Chambers, TJ; Halevy, M; Nestorowicz, A; Rice, CM; Lustig, S. West Nile virus envelope proteins: nucleotide sequence analysis of strains differing in mouse neuroinvasiveness. Journal of Virology. 1998 Oct; 79 ( Pt 10): 2375-80. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: viral envelope proteins chemistry, virus pathogenicity, amino acid sequence glycosylation, mice, molecular structure activity relationships, viral genetics, virulence levels, neuroinvasive determinants, E protein divergence.

Abstract: Several neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile (WN) viruses were characterized by nucleotide sequencing of their envelope (E) protein regions. Prolonged passage in mosquito cells caused loss of neuroinvasiveness and acquisition of an N-linked glycosylation site, which is utilized. Limited passage in cell culture also caused glycosylation but not attenuation, suggesting that glycosylation may not be directly responsible for attenuation and that a second mutation (L68 --> P) may also be involved. A monoclonal antibody-neutralization escape mutant with a substitution at residue 307, a site common to other flavivirus escape mutants, was also attenuated. A partially neuroinvasive revertant regained the parental E sequence, implying that determinants outside of the E region may also influence attenuation. Data suggest that the neuroinvasive determinants may be similar to those for other flaviviruses. Also, sequence comparison with the WN virus (Nigeria) strain revealed considerable divergence of the E protein at the nucleotide and amino acid levels.


Damle, RG; Yeolekar, LR; Rao, BL. Strain analysis and epitope mapping of West Nile virus using monoclonal antibodies. Acta Virologica. 1998 Dec; 42(6): 389-95. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: monoclonal antibodies, Egyptian and Indian strains of West Nile virus, envelope protein, immunoblot assay, ELISA, immunology; three groups of MAb’s: WNV-specific HAI-positive, WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-positive, and WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-negative MAbs, antigenic variation, cross-reaction immunology, Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, epitope mapping methods, inbred BALB-C mice.

Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an Indian strain (804994) and an Egyptian strain (E 101) of West Nile virus (WNV) were prepared in mice. Nine MAbs against the 804994 strain and 5 MAbs against E 101 strain were obtained. All 14 MAbs reacted with the envelope (E) protein of WNV in an immunoblot assay. They were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for their cross-reactivity with WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Dengue-2 virus (DEN-2), and for their reactivity in haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Based on these results MAbs were broadly grouped into three groups, namely WNV-specific HAI-positive, WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-positive, and WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-negative MAbs. The antigenic cross-reactivity between twelve WNV strains isolated from different geographical regions and their respective hosts was assessed using these MAbs in HAI and complement fixation (CF) tests. The strain analysis by CF distinguished Indian from South African strains. However, a similarity between some Indian and South African strains in HAI was observed. E 101 strain appeared to have antigenic similarity with Indian as well as South African strains. Overall it appears that antigenically similar strains of WNV are prevalent in India. A single heterogenous domain was apparent on the epitope map of WNV deduced by ELISA additivity test.


Hubalek, Z; Halouzka, J; Juricova, Z; Sebesta, O. First isolation of mosquito-borne West Nile virus in the Czech Republic. Acta Virologica. 1998 Apr; 42(2): 119-20. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: vector mosquitoes, Aides, Culex, virus isolation and purification, suckling animals, mice, Czech Republic.


Juricova, Z.; J. Pinowski; I. Literak; K. Hahm; J. Romanowski. Antibodies to alphavirus, flavivirus, and bunyavirus arboviruses in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and tree sparrows (P. montanus) in Poland. Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 1998. v. 42 (1) p. 182-185. ISSN: 0005-2086.

NAL Call No.:  41.8 Av5

Descriptors: Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, sparrows, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus, tickborne encephalitis virus, tahyna virus, calovo virus, arboviruses, antibodies, serology, hemagglutination inhibition test, incidence, Poland.

Abstract: Sparrows from central Poland were examined by a hemagglutination-inhibition test (titer greater than or equal to 20) for the presence of antibodies to arbovirus, between 1995 and 1996. In house sparrows (Passer domesticus) (n = 179), antibodies to Sindbis, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, Tahyna, and Calovo viruses were detected at seroprevalences of 1.1%, 2.8%, 1.1%, 2.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. In tree sparrows (P. montanus) (n = 33), antibodies to the Sindbis, West Nile, and Tahyna viruses were detected at seroprevalences of 9.1%, 12.1%, and 3.0%, respectively.

Nicolescu G. A general characterisation of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) in the epidemic area for West Nile virus in the south of Romania. European Mosquito Bulletin. 1998, No. 2, 13-18; 9 ref.

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, 39 vector mosquitoes, distribution, habitats, population ecology, potential as effective vectors, human diseases, Culex modestus, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Aedes cantans, Culex theileri, Aedes geniculatus, Anopheles plumbeus, Aedes punctor.

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February 26, 2003