American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology; American College of Veterinary Pathologists. American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) 37th Annual Meeting in conjunction with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) 53rd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, December 7-11, 2002. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2002; 31 (3): 152-157. ISSN: 0275-6382 

NAL Call No.: SF601 A54

Descriptors: equine disease West Nile Virus in Florida, canine lymphocyte proliferation, flow cytometry, feline pulmonary hemosiderosis, anticoagulants in Burmese pythons. 


Anderson, John F.; Rahal, James J. Efficacy of interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin against West Nile virus in vitro. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Jan; 8(1): 107-8. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: antiviral agents, pharmacology, West Nile fever, drug therapy, drug effects, human recombinant interferon alpha-2b, ribavirin, vero cell cultures from African green monkey kidney cells, cytotoxic effect of ribavirin, therapeutic activity, possible treatment.


Anonymous. Protecting pets from mosquito-borne diseases. FDA Veterinarian. 2002, 17: 3, 1-3.

NAL Call No.: SF917 F42

Descriptors:  dogs, horses, various mosquito borne illnesses, prevention and control methods, West Nile virus, heart worm, equine encephalitis.

Anonymous. West Nile virus. Journal Oklahoma State Medical Association. 2002 Sep; 95(9): 612-3. ISSN: 0030-1876.

Descriptors: West Nile Fever, diagnosis, epidemiology, pathology, therapy, birds, Communicable Disease Control, Culicidae mosquitoes, Oklahoma, Public Health Administration, risk factors.


Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 19-25, 2002, and Michigan, January 1-September 24, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002 Sep 27; 51(38): 862-4. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, veterinary concerns, population surveillance, Michigan.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, September 25, 2002.


Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 12-18, 2002, and Ohio, January 1-September 12, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Sep 20; 51(37): 836-7. ISSN: 0149-2195.

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, veterinary concerns, population surveillance, Ohio.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, September 18, 2002.


Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 5-11, 2002, and Texas, January 1-September 9, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Sep 13; 51(36): 812, 823. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, veterinary concerns, Texas.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, September 11, 2002.


Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, August 21-28, 2002, and Illinois, January 1-August 27, 2002.

MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Aug 30; 51(34): 764-6. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, veterinary concerns, humans, songbirds, horses, Culicidae mosquito surveillance, viral isolation and purification, Illinois. 

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, August 28, 2002, and highlights WNV activity in Illinois.


Anonymous . West Nile virus activity--United States, July 31-August 7, 2002, and Louisiana, January 1-August 7, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Aug 9; 51(32): 681-3. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, chickens, veterinary concerns, Louisiana.

Abstract: This report summarizes the West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions in
the USA as of 7 August 2002. During the reporting period of 31 July-7 August, a total of 68
laboratory-positive human cases of WNV-associated illness were reported from Louisiana (n=40),
Mississippi (n=23), Texas (n=4) and Illinois (n=1). WNV infections in 447 dead crows, 263
other dead birds, 42 horses and 183 mosquito pools were also observed. During 1 January-7
August 2002, the office of public health in Louisiana has identified 71 laboratory-positive
human cases of WNV, including 38 males and 33 females aged 13-88 years. Clinically, 55 patients
presented with WNV-associated meningoencephalitis (including 5 fatalities) and 9 with WNV-associated
fever. The clinical presentations of 7 patients have not been ascertained.


Anonymous.  Weekly update: West Nile virus activity -- United States, July 24-30, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, 51: 30, 668, 679; 4 ref. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: disease epidemiology, disease mortality, crows, wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, poultry, horses, humans, vector borne diseases, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, mosquito vectors, ArboNET, US Centers for Disease Control, state data. 

Abstract: This report summarizes the West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by states and other jurisdictions in the USA, as of 30 July 2002. During 24-30 July, a total of 24 confirmed human cases of WNV illness were reported from Louisiana and Mississippi. During the same period, WNV infections were reported in 256 dead crows, 250 other dead birds, 9 horses and 147 mosquito pools. During 2002, a total of 36 confirmed human cases (18 men and 18 women; aged 16-88 years) have been reported from the Louisiana and Mississippi. In addition, 629 dead crows and 564 other dead birds from 33 states and 45 horses from 9 states were infected. WNV seroconversions in 6 sentinel chicken flocks from Florida, WNV seropositivity in 5 wild birds from Indiana and Louisiana, and 242 WNV-positive mosquito pools from 11 states have been reported.


Anonymous. Weekly update: West Nile virus activity--United States, July 17-23, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Jul 26; 51(29): 645-6. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile virus isolation and purification, disease levels, epidemiology, humans, song birds, horses, Culicidae mosquitoes, Louisiana, Mississippi.   

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and verified by states and other jurisdictions as of July 23, 2002. During the reporting week of July 17-23, nine human cases of WNV were reported from two states (Louisiana and Mississippi). During the same period, WNV infections were reported in 202 dead crows, 48 other dead birds, 13 horses, and 69 mosquito pools.


Anonymous. Symposium sur les zoonoses virales (Viral zoonoses). [Viral Zoonoses. Meeting report.] 9-11 janvier 2002, Londres, Royaume-Uni. Virologie (Montrouge). Mars-Avril, 2002; 6 (2): 140-141. ISSN: 1267-8694.

Descriptors: various animal viruses, zoonotic viruses, West Nile virus.


Anonymous. West Nile Virus activity--United States, 2001. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002 Jun 14; 51(23): 497-501. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile fever, epidemiology, surveillance data in U.S., ArboNET, illnesses, horses, birds, humans, mosquitoes.

Abstract: In 2001, West Nile virus (WNV) activity was reported from 359 counties in 27 states and the District of Columbia (DC) to ArboNET, a web-based, surveillance data network maintained by 54 state and local public health agencies and CDC. This activity represented a marked increase from 2000, when WNV activity was reported from 138 counties in 12 states and DC. This report summarizes surveillance data for 2001, which indicate that 66 human illnesses were reported from 10 states and that widespread WNV activity in birds, horses, and mosquitoes extended into the midwestern United States and several southern states unaffected previously. The findings in this report underscore the need for public education, increased WNV surveillance aimed at early viral detection, and sustained, integrated mosquito-control activities.


Anraku, Itaru; Harvey, Tracey J.; Linedale, Richard; Gardner, Joy; Harrich, David; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A. Kunjin virus replicon vaccine vectors induce protective CD8+ T-cell immunity. Journal of Virology. 2002 Apr; 76(8): 3791-9. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: CD8+ T Lymphocytes, viral vaccines immunology, inbred BALB-C mouse models, West Nile virus genetics.

Abstract: The ability of self-replicating RNA (replicon) vaccine vectors derived from the Australian flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) to induce protective alphabeta CD8+ T-cell responses was examined. KUN replicons encoding a model immunogen were delivered by three different vaccine modalities: (i) as naked RNA transcribed in vitro, (ii) as plasmid DNA constructed to allow in vivo transcription of replicon RNA by cellular RNA polymerase II (DNA based), and (iii) as replicon RNA encapsidated into virus-like particles. A single immunization with any of these KUN replicon vaccines induced CD8+ T-cell responses at levels comparable to those induced by recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the same immunogen. Immunization with only 0.1 microg of DNA-based KUN replicons elicited CD8+ T-cell responses similar to those seen after immunization with 100 microg of a conventional DNA vaccine. Naked RNA immunization with KUN replicons also protected mice against challenges with recombinant vaccinia virus and B16 tumor cells. These results demonstrate the value of KUN replicon vectors for inducing protective antiviral and anticancer CD8+ T-cell responses.


Apperson, C.S.; Harrison, B.A.; Unnasch, T.R.; Hassan, H.K.; Irby, W.S.; Savage, H.M.; Aspen, S.E.; Watson, D.W.; Rueda, L.M.; Engber, B.R.; Nasci, R.S. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 Sep; 39(5): 777-85. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: mosquito feeding behavior patterns, Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, culex classification, vector physiology, viral isolation and purification, ELISA and PCR diagnostic tests, Coquillettidia perturbans, various song bird species, mammals, New York City.

Abstract: The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens.


Baum, S. West Nile virus: time for prevention, not panic. As the virus spreads, the risk of severe illness remains low. Health News. 2002 Oct; 8(10): 3. ISSN:  1081-5880.

Descriptors: mosquito population control, disease transmission factors, epidemiology, disease spread.   


Beasley, D.W.; Barrett, A.D. Identification of neutralizing epitopes within structural domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein. Journal of Virology. 2002 Dec; 76(24): 13097-100. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:  crows, arbovirus prevelance levels in bird populations, bird brain tissue testing survey, equine encephalitis, West Nile Virus in Connecticut, epitope, mapping, viral envelope proteins immunology, antibodies, recombinant proteins, virulence, pathogenicity.

Abstract: Using a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, we have mapped epitopes in domain III of the envelope protein of the New York strain of West Nile virus. The ability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize these epitopes to neutralize virus appeared to differ between lineage I and II West Nile virus strains, and epitopes were located on the upper surface of domain III at residues E307, E330, and E332.


Beasley, David W.C.; Li, Li; Suderman, Miguel T.; Barrett, Alan D.T. Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype. Virology. 2002 Apr 25; 296(1): 17-23. ISSN: 0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: molecular basis of virulence, virulence phenotype of the virus, 19 strains of West Nile virus, comparison study, mice, hamsters, North American strain, level of neuroinvasiveness.

Abstract: Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic and neurovirulence properties of 19 strains of WN virus, including 2 from North America, and observed significant differences in their neuroinvasive phenotype in mice and hamsters that correlated with virus genotype. Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses.


Beckwith, W.H.; Sirpenski, S.; French, R.A.; Nelson, R.; Mayo, D. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2002 Apr; 66(4): 422-6. ISSN:  0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 AM326

Descriptors: bird viral disease, crows, songbirds, prevalence levels in bird populations, bird brain testing survey, equine encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, Connecticut, viral isolation and purification, reverse transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction, virus cultivation.

Abstract: The emergence of the West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States has drawn emphasis to the need for expanded arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut. Although the state of Connecticut began a comprehensive mosquito-screening program in 1997, only since 1999 have there been efforts to determine the prevalence of arboviruses in bird populations in this state. Herein, we report on our results of an arbovirus survey of 1,704 bird brains. Included in this report are the first known isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) from crows and data on the geographic and temporal distribution of 1,092 WNV isolations from crow species. Moreover, these nine isolations of EEEV identify regions of Connecticut where the virus is rarely found. With the exception of WNV and EEEV, no other arboviruses were isolated or detected. Taken together, these data illustrate the distribution of avian borne EEEV and WNV in 2000 and support the need for ongoing avian arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut.

Borowski, Peter; Lang, Melanie; Haag, Annemarie; Schmitz, Herbert; Choe, Joonho; Chen, Huan Ming; Hosmane, Ramachandra S. Characterization of imidazo(4,5-d)pyridazine nucleosides as modulators of unwinding reaction mediated by West Nile virus nucleoside triphosphatase/helicase: Evidence for activity on the level of substrate and/or enzyme. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. May, 2002; 46 (5): 1231-1239. ISSN: 0066-4804.

NAL Call No.: RM265 A5132

Descriptors: synthesis and properties, nucleoside analogues, double-stranded DNA, unwinding reaction mediated West Nile virus nucleoside triphosphatase, helicase activity, new class of helicase-specific antivirals, potential pharmaceutical.

Abstract: Compounds that interact with DNA or RNA generally act as inhibitors of enzymes that unwind DNA or RNA. In the present study we describe the synthesis and properties of some nucleoside analogues that interact with double-stranded DNA but that, in contrast, facilitate the unwinding reaction mediated by West Nile (WN) virus nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase. The nucleoside analogues described, 1-(2'-O-methyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)-dione (HMC-HO4), 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)-dione, and 1-(2'-deoxy-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)dione, all contain the imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine ring system. The extent of the enhancing effect on helicase activity was found to be dependent on the time of exposure of the DNA substrate to the compounds and their concentrations. The nucleoside analogues were nevertheless found to be capable of uncoupling the ATPase and helicase activities of the enzyme by a mechanism operating on the level of the enzyme. Thus, in the case of HMC-HO4, the direct interaction with the enzyme caused inhibition of its helicase activity, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 30 microM. The similar potency of the compound against replication of WN virus in cell culture suggests that inhibition of the helicase activity of the viral enzyme is responsible for the observed antiviral activity of HMC-HO4 and may indeed represent an important mode of action of antiviral drugs in general. Comparative studies performed with the related NTPase/helicase from hepatitis C virus revealed that the extent of the effects mediated by imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine nucleosides is enzyme specific. The substances described may represent a starting point for the development of a new class of helicase-specific antivirals.


Bram, Ralph A.; George, John E.; Reichar, Robert E.; Tabaciinic, Walter J. Threat of foreign arthropod-borne pathogens to livestock in the United States. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 May; 39(3): 405-16. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: risks in U.S., insect borne diseases, production animals, U.S. programs, strategic planning, arboviral diseases including West Nile virus.

Abstract: There are many exotic animal pathogens throughout the world that, if introduced into the United States. could have a significant detrimental impact on the health of livestock, agricultural economy, the environment, and public health. Many of these pathogens are arthropod-borne and potential vectors are readily available in the United States. A number of these arthropod-borne pathogens are discussed here as examples that illustrate the potential risk and the consequences of inadvertent introductions. Several International agencies have a role in global surveillance and in controlling animal diseases should they begin to expand their range. The risk to the United States is considerable. We propose that the United States invest in the improved infrastructure needed to reduce the risk of foreign arthropod-borne pathogens. Current U.S. programs focus on the exclusion of pathogens through regulation of animal movements and products, surveillance, especially trained animal disease diagnosticians, research support, international cooperation and, should pathogens enter our country, the resources for their prompt eradication. We suggest that the United States needs to develop a comprehensive, updated strategic plan to assess all aspects of current and future requirements, objectives, and resources needed to protect its national interests.


Briese, Thomas; Rambaut, Andrew; Pathmajeyan, Melissa; Bishara, Jihad; Weinberger, Miriam; Pitlik, Silvio; Lipkin, W. Ian. Phylogenetic analysis of a human isolate from the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 May; 8(5): 528-31. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus isolates, comparison study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, phylogenetic analysis, Romanian, Russian, Israeli and New York isolates.

Abstract: Specimens from a patient of the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epidemic were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Products corresponding to E, NS3, and NS5 sequences were amplified from cerebellar but not from cortical samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a closer relationship of this isolate to 1996 Romanian and 1999 Russian than to 1998-99 Israeli or 1999 New York isolates.


Brinton, MA. Host factors involved in West Nile virus replication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 207-19. ISSN:  0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors: carrier proteins, RNA binding proteins, virus replication, West Nile virus genetics, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, disease susceptibility,  integration host factors, potential anti-viral agents, possible highly conserved protein in diverse species, 3’ RNA’s, mice.

Abstract: Viruses use cell proteins during many stages of their replication cycles, including attachment, entry, translation, transcription/replication, and assembly. Mutations in the cell proteins involved can cause disruptions of these critical host-virus interactions, which in turn can affect the efficiency of virus replication. These host-virus interactions also represent novel targets for the development of new antiviral agents. The different alleles of the murine Flv gene confer resistance or susceptibility to flavivirus-induced disease and provide a natural mutant system for the study of a host protein that can alter the outcome of a flavivirus infection. Since flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, replicate in mosquitoes, mammals, and birds during their natural transmission cycles, it is expected that the critical cell proteins used by these viruses will be ones that are highly conserved between divergent host species. Our laboratory has focused on the identification and characterization of the flavivirus resistance gene product and of cell proteins that interact with the 3' terminal regions of the West Nile virus genomic and antigenomic RNAs. The 3' terminal regions of the viral RNAs function as promotors for viral RNA replication. Cell proteins that bind to the viral 3' RNAs were detected by gel shift and UV-induced cross-linking assays. Individual proteins were then purified and partially sequenced. Mutation of a mapped, protein-binding site within the 3' terminal region of the viral RNA in an infectious West Nile virus clone was used to demonstrate the functional importance of one of the cell proteins for efficient West Nile virus replication. Data from additional studies suggested possible roles for this viral RNA-cell protein interaction during the flavivirus replication cycle.


Bunning, Michel L.; Bowen, Richard A.; Cropp, C. Bruce; Sullivan, Kevin G.; Davis, Brent S.; Komar, Nicholas; Godsey, Marvin S.; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Derek A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Mitchell, Carl J. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Apr; 8(4): 380-6. ISSN: 1080-6040.
NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: horses, epidemiology, duration of viremia, NY99 isolate, non-amplyfing hosts, Aedes, albopictus, experimental infection.

Abstract: A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature.


Burt, Felicity J.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Leman, Patricia A.; Anthony, Fiona, S.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Swanepoel, Robert. Phylogenetic relationships of southern african west nile virus isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Aug; 8(8): 820-6. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus, African strains, comparison, evolution, phylogenetics, lineages 1 and 2.

Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern African West Nile virus (formal name West Nile virus [WNV]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. In addition sequence data were retrieved from GenBank for another 23 WNV isolates and Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses. All isolates belonged to two lineages. Lineage 1 isolates were from central and North Africa, Europe, Israel, and North America; lineage 2 isolates were from central and southern Africa and Madagascar. No strict correlation existed between grouping and source of virus isolate, pathogenicity, geographic distribution, or year of isolation. Some southern African isolates have been associated with encephalitis in a human, a horse, and a dog and with fatal hepatitis in a human and death of an ostrich chick.


Chu, JJ; Ng, ML. Infection of polarized epithelial cells with flavivirus West Nile: polarized entry and egress of virus occur through the apical surface. Journal of General Virology. 2002 Oct; 83(Pt 10): 2427-35. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors: West Nile virus physiology, cell membrane ultrastructure, cell polarity, Cercopithecus aethiops, epithelial cells virology, microtubules, Vero-cells, viral envelope proteins metabolism.

Abstract: Both polarized epithelial Vero (C1008) and non-polarized Vero (control) cells were grown on permeable cell culture inserts and infected either apically or basolaterally with West Nile (WN) or Kunjin (KUN) virus. KUN virus (closely related to WN virus) was used as a comparison. Using indirect immunofluorescence and plaque assays of productive virus titres, entry of WN and KUN viruses was confined to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. For the first time, these results provided evidence on the distribution of flavivirus-specific receptor(s) in polarized epithelial cells; that is to say that receptor expression was shown to be predominant at the apical surface. In addition, the release of these viruses from polarized Vero C1008 epithelial cells was also examined. Egress of WN virus strain Sarafend (S) was observed to occur predominantly at the apical surface of Vero C1008 cells. In contrast, the release of KUN virus was bi-directional from polarized Vero C1008 cells. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular microtubule network was shown to inhibit the apical release of WN (S) virus but had no effect on the release of KUN virus. Hence, the difference in the release of these closely related viruses suggested the involvement of a microtubule-dependent, polarized sorting mechanism for WN virus proteins but not for KUN virus proteins in polarized epithelial cells.

Chu, J.J.H.; Ng, M.L. Trafficking mechanism of West Nile (Sarafend) virus structural proteins. Journal of Medical Virology. 2002 May; 67(1): 127-36. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: kinesin metabolism, vinblastine pharmacology, viral structural proteins, envelope (E) and capsid (C) proteins, replication cycle, time-based double-immunofluorescence labeling, Triton X-100 extraction procedure, microtubules.

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that West Nile (Sarafend) virus matured by budding at the plasma membrane, which differs from the usual intracellular maturation of other flaviviruses. The present study investigated the trafficking mechanism of the envelope (E) and capsid (C) proteins of West Nile (Sarafend) virus during the replication cycle. The use of time-based double-immunofluorescence labelling coupled with the Triton X-100 extraction procedure revealed that both the E and C proteins were transported from the perinuclear region towards the plasma membrane along the microtubules simultaneously. The strong association of these virus proteins with the microtubules was demonstrated further with capsid (C) proteins coupled with double immunogold-labelling. Extraction of infected cells with Triton X-100 in high salt also revealed that virus E proteins were associated with the microtubules via protein-protein interaction. The disruption of microtubules with vinblastine sulphate inhibited the trafficking of both the virus E and C proteins. Both virus structural proteins were observed to co-localise and retained within vinblastine sulphate-induced microtubulin paracrystals. Extracellular virus production was also reduced drastically by vinblastine sulphate at non-cytotoxic concentration. Subsequent studies revealed that the transportation of virus E protein was associated with the microtubules-based motor protein, kinesin.


Cooper, J.E. Diagnostic pathology of selected diseases in wildlife. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. April, 2002; 21 (1): 77-89. ISSN: 0253-1933.

NAL Call No.: SF781.R4

Descriptors: field investigations, surveillance of disease, wildlife, principles of diagnostic pathology, mycobacteriosis, Rift Valley fever, rabies, spongiform encephalopathies, morbillivirus and poxvirus infections, viral encephalitides, West Nile virus infection, chytridiomycosis.

Abstract: The prompt detection and effective management of infectious disease in wildlife rely greatly on field diagnosis. Although clinical work is sometimes of value, the cornerstone of diagnosis is pathological examination (gross necropsy with supporting laboratory investigations). The approach and rationale to gross post-mortem examination are common to all species, despite possible significant differences in technique. Likewise, the principles of sampling are usually comparable, with emphasis on standardisation, the correct use of equipment, and consistency in methods of storage and transportation of specimens. However, the type of sample taken and the laboratory tests required differ, depending upon the circumstances and possible diagnosis. Retention of material is always important. The principles of diagnostic pathology are discussed, with reference to selected diseases, namely: mycobacteriosis, Rift Valley fever, rabies, spongiform encephalopathies, morbillivirus and poxvirus infections, viral encephalitides, West Nile virus infection and chytridiomycosis. The importance of being able to perform certain investigations in the field, efficiently and safely, is emphasised.


Crook, PD; Crowcroft, NS; Brown, DW. West Nile virus and the threat to the UK. Communicable Disease and Public Health. 2002 Jun; 5(2): 138-43.

Descriptors:  Potential for West Nile virus to enter UK, risk assessment, mosquito vectors, migratory birds as disease reservoirs, disease control, epidemiology. 

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is an RNA virus and a member of the Flaviviridae family. The recent geographical expansion of WNV into areas where no activity had been previously reported has been highlighted by the detection of WNV in North America. There is also a recent trend for more numerous and serious outbreaks in Eurasia. The main hosts are birds and the principle vectors are mosquitoes, usually of the genus Culex. Although most infected people do not become symptomatic, severe diseases such as encephalitis and, less commonly, aseptic meningitis may occur, more frequently in the elderly. The public can be protected by giving advice on the avoidance of mosquito bites and by the implementation of ecological surveillance and measures to reduce the mosquito population. While a few human cases have been identified in returning travellers, WNV has not been reported in any animal or bird in the UK. However, this may simply indicate that the diagnosis has not been sought. Potential avian hosts and mosquito vectors of WNV are present in the UK and birds migrate to the UK from areas of endemic WNV activity. However, the population density of mosquitoes is relatively low and therefore the risk of WNV being transmitted in the UK is thought to be low. We lack sufficient information on the ecology of the virus, and on mosquito populations, to accurately determine this risk. Clinicians are advised to consider WNV as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients over 50 years old with a clinical picture of viral encephalitis or aseptic meningitis presenting in the summer months.


Cummings, Craig A.; Relman, David A. Genomics and microbiology: Microbial forensics: "Cross-examining pathogens". Science. 14 June, 2002; 296 (5575): 1976-1979. ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL Call No.: 470 Sci2

Descriptors: molecular genetics, bacterial and viral pathogens, West Nile virus, identification techniques.


Daniels, PW. Emerging arboviral diseases. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2002 Apr; 80(4): 216. ISSN:  0005-0423.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72

Descriptors:  flavivirus infections, epidemiology, West Nile Virus prevention and control, emerging human and animal diseases, emerging diseases.


Dohm, David J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Turell, Michael J. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. January, 2002; 39 (1): 221-225. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors:  Culex pipiens, vector competence, environmental temperature effects on virus viability and vertical transmission efficiency, laboratory study, risk modeling, disease models, New York strain.   

Abstract: Environmental temperature can affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit an arbovirus. However, results of various studies indicate that these effects are not consistent among viruses or mosquito species, and there is no information available on the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of North American mosquito species to transmit West Nile (WN) virus. We evaluated the effect of incubation temperature (18, 20, 26, or 30degreeC) on the ability of Culex pipiens L. derived from specimens collected during the outbreak in New York in 1999 to transmit a strain of WN virus obtained from a crow that died during this outbreak. Although mosquitoes fed on the same viremic chickens, infection rates were directly related to subsequent incubation temperatures. In mosquitoes held at 30degreeC, virus was recovered from nearly all mosquitoes tested, disseminated infections were detected as early as 4 d after the infectious blood meal, and >90% of all mosquitoes had a disseminated infection 12 or more days after the infectious blood meal. In contrast, for mosquitoes held at 18degreeC, disseminated infections were not detected until 25 d after the infectious blood meal, and even after 28 d, <30% contained a disseminated infection. Results for mosquitoes held at 20 and 26degreeC were intermediate for both infection and dissemination rates. The effect of environmental temperature should to be considered when evaluating the vector competence of these mosquitoes and modeling risk of WN virus transmission in nature.


Dohm, David J.; Sardelis, Michael R.; Turell, Michael J. Experimental vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 Jul; 39(4): 640-4. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus, New York, winter survival in vector, vertical transmission.

Abstract: Despite the detection of West Nile (WN) virus in overwintering Culex pipiens L. in New York in February 2000, the mechanism by which this virus persists throughout the winter to initiate infections in vertebrate hosts and vectors the following spring remains unknown. After a blood meal, parous mosquitoes generally do not survive until spring and gonotrophic dissociation occurs in only a small percentage of the population. To investigate vertical transmission as a means of viral survival during interepizootics, we intrathoracically inoculated Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) with WN virus and subsequently tested their F1 progeny for the presence of virus. Among the Cx. pipiens, we recovered virus from two of 1,417 adult progeny that had been reared at 18 degrees C for a minimal filial infection rate (MFIR) of approximately 1.4/1,000 and four of 1,873 adult progeny reared at 26 degrees C (MFIR = 2.1/1,000). The mean titer of the positive pools was 10(5.6) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml (=10(5.9) PFU/mosquito for positive mosquitoes) of virus. Overall, the MFIR was approximately 1.8/1,000 for Cx. pipiens. Although reports indicate that Ae. albopictus vertically transmit various viruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus complex, we did not detect WN virus in any of > 13,000 F1 progeny of WN virus-inoculated specimens. Female Cx. pipiens that are vertically infected during the late summer season and then survive the winter could serve as a source of WN virus to initiate an infection cycle the following spring.


Durand, B; Chevalier, V; Pouillot, R; Labie, J; Marendat, I; Murgue, B; Zeller, H; Zientara, S. West Nile virus outbreak in horses, southern France, 2000: results of a serosurvey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Aug; 8(8): 777-82. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: horses, clinical cases, sampling of 5,107, disease antibody levels, Camargue, France.

Abstract: During late summer and autumn 2000, a West Nile fever outbreak in southern France resulted in 76 equine clinical cases; 21 horses died. We report the results of a large serosurvey of all equines within a 10-km radius of laboratory-confirmed cases. Blood samples were obtained from 5,107 equines, distributed in groups of 1 to 91 animals. West Nile virus immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies were found in 8.5% of animals (n=432). Forty-two percent of the IgG-positive animals were also IgM positive. Horses living in small groups were more affected than those in large groups. The results suggest that West Nile virus is not endemic in the affected area, the Camargue; rather, sporadic outbreaks are separated by long silent periods.


Ebel, GD; Dupuis, AP 2nd; Nicholas, D; Young, D; Maffei, J; Kramer, LD. Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to West Nile virus in birds. Emerging Iinfectious Diseases. 2002 Sep; 8(9): 979-82. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46 

Descriptors: Indirect iG ELISA assay for West Nile virus, compared efficacy in diverse avian species, value in epizootiology. 

Abstract: We adapted an indirect immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to facilitate studies of West Nile virus (WNV) and evaluated its application to taxonomically diverse avian species. Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 23 bird species, including many exotic species, demonstrating its value in studies of WNV epizootiology.


Ejiri, S. Moonlighting functions of polypeptide elongation factor 1: from actin bundling to zinc finger protein R1-associated nuclear localization. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Bochemistry. 2002 Jan; 66(1): 1-21. ISSN:  0916-8451.

NAL Call No.: QH301.B564

Descriptors: protein biosysthesis, atins metabolism, carrier proteins metabolism, peptide elongation factor 1 metabolism, physiology and genetics, zinc fingers, apoptosis, cell nucleus metabolism, cold, cysteine endopeptidases, Cytoskeleton, HIV 1, herpesvirus 1, molecular mimicry, multienzyme complexes, protein disulfide isomerase metabolism, selenocysteine metabolism, signa transduction, West Nile virus.

Abstract: Eukaryotic polypeptide elongation factor EF-1 is not only a major translational factor, but also one of thost important multifunctional (moonlighting) proteins. EF-1 consists of four different subunits collectively termed EF-1alphabeta beta'gamma and EF-1alphabeta gammadelta in plants and animals, respectively. EF-1alpha x GTP catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome. EF-1beta beta'gamma (EF-1beta and EF-1beta'), catalyzes GDP/GTP exchange on EF-1alpha x GDP to regenerate EF-1alpha x GTP. EF-1gamma has recently been shown to have glutathione S-transferase activity. EF-2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site on the ribosome. Recently, molecular mimicry among tRNA, elongation factors, releasing factor (RF), and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has been demonstrated and greatly improved our understanding of the mechanism of translation. Moreover, eukaryotic elongation factors have been shown to be concerned or likely to be concerned in various important cellular processes or serious diseases, including translational control, signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, apoptosis, adult atopic dermatitis, oncogenic transformation, nutrition, and nuclear processes such as RNA synthesis and mitosis. This article aims to overview the recent advances in protein biosynthesis, concentrating on the moonlighting functions of EF-1.


Enserink, M. Infectious disease. West Nile's surprisingly swift continental sweep. Science. 2002 Sep 20; 297(5589): 1988-9 ISSN: 0036-8075. www.Sciencemag.org

NAL Call No.: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: West Nile Virus, bird diseases, Culex virology, mosquito vectors, disease reservoirs, epidemiology, disease transmission and spread, bird migration, mosquito vector feeding behavior, disease prevention and control, U.S. Canada.


Ford-Jones, E. Lee; Fearon, Margaret; Leber, Chuck; Dwight, Prabo; Myszak, Moira; Cole, Beverly; Greene, Pam Baker; Artes, Sheila; McGeer, Allison; D'Cunha, Colin; Naus, Monika. Human surveillance for West Nile virus infection in Ontario in 2000. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2002 Jan 8; 166(1): 29-35. ISSN: 0820-3946.

NAL Call No.: R11 C3

Descriptors: surveillance program, virus disease diagnosis, West Nile Fever, sentinel chickens, mosquito pools, human disease levels, survey reports 2002, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The first reports of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the United States in 1999 prompted Ontario to establish a surveillance protocol to monitor for the possible spread of the virus into the province. Surveillance components included evaluation of dead birds, sentinel chickens, mosquito pools and human disease. We report the results of human surveillance in 2000. METHODS: Between July 1 and Oct. 31, 2000, an active surveillance program was undertaken in which designated site coordinators in sentinel hospitals identified patients who met the suspect case definition (fever and fluctuating level of consciousness [encephalopathy], with or without muscle weakness). During the same period, following province-wide distribution of educational material, all other patients tested for WNV antibodies were identified through review of provincial laboratory reports (laboratory-based enhanced passive surveillance). RESULTS: Of the 60 hospitals contacted, 59 agreed to participate in the active surveillance program; 52 provided information on a regular (weekly) basis, and 7 submitted fewer than 8 reports. Thirty-six (61%) of the sentinel sites reported suspect cases. In total, 188 patients were tested (130 identified through active surveillance and 58 through enhanced passive surveillance). Patients identified through active surveillance were more likely than those identified through passive surveillance to meet the suspect case definition (43% [n = 56] v. 7% [n = 4]), to be admitted to hospital (75% [n = 99] v. 16% [n = 9]), to have a longer hospital stay (mean 25 v. 3 days), to have had a second (convalescent) serum sample collected (37% [n = 48] v. 31% [n = 18]), to have had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample banked (56% [n = 73] v. 14% [n = 8]) and to have had a discharge diagnosis reported (79% [n = 103] v. 28% [n = 16]). Of the 60 patients (32%) who met the suspect case definition, 34 (57% [31 active, 3 passive]) had a discharge diagnosis of encephalitis. Of these, 17 (50% [15 active, 2 passive]) had paired serum samples collected, and 18 (51% [all active]) had a CSF sample banked. The reported causal agents were herpes simplex virus (n = 8), varicelia virus (n = 2), Powassan virus (n = 1), echovirus 30 (n = 1) and group B Streptococcus (n = 1); the cause was unknown in 18 cases. One patient died of encephalitis. The remaining 26 patients who met the suspect case definition were ultimately found to have nonencephalitic infections, vascular events or alcohol- or drug-related illness. The 128 (68%) tested for WNV who did not meet the suspect case definition included 9 patients ultimately discharged with a diagnosis of encephalitis. No cases of WNV infection were identified. INTERPRETATION: Only one-third of the tested patients met the suspect case definition of encephalopathy on admission, and nearly half of them were later found to have another diagnosis; others did not meet the case definition but were later discharged with a diagnosis of encephalitis. This affirms that identification of acute encephalitis on the basis of symptoms at the time of admission is often impossible.


Hall, RA; Broom, AK; Smith, DW; Mackenzie, JS. The ecology and epidemiology of Kunjin virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 253-69. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: West Nile Fever, epidemiology and etiology, Culicidae mosquitoes, horse diseases, insect vectors, population surveillance, virus genetics, immunology.


Hay, S.I.; Myers, M.F.; Maynard, N.; Rogers, D.J. Special Issue: remote sensing and human health. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 2002, 68: 2, 107-179. ISSN: 0099-1112. Special issue contains an introduction and 7 articles on remote sensing in human health.

NAL Call No.: 325.28 P56

Descriptors: disease outbreak predictions, satellite sensor data, distribution of West Nile fever in North America, diseases in other countries, predictive modeling.


Hochberg, Leigh R.; Sims, John R.; Davis, Benjamin T. West Nile encephalitis in Massachusetts. New England Journal of Medicine. March 28, 2002; 346 (13): 1030-1031. ISSN: 0028-4793.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 N442

Descriptors: human cases, pathogenesis, disease process, diagnosis.


Holick, J; Kyle, A; Ferraro, W; Delaney, RR; Iwaseczk, M. Discovery of Aedes albopictus infected with west nile virus in southeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 2002 Jun; 18(2): 131. ISSN: 8756-971X.

NAL Call No.: QL536 J686

Descriptors: Aedes albopictus as disease vector, transmission, identification of viral antigen, reverse transcription PCR, Pennsylvania.

Abstract: In August 2000, Aedes albopictus was found in a CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control light trap in eastern Philadelphia, PA. In late September 2000, West Nile viral antigen was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing from a pool of 2 Ae. albopictus mosquitoes that were collected in southwestern Montgomery County.


Hunt, A.R.; Hall, R.A.; Kerst, A.J.; Nasci, R.S.; Savage, H.M.; Panella, N.A.; Gottfried, K.L.; Burkhalter, K.L.; Roehrig, J.T.  Detection of West Nile virus antigen in mosquitoes and avian tissues by a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. June 2002. v. 40 (6) p. 2023-2030. ISSN: 0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors: viral antigens, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex mosquitoes, Corvus brachyrhynchos, crows.


Kamimura K; Horio M; Nakamura M; Doi R; Takashima I; Igarashi A; Ahmed A; Takasu T. Sampling of Culex tritaeniorhynchus for virus isolation in Karachi and Haleji Lake, a suburb of Karachi, Pakistan. Medical Entomology and Zoology. 2002, 53: Supplement 2, 43-46; 6 ref.

NAL Call No.: QL99 E3

Descriptors: mosquito disease vectors, West Nile virus strains, mosquito surveys, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Karachi, Pakistan.


Katz, Yeshayahu; Lustig, Shlomo; Ben Shlomo, Izhar; Kobiler, David; Ben-Nathan, David. Inhalation anesthetic-induced neuroinvasion by an attenuated strain of West Nile virus in mice. Journal of Medical Virology. 2002 Apr; 66(4): 576-80. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: immune suppressors, nitrous oxide inhalation, anesthetics, West Nile viruses, mouse model, at risk populations, brain invasion factors, subclinical infections.

Abstract: There are contradictory reports regarding the effects of inhalation anesthetics on the immune system. Measurable immune responses have been studied in vitro, but little is known about the in vivo effects in the intact organism. We used an attenuated, non-neuroinvasive, nonlethal strain of the encephalitic West Nile virus, termed WN-25, which can become lethal in combination with environmental stressors, to study possible modulatory immune effects of inhalation anesthetics in mice. Both single short-term exposure and repeated exposure to halothane and nitrous oxide were studied. Exposure to 30% CO2 served as a positive control. Mortality, brain invasion, spleen weight, and antiviral antibodies served as the experimental endpoints. Halothane and nitrous oxide led to viral brain invasion, increased mortality, and suppressed immune response in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Repeated exposures had a cumulative effect. Assessment of the stability of the viral attenuation did not demonstrate any alteration in the character of the virus, suggesting an increased access to the brain by inhalation anesthetics that led to the fatal encephalitis. These findings may be of special concern to populations at risk, such as operating room staff and patients undergoing general anesthesia in endemic areas of encephalitic virus species, in which subclinical infection may develop into an overt disease.


Kennedy, D. A Tiger tale. Science. 2002 Aug 30; 297 (5586): 1445 ISSN: 1095-9203.

NAL Call No.: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: Aedes mosquito virology; West Nile Fever, epidemiology and transmission, virus physiology, Southeastern Asia; District of Columbia, ecosystem factors, Maryland.


Kesson, Alison M.; Cheng, Ying; King-Nicholas, J.C. Regulation of immune recognition molecules by flavivirus, West Nile. Viral Immunology. 2002; 15 (2): 273-283. ISSN: 0882-8245.

Descriptors: cell cycles, immune molecules, major histocompatability complex class-I and class-II (MHC-I, MHC-II), ICAM-1, VCAM, and E-selectin.

Klein, C.; Kimiagar, I.; Pollak, L.; Gandelman-Marton, R.; Itzhaki, A.; Milo, R.; Rabey, J.M. Neurological features of West Nile Virus infection during the 2000 outbreak in a regional hospital in Israel. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2002 Aug 15; 200(1-2): 63-6. ISSN: 0022-510X.

Descriptors: West Nile virus, Israel, disease symptoms, encephalitis, seasonal rates, bird migration pathways.

Abstract: During the summer of 2000, 35 patients with West Nile Virus Fever were admitted to our hospital. Of these, the 26 (21 adults, mean age 56 (19-86) and 5 children (aged 9-15)) presented have neurological involvement, 33% with meningitis, 52% with meningoencephalitis, 10% with encephalitis and 5% with acute polyneuropathy. Presenting clinical features were fever in 95% of cases, headache in 90%, nausea/vomiting in 52%, confusion in 48%, somnolence in 38%, neck stiffness in 33%, a skin rash in 19%, diarrhea in 14%, cervical pain in 14%, seizure in 9%, photophobia in 9% and limb weakness in 4%. Leucopenia was not found. Two patients diagnosed with meningoencephalitis died. Three patients had signs of an acute polyneuropathy, this being the only complaint of one patient. The EEG was abnormal in all cases of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, except in three cases. Outbreaks of West Nile Virus Fever are emerging as a worldwide disease with high rates of neurological involvement and death. It should be considered in cases presenting with aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis and acute polyneuropathy, especially during the summer months and in areas along bird migration pathways.


Knight, Jonathan. US zoos keep watch for cross-species killer. Nature. 2002 May 30; 417(6888): 477. ISSN: 0028-0836.

NAL Call No.: 472 N21

Descriptors: West Nile virus, zoo animals, risks of infection, epidemiology.


Komar, Nicholas; Lanciotti, Robert; Bowen, Richard; Langevin, Stanley; Bunning, Michel. Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. July, 2002; 8 (7): 741-742. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus, crows, jays postmortem swab sampling, detection method.

Abstract: We evaluated if postmortem cloacal and oral swabs could replace brain tissue as a specimen for West Nile virus (WNV) detection. WNV was detected in all three specimen types from 20 dead crows and jays with an average of >10(5) WNV PFU in each. These findings suggest that testing cloacal or oral swabs might be a low-resource approach to detect WNV in dead birds.

Lanciotti, R.S.; Ebel,G.D.; Deubel, V.; Kerst, A.J.; Murri, S.; Meyer, R.; Bowen, M.; McKinney, N.; Morrill, W.E.; Crabtree, M.B. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology. June 20, 2002. v. 298 (1) p. 96-105. ISSN: 0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: nucleotide sequences, phylogenetics, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Italy, Romania, Egypt, various isolated viral strains.


Lazar, Arye; Epstein, Eyal; Lustig, Shlomo; Barnea, Ada; Silberstein, Lea; Reuveny, Shaul. Inactivation of west-nile virus during peptic cleavage of horse plasma IgG. Biologicals. 2002 Jun; 30(2): 163-5. ISSN: 1045-1056.

NAL Call No.: QH301 J68

Descriptors: West Nile virus, plasma IgG, F(ab) products, immunotherapy, plasma-derived medical products, guidelines, viral clearance.

Abstract: Peptic cleavage of horse plasma IgG is a common procedure for the preparation of F(ab)(2) products for human use, such as antivenin and antitoxin.(1) The removal of the Fc fragment from the IgG molecule by enzymatic cleavage at low pH, ensures fewer side-effects of the F(ab)(2) product for passive immunotherapy compared with the whole IgG molecule. Since the starting material may be contaminated by zoonotic horse viruses, it is necessary to demonstrate the removal or inactivation of possible viral contaminants. Guidelines for performing such studies were published by the Commission for Plasma-Derived Medical Products (CPMP),(2) and updated by the Committee for Proprietary Medical Products.(3) It is recommended that viral clearance studies be performed on scaled down production processes that have been identified as possibly contributing to virus clearance and spiking of a model virus to the starting material. The model virus should be non-pathogenic but closely related to the potential infective virus. By quantifying the amount of virus in the product before and after the production process, the amount of virus cleared can be determined. Log(10) reductions of the order of 4 logs or more, and a biphasic inactivation curve (fast initial phase followed by a slower phase), are indicative of a clearance effect with a particular test virus under investigation.(3)


Li, W; Li, Y; Kedersha, N; Anderson, P; Emara, M; Swiderek, KM; Moreno, GT; Brinton, MA. Cell proteins TIA-1 and TIAR interact with the 3' stem-loop of the West Nile virus complementary minus-strand RNA and facilitate virus replication. Journal of Virology. 2002 Dec; 76(23): 11989-2000  ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:  membrane protein metabolism, RNA, viral genetics, binding proteins, viral physiology, viral pathogenicity.

Abstract: It was reported previously that four baby hamster kidney (BHK) proteins with molecular masses of 108, 60, 50, and 42 kDa bind specifically to the 3'-terminal stem-loop of the West Nile virus minus-stand RNA [WNV 3'(-) SL RNA] (P. Y. Shi, W. Li, and M. A. Brinton, J. Virol. 70:6278-6287, 1996). In this study, p42 was purified using an RNA affinity column and identified as TIAR by peptide sequencing. A 42-kDa UV-cross-linked viral RNA-cell protein complex formed in BHK cytoplasmic extracts incubated with the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA was immunoprecipitated by anti-TIAR antibody. Both TIAR and the closely related protein TIA-1 are members of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family of RNA binding proteins. TIA-1 also binds to the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA. The specificity of these viral RNA-cell protein interactions was demonstrated using recombinant proteins in competition gel mobility shift assays. The binding site for the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA was mapped to RRM2 on both TIAR and TIA-1. However, the dissociation constant (K(d)) for the interaction between TIAR RRM2 and the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA was 1.5 x 10(-8), while that for TIA-1 RRM2 was 1.12 x 10(-7). WNV growth was less efficient in murine TIAR knockout cell lines than in control cells. This effect was not observed for two other types of RNA viruses or two types of DNA viruses. Reconstitution of the TIAR knockout cells with TIAR increased the efficiency of WNV growth, but neither the level of TIAR nor WNV replication was as high as in control cells. These data suggest a functional role for TIAR and possibly also for TIA-1 during WNV replication.


Lok, C. Biting back. The West Nile virus and more-dangerous insect-carried relatives are in the U.S. to stay. U.S. News and World Report. 2002 Aug 19; 133(7): 14-7. ISSN: 0041-5537.

NAL Call No.: 280.8 Un33A

Descriptors:  Culicidae mosquito virology; insect vectors of zoonotic diseases, West-Nile fever epidemiology, prevention, repellents, vector control, U.S


Lopez, W. West Nile virus in New York City. American Journal of Public Health.2002 Aug; 92(8): 1218-21. ISSN: 0090-0036.

NAL Call No.: 449.9 Am3J

Descriptors: Communicable Disease Control legislation and jurisprudence, disease control, Public Health Administration, West Nile Fever prevention-and-control, bioterrorism, Culicidae mosquito virology, insect vectors virology, insecticides administration and dosage, New York City epidemiology, organizational case studies, politics, epidemiology. 

Abstract: In 1999, a cluster of encephalitis cases was detected in New York City. The city applied larvicide to standing water and aerially sprayed pesticides to control adult mosquitoes. The causative agent was West Nile virus, a type of encephalitis that had never before been transmitted in the western hemisphere. This experience offers many lessons for the practitioners of public health and of public health law. A public health infrastructure that does not lose sight of the old threats must be maintained. The public health and environmental governmental establishments must work together. Law is closely intertwined with policy and programmatic initiatives and can facilitate a better public health outcome.


Lord, C.C.; Day, J.F. Simulation studies of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses: the impact of bird mortality. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. Winter 2001. v. 1 (4) p. 317-329. ISSN: 1530-3667

NAL Call No.: RA639.5V43

Descriptors: St Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile Virus, mosquito borne diseases, disease transmission, epidemiology,  Culex nigripalpus, biting rates, blood meals, host preferences, seasonal variation, population dynamics, population density, wild birds mortality, epidemics, simulation models, Florida, host switching, epizootics.


Ludwig, GV; Calle, PP; Mangiafico, JA; Raphael, BL; Danner, DK; Hile, JA; Clippinger, TL; Smith, JF; Cook, RA; McNamara, T . An outbreak of West Nile virus in a New York City captive wildlife population. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2002 Jul; 67(1): 67-75. ISSN:  0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors:  bird virology, mammals, mortality of captive species, West Nile virus isolation and purification, New York City, RNA, species specificity, Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park, zoo as sentinels for emerging diseases, antibody testing.

Abstract: An outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in and around New York City during the late summer of 1999 was the cause of extensive mortality among free-ranging birds. Within the Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park, viral activity was also observed and produced some morbidity and mortality among specimens in the zoo's bird collection and probably caused morbidity in at least one specimen from the zoo's mammal collection. To determine the extent of the outbreak and attempt to ascertain the temporal appearance of virus within the park, a serologic survey of birds and mammals was performed. The survey showed that 34% of tested birds (125 of 368; 124 species) were positive for antibody to WNV. The virus caused a disease to infection ratio of 22% (27 of 125) among birds with a 70% (19 of 27) case fatality rate. In contrast, only 8% of the mammals (9 of 117; 35 species) possessed antibody to WNV and there was no virus-associated mortality. Testing of banked and fresh sera obtained from both birds and mammals revealed that there was no evidence of WNV circulation before the 1999 outbreak and that birds introduced into the park were not the source of the New York outbreak. West Nile virus RNA was detected in tissues from one bird that died in February 2000, long after the end of the mosquito transmission season. The potential importance of zoologic parks as possible sentinels for emerging diseases is discussed.


Mackenzie, JS; Barrett, AD; Deubel, V. The Japanese encephalitis serological group of flaviviruses: a brief introduction to the group. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 1-10  ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: encephalitis viruses of Japan, viral classification, pathogenicity,  arbovirus etiology, transmission, West Nile virus. 


Malakoff, D. Infectious disease. Bird advocates fear that West Nile virus could silence the spring. Science. 2002 Sep 20; 297(5589): 1989  ISSN:  1095-9203.

NAL Call No.: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: epidemiology of bird diseases, migratory birds, wild song birds, bird mortality levels, transmission, Caribbean, U.S. 


Malkinson, Mertyn; Banet, Caroline; Weisman, Yoram; Pokamunski, Shimon; King, Roni; Drouet, Marie Therese; Deubel, Vincent. Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating white storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Apr; 8(4): 392-7. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus, infected white storks, disease introduction from migrating birds, Israel, isolate typing.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated in a flock of 1,200 migrating white storks that landed in Eilat, a town in southern Israel, on August 26, 1998. Strong, hot westerly winds had forced the storks to fly under considerable physical stress before reaching the agricultural land surrounding the town. Most of the flock were fledglings, <1 year old, which had hatched in Europe. Thirteen dead or dying storks were collected 2 days after arrival and submitted to the laboratory for examination. Four WNV isolates were obtained from their brains. Out of 11 storks tested six days after arrival, three had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Comparative analysis of full-length genomic sequences of a stork isolate and a 1999 flamingo isolate from the USA showed 28 nucleotide (nt) (0.25%) and 10 amino acid (0.3%) changes. Sequence analysis of the envelope gene of the stork isolate showed almost complete identity with isolates from Israeli domestic geese in 1998 and 1999 and from a nonmigrating, white-eyed gull in 1999. Since these storks were migrating southwards for the first time and had not flown over Israel, we assume that they had become infected with WNV at some point along their route of migration in Europe.


Malkinson, M; Banet, C. The role of birds in the ecology of West Nile virus in Europe and Africa. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 309-22. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  wild birds, disease reservoirs, transmission, migratory patterns, viral detections, pathogenicity, geographical spread, Africa, Europe, equines in Italy and France, overwintering viral reservoirs.

Abstract: Surveys on wild birds conducted during the last two decades in Europe, notably Poland and the Czech Republic, to determine their infection rate with WN virus have revealed endemic foci of infection. Some species of seropositive birds were nonmigrators while others were hatchlings of migrating species. Persistently infected avian reservoirs are potential sources of viruses for mosquitoes that multiply in the temperate European zone in hot, wet summers. In the past, evidence for geographical circulation of WN viruses was based on antigenic analysis of strains from different countries while more recent epidemiological studies have relied on analysis of nucleotide sequences of the envelope gene. With the reappearance of epidemic WN fever in European countries, interest has been focused once again on the African origin of the causal agent carried by migrating wild birds. In some epidemics, isolates were made from human cases or mosquitoes and only serologic evidence for infection was available from domestic and wild bird populations. In this respect the unusual findings of anti-WN virus antibodies in a population of storks maintained in northern Germany could be interpreted as evidence for local infection. The unique susceptibility of young domestic geese in Israel in 1997-2000 to WN virus and the isolation of similar strains from migrating White storks in Israel and Egypt suggest that the recent isolates are more pathogenic for certain avain species and that migrating birds do play a crucial role in geographical spread of the virus. Knowledge of the routes taken by birds migrating between Africa and Europe will therefore help in selecting sites where attempts to isolate viruses will be most fruitful. The appearance of the disease in western European equine populations (Italy and France) requires that other birds and their migratory routes be investigated once more. It remains to be determined whether the European endemic foci of WN virus are in themselves sources of infection for other birds that migrate across Europe and do not necessarily reach sub-Saharan Africa. If this is the case it will be necessary to define the strategies for detection of virus overwintering in the European temperate climate.


Mandic, J. Ponovno uzrokuje smrtonosne bolesti ljudi i zivotinja. [West Nile virus again causes fatal diseases in animals and humans.] Veterinarska Stanica. 2002, 33: 3, 129-131. In Croatian .

Descriptors: vectors of  zoonotic diseases, horses, humans, West Nile virus, Croatia. 


Marx, KL; Roston, MA; Marx, KL (ed.); Roston, MA. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA, 28-30 April 2002. 2002, 186 pp.; many ref.

Note:  The proceedings contains 27 articles on various aspects of avian medicine surgery,  injuries and illness, disease surveillance of Wet Nile virus, and a variety of other diseases.  Toxicoses, pancreatic cancer and stifle luxation are also topics.  Some papers deal with basic and advanced diagnostic techniques, hematology, dermatology, behavior, nutrition, pet parrot taxonomy and disease susceptibility.

Descriptors:  handling and care of pet birds, diseases parasites, veterinary techniques, toxicology, etc. 


Mashimo, T; Lucas, M; Simon-Chazottes, D; Frenkiel, MP; Montagutelli, X; Ceccaldi, PE; Deubel, V; Guenet, JL; Despres, P. A nonsense mutation in the gene encoding 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase/L1 isoform is associated with West Nile virus susceptibility in laboratory mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002 Aug 20; 99(17): 11311-6. ISSN: 0027-8424

Descriptors:  animal disease model, mouse model, 2',5' oligoadenylate synthetase genetics, codon, nonsense genetics, genetic predisposition to disease, West Nile fever genetics and pathogenicity, DNA primers, inbred BALB-C mice, inbred C57BL mice, virulence, virus classification. 

Abstract: A mouse model has been established to investigate the genetic determinism of host susceptibility to West Nile (WN) virus, a member of the genus flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. Whereas WN virus causes encephalitis and death in most laboratory inbred mouse strains after peripheral inoculation, most strains derived from recently trapped wild mice are completely resistant. The phenotype of resistance/susceptibility is determined by a major locus, Wnv, mapping to chromosome 5 within the 0.4-cM-wide interval defined by markers D5Mit408 and D5Mit242. We constructed a high resolution composite/consensus map of the interval by merging the data from the mouse T31 Radiation Hybrid map and those from the homologous region of human chromosome 12q, and found the cluster of genes encoding 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (2'-5'-OAS) to be the most prominent candidate. This cluster encodes a multimember family of IFN-inducible proteins that is known to play an important role in the established endogenous antiviral pathway. Comparing the cDNA sequences of 2'-5'-OAS L1, L2, and L3 isoforms, between susceptible and resistant strains, we identified a STOP codon in exon 4 of the gene encoding the L1 isoform in susceptible strains that can lead to a truncated form with amputation of one domain, whereas all resistant mice tested so far have a normal copy of this gene. The observation that WN virus sensitivity of susceptible mice was completely correlated with the occurrence of a point mutation in 2'-5'-OAS L1 suggests that this isoform may play a critical role in WN pathogenesis.


Mayo, Donald R.; Beckwith III, William H. Inactivation of West Nile Virus during Serologic Testing and Transport. Journal of Clinical Mmicrobiology. 2002 Aug; 40(8): 3044-6. ISSN: 0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors: virus viability, effects of detergent buffers, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, temperature effects, sample transport.

Abstract: Inactivation of West Nile virus (WNV) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) wash buffer at 37 degrees C was studied, as well as inactivation of WNV in cell culture medium over several days at an ambient temperature (28 degrees C). Aliquots of WNV were removed from the 37 degrees C ELISA wash buffer at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min for the former experiment, while daily aliquots of medium were sampled for the latter experiment. No virus was detected in the wash buffer at 30 and 60 min, while virus was readily detected from cell culture medium over this time. In addition, titers of WNV consistently dropped over a 7-day period at 28 degrees C compared to control suspensions of virus held at 4 degrees C. These observations indicate that WNV is readily inactivated in the presence of detergent-containing buffers. Furthermore, the viability loss at ambient temperature suggests that WNV is easily inactivated during routine transportation and testing of human body fluids such as serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

McLean, RG; Ubico, SR; Bourne, D; Komar, N. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 271-308. ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  domestic animals, horses, geese, birds, Europe, North American birds, crows, songbirds, new disease characteristics and patterns, viral evolution, bird migration, viral reservoirs, impacts on wildlife, vectors, insect control, etiology, population surveillance, reptiles, amphibians. 

Abstract: WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to the emergence of one or more new strains of WN virus. Virus isolated in New York in 1999 was found to be identical to that from Israel. It was alarming for WN virus to so easily invade the United States and surprising that it became established so quickly in the temperature climate of New York. Its persistence and rapid expansion in the United States leave a number of unanswered questions. New disease characteristics and patterns have occurred and more are evolving as WN virus further invades the western hemisphere. Additional animal research is needed to answer these questions. Some of the research needs include bird migration as a mechanism of virus dispersal, vector and vertebrate host relationships, virus persistence mechanisms, laboratory diagnosis, viral pathogenesis, risk factor studies, vaccine development, and WN virus impact on wildlife (CDC 2001a). Determination of the primary reservoir host species that are involved in the epidemiology of WN virus and the suitable sentinel species for active surveillance are also important research areas.


Meek, James. West Nile virus in the United States. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 2002 Feb; 14(1): 72-7. ISSN: 1040-8703

Descriptors: West Nile virus, New York City, introduction site in 1999, review of U.S. introduction and spread.

Abstract: In the late summer of 1999, the first known cases of West Nile virus infection in the Western Hemisphere were recorded in New York City. These first cases were the hallmarks of an outbreak of West Nile virus infection that resulted in 7 deaths among 62 confirmed cases and an estimated 8200 asymptomatic to mild infections among residents and visitors in Queens, New York. This article reviews West Nile virus and its spread in the United States since its introduction in 1999.

Miller, EA; Marx, KL (ed.); Roston, MA. Common injuries and illnesses of native wild birds. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA, 28-30 April 2002. 2002, 2002, 81-87; 24 ref.

Descriptors: animal parasitic nematodes, drug toxicity, lead poisoning, pesticides, poisoning, toxicity, toxicology, trauma, wild animals, zoonoses.

Miller, E; Bunting, E; Welte, S; Jean, JH; Marx, KL (ed.); Roston, MA. West Nile Virus surveillance at a wild bird rehabilitation center in Newark, Delaware 2001. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA, 28-30 April 2002. 2002, 88-98; 7 ref.

Descriptors:  disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, wild birds, surveillance studies for West Nile virus, Delaware, U.S.


Mishra, AC; Jadi, RS; Paramasivan, R; Mourya, DT. Antigen distribution pattern of West Nile virus in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui and Culex pseudovishnui mosquitoes. Journal of Communicable Diseases. 2001 Sep; 33(3): 174-9. ISSN: 0019-5138.

Descriptors:  Culex, viral antigen patterns in Culex mosquitoes, virus isolation and purification, insect vectors, ovaries, salivary glands.

Abstract: Distribution of West Nile (WN) virus antigen in different tissues of mosquitoes was studied in three species viz., Culex tritaeniorhynchus, C. vishnui and C. pseudovishnui. Overall per cent positivity was higher in the intra thoracically inoculated as compared to the orally infected mosquitoes, suggesting the existence of a midgut barrier. In a small number of mosquitoes salivary glands were found negative even though fluorescence was seen in the respective head squashes, suggesting salivary gland barrier in these mosquitoes. There was no difference in the per cent salivary gland and salivary gland area positivity between these three species. Presence of virus antigen in the ovaries of these three species on the 3rd post infection day suggests the possibility of transovarial transmission of virus even in the first gonotrophic cycle, which is of epidemiological importance.


Mitchell, CJ; Morilla, A (ed.); Yoon, KJ (ed.); Zimmerman, JJ. Arthropod vector and vertebrate host associations of West Nile virus. Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine. 2002, 269-279; many ref.

Descriptors: arboviruses, disease control and prevention, disease transmission factors, epidemiology, genotypes, vector borne diseases, vectors, vertebrate hosts and reservoirs. 


Monath, TP; Arroyo, J; Miller, C; Guirakhoo, F. West Nile virus vaccine. Current Drug Targets Infectious Disorders. 2001 May; 1(1): 37-50. ISSN:  1568-0053.

Descriptors:  development of human and veterinary vaccines, the ChimeriVax technology for flavivirus, Culicidae virology, genomes, Macaca mulatto, mice, viremia prevention and control, virulence, epidemiology, virus transmission, pathogenicity. 

Abstract: Within the past 5 years, West Nile encephalitis has emerged as an important disease of humans and horses in Europe. In 1999, the disease appeared for the first time in the northeastern United States. West Nile virus (a mosquito-borne flavivirus) has flourished in the North American ecosystem and is expected to expand its geographic range. In this review, the rationale for a human and veterinary vaccine is presented and a novel approach for rapid development of a molecularly-defined, live, attenuated vaccine is described. The technology (ChimeriVax) is applicable to the development of vaccines against all flaviviruses, and products against Japanese encephalitis (a close relative of West Nile) and dengue are in or are nearing clinical trials, respectively. ChimeriVax vaccines utilize the safe and effective vaccine against the prototype flavivirus -yellow fever 17D- as a live vector. Infectious clone technology is used to replace the genes encoding the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of yellow fever 17D vaccine with the corresponding genes of the target virus (e.g., West Nile). The resulting chimeric virus contains the antigens responsible for protection against West Nile but retains the replication efficiency of yellow fever 17D. The ChimeriVax technology is well-suited to the rapid development of a West Nile vaccine, and clinical trials could begin as early as mid-2002. Other approaches to vaccine development are briefly reviewed. The aim of this brief review is to describe the features of West Nile encephalitis, a newly introduced infectious disease affecting humans, horses and wildlife in the United States; the rationale for rapid development of vaccines; and approaches to the development of vaccines against the disease.


Morrey, John D.; Smee, Donald F.; Sidwell, Robert W.; Tseng, Christopher. Identification of active antiviral compounds against a New York isolate of West Nile virus. Antiviral Research. 2002 Jul; 55(1): 107-16. ISSN: 0166-3542

NAL Call No.: QR355.A5

Descriptors: West Nile fever, NY and Uganda isolates, therapies, 34 compounds, vero cell culture, MA-104 cells, invitro tests, 6-azauridine triacetate, cyclopententylcytosine (CPE-C), mycophenolic acid, pyrazofurin.

Abstract: The recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in the United States has increased the need to identify effective therapies for this disease. A chemotherapeutic approach may be a reasonable strategy because the virus infection is typically not chronic and antiviral drugs have been identified to be effective in vitro against other flaviviruses. A panel of 34 substances was tested against infection of a recent New York isolate of WNV in Vero cells and active compounds were also evaluated in MA-104 cells. Some of these compounds were also evaluated in Vero cells against the 1937 Uganda isolate of the WNV. Six compounds were identified to be effective against virus-induced CPE with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) less than 10 microg/ml and with a selectivity index (SI) of greater than 10. Known inhibitors of orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase involved in the synthesis of GTP, UTP, and TTP were most effective. The compounds 6-azauridine, 6-azauridine triacetate, cyclopententylcytosine (CPE-C), mycophenolic acid and pyrazofurin appeared to have the greatest activities against the New York isolate, followed by 2-thio-6-azauridine. Anti-WNV activity of 6-azauridine was confirmed by virus yield reduction assay when the assay was performed 2 days after initial infection in Vero cells. The neutral red assay mean EC50 of ribavirin was only 106 microg/ml with a mean SI of 9.4 against the New York isolate and only slightly more effective against the Uganda isolate. There were some differences in the drug sensitivities of the New York and Uganda isolates, but when comparisons were made by categorizing drugs according to their modes of action, similarities of activities between the two isolates were identified.

Morrey, J.D.; Sidwell, R.W.; Smee, D.L.; Day, C.W. Cell line-dependent antiviral activity of ribavirin for West Nile virus. Antiviral Research. March, 2002; 53 (3): A49. ISSN: 0166-3542

NAL Call No.: QR355.A5

Descriptors: West Nile virus, antiviral compounds, efficacy.

Mullin, Sandra. Public health and the media: the challenge now faced by bioterrorism. Journal of Urban Health Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2002 Mar; 79(1): 12. ISSN: 1099-3460.

Descriptors: bioterrorism, public health concerns, communication, disaster planning, infectious diseases, HIV, West Nile virus, New York City.


Murgue, B; Zeller, H; Deubel, V. The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe and Asia. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 195-221. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: historical perspective, disease, outbreaks, Africa, Asia, epidemiology, insect vectors, virology, virus isolation and purification.  


Ng, ML; Chu, JH. Interaction of West Nile and Kunjin viruses with cellular components during morphogenesis. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 353-72. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: West Nile virus growth and development;  pathogenicity, Cercopithecus aethiops, cytopathogenic effect,  electron microscopy, microtubules ultrastructure, morphogenesis, Vero cells, virulence, virus replication,West Nile fever, etiology.


O'Leary, D.R.; Nasci, R.S.; Campbell, G.L.; Marfin, A.A. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile Virus activity--United States, 2001. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002 Jul 10; 288(2): 158-9; discussion 159-60. ISSN: 0098-7484.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 Am37

Descriptors: West Nile fever epidemiology, avian viral diseases, bird diseases, Culicidae, population surveillance, prevention and control, transmission, virus isolation and purification, public health concerns.

Pennycott, T.W.; Gough, R.E.; Wood, A.M.; Reid, H.W. Encephalitis of unknown aetiology in young starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Veterinary Record. Aug 17, 2002. v. 151 (7) p. 213-214. ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: sturnus vulgaris, passer domesticus, encephalitis, young animals, etiology, West Nile virus, brain, histopathology.


Perelygin, AA; Scherbik, SV; Zhulin, IB; Stockman, BM; Li, Y; Brinton, MA. Positional cloning of the murine flavivirus resistance gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002 Jul 9; 99(14): 9322-7. ISSN: 0027-8424.

NAL Call No.: 500 N21P

Descriptors:  flavivirus pathogenicity, infections and genetics, 2',5' oligoadenylate synthetase genetics, cell line, chromosome mapping, cloning, flavivirus physiology, gene expression, laboratory animals, hamsters, inbred strains of mice, viral replications. 

Sequence information:  GENBANK/AF217002; GENBANK/AF217003; GENBANK/AF261233; GENBANK/AF319547; GENBANK/AF328926; GENBANK/AF328927; GENBANK/AF418004; GENBANK/AF418005; GENBANK/AF418006; GENBANK/AF418007; GENBANK/AF418008; GENBANK/AF418009; GENBANK/AF418010; GENBANK/AF453830; GENBANK/AF459815; GENBANK/AF481733; GENBANK/AY055829; GENBANK/AY055830; GENBANK/AY055831; GENBANK/AY057107

Abstract: Inbred mouse strains exhibit significant differences in their susceptibility to viruses in the genus Flavivirus, which includes human pathogens such as yellow fever, Dengue, and West Nile virus. A single gene, designated Flv, confers this differential susceptibility and was mapped previously to a region of mouse chromosome 5. A positional cloning strategy was used to identify 22 genes from the Flv gene interval including 10 members of the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene family. One 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene, Oas1b, was identified as Flv by correlation between genotype and phenotype in nine mouse strains. Susceptible mouse strains produce a protein lacking 30% of the C-terminal sequence as compared with the resistant counterpart because of the presence of a premature stop codon. The Oas1b gene differs from all the other murine Oas genes by a unique four-amino acid deletion in the P-loop located within the conserved RNA binding domain. Expression of the resistant allele of Oas1b in susceptible embryo fibroblasts resulted in partial inhibition of the replication of a flavivirus but not of an alpha togavirus.


Perl, S; Fiette, L; Lahav, D; Sheichat, N; Banet, C; Orgad, U; Stram, Y; Malkinson, M. West Nile virus encephalitis in horses in Israel. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2002; 57 (2): 65-69. ISSN:  0334-9152.

Descriptors: 5 case studies, horses, clinical, histopathological and virological findings, neurological signs, West Nile virus antigen in brain and spinal column.


Pletnev, Alexander G.; Putnak, Robert; Speicher, Jim; Wagar, Eric J.; Vaughn, David W. West Nile virus/dengue type 4 virus chimeras that are reduced in neurovirulence and peripheral virulence without loss of immunogenicity or protective efficacy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002 Mar 5; 99(5): 3036-41. ISSN: 0027-8424.

NAL Call No.: 500 N21P

Descriptors: West Nile virus, attenuated vaccine strain, chimerization within dengue virus type 4, vaccine potential, mouse model.

Abstract: A candidate live attenuated vaccine strain was constructed for West Nile virus (WN), a neurotropic flavivirus that has recently emerged in the U.S. Considerable attenuation for mice was achieved by chimerization with dengue virus type 4 (DEN4). The genes for the structural premembrane and envelope proteins of DEN4 present in an infectious cDNA clone were replaced by the corresponding genes of WN strain NY99. Two of 18 cDNA clones of a WN/DEN4 chimera yielded full-length RNA transcripts that were infectious when transfected into susceptible cells. The two infectious clones shared a motif in the transmembrane signal domain located immediately downstream of the NS2B-NS3 protease cleavage site that separates the DEN4 capsid protein and the WN premembrane protein of the chimera. This motif, Asp and Thr at a position 3 and 6 amino acids downstream of the cleavage site, respectively, was not present in the 16 noninfectious cDNA clones. The WN/DEN4 chimera was highly attenuated in mice compared with its WN parent; the chimera was at least 28,500 times less neurovirulent in suckling mice inoculated intracerebrally and at least 10,000 times less virulent in adult mice inoculated intraperitoneally. Nonetheless, the WN/DEN4 chimera and a deletion mutant derived from it were immunogenic and provided complete protection against lethal WN challenge. These observations provide the basis for pursuing the development of a live attenuated WN vaccine.


Pollack, Richard J.; Kiszewski, Anthony E.; Spielman, Andrew. Repelling mosquitoes. New England Journal of Medicine. July 4, 2002; 347 (1): 2-3. ISSN: 0028-4793.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 N442

Descriptors: mosquito vector control, human and animal pests, repellent formulations, transmission, prevention and control, vector borne diseases, West Nile virus, Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, 134-62-3: N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, 134-62-3: N, N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide.


Prilipov, A G; Kinney, R M; Samokhvalov, E I; Savage, H M; Al'khovskii, S V; Tsuchiya, K R; Gromashevskii, V L; Sadykova, G K; Shatalov, A G; Vyshemirskii, O I; Usachev, E V; Mokhonov, V V; Voronina, A G; Butenko, A M; Larichev, V F; Zhukov, A N; Kovtunov, A I; Gubler, D J; L'vov, D K. Analiz novykh variantov virusa likhoradki Zapadnogo Nila. [Analysis of new variants of West Nile fever virus]. Voprosy Virusologii. 2002 Jul-Aug; 47(4): 36-41. ISSN:  0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors: West Nile virus classification, 6 strains, molecular sequence data, grouping of strains, viral envelope protein genetics.

Abstract: The complete nucleotide sequences for 6 strains of the West Nile fever virus were determined. For the first time the complete nucleotide sequences of the Indian isolate and Krsn190 strain, that is the most far phylogenetically from all isolates known at present time were established. The scheme for separation of virus variants into 4 groups and criteria for determination the group to which the isolate belongs are suggested.


Ramanathan, MP; Yang, JS; Curley, EMW; Su, M; Chambers, JA; Weiner, DB. Identification of a novel cellular receptor protein, Wip as a ligand for the West Nile Virus Capsid. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002; 102: 474. ISSN: 1060-2011. 102nd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, May 19-23, 2002.

NAL Call No.: QR1.A5

Descriptors: meeting abstract, West Nile capsid DNA, immunogen, mice, localization of the protein- ligand interaction, virus pathobiology.             


Reed, SM; Nout, Y; Sofaly, C; Saville, WJ. Review of selected neurological diseases of the horse. Ippologia. 2002, 13: 2, 3-25; 90 ref.  ISSN: 1120-5776. In English and Italian.

Descriptors:  horses, brain diseases, diagnosis, disease prevention, encephalitis, myeloencephalopathy, myelopathy, pathogenesis, polyneuropathy, prognosis, reviews, treatment, equine herpesvirus 1, Neospora, Sarcocystis, West Nile virus. 


Ricchi, R. Animali sinantropi e flavivirus in Toscana. [Synanthropic animals and flaviviruses in Tuscany.] Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari. 2002, 23: 3, 61-64; 20 ref.  ISSN:  0392-1913. In Italian.

Descriptors:  disease vectors, domestic animals, human diseases, mosquito borne diseases, reservoir hosts, tickborne diseases, tickborne encephalitis, vector borne diseases, zoonotic diseases, mosquitoes, Aedes vexans, Culex-pipiens, Dermacentor marginatus, horses, Hyalomma-marginatum, Ixodes-ricinus, humans, pigeons, West Nile virus, Tuscany, Italy, animal reservoirs.


Roehrig, J T; Layton, M; Smith, P; Campbell, G L; Nasci, R; Lanciotti, R S. The emergence of West Nile virus in North America: ecology, epidemiology, and surveillance. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 223-40.ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  West Nile fever, epidemiology, virus isolation and purification, emerging disease outbreaks, New York City, insect vectors, North America infections in birds and mosquitoes, surveillance program, seasonality.  

Abstract: In late summer 1999, the first domestically acquired human cases of WN encephalitis were documented in the USA. Aggressive vector-control and public education efforts by state and local public health officials limited the extent of human involvement. The discovery of virus-infected, overwintering mosquitoes during the winter of 1999-2000, predicted renewed virus activity for the following spring, and prompted early season vector-control activities and disease surveillance efforts in NYC and the surrounding areas. These surveillance efforts were focused on identifying WN virus infections in birds and mosquitoes as predictors of the potential risk of transmission to humans. By the end of the 2000 mosquito-borne disease transmission season, WN virus activity had been documented as far north as the states of Vermont and New Hampshire, and as far south as the state of North Carolina. The ongoing impacts that WN virus will have on wildlife, domestic animal and human populations of the western hemisphere are not yet known. Plans are in place for public health officials and scientists to monitor the further expansion of WN virus with the establishment or enhancement of vector-borne disease surveillance and control programs throughout the eastern seaboard. The valuable lessons learned from the detection and response to the introduction of WN virus into NYC should prove useful if and when subsequent intrusions of new disease agents occur.


Rogers, D.J.; Myers, M.F.; Tucker, C.J.; Smith, P.F,; White, D.J.; Backenson, P.B.; Eidson, M.; Kramer, L.D.; Bakker, B.; Hay, S.I. Predicting the distribution of West Nile fever in North America using satellite sensor data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 2002, 68: 2, 112-114; 7 ref. ISSN: 0099-1112.

NAL Call No.: 325.28 P56

Descriptors: human disease monitoring, remote sensing, West Nile fever, West Nile virus, computer modeling, disease expansion, US, Canada.

Abstract: This article focuses on the use of remotely sensed satellite data in monitoring and predicting the spread of West Nile fever in the USA.


Sbai, H; Mehta, A; DeGroot, AS. Use of T cell epitopes for vaccine development. Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord. 2001 Nov; 1(3): 303-13  ISSN: 1568-0053

Descriptors: epitopes, T lymphocyte immunology, vaccines, computational biology, genetic vectors, HIV 1-immunology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetics, Salmonella typhimurium genetics, vaccines, DNA immunology, Vaccinia virus genetics, West Nile virus.

Abstract: T lymphocytes play a major role in the recognition and subsequent elimination of tumors and intracellular pathogens. Induction of epitope-specific T cell responses can help in the clearance of diseases for which no conventional vaccines exist. However, the lack of simple methods to identify relevant T cell epitopes, the high mutation rate of many pathogens, and HLA polymorphism have made the development of efficient T cell epitope-based, or "epitope-driven" vaccines difficult to achieve. Our research over the past several years has applied bioinformatics tools in conjunction with T cell assays to identify naturally processed putative T cell epitopes from several pathogens. This strategy will accelerate the development of new generation T cell epitope-based vaccines against various pathogens including viruses such as HIV and WNV, bacteria such as M.tb., and parasites such as plasmodium. This chapter will review the use of a bioinformatics-based approach to identify putative T cell epitopes. It will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T cell-epitope-based vaccines and discuss several ways to improve their efficacy.


Scherret, JH; Mackenzie, JS; Hall, RA; Deubel, V; Gould, EA. Phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of West Nile and Kunjin viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 373-90  ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: epidemiology, virus classification and genetics, viral evolution, immunology, emvelope proteins genetics, pathogenicity.  


Shi, PY; Tilgner, M; Lo, MK. Construction and characterization of subgenomic replicons of New York strain of West Nile virus. Virology. 2002 May 10; 296(2): 219-33. ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors:  replication and pathogenesis, Lineage I strain of virus of North American origin, constructed cDNA replicons, C DNA plasmids and transfected into BHK-21 cells, TaqMan, replicons are potential effective tool to study virus replication, virus isolation and purification, hamsters.  

Abstract: The lineage I strain of West Nile virus (WNV) frequently causes human epidemics, including the recent outbreak in North America (Lanciotti et al., 1999, Science 286:2333-2337). As an initial step in studying the replication and pathogenesis of WNV, we constructed several cDNA clones of a WNV replicon derived from an epidemic strain (lineage I) isolated from the epicenter of New York City in the year 2000. Replicon RNAs were in vitro transcribed from cDNA plasmids and transfected into BHK-21 cells. RNA replication in transfected cells was monitored by immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) and 5' nuclease real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan). The replicon RNAs contained large in-frame deletions (greater than 92%) of the C-prM-E structural region yet still replicated efficiently in BHK-21 cells. 5' nuclease real-time RT-PCR showed that a great excess of plus-sense replicon RNA over the minus-sense RNA was synthesized in transfected cells. Replication efficiency decreased upon insertion of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the upstream end of the 3' untranslated region of the replicon. Strong GFP expression was detected in cells transfected with a replicon containing IRES-GFP positioned in the plus-sense orientation. IFA showed that GFP and viral proteins were exclusively coexpressed in transfected cells. In contrast, no GFP fluorescence was observed in cells transfected with a replicon containing IRES-GFP positioned in the minus-sense orientation, despite high levels of synthesis of viral proteins and RNA in the cells. Substitution of the GFP gene in the plus-sense GFP replicon with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene allowed selection of geneticin-resistant cells in which WNV replicons persistently replicated without apparent cytopathic effect. These results suggest that WNV replicons may serve as a noncytopathic RNA virus expression system and should provide a valuable tool to study WNV replication.


Shi, Pei Yong; Tilgner, Mark; Lo, Michael K.; Kent, Kim A.; Bernard, Kristen A. Infectious cDNA clone of the epidemic west nile virus from New York City. Journal of Virology. 2002 Jun; 76(12): 5847-56. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: West Nile virus, lineage I strain, clone, reverse transcription, PCR, viral RNA, New York City isolate, in vitro mammalian and insect cell culture, mouse model.

Abstract: We report the first full-length infectious clone of the current epidemic, lineage I, strain of West Nile virus (WNV). The full-length cDNA was constructed from reverse transcription-PCR products of viral RNA from an isolate collected during the year 2000 outbreak in New York City. It was cloned into plasmid pBR322 under the control of a T7 promoter and stably amplified in Escherichia coli HB101. RNA transcribed from the full-length cDNA clone was highly infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells, resulting in progeny virus with titers of 1 x 10(9) to 5 x 10(9) PFU/ml. The cDNA clone was engineered to contain three silent nucleotide changes to create a StyI site (C to A and A to G at nucleotides [nt] 8859 and 8862, respectively) and to knock out an EcoRI site (A to G at nt 8880). These genetic markers were retained in the recovered progeny virus. Deletion of the 3'-terminal 199 nt of the cDNA transcript abolished the infectivity of the RNA. The plaque morphology, in vitro growth characteristics in mammalian and insect cells, and virulence in adult mice were indistinguishable for the parental and recombinant viruses. The stable infectious cDNA clone of the epidemic lineage I strain will provide a valuable experimental system to study the pathogenesis and replication of WNV.

Sibbald, B. West Nile virus heads west. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2002 Sep 17; 167(6): 680.   ISSN: 0820-3946.

NAL Call No.: R11 C3

Descriptors:  bird diseases. epidemiology, veterinary aspects, Canada, disease mortality.


Slatter, Robin. US adult mosquito control: A changing picture. International Pest Control. March-April, 2002; 44 (2): 52-54. ISSN:  0020-8256.

NAL Call No.: 79.8 P432

Descriptors:  disease vectors control, West Nile virus reservoirs, pesticides, various pesticides mentioned, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenthion, lambda, cyhalothrin, malathion, methoprene, naled/dibrom, organo phosphates, permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrins, resmethrin, temphos.


Steinman, A.; Banet, C.; Sutton, G.A.; Yadin, H.; Hadar, S.; Brill, A. Clinical signs of West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses during the outbreak in Israel in 2000. Veterinary Record. 2002 Jul 13; 151(2): 47-9. ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: horses, West Nile virus, case studies, disease symptoms, behavior, Israel.

Abstract: Between August and October 2000, 76 horses were reported by veterinary practitioners as having signs of a neurological disorder, varying from an involvement of the spinal cord alone to the entire central nervous system; 15 of the horses died or were euthanased as a result of their grave prognosis or secondary complications. At the same time, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection affected people and birds, principally domestic geese. West Nile virus was isolated from four of the horses with encephalomyelitis and five other horses seroconverted, indicating that the virus was the probable cause of the outbreak in horses. Three of the cases from which the virus was isolated are described briefly and one case is described in detail. This horse behaved abnormally and had general proprioceptive deficits in all four limbs. Its neurological condition deteriorated after two days and severe inspiratory dyspnoea due to a failure to abduct the arytenoids necessitated a tracheostomy. It died on the fourth day and histological lesions were observed in the brain stem and grey matter of the spinal cord.

Tesh, Robert B.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Guzman, Hilda; Araujo, Tais P.; Xiao, Shu Yuan. Immunization with heterologous flaviviruses protective against fatal West Nile encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Mar; 8(3): 245-51. ISSN: 1080-6040.
NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: hamsters, heterologous flavivirus immunization, effects on West Nile viruses, experimental infection, viremia, antibody response, deaths.

Abstract: Prior immunization of hamsters with three heterologous flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] SA14-2-8 vaccine, wild-type St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV], and Yellow fever virus [YFV] 17D vaccine) reduces the severity of subsequent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Groups of adult hamsters were immunized with each of the heterologous flaviviruses; approximately 30 days later, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with a virulent New York strain of WNV. Subsequent levels of viremia, antibody response, and deaths were compared with those in nonimmune (control) hamsters. Immunity to JEV and SLEV was protective against clinical encephalitis and death after challenge with WNV. The antibody response inthe sequentially infected hamsters also illustrates the difficulty in making a serologic diagnosis of WNV infection in animals (or humans) with preexisting Flavivirus immunity.

Tordo, N. Les zoonoses virales.[1st European meeting on viral zoonoses, Meeting report.] Virologie Montrouge. Mars-Avril, 2002; 6 (2): 139-140. ISSN: 1267-8694.
Descriptors: topics at the meeting include human and animal viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, vectors, West Nile virus.

Turell, M.J.; Spring, A.R.; Miller, M.K.; Cannon, C.E. Effect of holding conditions on the detection of West Nile viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools. Journal of Medical Entomology. Jan 2002. v. 39 (1) p. 1-3. Includes references. ISSN: 0022-2585.
NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, West Nile virus, surveillance, detection, RNA, RVA, reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction, sample processing, temperature and time effects and viral detection.

Abstract: We evaluated the effect of holding temperature and time between mosquito death and processing mosquito pools for virus detection on our ability to detect West Nile (WN) viral RNA from pools of mosquitoes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pools of 24 uninfected Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes were "spiked" with either a single Cx. pipiens that had been inoculated previously with WN virus or with an uninfected mosquito. These pools were held dry at 20, 4, -20, or -70 degrees C for selected time intervals before all mosquito pools were triturated in TRIzol LS reagent and processed for detection of WNviral RNA. While infectious virus virtually disappeared from pools maintained at 20 degrees C by 48 h after mosquito death, neither holding temperature (20 to -70 degrees C) nor holding period (up to 2 wk) affected detection of WN viral RNA by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that we need not keep mosquitoes chilled to be able to detect WN viral RNA effectively by RT-PCR. This should enhance the feasibility of field-based WN virus surveillance programs where only detection of WN viral RNA is the objective and maintenance of a cold chain may not be possible.


Turell, M.J.; Morrill, J.C.; Rossi, C.A.; Gad, A.M.; Cope, S.E.; Clements, T.L.; Arthur, R.R.;Wasieloski, L.P.; Dohm, D.J.; Nash, D.; Hassan, M.M.; Hassan, A.N.; Morsy, Z.S.; Presley, S.M. Isolation of West Nile and Sindbis viruses from mosquitoes collected in the Nile Valley of Egypt during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever. Journal of Medical Entomology. Jan 2002. v. 39 (1) p. 248-250. Includes references. ISSN: 0022-2585.
NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors:West Nile virus, Sindbus virus, 33 isolates, Culicidae, isolation, identification, disease vectors, Rift Valley fever, outbreaks, Nile Valley, Egypt.

Abstract: As part of an evaluation of potential vectors of arboviruses during a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in the Nile Valley of Egypt in August 1993, we collected mosquitoes in villages with known RVF viral activity. Mosquitoes were sorted to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation both by intracerebral inoculation into suckling mice and by inoculation into cell culture. A total of 33 virus isolates was made from 36,024 mosquitoes. Viruses were initially identified by indirect fluorescent antibody testing and consisted of 30 flaviviruses (all members of the Japanese encephalitis complex, most probably West Nile [WN] virus) and three alphaviruses (all members of western equine encephalitis complex, most probably Sindbis). The identity of selected viruses was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Culex antennatus (Becker) and Culex perexiguus Theobald accounted for five (17%) and 23 (77%) of the WN virus isolations, respectively. Despite isolation of viruses from 32 pools of mosquitoes (both WN and Sindbis viruses were isolated from a single pool), RVF virus was not isolated from these mosquitoes, even though most of them are known competent vectors collected during an ongoing RVF outbreak. Thus, it should be remembered, that even during a known arbovirus outbreak, other arboviruses may still be circulating and causing disease.


Turell, MJ; Sardelis, MR; O'Guinn, ML; Dohm, DJ. Potential vectors of West Nile virus in North America. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 241-52. ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  mosquito vectors, West Nile virus transmission, virus isolation and purification, Culicidae, emerging diseases, North America.


van den Hurk, AF; Nisbet, DJ; Foley, PN; Ritchie, SA; Mackenzie, JS; Beebe, NW. Isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from the Gulf Plains region of northwest Queensland, Australia. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 Sep; 39(5): 786-92. ISSN:  0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: Arboviruses, isolation and purification, Culicidae mosquito, insect-vector virology and genetics, Murray Valley Encephalitis, Queensland, Ross river-virus, Sindbis Virus, West Nile virus.

Abstract: As part of investigations into Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and related flaviviruses in northern Australia, 153,529 mosquitoes were collected and processed for virus isolation from the Gulf Plains region of northwest Queensland. Collections from within 30 km of each of the townships of Croydon, Normanton and Karumba yielded 3,087 (2.0%), 66,009 (43.0%), and 84,433 (55.0%) mosquitoes, respectively, from which 16 viruses were isolated. Four isolates of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), two of Kunjin (KUN), three of Ross River (RR), and one of Sindbis (SIN) viruses were obtained from Culex sitiens subgroup mosquitoes. Molecular identification of the mosquito species composition of these virus positive pools revealed that most isolates were from pools containing mainly Culex annulirostris Skuse and low numbers of Culex palpalis (Taylor). Only three pools, one each of MVE, KUN, and RR, were from mosquitoes identified exclusively as Cx. annulirostris. Other viruses isolated include one Edge Hill virus from Ochlerotatus normanensis (Taylor), an isolate of SIN from Anopheles meraukensis Venhuis, two isolates of RR from Anopheles amictus Edwards, and single isolates of RR from Anopheles bancroftii Giles andAedes lineatopennis (Ludlow). The isolate of RR from Ae. lineatopennis was the first reported from this species. The public health implications of these isolations in the Gulf Plains region are discussed briefly.


Warrilow, David; Northill, Judith A.; Pyke, Alyssa; Smith, Greg A. Single rapid TaqMan fluorogenic probe based PCR assay that detects all four dengue serotypes. Journal of Medical Virology. April, 2002; 66 (4): 524-528. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: detection methods, diagnostics, vector control, flaviviruses, West Nile virus.

Abstract: Public health laboratories require rapid diagnosis of dengue outbreaks for application of measures such as vector control. We have developed a rapid single fluorogenic probe-based polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of all four dengue serotypes (FUDRT-PCR). The method employs primers and probe that are complementary to the evolutionarily conserved 3' untranslated region of the dengue genome. The assay detected viral RNA of strains of all four dengue serotypes but not of the flaviviruses Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin, Stratford, West Nile, Alfuy or Yellow fever. When compared to an existing nested-PCR assay for the detection of dengue on clinical samples, FUDRT-PCR detected dengue 1 (100%, n=14), dengue 2 (85%, n=13), dengue 3 (64%, n=14) and dengue 4 (100%, n=3) with the indicated sensitivities. FUDRT-PCR enables diagnosis of acute dengue infection in four hours from sample receipt. In addition, a single-test procedure should result in a reduction in the number of tests performed withconsiderable cost savings for diagnostic laboratories.


Westaway, EG; Mackenzie, JM; Khromykh, AA. Replication and gene function in Kunjin virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 323-51. ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:   West Nile virus, genetics, physiology, genes, viral biosynthesis, proteins, virus replication.


Yang, J; Kim, J; Hwang, D; Choo, A; Dang, K; Maguire, H; Kudchodkar, S; Ramanathan, M; Weiner, D. Induction of potent Th1-type immune responses from a novel DNA vaccine for West Nile Virus New York isolate (WNV-NY1999). Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2001; 41: 276. 41st Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 22-25, 2001.

Descriptors:  vaccine development, vaccine testing in mice, Capsid protein, humoral and cellular immune responses, induction of antigen-specific Th1 and CTL responses, potential utility of the vaccine.            


Yang, J; Ramanathan, M; Muthumani, K; Hwang, D; Yu, Q; Jin, S; Choo, A; Lee, M; Dang, K; Kim, J; Weiner, D. The West Nile virus capsid induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo through the mitochondrial based pathway. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2001; 41: 301. 41st Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 22-25, 2001.

Descriptors:  West Nile virus capsid apoptosis inducing region of HIV-1Vpr gene product homology, effect of expression of West Nile virus Cp gene contruct on human cells, plasmid gene delivery, nuclear condensation and cell death in tissue culture, mitochondrial membrane potential and Caspase 9 activation and Caspase 3 activation, mouse muscle,  mouse brain striatum, pathogenesis, therapeutic approach for treatment.


Zyzak, Michael; Loyless, Tom; Cope, Stanton; Wooster, Mark; Day, Jonathan F. Seasonal abundance of Culex nigripalpus Theobald and Culex salinarius Coquillett in north Florida, USA. Journal of Vector Ecology. 2002 Jun; 27(1): 155-62. ISSN: 1081-1710.

NAL Call No.: RA639.S63

Descriptors: mosquito vectors, West Nile virus vector, flavivirus transmission patterns May 1991-1994, Florida.

Abstract: North Florida is a transition zone between widespread Culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal Culex salinarius populations to the north. Culex nigripalpus is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses in south Florida, while Cx. salinarius is a suspected New World vector of West Nile (WN) virus. Abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. Extensive SLE transmission has never been reported from north Florida, but sporadic WN transmission was reported there during the summer of 2001. The disparate flavivirus transmission patterns observed in north and south Florida may be due, in part, to the local geographical and seasonal distribution of Culex vectors. Here we report that from May 1991 to April 1994, Cx. salinarius was most commonly observed during the winter and spring in northeast Florida (Duva County), whereas Cx. nigripalpus was most abundant during the summer and autumn. An unusually mild spring in 1991 allowed Cx. nigripalpus to reproduce early in the year, resulting in a summer population that emerged more than 8 wks earlier than in 1992 and 1993. The 1991 Cx. nigripalpus population persisted through October, when SLE transmission was detected by sentinel chickens. Transmission of SLE was not detected in Duval County during 1992 or 1993. These data indicate that mild winter and spring conditions in north Florida may favor increased abundance and survival of Cx. nigripalpus in a region where this species is normally not abundant. A seasonal shift in population structure may increase the transmission risk of arboviruses for which Cx. nigripalpus is a competent vector, including SLE, WN, and EEE.


Return to Contents

February 6, 2003