Anderson, J.F.; T. Andreadis; C. Vossbrinck; S. Tirrell; E. Wakem; R. French; A. Garmendia; H. Van-Kruiningen. Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut. Science. Dec 17, 1999. v. 286 (5448) p. 2331-2333. ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL Call No.:  470 Sci2

Descriptors: West Nile virus, Culex pipiens, Aedes vexans, brain, animal tissues, public health concerns, mosquitoes, crows, Cooper’s hawk, Connecticut.


Anonymous. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: West Nile virus encephalitis--New York, 1999. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999 Nov 17; 282(19): 1806-7. ISSN: 0098-7484.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 Am37

Descriptors: disease outbreaks, epidemiology, virus isolation and purification, mosquito control, bird virology, disease prevention and control.


Centers for Disease Control (USA). Update: West Nile virus encephalitis - New York, 1999. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Oct. 22, 1999; 48 (41): 944-946; 955. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: insect vector disease, vector biology, Aedes vector, Culex vector, vector mosquitoes, animals, humans, New York.

Jones, W.E. West Nile virus new to North America. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. Nov 1999. v. 19 (11) p. 680-683. ISSN: 0737-0806.

NAL Call No.:  SF951.J65

Descriptors: West Nile virus, horses, symptoms, disease transmission, spread, disease vectors, new geographic records, North America.

Lanciotti, R.S.; J. Roehrig; V. Deubel; J. Smith; M. Parker; K. Steele; B. Crise; K. Volpe; M. Crabtree; J. Schereet. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. Dec 17, 1999. v. 286 (5448) p. 2333-2337. ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL Call No.:  470 Sci2

Descriptors: West Nile virus, encephalitis, disease transmission, northeastern states of USA.


Miller, BR; Nasci, RS; Godsey, MS; Savage, HM; Lutwama, JJ; Lanciotti, RS; Peters, CJ; Gubler, DJ. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univitattus mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Washington, D.C., USA, November 28-December 2, 1999. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Sept., 1999; 61 (3 SUPPL.): 166-167. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: Culex univitattus, vertical transmission, field evidence, Rift Valley Province, Kenya, Africa, Ethiopian region.


van der Poel, WH. West Nile-like virus is oorzaak van encefalitis bij mensen en paarden en sterfte van honderden vogels in New York. [West Nile-like virus is the cause of encephalitis in humans and horses and the death of hundreds of birds in New York]. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde. 1999 Dec 1; 124(23): 704-5. ISSN: 0040-7453. In Dutch.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431

Descriptors: bird disease mortality, horse disease epidemiology, humans, virus isolation and purification, New York.


Zeller, HG. West Nile: une arbovirose migrante d'actualite. [West Nile virus: a migrating arbovirus of current interest]. Medecine Tropicale Revue du Corps de Sante Colonial. 1999; 59(4 Pt 2): 490-4 ISSN: 0025-682X. In French.

Descriptors: West Nile virus transmission, wild bird mortality, emerging disease, sentinel birds, epidemiology, pathological potential of circulating strains, Africa, South of the Sahara, Algeria, Romania, North America.

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus is a common arbovirosis in sub-Saharian Africa. It has occasionally caused epidemics or epizootics in horses in Mediterranean regions and southern Europe. The virus is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes (primarily the Culex species) that are infected by biting viremic birds. Infections in humans are usually asymptomatic. Recently, however, a growing number of cases involving central nervous system manifestations and deaths have been reported in elderly people in Algeria and Romania. Deaths have also been recorded in migrating birds in zones where the virus is emerging. An outbreak of WN virus in an urban area of North America in 1999 underscored the ability of viruses to appear suddenly in unexpected places. Molecular biology techniques are required for positive identification of WN virus. Serological tests alone do not allow differentiation from other flavivirus in the encephalitis group including Japanese encephalitis in Asia and Saint Louis encephalitis in North America. Virological monitoring of sentinel birds should provide a better understanding of epidemiological factors and of the pathological potential of circulating strains.

Return to Contents

February 26, 2003