NOTE: West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004 may be viewed by individual sections below or as one complete publication at westnilebib2.htm
West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004
February 2003, Updated December 2004West Nile Virus Fact Sheet
Gregg Goodman Laudie Baer*
Barbara Buchanan The College of Information Studies
University of Maryland, College Park
U.S. Department of Agriculture
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In 1999, an exotic disease emerged in the middle of
This particular virus is an arbovirus
that is endemic in the old world especially
It has been determined that some species of mosquitoes—especially
Culex and Aedes—can spread
the disease from wild birds to other species including many mammals including humans.
The virus is able to winter over in temperate climates in those species
of mosquitoes that survive in winter temperatures.
Migratory wild birds often play a role by acting as reservoir of the
virus. Since the birds migrate over great distances,
they are proving to be very effective distribution agents. Infected birds land and feed, they are often
bitten by the local mosquito populations and if the mosquito is one that can
in turn transmit the virus, then the virus becomes
established in a new geographical area. As a result of this effective disease transmission
pattern, the disease has expanded rapidly to other parts of
There are many other resources available from the biomedical community that deal with the pathobiology of the disease in humans. Those topics are not addressed in this document.
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