consisted of 446 ANS and 157 VCF In general, VCF had more empathetic attitudes toward farm animal welfare than did ANS. Both groups expressed greater comfort with the current production systems for beef and sheep than for meat birds and layers; dairy and swine were viewed intermediately. When asked about 15 specific husbandry practices/outcomes, more than 80% of our respondents agreed that three of these issues were concerns - flooring effects on lameness in intensively farmed animals, levels of lameness in dairy cattle, and poor/indifferent stockmanship. Four issues had less than 50% agreement - early weaning in pigs, lack of foraging substrate for pigs, beak trimming in poultry and toe trimming in poultry. Several background variables showed significant relationships with our summed attitude scale scores: females were more concerned about farm animal welfare than were males (p<0.01); those with liberal political views were more concerned than those with conservative views (p<0.01); and those expressing higher religiosity had less concern than those with lower religiosity (p<0.05). Age was not significantly related to animal welfare attitudes. When presented with a 7 -point scale where respondents could choose along a continuum between two anchor definitions and one midpoint definition "I believe in using animals for the greater human good, but we have an obligation to provide for the majority of their physiological and behavioral needs," 71% of VCF and 70% of ANS chose the mid-point. There was a significant correlation (r=0.541; p<0.01) between respondents' self appraisal on this 7-point scale and their summed scores on our scale of concern for animal welfare. When asked to identify obstacles to enhancing farm animal welfare (if they felt enhancements were necessary), over 60% of our respondents chose to provide an open-ended (qualitative) answer. The five most common themes mentioned were economics, lack of consumer willingness to pay, tradition, producer attitudes, and inadequate welfare science research.
Descriptors: animal welfare, attitudes, beef cattle, broilers, consumer attitudes, dairy cattle, floors, lameness, livestock, poultry, religion, sex differences, stocking density, stocking rate, surveys, teachers, traditions , veterinarians, weaning, cattle, fowls, goats, man, pigs, sheep.


Hemsworth, P.H. (2007). Ethical stockmanship. Australian Veterinary Journal 85(5): 194-200. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals.It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stock person will also be considered, since these interactions affect The work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals.Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions.
Descriptors: animal husbandry: agriculture, philosophy and ethics, animal welfare, ethical issue, human animal interaction, ethical stockmanship, animal housing standards, husbandry standards.


Hemsworth, P.H. and G.J. Coleman (2011). Human-Livestock Interactions : the Stockperson and the Productivity and Welfare of Intensively-Farmed Animals, 2nd. edition, CABI: Cambridge, MA, 216 p. ISBN: 9781845936730.
Descriptors: stockperson skills, knowledge, farm animal welfare, assessment, human-animal interactions, productivity, attitudes of stockpeople, stockperson behavior, animal behavior, models.


Mullan, S., A. Butterworth, H.R. Whay, S. Edwards, and D.C.J. Main (2010). Consultation of pig farmers on the inclusion of some welfare outcome assessments within UK farm assurance. Veterinary Record 166(22): 678-680. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Fifty-six pig farmers who attended a series of health seminars completed a questionnaire to assess their attitude to the inclusion of some welfare outcome assessments within farm assurance. In answer to open questions, farmers were most commonly proud of the productivity (27.5 per cent) and welfare (23.5 per cent) of the pigs on their farm, and the welfare of pigs in the UK industry as a whole (26.1 per cent). The most common thing that farmers wanted to tell consumers about was the welfare of the pigs (55.8 per cent), followed by their stockmanship qualities, the quality of their pig meat and the safety of their pig meat (all 13.5 per cent). In answer to closed questions, 66 per cent of farmers stated they would be either quite willing or very willing to perform welfare self-assessments as part of farm assurance, and 66 per cent would be quite or very willing to be anonymously benchmarked on the welfare of their pigs.
Descriptors: animal production, animal welfare, farmers' attitudes, food quality, food safety, meat hygiene , meat quality, pig farmers, pig farming, pigmeat, questionnaires, pigs.


Munsterhjelm, C., A. Valros, M. Heinonen, O. Halli, and O. Peltoniemi (2006). Welfare Index and Reproductive Performance in the Sow. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 41(6): 494-500. ISSN: 0936-6768.
NAL Call Number: SF105.A1Z8
Abstract: To study the relationship between on-farm welfare and reproductive performance in the sow, the TGI 35L Animal Needs Index was modified for use in Finnish pig production. The modified index had a maximal total score of 100. It was comprised of six categories: 'locomotion' (maximal score 21 for dry sows and 11 for lactating sows), 'social interaction' (12/8), 'floor quality' (16/9), 'stable climate' (16/21), 'feeding' (16/23) and 'health and stockmanship' (19/29). Index scorings were performed separately in farrowing, breeding and gestation units on 28 representative Finnish sow farms. One-year production parameters were collected. Multiple linear regression was used for statistical analysis. Total ANI-points varied between 36.5-68.0 for lactating and 39.5-86.0 for dry sows. Litter size increased with increasing scores for 'feeding' in the dry sow unit. Controlling for breed, high scores for 'health and stockmanship' and 'floor quality' shortened the reproductive cycle, probably because of good leg health. The number of weaned piglets per sow per year (PSY) increased with increasing scores for dry sow 'health and stockmanship', 'floor quality' and an interaction of 'feeding' in the farrowing and mating units. PSY increased with decreasing scores for farrowing pen 'climate'. High-quality floors and stockmanship appear to correlate positively with reproductive performance in the sow. Effects of a welfare-promoting feeding strategy on reproduction are contradictory.
Descriptors: sows, food animals, animal welfare, animal reproduction, fecundity , locomotion, swine housing, animal behavior, animal health, swine feeding, air temperature, animal husbandry, farrowing, pregnancy , litter size, parturition interval, piglets, Finland, animal-social-interaction; Internet-resource.
Notes: Includes references.


Reynnells, R.D., Pork Checkoff Program United States, Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service, Plant and Animal Systems, Purdue University and Animal Welfare Information Center (U.S.). (2003). Proceedings, Symposium on Swine Housing and Well-Being, P.O.R.K. Academy 2002, Kent Feeds., Beltsville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center, [2003].: vi, 92 p.: ill.; 28 cm. p.
NAL Call Number: aSF396.3 .S952 2002
Descriptors: sows, gestating, housing, design, group, outdoor, hoop barn, welfare, well-being, stockmanship, training, certification programs, United States Congress; pork industry, trade, moral and ethical aspects, public opinion, internet resource, proceedings.
Notes: "Co-sponsored by Pork Checkoff and the United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Plant and Animal Systems, Animal Well-Being Project funds administered by Purdue University." "Proceedings .. June 5, 2002, Des Moines, Iowa"--Cover. Shipping list no.: 2003-0264-P. "May 2003." Includes bibliographical references. Also available on the Internet.Contents: session 1. Stockmanship and training: An A and five E's : training stockpeople to be maximizers of pig state-of-being / Stanley E. Curtis ; Ethical considerations of pork production / W. Ray Stricklin ; Availability of resources, models, and training programs / Cynthia P. Smith (see Appendix F) ; Overview of the evaluation of stockmanship / Peter English -- session 2. Practical sow housing system design: Introduction / Larry R. Miller ; The crate / John McGlone ; Group housing of sows in small pens : advantages, disadvantages and recent research / E.A. Pajor ; Sow well -being in extensive gestating sow housing : outdoor and hoop barn systems / M.S. Honeyman ; Large group systems for gestating sows / Rebecca Morrison -- session 3. Consumer perspectives: Introduction / Lew Smith ; USDA Process Certified Program / James L. Riva.


Rushen, J. and A.M. Passille de (2009). The importance of good stockmanship and its benefits for the animals. T. Grandin Improving Animal Welfare: a Practical Approach, CABI: Wallingford, UK, p. 50-63. ISBN: 9781845935412.
NAL Call Number: HV4708 .I47 2010
Abstract: This chapter discusses the importance of good stockmanship for animal welfare, animal productivity and worker satisfaction. Topics include animal behaviour towards handling, negative effects of fearfulness on productivity, causes of poor stockmanship, attitudes and beliefs of stockpeople, improving stockmanship and assessing stockmanship based on farm audits.
Descriptors: animal behavior, animal production, animal welfare, attitudes, attitudes to work, auditing, beliefs, domestic animals, farm workers, fearfulness, handling, inspection, livestock, relationships, stockmen.


Scipioni, R., G. Martelli, and L.A. Volpelli (2009). Assessment of welfare in pigs. Italian Journal of Animal Science 8(Supplement 1): 117-137. ISSN: 1594-4077.
NAL Call Number: SF1 .I83
Abstract: Animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved) may satisfy an animal's physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people's supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper focuses on the main factors characterizing pig welfare based on the productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; behavioural needs, which are characterized by several traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs are involved in welfare legislation); categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations); main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia) and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing or reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions. The scientific or objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance or output criteria), as well as through examinations of a structural nature (design or resource-based, or derived from engineering or input criteria). Preference should be given to the former since they are can be better adapted to the different pig categories and management systems. Design criteria, on the other hand, are easier to evaluate and they should integrate animal criteria. Thus, the most correct protocols for on-farm evaluation of pig welfare should involve both animal-based criteria and design criteria. Examples of both criteria are reported herein. In extensive farming which includes (although somewhat improperly) outdoor and organic farming, achieving a good level of welfare is one of the declared objectives. However, there are several causes of welfare impairment that can be successfully overcome only when highly professional workers are employed: unfavourable climate, parasitic diseases, intake of plants containing poisons or antinutritional factors, high piglet mortality.
Descriptors: animal behavior, animal housing, animal husbandry, animal welfare, environmental factors, farm management, nutrition programmes, reviews, space requirements, stress, stress response, pigs.
Language of Text: French.
Notes: Special Issue: Criteria and methods for the assessment of animal welfare.


Szuecs, E., R. Geers, and E.N. Sossidou (2009). Stewardship, stockmanship and sustainability in animal agriculture. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 22(9): 1334-1340. ISSN: 1011-2367.
NAL Call Number: SF55.A78A7
Abstract: Sufficient food supply for all humans was, is, and will remain one of the main priorities for mankind. The choice between food from crops or animals is related to philosophical, religious and ethical, but also cultural and economical, values. However, the concept of sustainable agriculture takes into account the organization of food supply through future generations. Not only quantity, but also quality is important, especially in relation to food safety and the method of production. Specifically, the aspect of animal welfare is becoming increasingly important with the focus on stewardship and stockmanship, i.e. responsibility of humans for their animals. In the future. implications for sustainability in animal production may be of more concern to stewardship paired by stockmanship, responsibility consciousness and morality. The moral as a basic concept of sustainable agriculture is to maintain continuous development in harmony with nature to meet requirements in the world for living creatures including human beings to live in and steward. The objective of this paper is to discuss the above issues from different viewpoints on sustainable food supply, increasing food consumption and environmental protection.
Descriptors: animal care, animal welfare, stockmanship, stewardship, human responsibility.


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