Aaslyng, M.D.; Gade, P.B. (2001). Low stress pre-slaughter handling: effect of lairage time on the meat quality of pork. Meat Science 57 (1): 87-92, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call No.: TX373.M4.

Keywords: pens, duration, time, mental stress, prevention, handling, slaughter, pork, meat quality, water holding capacity, pH, exudative meat, temperature, time in holding pens, drip loss.

Agricultural Marketing Service (1999). A Guide for Livestock Exporters [computer file]. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Transportation and Marketing Division: Washington, D.C. Available online at

NAL Call No.: aSF89 G84 1999.

Keywords: transportation of livestock, guidelines, exporters, marketing, air transportation, freight forwarders, ocean carriers, inspection facilities.

Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Rakes, L.K.; Anschutz, K.S.; Wistuba, T.J.; Maxwell, C.V. (2001). Effects of supplemental magnesium and short term transportation stress on pork quality. Journal of Animal Science 79 (Supplement 2): 9, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.

Keywords: transportation stress, short term, longissimus muscle, meat science, pork quality, supplemental magnesium, food supplement, meeting abstract.

Berry, R.J. Lewis, N.J. (2001). The effect of duration and temperature of simulated transport on the performance of early-weaned piglets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81 (2): 199-204. ISSN: 0008-3984.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 C163.

Abstract: The responses and tolerances of early-weaned piglets to transport are not well documented. It is believed that the additive stress incurred by transporting early-weaned pigs predisposes them to increased disease risk and compromised performance. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between two primary transportation stressors, duration and temperature, and their effects on piglet performance. Prior to housing on flatdecks at 30 degrees C, transport was simulated by placing 17-d (+/- 1 d) old weaned piglets into wooden boxes of dimensions 1.2 x 1.2 x 1 m (space allowance range 0.18 to 0.36 m2 pig(-1)) with straw bedding. Two trials were conducted. In each trial, 96 piglets were randomly mixed in groups of four and assigned to the following simulated transport durations: no transport (control), 6 h, 12 h (Trial 2 only) and 24 h. Piglets undergoing transport simulation were kept at one of the following temperatures 20, 25 (Trial 1 only), 30 and 35 degrees C. There was a significant interactive effect between transport duration and temperature upon liveweight change in the first 24 h in both trials (P < 0.01). The animals that incurred the greatest liveweight deficit after weaning relative to untransported control groups were predominantly either those that had been transported for 24 h at high transport temperatures (35 and 30 degrees C) or those transported for 6 h at 20 degrees C in Trial 1 and 35 degrees C in Trial 2. The effect of simulated transport was measureable for up to 5 d post-transport. However, by 14 d post-transport there was no detectable influence of transport treatment on feed consumption or weight gain (P > 0.05). The study found piglets are able to recover and perform adequately in the early post-weaning period if extremes of transport duration and temperature are avoided.

Keywords: piglets, transport of animals, duration, environmental temperature, early weaning, simulation, liveweight, liveweight gain, feed intake, physiology.

Bradshaw, R.H.; Randall, J.M.; Forsling, M.L.; Rodway, R.; Goode, J.A.; Brown, S.N.; Broom, D.M.(1999). Travel sickness and meat quality in pigs. Animal Welfare 8(1):3-14, ISSN:0962-7286.

NAL Call No.: HV4701.A557.

Keywords: pigs, transport of animals, nausea, morbidity, stunning, slaughter, blood plasma, hydrocortisone, endorphins, muscles, longissimus dorsi, pork, meat, meat quality, exudative meat, dark cutting meat, vasopressin, animal welfare.

Christensen, L.; Gade, P.B. (1999). Temperature profile in double-decker transporters and some consequences for pig welfare during transport. In: Farm Animal Welfare, Who Writes the Rules? Proceedings of an International Symposium Organized by the British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, UK, 1999, A.J.F. Russel, C.A. Morgan, C.J. Savory, M.C. Appleby, and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), British Society of Animal Science (No. 23): UK, pp.125-128.

NAL Call No.: SF5 B74 no. 23.

Keywords: transporters, animal welfare, livestock, legislation, transport of animals, road transport, livestock transporters, temperature.

Docic, A.; Bilkei, G. (2001). The effect of short term high feed intake on the onset of puberty in transported gilts. Swine Health and Production 9 (1): 25-27, ISSN: 1066-4963.

NAL Call No.: SF971 N472.

Abstract: A trial, involving 320 incoming gilts (approximately 160 days of age) was conducted to determine whether energy flushing combined with transport, regrouping, and exposure to boars influences the onset of puberty. The gilts were randomly divided into 2 groups. The flushed group (166 gilts) were both transported and energy flushed, and the transported group (154 gilts) were transported only. After transport, gilts were housed in small groups exposed to boars across an aisle. The onset of puberty was determined at slaughter one week after transport. Examination of the reproductive organs revealed that there were more follicles >4 mm and uterine mass was larger (P>.05) in the flushed group than in the transported group. Adrenal gland weight, ovarian weight, and uterine length did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that energy flushing increases follicular growth and uterine weight, which are indicators of puberty in gilts.

Keywords: gilts, feed intake, female animals, flushing, ovarian follicles, puberty, transport of animals.

Copyright© 2002, CAB International

Driessen, B.; Geers, R. (2001). Stress during transport and quality of pork. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: welfare, transport, slaughter and consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp. 39-51.

Keywords: carcass quality, loading, meat quality, pig meat, slaughter, stress, temperature, transport of animals, unloading, Europe.

Faucitano, L. (2001). Effects of preslaughter handling on the pig welfare and its influence on meat quality. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.52-71.

Keywords: animal welfare, carcass quality, loading, meat quality, pig meat, reviews, slaughter, stocking density, stress, transport of animals, unloading.

Harvey, R.B.; Anderson, R.C., Young, C.R., Swindle, M.M., Genovese, K.J., Hume, M.E., Droleskey, R.E., Farrington, L.A., Ziprin, R.L., Nisbet, D.J. (2001). Effects of feed withdrawal and transport on cecal environment and Campylobacter concentrations in a swine surgical model. Journal of Food Protection 64 (5): 730-733, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Keywords: gilts, breed, Yucatan, surgically implanted, cecal cannulas, infection, Campylobacter jejuni, cecal contents, pH, volatile fatty acids, full fed, food withdrawal, transport stress, livestock trailer, food safety, slaughter.

Hurd, H.S., McKean, J.D., Wesley, I.V., Karriker, L.A. (2001). The effect of lairage on Salmonella isolation from market swine. Journal of Food Protection 64 (7): 939-944, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call No.: 44.8 J824.

Keywords: market pigs, lairage, transport, slaughter, abattoir, holding pens, Salmonella, isolation, fecal samples, distal colon, ileocecal lymph nodes, cecal contents, ventral thoracic lymph nodes, subiliac lymph nodes, carcass swabs, ELISA, detection, labeling techniques, food hygiene, food microbiology, food protection.

Kettlewell, P.J.; Hoxey, R.P.; Hampson, C.J.; Green, N.R.; Veale, B.M.; Mitchell, M.A. (2001). Design and operation of a prototype mechanical ventilation system for livestock transport vehicles. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 79 (4): 429-439, ISSN: 0021-8634.

NAL Call No.: 58.8 J82.

Abstract: A prototype, mechanically ventilated, livestock transport vehicle (for pigs, sheep or cattle) is described. The design complies with current legislation and meets the ‘higher standard’ ventilation requirement for vehicles which are to be used to transport animals for over 8 h. Extraction fans are located at regions of low external pressure on the moving vehicle to optimize performance in transit and provide a controlled variable throughput of air. The system provides air movement over all the animals and is independent of vehicle movement. The design of this prototype system has enabled detailed measurements of heat and moisture production of the animals. Preliminary assessment of the system has been effected during two commercial journeys moving pigs from farms to an abattoir. The variability in heat loss from the animals ranged between 1.4 and 1.9 W kg(-1) liveweight but in both cases the split between sensible (45%) and latent (65%) heat loss was comparable. These initial data, when augmented with further studies over a wider range of ambient conditions, can be used as the basis for guidelines for the development of improved forced ventilation systems. Such systems will be an essential component in vehicles which are being designed to improve animal welfare in transit.

Keywords: livestock transporters, farm equipment, design, ventilation, transport, animal welfare.

Marg, H.; Scholz, H.C.; Arnold, T.; Rosler, U.; Hensel, A. (2001). Influence of long-time transportation stress on re-activation of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in experimentally infected pigs. Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 114 (9-10): 385-8, ISSN: 0005-9366.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45.

Abstract: In this study a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model in swine was used in order to investigate the influence of pre-mortal stress induced by long time period transportation on the re-activation of Salmonella in experimentally infected pigs. Salmonella free pigs were exposed to a highly virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 by direct intragastrical administration. Clinical parameters were monitored and the shedding rate in faeces was qualitatively and quantitatively determined by standard bacteriological procedures for 21 days. The distribution of the challenge organism in 14 different internal organs of transported and nontransported animals was determined. All infected animals developed clinical signs of salmonellosis 12 to 24 hours post infection. About 88 to 100% of the fecal samples were culture-positive up to post exposure day 6, and then varied from 71 to 92% until slaughter, respectively. At necropsy S. Typhimurium was recovered most frequently from caecum and ileocolic lymph nodes (83%), colon (79%), palatine tonsils (71%) and mandibular lymph nodes (62.5%). A negative impact of transportation stress on the shedding rate and the general condition of the animals was observed.

Keywords: etiology, Salmonella typhimurium, growth and development, stress, disease, prevention and control, transportation, feces, microbiology.

Murray, A.C. (2001). Reducing losses from farm gate to packer. A Canadian’s perspective. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp.72-83.

Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare, carcass quality, carcass weight, carcass yield, handling, losses, meat quality, microbial contamination, mortality, reviews, slaughter, stocking density, transport of animals, wastage, North America.

Nabuurs, M.J.; Van Essen, G.J.; Nabuurs, P.; Niewold, T.A.; Van Der Meulen, J. (2001). Thirty minutes transport causes small intestinal acidosis in pigs. Research in Veterinary Science 70 (2): 123-7, ISSN: 0034-5288.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 R312.

Abstract: Long duration (>10 hours) transport has been described as having either adverse or no effects on porcine health. However, the effect of short duration transport on porcine health is unknown. In the present paper, pigs fed ad libitum (n = 6) were transported for 30 minutes, anaesthetised, instrumented, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal parameters were measured. Non-transported pigs (n = 6) served as controls. No significant differences between groups were found concerning blood flow in the arteria mesenterica cranialis, heart rate, cardiac output, pulmonal blood pressure, haemoglobin content and haematocrit value. Systolic systemic blood pressure was higher (though not significant), and diastolic systemic blood pressure was significantly higher in the transported pigs than in the controls. Small intestinal pH was significantly lower in transported pigs than in control pigs. We conclude that a 30-minute transport of fed pigs results in small intestinal acidosis. As small intestinal acidosis predisposes to bacterial translocation, even short duration transport should be avoided when possible.

Keywords: acidosis, small intestine, metabolism, physiology, transportation, etiology, animal welfare, blood pressure, heart rate, hematocrit, hemoglobins, analysis, hydrogen-ion concentration, specific pathogen-free organisms, time factors, tonometry.

Perremans, S.; Randall, J.M.; Rombouts, G.; Decuypere, E.; Geers, R. (2001). Effect of whole-body vibration in the vertical axis on cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in piglets. Journal of Animal Science 79 (4): 975-981, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call No.: 49 J82.Abstract: Vibration, being a consequence of motion during transport, may impair the welfare of pigs. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate during transport simulation the use of ACTH and cortisol plasma levels, which are part of a basic adaptation mechanism of pigs and 2) to define comfort conditions for pigs related to the frequency and acceleration of vibration. Pigs with a body weight between 20 and 25 kg were vibrated in the vertical direction for 2 h at 2, 4, 8, and 18 Hz, in combination with root mean square acceleration magnitudes of 1 or 3 m/s2. Blood was sampled at regular intervals before, during, and after vibration as the pig's behaviors were recorded. Data on ACTH, cortisol, and behavior could be collected from 104 vibrated pigs and 21 controls. In addition, eight animals (3 controls, 5 vibrated) were treated with 0.1 mg of dexamethasone/kg BW, eight animals (3 controls, 8 vibrated) with 0.1 mg naloxone/kg BW, and six (2 controls, 4 vibrated) with a physiological salt solution. Blood samples were taken and products were administrated via an intravenous catheter. The pigs spent less time lying during both hours of vibration treatment than during control conditions. Compared with 2 and 4 Hz, time spent lying was 10 times shorter at 8 Hz and 18 times shorter at 18 Hz. At 1030, ACTH levels were significantly higher than basal levels in animals vibrated at 2 (P < 0.0001), 4 (P < 0.002), and 18 Hz (P < 0.0006). After 1 h, levels returned to basal values. Cortisol levels increased very rapidly after the beginning of vibration (P < 0.0001) and remained higher until 1 h after cessation of vibration (P < 0.003). An inferrence of the lines of equal responses for ACTH and cortisol indicated that, in the beginning of vibration exposure, pigs were extremely susceptible to vibrations at lower frequencies (2 and 4 Hz), whereas at the end of vibration exposure the responses were higher at 18 Hz. The application of dexamethasone and naloxone underpinned the emotional component of the response strategy of pigs to vibration. Hence, vibration during transport should be minimized in order to enhance the adaptive capacities of pigs.

Keywords: piglets, transport of animals, whole body vibration, body weight, frequency, acceleration, ride comfort, blood plasma, corticotropin, dexamethasone, naloxone, physical activity, rest, adaptation, animal welfare, refinement.

Schonreiter, S.; Zanella, A.J. (2001). Assessment of cortisol in swine by saliva: new methodological approaches. Archiv fur Tierzucht 43 (Special):165-170, ISSN: 0003-9438.

NAL Call No.: 49 AR23

Abstract: The common method of saliva sampling with cotton buds was compared with a new Oral Diffusion Sink (ODS) method. ODS method allowed continuous measuring without any manipulation of animals. Steroids from saliva were accumulated for 8 h with a defined flow rate through the ODS. After alcohol extraction all samples were analysed using a radioimmunoassay. Daily profile of cortisol concentration, as well as the effects of 2 stressors, social isolation and a 2-h transportation, were assessed in 10 German Landrace pigs. The concentration of cortisol in cotton buds was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. During social isolation, significantly higher cortisol concentrations and disintegration of the circadian rhythm were observed in cotton buds, but not in ODS. Highest cortisol concentrations were found during transportation 60 min after loading (18.9 plus or minus 3.9 nmol/litre). It is suggested that the ODS may be suitable for continuous monitoring of acute stress.

Keywords: German Landrace, breed, diagnostic techniques, hydrocortisone, saliva, sampling, stress, transportation, social isolation.

Copyright©2002, CAB International

Seidler, T.; Alter, T.; Kruger, M.; Fehlhaber, K. (2001). Transport stress, consequences for bacterial translocation, endogenous contamination and bactericidal activity of serum of slaughter pigs. Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114 (9-10): 375-7, ISSN: 0005-9366.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 B45.

Abstract: On transport and at the abattoir animals are confronted with a lot of stressors, such as sound/noise, crowding/mixing, pollutants and infectious agents that act on the organism. After transport stress an endogenous contamination is often seen in slaughter carcasses and presents a hazard for the consumer. These events are often correlated with a rise in endotoxin level (Misawa et al., 1995; Morales et al., 1992) and a modified immune response. Previous own investigations confirm this hypothesis (Zucker and Kruger, 1998, Seidler et al., 2000). The attempt was made to investigate the impact of selected stressors (short term transport (1 h), long term transport (7-8 hrs), high temperature, high humidity and intense handling/moving) on bacterial translocation, endogenous contamination, endotoxin levels and bactericidal activity of body fluids.

Abstract: bacterial infections, bacterial translocation, physiology, endotoxins, blood, stress, disease transmission, abattoirs, husbandry methods, humidity, stress.

Warriss, P.D. (1998). Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review. The Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 142 (17): 449-54, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641.

Abstract: In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not exceed 30 degrees C in order to remain within the pig's thermoneutral zone. Such temperatures, together with acceptably low concentrations of potentially noxious gases, such as carbon dioxide, can be achieved in moving vehicles by adequate ventilation, provided there is adequate space above the animals' heads. In triple-decked lorries, the height between decks has tended to be reduced and can be as little as 90 cm. Further work is needed to decide whether this is sufficient for modern slaughter pigs.

Keywords: animal welfare, housing, meat, standards, transportation, Great Britain.

Zanella, A.J.; Duran, O. (2001). Pig welfare during loading and transportation: a North American perspective. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer, Concordia, Brazil, November 16- December 16, 2000, EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves Documentos, 69, pp. 20-31.

Keywords: husbandry, animal welfare, livestock transporters, loading, risk factors, stress, stress response, transport of animals, North America.


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