NOTE: West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004 may be viewed as one complete publication file below or by individual sections at westnilebib.htm

USDA logo
United States
Department of
Agriculture


ARS logo
Agricultural
Research
Service


NAL logo
National
Agricultural
Library


AWIC logo
Animal Welfare
Information
Center


 

West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004

February 2003, Updated December 2004


West Nile Virus Fact Sheet

 




Gregg Goodman                                                           Laudie Baer*

Barbara Buchanan                                                       The College of Information Studies

Jean Larson                                                                  University of Maryland, College Park
Animal Welfare Information Center

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
Telephone: (301) 504-6212
Fax: (301) 504-7125
Contact us: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us
Website: http://awic.nal.usda.gov

*Updates for 2003 through May 2004 were completed as an independent study requirement for a Masters Degree in Information Management.

Web Policies and Important Links

Information on how to request materials that are included in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) may be found on the Collection Services Branch Website at http://www.nal.usda.gov/borrow-materials. Please read carefully as there are certain restrictions on media and document types.




Bibliography


2004 / 2003 / 2002 / 2001 / 2000 / 1999 / 1998 / 1997 / 1996 / 1995 / 1994 / 1993 / 1992 / 1991 / 1990 / 1989 / 1988 / 1987 / 1986 / 1985 / 1984 / 1983 / 1982 / 1981 / 1980 / 1979 / 1978 / 1977 / 1976 / 1975 / 1974 / 1973 / 1972 / 1971 / 1970 / 1969 / 1968 / 1967 / 1966 / 1965

 

Introduction

 

In 1999, an exotic disease emerged in the middle of New York City.  It killed several humans and thousands of native crows.  Viral testing determined that the illness in both humans and animals was caused by the West Nile virus. 


This particular virus is an arbovirus that is endemic in the old world especially Africa.  Until 1999, it had never been observed in the Western hemisphere.  In its native lands, it seldom causes death in either humans or animals.  For some reason, the strain that emerged in New York City is a more deadly strain often causing death via encephalitis in susceptible individuals—the very young, the very old, the sick, and the immune compromised.  For others, the symptoms of the disease are typically mild. 


It has been determined that some species of mosquitoes—especially Culex and Aedes—can spread the disease from wild birds to other species including many mammals including humans.  The virus is able to winter over in temperate climates in those species of mosquitoes that survive in winter temperatures.  Migratory wild birds often play a role by acting as reservoir of the virus.  Since the birds migrate over great distances, they are proving to be very effective distribution agents.  Infected birds land and feed, they are often bitten by the local mosquito populations and if the mosquito is one that can in turn transmit the virus, then the virus becomes established in a new geographical area.  As a result of this effective disease transmission pattern, the disease has expanded rapidly to other parts of North America since 1999.


Since West Nile virus is an important emerging and rapidly expanding disease of humans and animals, it was decided to compile a bibliography of both the current literature and historical data going back to 1965.  The focus of the scientific literature of this bibliography deals with the virus, its effects on animals, how the mosquito harbors and maintains the virus, how the virus is maintained over the seasons and how disease spreads.  The major topics include: techniques of viral isolation and purification, viral genetics and strain differentiation, mosquito vector biology and behavior, transmission factors, animal species susceptible to the disease, animals as disease sentinels, disease reservoirs, surveillance programs, vector control programs, etc.


There are many other resources available from the biomedical community that deal with the pathobiology of the disease in humans.  Those topics are not addressed in this document.


2004



Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; O'Connor, Brendan P.; Clark, Chris; Sampieri, Francesca; Naylor, Jonathan M.  Clinical West Nile virus infection in 2 horses in western Canada.  Canadian Veterinary Journal / La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne.  2004 Nov; 45(4): 315-317.  ISSN: 0008-5286. 

NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224

Descriptors:  horses, West Nile virus infection, ataxia, recumbency, detected by polymerase chain reaction.

Abstract: Two horses had a history of ataxia and weakness or recumbency.  One recovered and was diagnosed with West Nile virus (WNV) infection by serologic testing.  The other was euthanized; it had meningoencepha lomyelitis, WNV was detected by polymerase chain reaction.  West Nile virus infection is an emerging disease.  Year 2002 is the first year in which cases have been seen in Saskatchewan.

 

Anonymous.  Equine WNV cases drop.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.  2004 Apr; 24(4): 142-143.  ISSN: 0737-0806. 

NAL call no.: SF951.J65 

Descriptors:  USDA approved vaccine--West Nile Innovator/Encephalomyletis combination, Fort Dodge Animal Health, effective in horses, effective disease prevention, horses, West Nile virus, 13 million protected with vaccine, forecast fewe r cases due to prevention via vaccine.

 

Anonymous. Getting out into the field, and forest. Editorial. Lancet Infectious Diseases.  2004; 4(3): 127.  ISSN: 1473-3099.  

Descriptors:  influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, rabies virus, Ebola virus, West Nile virus.

 

Anonymous.  Recombinant DNA vaccine technology. Edited from Merial literature.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.  2004; 24(2): 64-67.  ISSN: 0737-0806. 

NAL call no.: SF951.J65 

Descriptors:  animals, horses, Aedes, Culicidae, Diptera, Equidae, Chordata, Flaviviridae, antibodies, disease vectors, experimental infection, genetic engineering, immunity, recombinant DNA, recombinant vaccines, seroconversion, vaccination, vaccine development, vaccines, West Nile fever.

 

Anonymous.  West Nile virus vaccine.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.  2004 Jan; 24(1): 12-13.  ISSN: 0737-0806.  

NAL call no.: SF951.J65 

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, horses, vaccine for equines.

 

Anonymous.  West Nile virus 2003.  Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.  2004 Mar; 24(3): 100-101.  ISSN: 0737-0806.  

NAL call no.: SF951.J65

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, horses, epidemiology, levels of the disease in equines.

 

Apperson, Charles S.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Harrison, Bruce A.; Savage, Harry M.; Aspen, Stephen E.; Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Benedict, Mark; Anderson, Michael; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, T homas R.  Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.  2004 Spring; 4(1): 71-82.  ISSN: 1530-3667.  

NAL call no.: RA639.5.V43 

Descriptors:  mosquitos, vector capacity, degree of vector and vertebrate reservoir contact, host feeding habits of vectors, vector feeding preferences, serological and polymerase chain r eactions for host–feeding patterns, 21 mosquito species, vector species for West Nile virus may prefer certain avian hosts, mammalophilic mosquito species, New Jersey, New York.

Abstract: An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir .  This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors.  Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study th e host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus.  Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-t ailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs.  A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, North ern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare.  Although the majority of common host species were poten tially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone.  These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts.

 

Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J. Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2004 Jan; 10(1): 82-86.  ISSN: 1080-6040. 

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors:  dogs and cats readily infected with WNV, viremia peak titers, carnivores infected by eating WNV infected prey, no-clinical sign of disease, oral transmission.

Abstract: Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short durati on developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease.  Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 10(3.0) to 10(4.0) PFU/mL.  Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease.  WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia.  An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV orally, through ingestion of infected mice.  Two cats consumed an infected mouse on three consecutive days, and two cats ate a single infected mouse.  Viremia developed in all of these cats with a magnitude and duration similar to that seen in cats infected by mosquito bite, but none of the four showed clinical signs.  These results suggest that dogs and cats are readily infected by WNV.  The high efficiency of oral transmission observed with cats suggests that infected prey animals may s erve as an important source of infection to carnivores.  Neither species is likely to function as an epidemiologically important amplifying host, although the peak viremia observed in cats may be high enough to infect mosquitoes at low efficiency.

 

Austin, Ronald J.; Whiting, Terry L.; Anderson, Robert A.; Drebot, Michael A.  An outbreak of West Nile virus-associated disease in domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) upon initial introduction to a geographic region, with evidence of bird to bird transmission.  Canadian Veterinary Journal / La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2004 Feb; 45(2): 117-123.  ISSN: 0008-5286. 

NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224  

Descriptors:  death of domestic geese, breeding farm, 6-week-old goslings severely affected, seroreaction exceeds expectation of mosquito transmission, Manitoba, Canada.

Abstract: West Nile virus activity in Manitoba was documented for the first time by the collection of an infected crow found on July 8, 2002, in Winnipeg.  West Nile virus was identified as the cause of death for a large number of domestic geese at a single farm in southern Manitoba in August.  Of the 5 differently aged cohorts on the affected farm, which included 2 breeding flocks and 3 growing flocks, the 6-week-old cohort was most severely affected with 692 of 2731 goslings dying within a 10-day period.  Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in 2 clinically affected and recovered juvenile cohorts was 98% and 100%. In breeding geese without clinical disease, seroprevalence was 90% for 15-month-old birds and 10% for 5-year -old birds.  Seroreaction in 3 of 4 cohorts tested exceeded what would be expected by mosquito transmission alone.

 

Ayres, Kenneth; Bandy, Utpala; Drew, Helen; Fulton, John P.; Hayes, Gregory; Getman, Alan; Gurba, Kristen; Hanofin, Christofer; Lopes-Duguay, Liz; Marshall, Robert J.; Mehta, Shashi; Powe ll, Stephanie.  Control of West Nile virus, Rhode Island, 2003.  Medicine and Health, Rhode Island.  2004 Mar; 87(3): 84-86.  ISSN: 1086-5462. 

Descriptors:  immunized domestic animals reduces WNV burden, active surveillance in the wild and with domestic animals, educating the public, systematic larviciding, destruction of backyard mosquito habitats, public health issues, surveillance and control efforts, history of exposure of human cases, Rhode Island.

Abstract: Thanks largely to systematic larviciding by the State's 39 municipalities, and aided by the public's destruction of "backyard" mosquito habitats and adoption of personal protecti ve measures (clothing, repellant), Rhode Island minimized the potential human burden of WNV during the 2003 mosquito season (six serious WNV cases, one death, and no reports of WNV-tainted blood donations). The potential burden of WNV on domestic animals was also reduced through immunization. Nonetheless, the State's first WNV death reminds us of the danger this disease poses for the very young, for elders, and for people of all ages who are immune-compromised.  Similarly, the widespread location of birds positive for WNV signifies the ubiquity of risk.  All mosquitoes must be avoided.  Based on its experience with WNV control over the past few years, the State will continue and enhance its surveillance and control efforts in 2004.  Once again, systematic larviciding by municipalities and continuing public education through multiple channels will form the backbone of control, supported by active surveillance for the virus in the wild, in domestic animals, and in humans. &nbs p;For the latter effort, the vigilance of the health care community is of signal importance to the protection of the public.  Every human case is investigated thoroughly, to establish as accurately as pos sible the time and place of exposure.  DEM and HEALTH use this information to assess potential weaknesses in WNV control efforts, and to take corrective action, as necessary.  Health care providers also play an essential role in public education, reminding patients (all patients, but especially the very young, elders, and the immune-compromised) to avoid mosquito bites.  Discussing the avoidance of mosquito bites with patients who engage in regular outdoor activity is especially important.  School physicians and the medical directors of nursing homes ar e well-positioned to keep mosquito control and avoidance on the agenda of their respective institutions.  Together, we can control the burden of this disease among domestic animals and humans, if we continue to pursue mosquito control and personal protection aggressively.  If we don't, the potential for tragedy is tremendous, as evidenced by the recent experience of other regions of the country.

 

Banet-Noach, Caroline; Gantz, Adi Y.; Lublin, Avishai; Malkinson, Mertyn.  A twelve-month study of West Nile virus antibodies in a resident and a migrant species of kestrels in Israel.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.  2004 Spring; 4(1): 15-22.   ISSN: 1530-3667. 

NAL call no.: RA639.5.V43 

Descriptors:  common and lesser kestrel species, blood sampling for antibodies, continuous serological sampling over time, limited number of avian species (flags), forecast timing and dis persion of WNV, Israel.

Abstract: Two species of kestrel, the common and lesser, were caught each month at three geographically defined locations in Israel over a 12-month period, and a total of 306 blood samples were examined for West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies.  The prevalences and mean antibody titers were analyzed statistically by the multiple linear regression model and were shown to be significantly affect ed by two of the independent variables, location and age of the bird.  The season had no overall effect on prevalence and titer but a comparison of the mean monthly titers revealed that April was highest and Jul y and August the lowest statistically for the common kestrel which is a resident species.  In contrast, the migrating lesser kestrel was caught only in the spring months and principally at the Jerusalem location, where eight out of 29 birds were seropositive. By comparing the serology of the non-migrating, common kestrel with the migrating, lesser kestrel, the effect of seasonality was evaluated in relation to t heir ecological patterns and yielded evidence for the entry in April of a small number of previously infected common kestrels into Israel.  This serological approach based on continuous sampling over an extended period could be used to forecast in the coming years the timing and dispersion of West Nile virus in both Old a nd New Worlds if surveys are based on a limited number of informative (flag) species.

 

Beasley, D.W.C.; Davis, C.T.; Whiteman, M.; Granwehr, B.; Kinney, R.M.; Barrett, A.D.T.  Molecular determinants of virulence of West Nile virus in North America.  Archives of Virology. Supplementum.  2004; 18: 35-41.  ISSN: 0939-1983. 

NAL call no.: QR355.A72 

Descriptors:  mouse and hamster models, U.S. West Nile virus strains highly neurovirulent and neuroinvasive, WNV Ethiopia 76a non-neuroinvasive, comparative nucleotide sequencing, strains differ by 5 amino acids in the envelope (E) protein, loss includes glycosylation site, comparison of 27 WNV strains indicates glycosylation site corelates with mouse neuroinvasiveness.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that until very recently had not been found in the Americas. In 1999, there was an outbreak of West Nile encephalitis in New York and surrounding areas, involving 62 human cases, including 7 fatalities.  The virus has subsequently become established in the United States of America (U.S.) with 4156 human cases, including 284 deaths, in 2002.  The WNV strains found in the U.S. are members of "lineage I", a genetic grouping that includes viruses from Europe, Asia and Africa. Molecular epidemiologic studies indicate that two genetic variants of WNV emerged in 2002.  The major genetic variant is found in most parts of the U.S., while the minor genetic variant has been identified only on the southeast coast of Texas.  Investigation of WNV in mouse and hamster models demonstrated that strains from the U.S. are highly neurovirulent and neuroinvasive in these laboratory rodents.  Other strains, such as Ethiopia 76a from lineage I, are not neuroinvasive and represent important viruses which can be used to elucidate the molecular basis of virulence and attenuation of WNV.  To identify putative molecular determinants of virulence and attenuation, we have undertaken comparative nucleotide sequencing of Ethiopia 76a and strains from the U.S.  The results show that the two viruses differ by 5 amino acids in the envelope (E) protein, including loss of the glycosylation site. Comparison of our panel of 27 WNV strains suggests that E protein glycosylation is a major determinant of the mouse neuroinvasive phenotype.

 

Ceccaldi, P.E.; Lucas, M.; Despres, P.  New insights on the neuropathogenicity of West Nile virus.  FEMS Microbiology Letters.  2004 Apr; 233(1): 1-6.  ISSN: 0378-1097.  

NAL call no.: QR1.F44

Descriptors:  mouse model, murine neural cell cultures, WNV variant “Isr90/NY99” experimental infections, selective infection of neurons and physiopathological changes demonstrated, < st1:place w:st="on">North America.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne disease that emerged in North America where it caused in 2002 the larg est arboviral meningoencephalitis outbreak ever recorded in this area.  The viral variant responsible of this outbreak has been found to share 99.7% identity over the entire genome with the viral variant that ca used the epizootic in Israel in 1998 and has been referred as "Isr98/NY99".  It has been shown to exhibit an increased neurovirulence in humans, as well as in experimental infections in diff erent animal models.  Mouse model has allowed to demonstrate the preferential infection of neurons within the central nervous system and to point out the genetic determinism of host susceptibility to WNV.  In murine neural cell cultures, the selective infection of neurons was accompanied by physiopathological changes and a cytopathic effect, showing the direct effect of infection of neurons as one of the causes of WNV neuropathogenicity.

 

Cheng, Ying; King, Nicholas J.C.; Kesson, Alison M.  Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) induction by West Nile virus: involvement of 2 signaling pathways in MHC-I up-regulation.  Journal of Infectious Diseases.  2004 Feb; 189(4): 658-668.  ISSN: 0022-1899.  

NAL call no.: 448.8 J821 

Descriptors:  mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), WNV infection induced activation of a p65/p50 heterodimer of nuclear factor (NF)kappa B, induced up-regulation of cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I ( MHC-I), demonstrate 2 pathways for WNV-induced up-regulation of MHC-I.

Abstract: Type 1 interferon (IFN) receptor gene knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) are more susceptible to and productive of West Nile virus (WNV) and produce less type 1 IFN than WNV-infected wild-type (wt) MEFs.  WNV infection of IFNAR(-/-) MEFs induced activation of a p65/p50 heterodimer of nuclear factor (NF)- kappa B and up-regulation of cell-surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules.  WNV infection of wt MEFs resulted in a greater up-regulation of MHC-I than did infection of IFNAR(-/-) MEFs because of the action of endogenous type 1 IFN production. IFN- beta -treatment of wt MEFs did not ac tivate NF- kappa B but did up-regulate cell-surface MHC-I expression.  The WNV-induced NF- kappa B activation was partially abrogated by the serine protease inhibitor N-benzoyl-l-tosyl-l-phenylalanine, which also abrogated the up-regulation of MHC-I. &nbs p;Thus, we demonstrate 2 pathways for WNV-induced up-regulation of MHC-I, a WNV-induced NF- kappa B-dependent, IFN-independent pathway and an NF- kappa B-independent, IFN-dependent pathway.

 

Couzin, Jennifer.  Genetics. Hybrid mosquitoes suspected in West Nile virus spread.  Science.  2004 Mar 5; 303(5663): 1451.  ISSN: 0036-8075.  

NAL call no.: 470 Sci2

Descriptors:  animals, birds, Culex, hybridization of mosquito vectors, West Nile fever transmission, phy siology, virology, epidemiology, insect bites and stings, United States.

 

Couzin, J.  Erratum: Hybrid mosquitoes suspected in West Nile virus spread.  Science. 2004 Mar 26; 303(5666): 1077.  ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL call no.: 470 Sci2  

URL: www.sciencemag.org

Descriptors:  error, erratum, article correction.  

 

D'Agostino, Jennifer J.; Isaza, Ramiro.  Clinical signs and results of specific diagnostic testing among captive birds housed at zoological institutions and infected with West Nile virus.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  2004 May; 224(10): 1640-1643, 1606.  ISSN: 0003-1488. 

NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3

Descriptors:  captive exhibit birds infected with WNV, diagnostic testing, death or euthanasia within 3 days of clinical symptom onset, WNV infection difficult to diagnose before death, z oo collections, Kansas.

Abstract: During 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 11 birds housed in outdoor exhibits at 5 zoological institutions in Kansas.  Eight birds were examined because of neurologic abnormalities; 2 died suddenly without any clinical signs of disease.  Results of CBCs and serum biochemical testing were no nspecific.  Results of a plaque reduction neutralization test to detect circulating antibodies against WNV were positive for 2 of 8 birds.  Results of a reverse transcriptase-polymeras e chain reaction assay of an oral cavity swab specimen for WNV RNA were positive for 4 of 5 birds.  One bird survived; the remaining 10 died or were euthanatized, with 9 of the 10 dying or being euthanatized within 3 days of the onset of clinical signs.  In all 10 birds t hat died or were euthanatized, WNV infection was confirmed on postmortem examination by means of specific testing.  Findings in these birds suggest that West Nile virus infection can be difficult to diagnose antemortem because clinical signs mimic those associated with other more common avian diseases. Neither of the antemortem diagnostic tests was definitive for diagnosing WNV infection in these cases.

 

Docherty, D.E.; Long, R.R.; Griffin, K.M.; Saito, E.K.  Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2004; 10(5): 907-909. ISSN: 1080-6040. 

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46 

Descriptors:  Corvidae, West Nile flavivirus, virus detected in cloaca, kidney and spleen of carcass.

 

Eisler, Diane L.; McNabb, Alan; Jorgensen, Danielle R.; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.  Use of an internal positive control in a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR to detect West Nile virus RNA in mosquito pools.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004; 42(2): 841-843.  ISSN: 0095-1137.  

NAL call no.: QR46.J6 

Molecular Sequence Databank no.: GENBANK/AF196835

Descriptors:  field collected mosquito RNA, multiplex real time Taqman RT PCR, WNV Armored RNA detection of false negative results, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba Canada.

Abstract: We report on the use of West Nile virus Armored RNA as an internal positive control (IPC) for the extraction and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PC R) of RNA extracted from field-collected mosquitoes and on a multiplex real-time Taqman RT-PCR to simultaneously detect the 3' noncoding region of West Nile virus and the West Nile virus NS5-2 region comprising the IPC.  Mosquito pools from the province of British Columbia, Canada (n = 635), were tested in duplicate and found to be negative for West Nile virus and positive for the IPC.  Known West Nile virus-positive supernatants from mosquito pools from the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba were tested in duplicate and found to be positive for both regions of the West Nile virus genome.  The mean cycle threshold (Ct) value for the IPC in batch extraction controls +/- 2 standard deviations was found to be 36.43 +/- 1.78 cycles.  IPCs of 98.4% (624) of West Nile virus-negative pools fell within this range, indicating the reproducibility of RNA extraction and RT-PCR for pools varying in mosquito genus and number.  A comparison of mosquito pool genera revealed no significant genus effect on the Ct value of the IPC.  The incorporation of West Nile virus Armored RNA as an IPC allows monitoring of RNA extraction and R T-PCR and detection of false-negative results due to failures in these processes or to PCR inhibition, respectively.

 

Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Lorono-Pino, Maria A.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; Chulim-Perera, Luis; Lopez-Uribe, Mildred; Perez-Mendoza, Gerardo; San chez-Herrera, Ingrid; Santamaria, Waldemar; Moo-Huchim, Jose; Gubler, Duane J.; Cropp, Bruce C.; Calisher, Charles H.; Beaty, Barry J.  Longitudinal studies of West Nile virus infection in avians, Yucatan State, Mexico.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.  2004 Spring; 4(1): 3-14.   ISSN: 1530-3667.

NAL call no.:  RA639.5.V43

Descriptors:  migratory and resident birds, surveillance for WNV infection of many individuals and species of birds, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, plaque reduction neutralization tes t, evidence of WNV bird-bird transmission in Yucatan Peninsula.

Abstract: Following the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999, surveillance for evidence of inf ection with this virus in migratory and resident birds was established in Yucatan State, Mexico in March 2000.  Overall, 8611 birds representing 182 species and 14 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to WNV.  Of these, 5066 (59%) birds were residents and 3545 (41%) birds were migrants.  Twenty-one (0.24%) birds exhibited evidence of flavivirus infection.  Of these, 8 birds had antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Five (0.06%) birds (gray catbird, brown-crested flycatcher, rose-breasted grosbeak, blue bunting and indigo bunting) were confirmed to have WNV infections by plaque reduction neutralization test.  The WNV-infected birds were sampled in December 2002 and January 2003.  The brown-crested flycatcher and blue bunting presumably were resident birds; the other WNV seropositive birds were migrants.  These data provide evidence of WNV transmissi on among birds in the Yucatan Peninsula.

 

Fonesca, Dina M.; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Malcolm, Colin A.; Mehmet, Ceylan; Schaffner, Francis; Mogi, Motoyoshi; Fleischer, Robert C.  Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex.  Science. 2004 March 5; 303(5663): 1421-1564. ISSN:  0036-8075.

NAL call no:  470 Sci2

Descriptors:  Culex pipiens, Culex molestus, vectors of West Nile Virus, common mosquito in urban areas of US, can transmit the virus transovarially, bite both humans and birds, bridge vectors, examination of different populations world wide, d ivergent array of physiological and behavioral traits, underground and above ground populations, tested genetic relationship via 8 microsatellite loci, US populations clustered separately, all US specimens include hybrids, vectorial capacity, affects of i ntroductions.

 

Fox, J.L.  US West Nile virus epidemic continues to expand westward.  American Society of Microbiology.  2004 Jan; 70(1): 9-10.  ISSN: 0044-7897. 

NAL call no.: QR1.A85 

Descriptors:  WNV, birds, mosquitos, expansion from East to West, North America.

 

Gould, L. Hannah; Fikrig, Erol.  West Nile virus: a growing concern?  Journal of Clinical Investigation.  2004 Apr; 113(8): 1102-1107. Many references.  ISSN: 0021-9738.  

NAL call no.: 448.8 J8295 

Descriptors:  epidemiology, ecology, treatments, vaccines, review paper, control and treatments, North America.

Abstract: West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has subsequently spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean.  This review describes the epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in North America and the prospects for effective treatments and vaccines.

 

Harvey, Tracey J.; Liu, Wen Jun; Wang, Xiang Ju; Linedale, Richard; Jacobs, Michael; Davidson, Andrew; Le Thuy, T.T.; Anraku, Itaru; Suhrbier, Andreas; Shi, Pei-Yong; Khromykh, Alexander A.  Tetracycline-inducible packaging cell line for production of flavivirus replicon particles.  Journal of Virology.  2004 Jan; 78(1): 531-538.  ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL call no.: QR360.J6 

Descriptors:  mice, hamsters, flavivirus, virus assembly, Vero cells, genetics, replicon vectors from Kunjin, immune responses, BHK packinaging cell line—tetKUNCprME, tetracycline-inducible promoter, cell production system, tran sfected cells, West Nile Virus, pathogenicity, development of the noncytopathic Kunjin virus replicon-based gene expression system.

Abstract: We have previously developed replicon vectors derived from the Australian flavivirus Kunjin that have a unique noncytopathic nature and have been shown to direct prolonged high-l evel expression of encoded heterologous genes in vitro and in vivo and to induce strong and long-lasting immune responses to encoded immunogens in mice.  To facilitate further applications of these vectors in th e form of virus-like particles (VLPs), we have now generated a stable BHK packaging cell line, tetKUNCprME, carrying a Kunjin structural gene cassette under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Withdrawal of tetracycline from the medium resul ted in production of Kunjin structural proteins that were capable of packaging transfected and self-amplified Kunjin replicon RNA into the secreted VLPs at titers of up to 1.6 x 10(9) VLPs per ml.  Furthermore, secreted KUN replicon VLPs from tetKUNCprME cells could be harvested continuously for as long as 10 days after RNA transfection, producing a total yield of more than 10(10) VLPs per 10(6) transfected cells.  Passaging of VLPs on Vero cells or intracerebral injection into 2- to 4-day-old suckling mice illustrated the complete absence of any infectious Kunjin virus. tetKUNCprME cells were also capable of packaging replicon RNA from closely and distantly related flaviviruses,  West Nile virus and dengue virus type 2, respectively.  The utility of high-titer KUN replicon VLPs was demonstrated by showing increasing CD8(+)-T-cell responses to encoded foreign protein with increasing doses of KUN VLPs.  A single dose of 2.5 x 10(7) VLPs carrying the human respiratory syncytial virus M2 gene induced 1,400 CD8 T cells per 10(6) splenocytes in an ex vivo gamma interferon enzym e-linked immunospot assay.  The packaging cell line thus represents a significant advance in the development of the noncytopathic Kunjin virus replicon-based gene expression system and may be widely applicable to the basic studies of flavivirus RNA packaging and virus assembly as well as to the development of gene expression systems based on replicons from different flaviviruses.

 

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M.; Andrews, John J.; Kinsel, Michael J.; Pessier, Allan P.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Lemberger, Karin Y.; Novak, Robert J.; Dizikes, George J.; Edwards, Eric; Komar, Nicholas.  West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004 May; 16(3): 186-190.  ISSN: 1040-6387. 

NAL call no.: SF774.J68 

Descriptors:  gray and fox squirrels, first report of WNV infection lesions, gliosis throughout the brain, WNV antigen present in the brain, spleen, heart and kidney, immunohistochemistry .

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 13 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and 3 fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) that were observed with neurologic signs before death or found dead. All 16 had gliosis throughout all sections of the brain.  Most had lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, many with admixed neutrophils. Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia were also prominent features.  West Nile virus antigen was demonstrated in the brain, spleen, heart or kidney in 10 of 13 gray squirrels and 3 of 3 fox squirrels by immunohistochemistry.  Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) confirmed the presence of WNV in the brain or spinal cord of 10/10 gray squirrels and 1/3 fox squirrels tested.  Viral levels were quantified in various tissues of selected gray squirrels, and titers were highest in spleen and brain, with no virus detected in serum.  This is the first description of lesions associated with WNV infection in gray and fox squirrels.

 

Higgs, Stephen; Snow, Keith; Gould, Ernest A.  The potential for West Nile virus to establish outside of its natural range: a consideration of potential mosquito vectors in the United Kingdom.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.  2004 Feb; 98(2): 82-87.  ISSN: 0035-9203. 

NAL call no.: 448.9 R813 

Descriptors:  migrating birds, horses, potential of British mosquitoes to transmit WNV, culicine and anopheline mosquitoes, WNV, sporadic outbreaks in Europe, equine and human dead end hosts.

Abstract: Outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have occurred sporadically in Europe, apparently due to the migrati on of infected birds and the subsequent establishment of a transmission cycle involving culicine and anopheline mosquitoes.  Both human and equine species become infected, but are considered as dead end hosts si nce they play an insignificant role in the maintenance of the cycle.  Following the introduction of WNV into the United States in 1999 it is increasingly apparent that the virus has an extraordinary abi lity to infect a very broad range of arthropod species.  Here we consider the potential for British mosquitoes to transmit WNV in the event that it is introduced into the UK.

 

Keyghobadi, Nusha; Matrone, Michael A.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Kramer, Laura D.; Fonseca, Dina M.  Microsatellite loci from the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens), a principal vector of West Nile virus in North America. Molecular Ecology Notes.  2004 Mar; 4(1): 20-22. ISSN: 1471-8278.  

NAL call no.: QH541.15.M632 

Descriptors:  Culex pipiens, microsatellite isolates, markers of epidemiological characterization, intraspecific variation in epidemiological characteristics.

Abstract: Microsatellites were isolated and characterized in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a widespread pest species and important vector of diseases such as West Nile virus.  An enrichment protocol yielded 150 positive clones.  We designed primers to amplify 17 unique (GT)n microsatellites, eight of which amplified cleanly and were polymorphic.  A survey of 29 individuals showed that these loci ar e highly variable with the number of alleles ranging from seven to 19 and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.66 to 0.93.  These markers will be useful for studies of population structure and intraspecific variation in epidemiological characteristics of Cx. pipiens.

 

Kleiboeker, Steven B.; Loiacono, Christina M.; Rottinghaus, Audrey; Pue, Howard L.; Johnson, Gayle C.  Diagnosis of West Nile virus infection in horses.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004 Jan; 16(1): 2-10.  ISSN: 1040-6387.  

NAL call no.: SF774.J68 

Descriptors:  horses, WNV epizootic caused horse morbidity and mortality, diagnosis, diagnostic sensitivity of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) low compared to immunoglobulin M immunosorbent assay.

Abstract: The North American West Nile virus (WNV) epizootic, which began in 1999, has caused significant morbidity and mortality in horses.  Because experimental infection has failed to consistently produce encephalitis in inoculated horses, investigation of naturally occurring cases was used to optimize strategies for diagnosis of this disease.  Although WNV RNA could be detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on whole blood collected from both clinically affected horses and unaffected herdmates, the diagnostic sensitiv ity of this approach was low compared with IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  In addition, it was observed that 18.5% of herdmates of clinically ill horses seroconverted to WNV yet exhibited no overt clinical signs of WNV encephalitis.  West Nile viral RNA was detected in neural tissue of 46 of 64 dead horses that were suspected of having WNV encephalitis.  Some of these animals were IgM negative or had not been tested serologically. A primary cause of death other than WNV encephalitis was identified in 15 of the 64 cases, whereas the final diagnosis for 3 of these case s remains unresolved.  Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of neural tissue from WNV RNA-positive horses demonstrated that the medulla contained the highest mean concentration of viral RNA and that WNV RNA could be detected in samples extracted f rom formalin-fixed neural tissue. A comparison of WNV RT-PCR amplification strategies found that nested RT-PCR improved diagnostic sensitivity only slightly over a single round of amplification and that a quantitative (TaqMan) assay had sensitivity and sp ecificity that were equivalent to those of nested amplification.

 

Lawrie, C.H.; Uzcategui, N.Y.; Gould, E.A.; Nuttall, P.A.  Ixodid and Argasid tick species and West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2004; 10(4): 653-657.  ISSN: 1080-6040.  

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46 

Descriptors:  tick-borne WNV transmission, Ixodes ricinus and Ornithodoros moubata, rodent viremic hosts, ticks unlikely play major role in WNV transmission, some species likely reservoir.

 

Lis, H.  Rozwoj i przebieg zapalenia mozgu Zachodniego Nilu w USA. [Outbreak of West Nile virus encephalitis in the USA (in 1999).]  Zycie Weterynaryjne.  2004; 79(2): 110.  ISSN: 0137-6810.  Note:  In Polish.

NAL call no.: SF604.Z9 

Descriptors: WNV, emerging disease, disease surveys, encephalitis, epidemiology, public health concerns, zoonotic diseases, birds, horses, humans, United States.

 

Liu Wei-bin; Liang Guo-dong.  [Advances in research of West Nile virus.] Virologica Sinica.  2004 Feb; 19(1): 92-96.  ISSN: 1003-5125.  Note: In Chinese with no summary.  

NAL call no.: QR355.P5 

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, single strand RNA virus, Flavivirdae, West Nile fever.

 

Luechtefeld, L.  West Nile transmitted from alligator to human.  Veterinary Practice News.  2004; 16(1): 14.  ISSN: 1528-6398.  

NAL call no.: SF601.V5

Descriptors:  alligators, Idaho farm, juvenile alligators from Florida developed WNV symptoms, high mortality before virus identified, man infected via handling infected animals.

 

Lvov, D.K.; Butenko, A.M.; Gromashevsky, V.L.; Kovtunov, A.I.; Prilipov, A.G.; Kinney, R.; Aristova. V.A.; Dzharkenov, A.F.; Samokhvalov, E.I.; Savage, H.M.; Shchelkanov, M.Y.; Galkina, I .V.; Deryabin, P.G.; Gubler, D.J.; Kulikova, L.N.; Alkhovsky, S.K.; Moskvina, T.M.; Zlobina, L.V.; Sadykova, G.K.; Shatalov, A.G.; Lvov, D.N.; Usachev, V.E.; Voronina, A.G.  West Nile virus and other zoonotic viruses in Russia: examples of emerging-reemerging situations.  Archives of Virology. Supplementum (Austria).  2004; 18: 85-96.  ISSN: 0939-1983. 

NAL call no.: QR355.A72 

Descriptors:  vertebrates, humans, ecological groups of viruses, 24 new viruses identified, newly recognized infections described, West Nile virus, Crimea n-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) Northern Eurasia.

Abstract:  Studies of the interactions of vertebrates, viruses and arthropod vectors of these viruses were monitored in terms of different ecological groups of viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks in Northern Eurasia in an area encompassing more than 15 million km2.  About 90 viruses were isolated, including 24 new to science.  Newly recognized infections of vertebrates, including humans, were described.  Many unusual epidemic situations were analysed.  Permanent efforts were established to prevent bioterrorist activities and their consequences.  Extensive epidemic outbreaks of West Nile fever (WNF; i.e., fever caused by West Nile virus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) with unusual h igh mortality appeared in the last four years in southern Russia.  We determined infection rates in humans, domestic and wild animals, mosquitoes and ticks from natural and synanthropic biocenoses [Editorial note: "synanthropic" means, roughly, all species living with (c.f. lice, fl eas) or near people, such as in houses (c.f. house mice), parks (c.f. Rattus spp.), and the like, rather like "peridomestic", but not strictly so; "biocenosis" is the biome, the "totality of living populations in a particular habitat, which itself is only a part of the ecosystem".].  CCHF virus strains were phylogenetically similar to strains isolated in this area 35 years ago but different from Central-South-Asian and African strains.  Before the outset of the current emergence of epidemic WNF, three genetic variants of this virus had been isolated in USSR, two African and one Indian.  Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences of epidemic strains demonstrated considerable similarity to strains from USA and Israel and differences from strains isolated in the same USSR areas 20-30 years before.  In addition to strains of genotype 1, we isolated strains of second and third lineages and a strain of a fourth gen etic variant.  Nucleotide differences of these strains from all three genotypes was about 30%.  The emerging WNF situation in Russia for the last 4 years probably has been the result of not only natural and social factors, but also to introduction of more virulent strains or by evolution of the virus.

 

Minke, J.M.; Siger, L.; Karaca, K.; Austgen, L.; Gordy, P.; Bowen, R.; Renshaw, R.W.; Loosmore, S.; Audonnet, J.C.; Nordgren, B.  Recombinant canarypoxvirus vaccine carrying the prM/E genes of West Nile virus protects horses against a West Nile virus-mosquito challenge.  Archives of Virology. Supplementum (Austria).  2004; 18: 221-230.  ISSN: 0939-1983. 

NAL call no.: QR355.A72

Descriptors:  horses, WNV vaccine for horses, vCP2017 vaccine with prM/E genes from NY1999 WNV isolates synthesized and assessed, dose titration study of antibody response and duration, p rotection onset determined, challenged with WNV infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, two doses provides immunity in horses.

Abstract:  An ALVAC (canarypoxvirus)-based recombinant (vCP2017) expressing the prM and E genes derived from a 1999 New York isolate of West Nile virus (WNV) was constructed and assessed for its protective efficacy in horses in two different experiments.  In the first trial, a dose titration study was conducted to evaluate both serum neutralising antibody responses to WNV and duration of immunity.  In the second trial the onset of protection was determined.  Twenty-eight adult horses received two doses of vCP2017 administered intramuscularly at 5-week intervals and sixteen horses comprised age-matched non-vaccinated controls. In dividual sera were taken periodically and tested for neutralising antibodies against WNV.  Horses were challenged by allowing WNV-infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes to feed on them two weeks (second trial) or one year (first trial) after the second vaccination.  After challenge, horses were monitored for clinical signs of disease, and blood samples were collected for detection of WNV viremia and antibody.  In both trials, all vaccinated horses developed neutralising antibodies against WNV.  None of the vaccinated or control horses developed clinical signs of WNV disease upon challenge.  None of the nine horses challenged 2 weeks after primary vaccination and only one of the ten vaccinated horses challenged 1 year after vaccination developed detectable viremia after challenge, whereas more t han 80% of the controls became infected.  Results from these studies demonstrated that a primary course of two doses of vCP2017 provides both antibody response and an early immunity in horses against WNV viremia .

 

Nelson, D.M.; Gardner, I.A.; Chiles, R.F.; Balasuriya, U.B.; Eldridge, B.F.; Scott, T.W.; Reisen, W.K.; Maclachlan, N.J.  Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.  2004 May; 27(3): 209-215.  ISSN: 0147-9571. 

NAL call no.: QR180.C62 

Descriptors:  horses, seroprevalence of SLE and JC viruses, predicts wider distribution of West Nile virus, California.

 

Olberg, R.A.; Barker, I.K.; Crawshaw, G.J.; Bertelsen, M.F.; Drebot, M.A.; Andonova, M.  West Nile virus encephalitis in a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2004; 10(4): 712-714. ISSN: 1080-6040.  

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46 

Descriptors:  Barbary ape, WNV diagnosed, brain lesions, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and virus isolation, Toronto.

 

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Stoffregen, William C.; Rogers, Douglas G.; Hamir, Amir N.; Richt, Juergen A.; Pedersen, Douglas D.; Waters, W. Ray.  West Nile virus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004 May; 16(3): 219-222.  ISSN: 1040-6387. 

NAL call no.: SF774.J68 

Descriptors:  reindeer, first known clinical WNV Cervidae infection, nucleotide sequence of 768-bp region of WNV E-glycoprotein gene, 1 mutation substitution of serine with glycine, compared with WNV-NY99 Bronx zoo flamingo 382-99 isolates.

Abstract:  West Nile virus (WNV) infection in 4 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) resulted in lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis within the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord.  Immunohistochemistry revealed WNV antigen within neurons and among mononuclear cell infiltrates. These represent the first known cases of clinical WNV infection in Cervidae.  Clinical signs and lesions were similar to those described in horses.  Nucleotide sequence of a 768-bp region of the WNV E-glycoprotein gene revealed 1 nucleotide mutation, which resulted in a single amino acid substitution from a serine to a glycine (position 227 of E-glycoprotein) whe n compared with the prototype WNV-NY99strain (isolated from Bronx zoo flamingo 382-99).

 

Papin, James F.; Vahrson, Wolfgang; Dittmer, Dirk P.  SYBR green-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for detection of West Nile virus circumvents false-negative results due to strain variability.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology2004 Apr; 42(4): 1511-8.  ISSN: 0095-1137. 

NAL call no.: QR46.J6 

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, point mutations, sequence variations, TaqMan Assay, failure rate, more efficient SYBR green-based assay

Abstract:  Real-time quantitative PCR is used routinely for the high-throughput diagnosis of viral pathogens, such as West Nile virus (WNV).  Rapidly evolving RNA viruses present a challenge for diagnosis because they accumulate mutations that may render them undetectable.  To explore the effect of sequence varia tions on assay performance, we generated every possible single point mutation within the target region of the widely used TaqMan assay for WNV and found that the TaqMan assay failed to detect 47% of possible single nucleotide variations in the probe-bindi ng site and was unable to detect any targets with more than two mutations.  In response, we developed and validated a less expensive assay with the intercalating dye SYBR green.  The SYBR green-based assay was as sensitive as the TaqMan assay for WNV. Importantly, it detected 100% of possible WNV target region variants.  The assay developed here add s an additional layer of protection to guard against false-negative results that result from natural variations or drug-directed selection and provides a rapid means to identify such variants for subsequent detailed analysis.

 

Parida, Manmohan; Posadas, Guillermo; Inoue, Shingo; Hasebe, Futoshi; Morita, Kouichi. Real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of West Nile virus.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004 Jan; 42(1): 257-63.  ISSN: 0095-1137.  

NAL call no.: QR46.J6

Descriptors:  West Nile virus assay, gene amplification, TR LAMP assay, agarose gel electrophoresis, turbidity, 10-fold higher sensitivity than RT PCR, ra pid comprehensive WNV surveillance, isolation, serology.

Abstract:  A one-step, single tube, real-time accelerated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting the envelope gene of West Nile (WN) virus.  The RT-LAMP assay is a novel method of gene amplification that amplifies nucleic acid with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity under isothermal conditions with a set of six specially designed primers that recognize eigh t distinct sequences of the target.  The whole procedure is very simple and rapid, and amplification can be obtained in less than 1 h by incubating all of the reagents in a single tube with reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase at 63 degrees C. < SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes"> Detection of gene amplification could be accomplished by agarose gel electrophoresis, as well as by real-time monitoring in an inexpensive turbidimeter.  When the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was compared to that of conventional RT-PCR, it was found that the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated 10-fold higher sensitivity compared t o RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 0.1 PFU of virus.  By using real-time monitoring, 10(4) PFU of virus could be detected in as little as 17 min.  The specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by the absence of any cross-reaction with other, closely related, members of the Flavivirus group, followed by restriction digestion and nucleotide sequencing of the amplified prod uct.  These results indicate that the RT-LAMP assay is extremely rapid, cost-effective, highly sensitive, and specific and has potential usefulness for rapid, comprehensive WN virus surveillance along with virus isolation and/or serology.

 

Phalen, D.N.; Dahlhausen, B.  West Nile virus.  Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine.  2004 Apr; 13(2): 67-78. ISSN: 1055-937X.

NAL call no.: SF994.2.A1S36 

Descriptors:  200 species of birds, WNV mortality, chickens and turkeys refractory to WNV, horse encephalitis due to WNV, WNV infection reported in many species of mammals, Europe, Israel , United States, Canada, Mexico, Caribbean.

 

Prince, Harry E.; Lape'-Nixon, Mary; Moore, Ronald J.; Hogrefe, Wayne R.  Utility of the focus technologies West Nile virus immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for testing cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  2004 Jan; 42(1): 12-15.  ISSN: 0095-1137.  

NAL call no.: QR46.J6 

Descriptors:  WNV assay, enzyme linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA), cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin M, accurate qualitative WNV IgM detection.

Abstract:  Focus Technologies has developed an immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit that utilizes recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) antigens to detect WNV IgM in serum.  We evaluate here the utility of the kit for detecting WNV IgM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).  The sensitivity was evaluated by using 52 CSF specimens from the 2002 WNV season that were positive in both the Public Health Service Laboratories WNV IgM ELISA and an in-house WNV IgM ELISA with native WNV antigen.  The specificity was evaluated with two groups of specimens: (i). 73 CSF specimens submitted for in-house WNV IgM ELISA testing from February through April 2003 and yielding a negative WNV IgM result and (ii). < SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes"> 60 CSF specimens determined to be positive for another virus by PCR testing.  Using these 185 CSF specimens at a screening dilution of 1:2, the kit was determined to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Endpoint titers were determined for 20 IgM-positive CSF specimens by testing serial twofold dilutions and ranged from 1:8 to 1:512.  Index values (specimen absorbance value/calibrator absorbance value) for the screening dilution (1:2) showed no correlation with IgM titers, whereas index values for hig her dilutions showed significant correlation with IgM titers.  CSF screening dilutions of greater than 1:2 are not recommended, however, due to the risk of obtaining false-negative results. These findings show that the Focus Technologies WNV IgM capture ELISA, when utilized as r ecommended, offers accurate qualitative detection of WNV IgM in CSF specimens.

 

Quirin, R.; Salas, M.; Zientara ,S.; Zeller, H.; Labie, J.; Murri, S.; Lefranc(cedil)ois, T.; Petitclerc, M.; Martinez, D.  West Nile virus, Guadeloupe.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2004; 10(4): 706-708.  ISSN: 1080-6040.  

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46 

Descriptors:  horses, chickens, WNV infection, immunosorbent assay, seroneutralization tests, 2002, six months later high rate of seroconversion observed.

 

Ratterree, Marion S.; Gutierrez, Robin A.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Dille, Bruce J.; Beasley, David W.C.; Bohm, Rudolf P.; Desai, Suresh M.; Didier, Peter J.; Bikenmeyer, Larry G.; Dawson, George J.; Leary, Thomas P.; Schochetman, Gerald; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Katherine; Arroyo, Juan; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Tesh, Robert B.  Experimental infection of rhesus macaques with West Nile virus: level and duration of viremia and kinetics of the antibody response after infection.  Journal of Infectious Diseases.  2004 Feb 15; 189(4): 669-676.  ISSN: 0022-1899. 

NAL call no.: 448.8 J821

Descriptors;  rhesus macaques, WNV experimentally infected, levels of viremia, nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, most sensitive method for detecting viral RNA in blo od, WNV antibodies identified in second week with immunosorbent assay, both nucleic acid and serological testing may be needed to identify potential blood donors.

Abstract:  Reports of transfusion-associated cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection indicate the need for sensitive screening methods to identify WNV-infected blood products. We experimen tally infected 5 rhesus macaques with WNV, to determine the level and duration of viremia, the kinetics of the humoral immune response, and the sensitivity of various assay systems for detecting WNV in blood. All macaques developed subclinical infections with low levels of viremia; nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive method for detecting virus or viral RNA in blood. Specific WNV antibodies appeared during the second week of infection; the results of an IgM enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay became positive on the ninth or tenth day after infection, followed in 1-2 days by hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies.  Our results suggest that both nucleic acid and serological testing may be needed to determine exposure to WNV and to identify potentially infected blood donors.

 

Reeves, W.K.; Korecki, J.A.  Ochlerotatus japonicusjaponicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae), a new invasive mosquito for Georgia and South Carolina.  Proceedin gs of the Entomological Society of Washington.  2004; 106(1): 233-234.  ISSN: 0013-8797.  

NAL call no.: 420 W27 

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, new possible mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus japonicusjaponicus, exotic species, Georgia and South Carolina.

 

Romi, R.; Pontuale, G.; CIufolini, M. G.; Fiorentini, G.; Marchi, A.; Nicoletti, L.; Cocchi, M.; Tamburro, A.  Potential vectors of West Nile virus following an equine disease outbreak in Italy.  Medical and Veterinary Entomology.  2004 Mar; 18(1): 14-19.  ISSN: 0269-283X. 

NAL call no.: RA639.M44

Descriptors:  race horses WNV infected, equine encephalomyelitis, 11 species of mosquitoes identified, WNV transmission by migratory birds to non-migratory birds, Culex pipiens  broader host range more likely to transmit WNV to horses.

Abstract:  In the late summer of 1998, an outbreak of equine encephalomyelitis due to West Nile virus (WNV) occurred in the Tuscany region of central Italy.  The disease was detected in 14 race horses from nine localities in four Provinces: Firenze, Lucca, Pisa and Pistoia.  The outbreak area included Fucecchio wetlands (1800 ha), the largest inland marsh in Italy, and the adjacent hilly Cerbaie woodlands with farms breeding horses.  To detect potential vectors of WNV, entomological surveys of Fucecchio and Cerbaie were undertaken during 1999-2002 by collecting mosquito larvae from breeding sites and adult mosquitoes by several methods of samplin g.  Among 6023 mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected, 11 species were identified:  Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. vexans (Meigen), Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, An. maculipennis Meigen s.s., An. plumbeus Stephens, Culex impudicus Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens L., Culiseta longiareolata Macquart), Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas), Oc. detritus (Haliday) and Oc. geniculatus (Olivier).  In Fucecchio marshes, Cx. impudicus predominated with seasonal peak densities in spring and autumn: its greatest abundance during early spring coincides with arrival of migratory birds from Africa.  In Cerbaie hills, Cx. pipiens predominated with peak population density in late summer.  No viruses were isolated from 665 mosquitoes processed.  These findings, plus other data on Italian mosquito bionomics, suggest a possible mode of WNV transmission involvin g the most abundant Culex in the Fucecchio-Cerbaie areas.  Culex impudicus, being partly ornithophilic, might transmit WNV from migratory to non-migratory birds during springtime; Cx. pipiens, having a broader host range, would be more likely to transmit WNV from birds to horses and, perhaps, to humans by late summer.  

 

Tewari, Deepanker; Kim, Hyun; Feria, Willard; Russo, Brigite; Acland, Helen.  Detection of West Nile virus using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues in crows and horses: quantification of viral transcripts by real-time RT-PCR.  Journal of Clinical Virology.  2004 Aug; 30(4): 320-325.  ISSN: 1386-6532. 

Descriptors:  crows, horses, WNV infected, RT PCR assay, NS5 gene assay, highest amounts of virus in the intestines of crows and brains of horses.

Abstract:  West Nile virus (WNV) RNA was quantified in WNV infected crows and horses with the help of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay.  A 5' nuclease assay, based on NS5 gene detection with a fluorescent probe was used for quantifying WNV RNA using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens.  Quantitative detection of WNV RNA showed the presence of a higher amount of the viral RNA in crow tissues compared to equine tissues and these results correlated well with the detection of WNV antigen by immunostaining.  In crows, the highest amount of virus was seen in the intestine and in horses in the brain.

 

Verne, T.G.  Diagnosis of zoonotic viral encephalitis  Archives of Virology.  2004; 18: 231-244.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

NAL call no.: 448.3 Ar23 

Descriptors:   humans, animals, West Nile virus, precise identification of arboviruses, surveillance and transmission control, use of DNA micro arrays, extend range of viruses detected in a single test, various methods discussed,  ELISA, immunochromatographic rapid tests for IgM, virus isolation, molecular assays validation issues.

 

Wang, Yang; Lobigs, Mario; Lee, Eva; Mullbacher, Arno.  Exocytosis and Fas mediated cytolytic mechanisms exert protection from West Nile virus induced encephalitis in mice.  Immunology and Cell Biology.  2004 Apr; 82(2): 170-173.  ISSN: 0818-9641. 

NAL call no.: QR180.I43

Descriptors:  C57BL/6 mice mice, experimental infection, WNV induces T-cell responses, virus-host immune reactions assessed individually, cytolytic effector functions.

Abstract:  Infection of mice with the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) induces cytolytic T-cell responses which are highly cross-reactive on target cells infected with heterologous flaviviruses.  Of C57B L/6 mice infected with low doses (10(2)-10(6) PFU) of either virus, 30-40% develop encephalitis and die within 10-12 days. Mice with defects in the Fas or granule exocytosis (perforin and granzymes A and B) pathway of cellular cytotoxicity display reduced mortality and increased survival time when infected with MVE and are protected from encephalitis when deficient in both pathways.  This contrasts with infection with WNV where defects in these cytolytic mechanisms increase the percentage of mice that succumb to encephalitis.  Thus, no generalizations a s to protective or detrimental effects of cytolytic effector functions in recovery from closely related flavivirus infections can be made.  Virus-host immune interactions have to be assessed individually and cannot be generalized.

 

Watson, J.T.; Jones R.C.; Gibbs, K.; Paul, W. Dead crow reports and location of human West Nile virus cases, Chicago, 2002.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2004; 10(5): 938-940.  ISSN: 1080-6040. 

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors:  crow deaths, high early season incidence, high human case incidence. 

 

Wonham, Marjorie J.; de-Camino-Beck, Tomas; Lewis, Mark A.  An epidemiological model for West Nile virus: invasion analysis and control applications.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences.  2004 Mar 7; 271(1538): 501-507.   ISSN: 0962-8452.

NAL call no.: 501 L84B

Descriptors:  birds, mosquitoes, model of WNV infection, a single season susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model of WNV cross infection between birds and mosquitoes, predict disease le vels consistent with independent data.

Abstract:  Infectious diseases present ecological and public health challenges that can be addressed with mathematical models.  Certain pathogens, however, including the emerging West Nile virus (WN) in North America, exhibit a complex seasonal ecology that is not readily analysed with standard epidemiological methods.  W e develop a single-season susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model of WN cross-infection between birds and mosquitoes, incorporating specific features unique to WN ecology.  We obtain the disease reproduction number, R0, and show that mosquito control decreases, but bird control increases, the chance of an outbreak.  We provide a simple new analytical and graphical method for determining, from standard public health indicators, necessary mosquito control levels.  We extend this method to a seasonally variable mosquito population and outline a multi-year model framework.  The model's numerical simulations predict disease levels that are consistent with independent data.

 

Yaeger, Michael; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Berkland, Loretta.  West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a Suri alpaca and Suffolk ewe.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.  2004 Jan; 16(1): 64-66.  ISSN: 1040-6387. 

NAL call no.: SF774.J68

Descriptors:  WNV, first report in 1Suffolk ewe, 1 alpaca, clinical signs, diagnosis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and immunohistochemistry on the brain, sporati c fatal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis.

Abstract:  The first confirmed cases of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere were reported in the state of New York in 1999.  Since then, the virus has spread throughout the eastern and central United States and continues to extend westward.  This report describes clinical signs and microscopic lesions associated with WNV infection in a Suffolk ewe and an alpaca, 2 species in which the disease has not been reported previously.  In late August 2002, a 4.5-year-old female alpaca developed an acute onset of clinical signs characterized by torticollis, hyperesthesia, ataxia, recumbency, and altered mentation.  The animal died 3.5 days after the onset of clinical signs.  Microscopic examination of the brain revealed a mild to moderate, diffuse, lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephaliti s.  In early September 2002, a 3-year-old Suffolk ewe developed a rapidly progressive illness characterized by ataxia and convulsions.  The apparent duration from onset of clini cal signs until death was less than 8 hours.  The ewe had a moderate, diffuse, lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis with focal gliosis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and immunohistochemistry on the brain were positive for WNV in both an imals.  These cases demonstrate that WNV is capable of causing sporadic, fatal, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in alpacas and sheep.

 

Yaremych, S.A.; Warner, R.E.; Mankin, P.C.; Brawn, J.D.; Raim, A.; Novak, R.  West Nile virus and high death rate in American crows.  Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004; 10(4): 709-711.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL call no.: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors:  mosquitos, Culex and Anopheles, crow mortality, antibody prevalence, WNV kills more than 33% of American crows, local ecological effects are dramatic during new exposure.

 

Yoda, T.; Rakue, Y.; Mizota, T.  Integrated pest management and surveillance of West Nile virus infection in Louisiana, USA.  Journal of Tokyo Medical University.  2004; 62(2): 212-217.  ISSN: 0040-8905.

Descriptors:  domestic and wild birds, horses; humans, first appearance of WNV infection in 1999, encephalitis in humans and horses, animal mortality, mosquito control programs, “Integr ated Pest Management” (IPM) developed in 1964, reduced WNV infection by 80% in Louisiana, IPM consists of: source reduction, public health education, biological control, chemical control and surveillance systems, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. < /P>

 

Yu Shaoning, Wuu Alice; Basu, Reneeta; Holbrook, Michael; Barrett, Alan; Lee, J. Ching.  Protein stability and structural dynamics in Domain III of vector-specific strain of West Nile envelope protein.  Biophysical Journal.  2004 Jan; 86(1): 502a.  ISSN:  0006-3495. Note:  Meeting abstract.

NAL call no.: 442.8 B5238

Descriptors:  Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF), WNV, envelope protein WN-D3 and OHF-D3 compared, biochemistry, molecular biophysics, infection methods and techniques, circular dichroism, spec trum analysis, fluorescence quenching, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen-deuterium exchange.

 

Zeller, H.G.; Schuffenecker, I.  West Nile virus: an overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basis in contrast to its spread in the Americas.  European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.  2004, Mar;  23(3): 147-156.  ISSN: 0934-9723.

Descriptors:  birds, horses, humans, WNV mosquito transmitted flavivirus, birds amplifying hosts transmission cycle, humans and horses dead end hosts, 1950 fatal WNV encephalitis in Israe l, fatal human and equine WNV encephalitis in 1996-2000 in Mediterranean basin, 1998 virulent strain of WNV identified in migrating storks and domestic geese in Israel, 1999 nearly identical strain of WNV appeared in New York killing birds and some humans , outbreaks of WNV unpredictable, pathogenicity potential.

Abstract:  West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus.  It is widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and southern Europe and was recently introduced to North America.  Birds are involved in the cycle of transmission as amplifying hosts.  Humans and horses are considered accidental dead-end hosts.  WN fever was initially considered a minor arbovirosis, usually inducing a nonsymptomatic or a mild flu-like ill ness in humans, but some cases of encephalitis associated with fatalities were reported in Israel in the 1950s.  After two silent decades, several human and equine outbreaks of fatal encephalitis occurred from 1996 to 2000 in Romania, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Russia, Israel, and France.  In Romania, a few cases of WN encephalitis in humans are noticed every year, and in France, recent WN infections have been detected in monitored sentinel birds in 2001 and 2002. Phylogenetic studies have shown two main lineages of WN strains.  Strains from lineage I are present in Africa, India, and Australia and are responsible for the outbreaks in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin, and strains from lineage II have been reported only in sub-Saharan A frica.  In 1998, a virulent WN strain from lineage I was identified in dying migrating storks and domestic geese showing clinical symptoms of encephalitis and paralysis in Israel. A nearly identical WN strain suddenly emerged in New York in 1999, killing thousands of native birds and causing fata l cases in humans.  The virus is now well established in the New World, and it disseminates rapidly.  New modes of transmission throug h blood donations, organ transplants, and the intrauterine route have been reported.  In Europe, an enhanced surveillance of WN infection in humans, horses, birds, and vectors may reveal the presence of the virus in different locations.  Nevertheless, outbreaks of WN virus rema in unpredictable.  Further coordinated studies are needed for a better understanding of the ecology and the pathogenicity of the WN virus.



Return to Contents

 


 

2003

 

   

Anonymous.  West Nile virus and other exotic diseases of horses.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2003 Aug; 81(8): 456-457.  ISSN: 0005-0423. 

NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72

Descriptors:  horses, exotic diseases, West Nile virus, clinical signs, background on virus, birds as disease reservoirs, surveillance and prevention, sentinel birds, mosquitoes as vectors, viral host range, differential diagnosi s, horse mortality, progress of WNV across the United States.

 

Bren, L.  West Nile virus: reducing the risk.  FDA Consumer.  2003 Jan/Feb; 37(1): 20-27.  ISSN: 0362-1332. URL: http://www.fda.gov/fdac/fdacindex.html

NAL call no.: HD9000.9.U5A1

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, disease prevention, disease vectors, vector control, mosquito-borne diseases, Culex pipiens, several modes of disease transmission, birds, blood transfusion, human breast milk, breast feeding, medical treatment, public health, disease control.

 

Brown, D.  Is the Clean Water Act swamping mosquito control efforts against West Nile virus?  Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association.  2003 Dec; 19(4): 283-285.  ISSN: 8756-971X.

NAL call no.: QL536.J686

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, viral diseases of animals and humans, mosquito control; trade associations, information exchange, Clean Water Act, water po llution, pollution control, environmental impact, insect vectors, vector control, public health.

 

Davis, C. Todd; Beasley, David W.C.; Guzman, Hilda; Raj, Rushker; D'Anton, Mary; Novak, Robert J.; Unnasch, Thomas, R.; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D.T.  Genetic variation among temporally and geographically distinct West Nile virus isolates, United States, 2001, 2002.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2003 Nov; 9(11): 1423-1429.  ISSN: 1080-6040. 

NAL call no.:  RA648.5.E46

Descriptors:  West Nile virus isolates, partial nucleotide sequence of isolates, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, shared and divergent nucleotide mutations, geographic clustering, d ominant variant.

Abstract:  Analysis of partial nucleotide sequences of 22 West Nile virus (WNV) isolates collected during the summer and fall of 2001 and 2002 indicated genetic variation among str ains circulating in geographically distinct regions of the United States and continued divergence from isolates collected in the northeastern United States during 1999 a nd 2000.  Sequence analysis of a 2,004-nucleotide region showed that 14 isolates shared two nucleotide mutations and one amino acid substitution when they were compared with the prototype WN-NY99 strain, with 10 of these isolates sharing an additional nucleotide mutation.  In comparison, isolates collected from coastal regions of southeast Texas shared the following differences from WN-NY99: five nucleotide mutations and one amino acid substitution.  The maximum nucleotide divergence of the 22 isolates from WN-NY99 was 0.35% (mean = 0.18%).  These results show the geographic clustering of genetically similar WNV isolates and the possible emergence of a dominant variant circulating across much of the United States during 2002.

 

Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Beasley, David W.C.; Coffey, Lark; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Clements, Tamara; Wang, Eryu; Ludwig, George V.; Cortes, Arturo, Campomanes; Ramirez, Pedro Paz; T esh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Weaver, Scott C.  West Nile virus in Mexico: evidence of widespread circulation since July 2002.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  2003 Dec; 9(12): 1604-1607.  ISSN: 1080-6040. 

NAL call no.: RA639.5.V43

Descriptors:  horses, a common raven, epidemiology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition tests, transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid sequence analysis, seroepidemiology, antibodies, first isolates in Mexico.

Abstract:  West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected in horses from five Mexican states, and WNV was isolated from a Common Raven in the state of Tabasco.  Phylogenetic studies indicate that this isolate, the first from Mexico, is related to strains from the central United States but has a relatively high degree of sequence divergence.

 

Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose I.; Cavazos-Alvarez, Amanda; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Lorono-Pino, Maria A.; Gubler, Duane J.; Cropp, Bruce C .; Calisher, Charles H.; Beaty, Barry.  Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in birds, Tamaulipas State, Mexico.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.  2003 Winter; 3(4): 209-213.  ISSN: 1530-3667.  

NAL call no.: RA639.5.V43 

Descriptors:  West Nile virus infected birds, flavivirus-specific antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, plaque reduction neutralization tests, seroepidemiology, first indirect evidence of WNV in northern Mexico birds.

Abstract:  Following the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999, surveillance for WNV in migratory and resident birds was established in Tamaulipas State, northern Mexico in December 2001.  Overall, 796 birds representing 70 species and 10 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to WNV. Nine birds had flavivirus-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; four were confirmed to have antibody to WNV by plaque reduction neutralization test.  The WNV-infected birds were a house wren, mourning dove, verdin and Bewick's wren.  The house wren is a migratory species; the other WNV-infected birds are presumably residents.  The WNV-infected birds were all captured in March 2003.  These data provide the first indirect evidence of WNV transmission among birds in northern Mexico.

 

Goddard, L.B.; Roth, A.E.; Reisen, W.K.; Scott, T.W.  Vertical transmission of West Nile virus by three California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) species.  Journal of Medical Entomology.  2003 Nov; 40(6): 743-746.  ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL call no.: 421 J828

Descriptors:  Culex pipiens pipiens L., Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tarsalis, intrathoracic WNV experimental inoculation, filial infection rate, potential mechanism of horizontal transmission.

Abstract:  Three California Culex species previously identified as efficient laboratory vectors of West Nile (WN) virus were tested for their capability to vertically transmit WN virus.  Wild-caught Culex pipiens pipiens L., Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, and two populations of Culex tarsalis Coquillett females were inoculated intrathoracically with 10(2.7 (+/-) 0.1) plaque-forming unit s of WN virus. F1 progeny were reared at 18 C and subsequently tested as adults for infectious virus on Vero cell culture.  Virus was not detected in 197 pools comprising 4,884 Cx. p. pipiens.  The minimum filial infection rate (MFIR) for Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was approximately 3.0/1,000 for 665 progeny tested in 28 pools. There was no virus detected in 102 pools of 2,453 progeny from Cx. tarsalis collected in Riverside County.  The MFIR for Cx. tarsalis collected in Yolo County was approximately 6.9/1,000 for 2,165 progeny tested in 86 pools.  Mosquito progeny infected vertically during the fall could potentially serve as a mechanism for WN virus to overwinter and initiate horizontal transmission the following spring.

 

Guthrie, A.J.  Howell, P.G.; Gardner, I.A.; Swanepoel, R.E.; Nurton, J.P.; Harper, C.K.; Pardini, A.; Groenewald, D.; Visage, C.W.; Hedges, J.F .  West Nile virus infection of Thoroughbred horses in South Africa (2000-2001). Equine Veterinary Journal.  Sept 2003 Sept; 35(6): 601-605.  ISSN: 0425-1644. 

NAL call no.: SF955.E6

Descriptors:  thoroughbred horses, West Nile virus, disease transmission, seroprevalence, epidemiology.

 

Holger, Breithaupt.  Aliens on the shores.  EMBO Reports (England).  2003 Jun; 4(6): 547-550.  ISSN: 1469-221X . 

NAL call no. QH506.E463

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, animals, beetles, turtles, biodiversity, ecosystem, conservation of natural resources, population dynamics, green algae, Mediterranean Sea, New York, United States.

 

Jozan, M.; Evans, R.; McLean, R.; Hall, R.; Tangredi, B.; Reed, L.; Scott, J.  Detection of West Nile virus infection in birds in the United States by blocking ELISA and immunohistochemistry.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2003 Fall; 3(3): 99-110.  ISSN: 1530-3667.  

NAL call no.: RA639.5.V43

Descriptors:  viral diseases of animals and humans, wild birds, chickens, sentinel animals, ducks, Anas platyrhynchos West Nile virus, disease d etection, antibody detection, ELISA, antigen detection, immunohistochemistry, disease prevalence, disease surveillance.

 

Kent, R.J.; Lacer, L.D.; Meisch, M.V.  Initiating arbovirus surveillance in Arkansas, 2001.  Journal of Medical Entomology.  2003 Mar; 40(2): 223-229.  ISSN: 0022-2585. 

NAL call no.: 421 J828

Descriptors:  mosquitos, Culicidae, wild birds, cooperative arbovirus surveillance, dead bird passive surveillance, horses, equine encephalitis virus, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis virus, St Louis encephalitis virus, first reported incidence of West Nile virus in Arkansas.

Abstract:  Migratory birds could introduce West Nile (WN) virus to Arkansas.  The purpose of this study was to establish a cooperative arbovirus surveillance program to monitor mosquitoes and birds in Arkansas for arboviruses. Our objectives were to: 1) perform routine, multicounty collections of mosquitoes and test them for eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and WN viruses; and 2) conduct passive sur veillance by testing dead wild birds for WN virus.  Arbovirus surveillance was organized by the Arkansas Department of Health, University of Arkansas, and Vector Disease Control Incorporated.  None of the 14,560 mosquitoes (425 pools) tested were virus positive.  Two hundred forty-two dead birds from 62 counties were tested for WN virus.  Four blue jays in three counties were positive.  These infections are the first reported incidences of WN virus in Arkansas.  Sera from five horses with suspected encephalitis all tested negative for WN, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis viruses.

 

Kiupel, M.; Simmons, H.A.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Wise, A.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Cooley, T.M.; Hollamby, S.R.; Maes, R. West Nile virus infection in Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger).  Veterinary Pathology.  2003 Nov; 40(6): 703-707. ISSN: 0300-9858. 

NAL call no.: 41.8 P27

Descriptors:  first report of West Nile virus infected squirrels, Sciuridae, pathology, microscopic leisions of brain kidney heart and liver, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Abstract:  Since the initial outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States in 1999, the virus has rapidly spread westward and southward across the USA, causing high mortality in crows as well as sporad ic mortality in horses, humans, and a wide variety of birds.  In 2002 the epidemic widened as hundreds of equine and human cases and sporadic cases in other mammalian species were reported. This is the first rep ort of WNV infection in three Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger).  Neurologic signs included head tilt, uncoordinated movement, paralysis, and tremors.  Gross lesions were absent. Microscopic lesions consisted of lymphoplasmacytic inflammation involving the brain, heart, kidney, and liver. &nb sp;Formalin-fixed tissues from the three squirrels were tested for WNV antigen by immunohistochemical staining and for WNV-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  The ki dneys of all three squirrels stained positive with immunohistochemistry for WNV, whereas the brain and heart were positive in only one animal.  Two of the three squirrels were positive for WNV by RT-PCR.

 

Lanciotti, Robert S.  Molecular amplification assays for the detection of flaviviruses.  Advances in Virus Research. 2003; 61: 67-99.  ISSN: 0065-3527.  

NAL call no.:  448.8 AD9

Descriptors:  flavivirus assay format description, flavivirus assay utility, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent-labeled probes (TaqMan), nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA).

Abstract:  Over the past 10 years, a number of molecular amplification assays have been developed for the detection of flaviviruses. Most of these assays utilize the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the amplification format with detection by either agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining or hybridization with molecular probes. Recently, a modification of the standard RT-PCR using fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotide probes for det ection (TaqMan) has been described.  As a result, several assays for detecting flaviviruses have been developed using this approach. In addition, another amplification format, nucleic acid sequence based amplifi cation (NASBA), has been developed and utilized for the detection of several flaviviruses.  The various assay formats will be described and their utility discussed. 

 

Nasci, R.S. Gottfried, K.L.; Burkhalter, K.L.; Ryan, J.R.; Emmerich, E.; Dave, K.  Sensitivity of the VecTest antigen assay for eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis viruses.  Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association.  2003 Dec; 19(4): 440-444.  ISSN: 8756-971X.  

NAL call no.: QL536.J686.

Descriptors:  Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, viral antigens, antigen detection, immunoassay, rapid methods, insect vectors, mosquitoes, disease surveillance, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis, dipstick immunoassay.

 

Peterson, A.T.; Vieglais, D.A.; Andreasen, J.K.  Migratory birds modeled as critical transport agents for West Nile virus in North America.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.  2003 Spring; 3(1): 27-37.  ISSN: 1530-3667.

NAL call no.: RA639.5.V43

Descriptors:  disease reservoirs, wild birds, seasonal migration, Culex, mosquitoes, disease vectors, geographical distribution, simulation models, insect ecology, virus transmission, mathematical models, prediction, epidemiology, vector ecology, ecological niche modeling, Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), New York City.

 

Pisarev, V.B.; Shishkina, E.O.; Larichev, V.F.; Grigor'eva, N.V.  Morphofunctional characteristics of antigen-presenting cells in lymph node in mice with experimental West Nile fever.  Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine.  2003 Mar; 135(3): 293-295.  ISSN: 0007-4888. 

NAL call no.: 442.8 B87AE

Descriptors:  albino mice experimentally infected, West Nile fever (986) changed cells in mesenteric lymph nodes.

Abstract:  Pronounced transformation of cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, mainly in the thymus-independent zone and sinuses, was detected in albino mice experimentally infected with West Nile fever (strain 986). Maximum antigen-presenting activity was exhibited by activated macrophages, minimum activity--by dendritic cells of lymphoid follicles.

 

Putnak, Robert; Porter, Kevin; Schmaljohn, Connie.  DNA vaccines for flaviviruses.  Advances in Virus Research. 2003; 61: 445-68.  ISSN: 0065-3527.  

NAL call no.: 448.8 AD9

Descriptors:  animals, flavivirus, immunology, vaccines, DNA, isolation and purification, viral vaccines, animals, Dengue virus, genetics and immunology, tick-borne encephalitis viruses genetics and immunology, infections, Japanes e Encephalitis vaccines, genetics, isolation and purification, West Nile virus.

 

Ryan, J.; Dave, K.; Emmerich, E.; Fernandez, B.; Turell, M.; Johnson, J.; Gottfried, K.; Burkhalter, K.; Kerst, A.; Hunt, A. Wicking assays for the rapid detection of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  Journal of Medical Entomology.  2003 Jan; 40(1): 95-99.  ISSN: 0022-2585. 

NAL call no.: 421 J828

Descriptors:  Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, West Nile virus, St Louis encephalitis virus, arbovirus antigen rapid detection methods, differentiating field assays, dipstick assay, immunochromatography (VecTest), vector surveillanc e, rapid medical threat assessment.

Abstract:  The recent outbreaks of West Nile (WN) encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) in the United States have highlighted the need for rapid and specific methods of detecting arboviral antigens in mosquitoes.  We evaluated rapid, field-us able assays for detecting and differentiating WN and SLE viruses in mosquito pools, based on a patent-pending, immunochromatographic technology (VecTest) formatted on a dipstick. & nbsp;The device provides results in less than 20 min and can be used in laboratories with adequate containment facilities.  In laboratory assessments, both the SLE and WN virus tests demonstrated sensitiv ity comparable with that of an antigen capture ELISA, but less than can be achieved with Vero cell plaque or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays.  There was no evidence of cross-reaction when tested with high concentrations of heterologous flavivirus antigens or with Eastern equine encephalitis or Western equine encephalitis viruses.  Both the WN and SLE dipstick tests delivered a clear positive resu lt with a single positive specimen in a pool of 50 mosquitoes.  This virus assay technology reduces the time required to obtain test results and will allow rapid medical threat assessment and effective targeting of vector control measures.

 

Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yabe, Sadao; Nerome, Reiko; Ito, Mikako; Yamada, Ken-Ichiro; Kurane, Ichiro.  Partial protective effect of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine on lethal West Nile virus infection in mice. Vaccine.  2003 Nov; 21(31): 4514-4518.  ISSN: 0264-410X. 

NAL call no.: QR189.V32

Descriptors:  mouse brain-derived Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine, murine model, JE immunized mice challenged with West Nile virus (WNV), intracranial challenge, intraperitoneal challenge, partial immunity in mice.

Abstract:  The effect of mouse brain-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine on West Nile virus (WNV) infection was examined using a murine model.  Mice were immunized with JE vaccine twice and challenged with lethal doses of WNV.  When mice were intracranially challenged with WNV, none of the immunized mice were protected.  When mice were intraperitoneally challenged, the immunized mice were protected at higher immunization levels.  Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to WNV were induced by immunization with JE vaccine; however, the levels were much lower than those to JEV.  These results indicate that the currently available mouse brain-derived inactivated JE vaccine can induce partial protective immunity to WNV in mice.

 

United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. Equine West Nile virus outlook for the United States.  APHIS Veterinary Services Info Sheet. 2003; Note: 1 folded sheet ([4] p.), map, 28 cm.

URL: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cahm/Equine/WNV.pdf

NAL call no.: aSF959.V57E26 2003

Descriptors:  horses, West Nile virus, economic impact, equine industries, Colorado, Nebraska. 

  
Return to Contents


   

2002

 

 

American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology; American College of Veterinary Pathologists. American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) 37th Annual Meeting in conjunction with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) 53rd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, December 7-11, 2002. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2002; 31 (3): 152-157. ISSN: 0275-6382 

NAL Call No.: SF601 A54

Descriptors: equine disease West Nile Virus in Florida, canine lymphocyte proliferation, flow cytometry, feline pulmonary hemosiderosis, anticoagulants in Burmese pythons. 

 

Anderson, John F.; Rahal, James J. Efficacy of interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin against West Nile virus in vitro. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Jan; 8(1): 107-8. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: antiviral agents, pharmacology, West Nile fever, drug therapy, drug effects, human recombinant interferon alpha-2b, ribavirin, vero cell cultures from African green monkey kidney cells, cytotoxic effect of ribavirin, therapeutic activity, possible treatment.

 

Anonymous. Protecting pets from mosquito-borne diseases. FDA Veterinarian. 2002, 17: 3, 1-3.

NAL Call No.: SF917 F42

Descriptors:  dogs, horses, various mosquito borne illnesses, prevention and control methods, West Nile virus, heart worm, equine encephalitis.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus. Journal Oklahoma State Medical Association. 2002 Sep; 95(9): 612-3. ISSN: 0030-1876.

Descriptors: West Nile Fever, diagnosis, epidemiology, pathology, therapy, birds, Communicable Disease Control, Culicidae mosquitoes, Oklahoma, Public Health Administration, risk factors.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 19-25, 2002, and Michigan, January 1-September 24, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002 Sep 27; 51(38): 862-4. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, veterinary concerns, population surveillance, Michigan.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, September 25, 2002.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 12-18, 2002, and Ohio, January 1-September 12, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Sep 20; 51(37): 836-7. ISSN: 0149-2195.

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, veterinary concerns, population surveillance, Ohio.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, September 18, 2002.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 5-11, 2002, and Texas, January 1-September 9, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Sep 13; 51(36): 812, 823. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, veterinary concerns, Texas.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, September 11, 2002.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--United States, August 21-28, 2002, and Illinois, January 1-August 27, 2002.

MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Aug 30; 51(34): 764-6. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, veterinary concerns, humans, songbirds, horses, Culicidae mosquito surveillance, viral isolation and purification, Illinois.

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, August 28, 2002, and highlights WNV activity in Illinois.

 

Anonymous . West Nile virus activity--United States, July 31-August 7, 2002, and Louisiana, January 1-August 7, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Aug 9; 51(32): 681-3. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile Fever epidemiology, humans, songbirds, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, horses, chickens, veterinary concerns, Louisiana.

Abstract: This report summarizes the West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions in
the USA as of 7 August 2002. During the reporting period of 31 July-7 August, a total of 68
laboratory-positive human cases of WNV-associated illness were reported from Louisiana (n=40),
Mississippi (n=23), Texas (n=4) and Illinois (n=1). WNV infections in 447 dead crows, 263
other dead birds, 42 horses and 183 mosquito pools were also observed. During 1 January-7
August 2002, the office of public health in Louisiana has identified 71 laboratory-positive
human cases of WNV, including 38 males and 33 females aged 13-88 years. Clinically, 55 patients
presented with WNV-associated meningoencephalitis (including 5 fatalities) and 9 with WNV-associated
fever. The clinical presentations of 7 patients have not been ascertained.

 

Anonymous.  Weekly update: West Nile virus activity -- United States, July 24-30, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, 51: 30, 668, 679; 4 ref. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: disease epidemiology, disease mortality, crows, wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, poultry, horses, humans, vector borne diseases, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, mosquito vectors, ArboNET, US Centers for Disease Control, state data. 

Abstract: This report summarizes the West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by states and other jurisdictions in the USA, as of 30 July 2002. During 24-30 July, a total of 24 confirmed human cases of WNV illness were reported from Louisiana and Mississippi. During the same period, WNV infections were reported in 256 dead crows, 250 other dead birds, 9 horses and 147 mosquito pools. During 2002, a total of 36 confirmed human cases (18 men and 18 women; aged 16-88 years) have been reported from the Louisiana and Mississippi. In addition, 629 dead crows and 564 other dead birds from 33 states and 45 horses from 9 states were infected. WNV seroconversions in 6 sentinel chicken flocks from Florida, WNV seropositivity in 5 wild birds from Indiana and Louisiana, and 242 WNV-positive mosquito pools from 11 states have been reported.

 

Anonymous. Weekly update: West Nile virus activity--United States, July 17-23, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002, Jul 26; 51(29): 645-6. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile virus isolation and purification, disease levels, epidemiology, humans, song birds, horses, Culicidae mosquitoes, Louisiana, Mississippi.   

Abstract: This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and verified by states and other jurisdictions as of July 23, 2002. During the reporting week of July 17-23, nine human cases of WNV were reported from two states (Louisiana and Mississippi). During the same period, WNV infections were reported in 202 dead crows, 48 other dead birds, 13 horses, and 69 mosquito pools.

 

Anonymous. Symposium sur les zoonoses virales (Viral zoonoses). [Viral Zoonoses. Meeting report.] 9-11 janvier 2002, Londres, Royaume-Uni. Virologie Montrouge. Mars-Avril, 2002; 6 (2): 140-141. ISSN: 1267-8694.

Descriptors: various animal viruses, zoonotic viruses, West Nile virus.

 

Anonymous. West Nile Virus activity--United States, 2001. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002 Jun 14; 51(23): 497-501. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile fever, epidemiology, surveillance data in U.S., ArboNET, illnesses, horses, birds, humans, mosquitoes.

Abstract: In 2001, West Nile virus (WNV) activity was reported from 359 counties in 27 states and the District of Columbia (DC) to ArboNET, a web-based, surveillance data network maintained by 54 state and local public health agencies and CDC. This activity represented a marked increase from 2000, when WNV activity was reported from 138 counties in 12 states and DC. This report summarizes surveillance data for 2001, which indicate that 66 human illnesses were reported from 10 states and that widespread WNV activity in birds, horses, and mosquitoes extended into the midwestern United States and several southern states unaffected previously. The findings in this report underscore the need for public education, increased WNV surveillance aimed at early viral detection, and sustained, integrated mosquito-control activities.

 

Anraku, Itaru; Harvey, Tracey J.; Linedale, Richard; Gardner, Joy; Harrich, David; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A. Kunjin virus replicon vaccine vectors induce protective CD8+ T-cell immunity. Journal of Virology. 2002 Apr; 76(8): 3791-9. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: CD8+ T Lymphocytes, viral vaccines immunology, inbred BALB-C mouse models, West Nile virus genetics.

Abstract: The ability of self-replicating RNA (replicon) vaccine vectors derived from the Australian flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) to induce protective alphabeta CD8+ T-cell responses was examined. KUN replicons encoding a model immunogen were delivered by three different vaccine modalities: (i) as naked RNA transcribed in vitro, (ii) as plasmid DNA constructed to allow in vivo transcription of replicon RNA by cellular RNA polymerase II (DNA based), and (iii) as replicon RNA encapsidated into virus-like particles. A single immunization with any of these KUN replicon vaccines induced CD8+ T-cell responses at levels comparable to those induced by recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the same immunogen. Immunization with only 0.1 microg of DNA-based KUN replicons elicited CD8+ T-cell responses similar to those seen after immunization with 100 microg of a conventional DNA vaccine. Naked RNA immunization with KUN replicons also protected mice against challenges with recombinant vaccinia virus and B16 tumor cells. These results demonstrate the value of KUN replicon vectors for inducing protective antiviral and anticancer CD8+ T-cell responses.

 

Apperson, C.S.; Harrison, B.A.; Unnasch, T.R.; Hassan, H.K.; Irby, W.S.; Savage, H.M.; Aspen, S.E.; Watson, D.W.; Rueda, L.M.; Engber, B.R.; Nasci, R.S. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 Sep; 39(5): 777-85. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: mosquito feeding behavior patterns, Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, culex classification, vector physiology, viral isolation and purification, ELISA and PCR diagnostic tests, Coquillettidia perturbans, various song bird species, mammals, New York City.

Abstract: The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens.

 

Baum, S. West Nile virus: time for prevention, not panic. As the virus spreads, the risk of severe illness remains low. Health News. 2002 Oct; 8(10): 3. ISSN:  1081-5880.

Descriptors: mosquito population control, disease transmission factors, epidemiology, disease spread.   

 

Beasley, D.W.; Barrett, A.D. Identification of neutralizing epitopes within structural domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein. Journal of Virology. 2002 Dec; 76(24): 13097-100. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:  crows, arbovirus prevelance levels in bird populations, bird brain tissue testing survey, equine encephalitis, West Nile Virus in Connecticut, epitope, mapping, viral envelope proteins immunology, antibodies, recombinant proteins, virulence, pathogenicity.

Abstract: Using a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, we have mapped epitopes in domain III of the envelope protein of the New York strain of West Nile virus. The ability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize these epitopes to neutralize virus appeared to differ between lineage I and II West Nile virus strains, and epitopes were located on the upper surface of domain III at residues E307, E330, and E332.

 

Beasley, David W.C.; Li, Li; Suderman, Miguel T.; Barrett, Alan D.T. Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype. Virology. 2002 Apr 25; 296(1): 17-23. ISSN: 0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: molecular basis of virulence, virulence phenotype of the virus, 19 strains of West Nile virus, comparison study, mice, hamsters, North American strain, level of neuroinvasiveness.

Abstract: Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic and neurovirulence properties of 19 strains of WN virus, including 2 from North America, and observed significant differences in their neuroinvasive phenotype in mice and hamsters that correlated with virus genotype. Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

 

Beckwith, W.H.; Sirpenski, S.; French, R.A.; Nelson, R.; Mayo, D. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2002 Apr; 66(4): 422-6. ISSN:  0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 AM326

Descriptors: bird viral disease, crows, songbirds, prevalence levels in bird populations, bird brain testing survey, equine encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, Connecticut, viral isolation and purification, reverse transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction, virus cultivation.

Abstract: The emergence of the West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States has drawn emphasis to the need for expanded arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut. Although the state of Connecticut began a comprehensive mosquito-screening program in 1997, only since 1999 have there been efforts to determine the prevalence of arboviruses in bird populations in this state. Herein, we report on our results of an arbovirus survey of 1,704 bird brains. Included in this report are the first known isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) from crows and data on the geographic and temporal distribution of 1,092 WNV isolations from crow species. Moreover, these nine isolations of EEEV identify regions of Connecticut where the virus is rarely found. With the exception of WNV and EEEV, no other arboviruses were isolated or detected. Taken together, these data illustrate the distribution of avian borne EEEV and WNV in 2000 and support the need for ongoing avian arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut.

 

Borowski, Peter; Lang, Melanie; Haag, Annemarie; Schmitz, Herbert; Choe, Joonho; Chen, Huan Ming; Hosmane, Ramachandra S. Characterization of imidazo(4,5-d)pyridazine nucleosides as modulators of unwinding reaction mediated by West Nile virus nucleoside triphosphatase/helicase: Evidence for activity on the level of substrate and/or enzyme. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. May, 2002; 46 (5): 1231-1239. ISSN: 0066-4804.

NAL Call No.: RM265 A5132

Descriptors: synthesis and properties, nucleoside analogues, double-stranded DNA, unwinding reaction mediated West Nile virus nucleoside triphosphatase, helicase activity, new class of helicase-specific antivirals, potential pharmaceutical.

Abstract: Compounds that interact with DNA or RNA generally act as inhibitors of enzymes that unwind DNA or RNA. In the present study we describe the synthesis and properties of some nucleoside analogues that interact with double-stranded DNA but that, in contrast, facilitate the unwinding reaction mediated by West Nile (WN) virus nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase. The nucleoside analogues described, 1-(2'-O-methyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)-dione (HMC-HO4), 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)-dione, and 1-(2'-deoxy-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)dione, all contain the imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine ring system. The extent of the enhancing effect on helicase activity was found to be dependent on the time of exposure of the DNA substrate to the compounds and their concentrations. The nucleoside analogues were nevertheless found to be capable of uncoupling the ATPase and helicase activities of the enzyme by a mechanism operating on the level of the enzyme. Thus, in the case of HMC-HO4, the direct interaction with the enzyme caused inhibition of its helicase activity, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 30 microM. The similar potency of the compound against replication of WN virus in cell culture suggests that inhibition of the helicase activity of the viral enzyme is responsible for the observed antiviral activity of HMC-HO4 and may indeed represent an important mode of action of antiviral drugs in general. Comparative studies performed with the related NTPase/helicase from hepatitis C virus revealed that the extent of the effects mediated by imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine nucleosides is enzyme specific. The substances described may represent a starting point for the development of a new class of helicase-specific antivirals.

 

Bram, Ralph A.; George, John E.; Reichar, Robert E.; Tabaciinic, Walter J. Threat of foreign arthropod-borne pathogens to livestock in the United States. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 May; 39(3): 405-16. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: risks in U.S., insect borne diseases, production animals, U.S. programs, strategic planning, arboviral diseases including West Nile virus.

Abstract: There are many exotic animal pathogens throughout the world that, if introduced into the United States. could have a significant detrimental impact on the health of livestock, agricultural economy, the environment, and public health. Many of these pathogens are arthropod-borne and potential vectors are readily available in the United States. A number of these arthropod-borne pathogens are discussed here as examples that illustrate the potential risk and the consequences of inadvertent introductions. Several International agencies have a role in global surveillance and in controlling animal diseases should they begin to expand their range. The risk to the United States is considerable. We propose that the United States invest in the improved infrastructure needed to reduce the risk of foreign arthropod-borne pathogens. Current U.S. programs focus on the exclusion of pathogens through regulation of animal movements and products, surveillance, especially trained animal disease diagnosticians, research support, international cooperation and, should pathogens enter our country, the resources for their prompt eradication. We suggest that the United States needs to develop a comprehensive, updated strategic plan to assess all aspects of current and future requirements, objectives, and resources needed to protect its national interests.

 

Briese, Thomas; Rambaut, Andrew; Pathmajeyan, Melissa; Bishara, Jihad; Weinberger, Miriam; Pitlik, Silvio; Lipkin, W. Ian. Phylogenetic analysis of a human isolate from the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 May; 8(5): 528-31. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus isolates, comparison study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, phylogenetic analysis, Romanian, Russian, Israeli and New York isolates.

Abstract: Specimens from a patient of the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epidemic were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Products corresponding to E, NS3, and NS5 sequences were amplified from cerebellar but not from cortical samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a closer relationship of this isolate to 1996 Romanian and 1999 Russian than to 1998-99 Israeli or 1999 New York isolates.

 

Brinton, MA. Host factors involved in West Nile virus replication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 207-19. ISSN:  0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors: carrier proteins, RNA binding proteins, virus replication, West Nile virus genetics, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, disease susceptibility,  integration host factors, potential anti-viral agents, possible highly conserved protein in diverse species, 3’ RNA’s, mice.

Abstract: Viruses use cell proteins during many stages of their replication cycles, including attachment, entry, translation, transcription/replication, and assembly. Mutations in the cell proteins involved can cause disruptions of these critical host-virus interactions, which in turn can affect the efficiency of virus replication. These host-virus interactions also represent novel targets for the development of new antiviral agents. The different alleles of the murine Flv gene confer resistance or susceptibility to flavivirus-induced disease and provide a natural mutant system for the study of a host protein that can alter the outcome of a flavivirus infection. Since flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, replicate in mosquitoes, mammals, and birds during their natural transmission cycles, it is expected that the critical cell proteins used by these viruses will be ones that are highly conserved between divergent host species. Our laboratory has focused on the identification and characterization of the flavivirus resistance gene product and of cell proteins that interact with the 3' terminal regions of the West Nile virus genomic and antigenomic RNAs. The 3' terminal regions of the viral RNAs function as promotors for viral RNA replication. Cell proteins that bind to the viral 3' RNAs were detected by gel shift and UV-induced cross-linking assays. Individual proteins were then purified and partially sequenced. Mutation of a mapped, protein-binding site within the 3' terminal region of the viral RNA in an infectious West Nile virus clone was used to demonstrate the functional importance of one of the cell proteins for efficient West Nile virus replication. Data from additional studies suggested possible roles for this viral RNA-cell protein interaction during the flavivirus replication cycle.

 

Bunning, Michel L.; Bowen, Richard A.; Cropp, C. Bruce; Sullivan, Kevin G.; Davis, Brent S.; Komar, Nicholas; Godsey, Marvin S.; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Derek A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Mitchell, Carl J. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Apr; 8(4): 380-6. ISSN: 1080-6040.
NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: horses, epidemiology, duration of viremia, NY99 isolate, non-amplyfing hosts, Aedes, albopictus, experimental infection.

Abstract: A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature.

 

Burt, Felicity J.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Leman, Patricia A.; Anthony, Fiona, S.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Swanepoel, Robert. Phylogenetic relationships of southern african west nile virus isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Aug; 8(8): 820-6. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus, African strains, comparison, evolution, phylogenetics, lineages 1 and 2.

Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern African West Nile virus (formal name West Nile virus [WNV]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. In addition sequence data were retrieved from GenBank for another 23 WNV isolates and Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses. All isolates belonged to two lineages. Lineage 1 isolates were from central and North Africa, Europe, Israel, and North America; lineage 2 isolates were from central and southern Africa and Madagascar. No strict correlation existed between grouping and source of virus isolate, pathogenicity, geographic distribution, or year of isolation. Some southern African isolates have been associated with encephalitis in a human, a horse, and a dog and with fatal hepatitis in a human and death of an ostrich chick.

 

Chu, JJ; Ng, ML. Infection of polarized epithelial cells with flavivirus West Nile: polarized entry and egress of virus occur through the apical surface. Journal of General Virology. 2002 Oct; 83(Pt 10): 2427-35. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors: West Nile virus physiology, cell membrane ultrastructure, cell polarity, Cercopithecus aethiops, epithelial cells virology, microtubules, Vero-cells, viral envelope proteins metabolism.

Abstract: Both polarized epithelial Vero (C1008) and non-polarized Vero (control) cells were grown on permeable cell culture inserts and infected either apically or basolaterally with West Nile (WN) or Kunjin (KUN) virus. KUN virus (closely related to WN virus) was used as a comparison. Using indirect immunofluorescence and plaque assays of productive virus titres, entry of WN and KUN viruses was confined to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. For the first time, these results provided evidence on the distribution of flavivirus-specific receptor(s) in polarized epithelial cells; that is to say that receptor expression was shown to be predominant at the apical surface. In addition, the release of these viruses from polarized Vero C1008 epithelial cells was also examined. Egress of WN virus strain Sarafend (S) was observed to occur predominantly at the apical surface of Vero C1008 cells. In contrast, the release of KUN virus was bi-directional from polarized Vero C1008 cells. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular microtubule network was shown to inhibit the apical release of WN (S) virus but had no effect on the release of KUN virus. Hence, the difference in the release of these closely related viruses suggested the involvement of a microtubule-dependent, polarized sorting mechanism for WN virus proteins but not for KUN virus proteins in polarized epithelial cells.


Chu, J.J.H.; Ng, M.L. Trafficking mechanism of West Nile (Sarafend) virus structural proteins. Journal of Medical Virology. 2002 May; 67(1): 127-36. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: kinesin metabolism, vinblastine pharmacology, viral structural proteins, envelope (E) and capsid (C) proteins, replication cycle, time-based double-immunofluorescence labeling, Triton X-100 extraction procedure, microtubules.

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that West Nile (Sarafend) virus matured by budding at the plasma membrane, which differs from the usual intracellular maturation of other flaviviruses. The present study investigated the trafficking mechanism of the envelope (E) and capsid (C) proteins of West Nile (Sarafend) virus during the replication cycle. The use of time-based double-immunofluorescence labelling coupled with the Triton X-100 extraction procedure revealed that both the E and C proteins were transported from the perinuclear region towards the plasma membrane along the microtubules simultaneously. The strong association of these virus proteins with the microtubules was demonstrated further with capsid (C) proteins coupled with double immunogold-labelling. Extraction of infected cells with Triton X-100 in high salt also revealed that virus E proteins were associated with the microtubules via protein-protein interaction. The disruption of microtubules with vinblastine sulphate inhibited the trafficking of both the virus E and C proteins. Both virus structural proteins were observed to co-localise and retained within vinblastine sulphate-induced microtubulin paracrystals. Extracellular virus production was also reduced drastically by vinblastine sulphate at non-cytotoxic concentration. Subsequent studies revealed that the transportation of virus E protein was associated with the microtubules-based motor protein, kinesin.

 

Cooper, J.E. Diagnostic pathology of selected diseases in wildlife. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. April, 2002; 21 (1): 77-89. ISSN: 0253-1933.

NAL Call No.: SF781.R4

Descriptors: field investigations, surveillance of disease, wildlife, principles of diagnostic pathology, mycobacteriosis, Rift Valley fever, rabies, spongiform encephalopathies, morbillivirus and poxvirus infections, viral encephalitides, West Nile virus infection, chytridiomycosis.

Abstract: The prompt detection and effective management of infectious disease in wildlife rely greatly on field diagnosis. Although clinical work is sometimes of value, the cornerstone of diagnosis is pathological examination (gross necropsy with supporting laboratory investigations). The approach and rationale to gross post-mortem examination are common to all species, despite possible significant differences in technique. Likewise, the principles of sampling are usually comparable, with emphasis on standardisation, the correct use of equipment, and consistency in methods of storage and transportation of specimens. However, the type of sample taken and the laboratory tests required differ, depending upon the circumstances and possible diagnosis. Retention of material is always important. The principles of diagnostic pathology are discussed, with reference to selected diseases, namely: mycobacteriosis, Rift Valley fever, rabies, spongiform encephalopathies, morbillivirus and poxvirus infections, viral encephalitides, West Nile virus infection and chytridiomycosis. The importance of being able to perform certain investigations in the field, efficiently and safely, is emphasised.

 

Crook, PD; Crowcroft, NS; Brown, DW. West Nile virus and the threat to the UK. Communicable Disease and Public Health. 2002 Jun; 5(2): 138-43.

Descriptors:  Potential for West Nile virus to enter UK, risk assessment, mosquito vectors, migratory birds as disease reservoirs, disease control, epidemiology.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is an RNA virus and a member of the Flaviviridae family. The recent geographical expansion of WNV into areas where no activity had been previously reported has been highlighted by the detection of WNV in North America. There is also a recent trend for more numerous and serious outbreaks in Eurasia. The main hosts are birds and the principle vectors are mosquitoes, usually of the genus Culex. Although most infected people do not become symptomatic, severe diseases such as encephalitis and, less commonly, aseptic meningitis may occur, more frequently in the elderly. The public can be protected by giving advice on the avoidance of mosquito bites and by the implementation of ecological surveillance and measures to reduce the mosquito population. While a few human cases have been identified in returning travellers, WNV has not been reported in any animal or bird in the UK. However, this may simply indicate that the diagnosis has not been sought. Potential avian hosts and mosquito vectors of WNV are present in the UK and birds migrate to the UK from areas of endemic WNV activity. However, the population density of mosquitoes is relatively low and therefore the risk of WNV being transmitted in the UK is thought to be low. We lack sufficient information on the ecology of the virus, and on mosquito populations, to accurately determine this risk. Clinicians are advised to consider WNV as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients over 50 years old with a clinical picture of viral encephalitis or aseptic meningitis presenting in the summer months.

 

Cummings, Craig A.; Relman, David A. Genomics and microbiology: Microbial forensics: "Cross-examining pathogens". Science. 14 June, 2002; 296 (5575): 1976-1979. ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL Call No.: 470 Sci2

Descriptors: molecular genetics, bacterial and viral pathogens, West Nile virus, identification techniques.

 

Daniels, PW. Emerging arboviral diseases. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2002 Apr; 80(4): 216. ISSN:  0005-0423.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Au72

Descriptors:  flavivirus infections, epidemiology, West Nile Virus prevention and control, emerging human and animal diseases, emerging diseases.

 

Dohm, David J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Turell, Michael J. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. January, 2002; 39 (1): 221-225. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors:  Culex pipiens, vector competence, environmental temperature effects on virus viability and vertical transmission efficiency, laboratory study, risk modeling, disease models, New York strain.  

Abstract: Environmental temperature can affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit an arbovirus. However, results of various studies indicate that these effects are not consistent among viruses or mosquito species, and there is no information available on the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of North American mosquito species to transmit West Nile (WN) virus. We evaluated the effect of incubation temperature (18, 20, 26, or 30degreeC) on the ability of Culex pipiens L. derived from specimens collected during the outbreak in New York in 1999 to transmit a strain of WN virus obtained from a crow that died during this outbreak. Although mosquitoes fed on the same viremic chickens, infection rates were directly related to subsequent incubation temperatures. In mosquitoes held at 30degreeC, virus was recovered from nearly all mosquitoes tested, disseminated infections were detected as early as 4 d after the infectious blood meal, and >90% of all mosquitoes had a disseminated infection 12 or more days after the infectious blood meal. In contrast, for mosquitoes held at 18degreeC, disseminated infections were not detected until 25 d after the infectious blood meal, and even after 28 d, <30% contained a disseminated infection. Results for mosquitoes held at 20 and 26degreeC were intermediate for both infection and dissemination rates. The effect of environmental temperature should to be considered when evaluating the vector competence of these mosquitoes and modeling risk of WN virus transmission in nature.

 

Dohm, David J.; Sardelis, Michael R.; Turell, Michael J. Experimental vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 Jul; 39(4): 640-4. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus, New York, winter survival in vector, vertical transmission.

Abstract: Despite the detection of West Nile (WN) virus in overwintering Culex pipiens L. in New York in February 2000, the mechanism by which this virus persists throughout the winter to initiate infections in vertebrate hosts and vectors the following spring remains unknown. After a blood meal, parous mosquitoes generally do not survive until spring and gonotrophic dissociation occurs in only a small percentage of the population. To investigate vertical transmission as a means of viral survival during interepizootics, we intrathoracically inoculated Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) with WN virus and subsequently tested their F1 progeny for the presence of virus. Among the Cx. pipiens, we recovered virus from two of 1,417 adult progeny that had been reared at 18 degrees C for a minimal filial infection rate (MFIR) of approximately 1.4/1,000 and four of 1,873 adult progeny reared at 26 degrees C (MFIR = 2.1/1,000). The mean titer of the positive pools was 10(5.6) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml (=10(5.9) PFU/mosquito for positive mosquitoes) of virus. Overall, the MFIR was approximately 1.8/1,000 for Cx. pipiens. Although reports indicate that Ae. albopictus vertically transmit various viruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus complex, we did not detect WN virus in any of > 13,000 F1 progeny of WN virus-inoculated specimens. Female Cx. pipiens that are vertically infected during the late summer season and then survive the winter could serve as a source of WN virus to initiate an infection cycle the following spring.

 

Durand, B; Chevalier, V; Pouillot, R; Labie, J; Marendat, I; Murgue, B; Zeller, H; Zientara, S. West Nile virus outbreak in horses, southern France, 2000: results of a serosurvey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Aug; 8(8): 777-82. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: horses, clinical cases, sampling of 5,107, disease antibody levels, Camargue, France.

Abstract: During late summer and autumn 2000, a West Nile fever outbreak in southern France resulted in 76 equine clinical cases; 21 horses died. We report the results of a large serosurvey of all equines within a 10-km radius of laboratory-confirmed cases. Blood samples were obtained from 5,107 equines, distributed in groups of 1 to 91 animals. West Nile virus immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies were found in 8.5% of animals (n=432). Forty-two percent of the IgG-positive animals were also IgM positive. Horses living in small groups were more affected than those in large groups. The results suggest that West Nile virus is not endemic in the affected area, the Camargue; rather, sporadic outbreaks are separated by long silent periods.

 

Ebel, GD; Dupuis, AP 2nd; Nicholas, D; Young, D; Maffei, J; Kramer, LD. Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to West Nile virus in birds. Emerging Iinfectious Diseases. 2002 Sep; 8(9): 979-82. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: Indirect iG ELISA assay for West Nile virus, compared efficacy in diverse avian species, value in epizootiology. 

Abstract: We adapted an indirect immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to facilitate studies of West Nile virus (WNV) and evaluated its application to taxonomically diverse avian species. Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 23 bird species, including many exotic species, demonstrating its value in studies of WNV epizootiology.

 

Ejiri, S. Moonlighting functions of polypeptide elongation factor 1: from actin bundling to zinc finger protein R1-associated nuclear localization. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Bochemistry. 2002 Jan; 66(1): 1-21. ISSN:  0916-8451.

NAL Call No.: QH301.B564

Descriptors: protein biosysthesis, atins metabolism, carrier proteins metabolism, peptide elongation factor 1 metabolism, physiology and genetics, zinc fingers, apoptosis, cell nucleus metabolism, cold, cysteine endopeptidases, Cytoskeleton, HIV 1, herpesvirus 1, molecular mimicry, multienzyme complexes, protein disulfide isomerase metabolism, selenocysteine metabolism, signa transduction, West Nile virus.

Abstract: Eukaryotic polypeptide elongation factor EF-1 is not only a major translational factor, but also one of thost important multifunctional (moonlighting) proteins. EF-1 consists of four different subunits collectively termed EF-1alphabeta beta'gamma and EF-1alphabeta gammadelta in plants and animals, respectively. EF-1alpha x GTP catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome. EF-1beta beta'gamma (EF-1beta and EF-1beta'), catalyzes GDP/GTP exchange on EF-1alpha x GDP to regenerate EF-1alpha x GTP. EF-1gamma has recently been shown to have glutathione S-transferase activity. EF-2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site on the ribosome. Recently, molecular mimicry among tRNA, elongation factors, releasing factor (RF), and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has been demonstrated and greatly improved our understanding of the mechanism of translation. Moreover, eukaryotic elongation factors have been shown to be concerned or likely to be concerned in various important cellular processes or serious diseases, including translational control, signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, apoptosis, adult atopic dermatitis, oncogenic transformation, nutrition, and nuclear processes such as RNA synthesis and mitosis. This article aims to overview the recent advances in protein biosynthesis, concentrating on the moonlighting functions of EF-1.

 

Enserink, M. Infectious disease. West Nile's surprisingly swift continental sweep. Science. 2002 Sep 20; 297(5589): 1988-9 ISSN: 1095-9203.

NAL Call No.: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: West Nile Virus, bird diseases, Culex virology, mosquito vectors, disease reservoirs, epidemiology, disease transmission and spread, bird migration, mosquito vector feeding behavior, disease prevention and control, U.S. Canada.

 

Ford-Jones, E. Lee; Fearon, Margaret; Leber, Chuck; Dwight, Prabo; Myszak, Moira; Cole, Beverly; Greene, Pam Baker; Artes, Sheila; McGeer, Allison; D'Cunha, Colin; Naus, Monika. Human surveillance for West Nile virus infection in Ontario in 2000. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2002 Jan 8; 166(1): 29-35. ISSN: 0820-3946.

NAL Call No.: R11 C3

Descriptors: surveillance program, virus disease diagnosis, West Nile Fever, sentinel chickens, mosquito pools, human disease levels, survey reports 2002, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The first reports of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the United States in 1999 prompted Ontario to establish a surveillance protocol to monitor for the possible spread of the virus into the province. Surveillance components included evaluation of dead birds, sentinel chickens, mosquito pools and human disease. We report the results of human surveillance in 2000. METHODS: Between July 1 and Oct. 31, 2000, an active surveillance program was undertaken in which designated site coordinators in sentinel hospitals identified patients who met the suspect case definition (fever and fluctuating level of consciousness [encephalopathy], with or without muscle weakness). During the same period, following province-wide distribution of educational material, all other patients tested for WNV antibodies were identified through review of provincial laboratory reports (laboratory-based enhanced passive surveillance). RESULTS: Of the 60 hospitals contacted, 59 agreed to participate in the active surveillance program; 52 provided information on a regular (weekly) basis, and 7 submitted fewer than 8 reports. Thirty-six (61%) of the sentinel sites reported suspect cases. In total, 188 patients were tested (130 identified through active surveillance and 58 through enhanced passive surveillance). Patients identified through active surveillance were more likely than those identified through passive surveillance to meet the suspect case definition (43% [n = 56] v. 7% [n = 4]), to be admitted to hospital (75% [n = 99] v. 16% [n = 9]), to have a longer hospital stay (mean 25 v. 3 days), to have had a second (convalescent) serum sample collected (37% [n = 48] v. 31% [n = 18]), to have had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample banked (56% [n = 73] v. 14% [n = 8]) and to have had a discharge diagnosis reported (79% [n = 103] v. 28% [n = 16]). Of the 60 patients (32%) who met the suspect case definition, 34 (57% [31 active, 3 passive]) had a discharge diagnosis of encephalitis. Of these, 17 (50% [15 active, 2 passive]) had paired serum samples collected, and 18 (51% [all active]) had a CSF sample banked. The reported causal agents were herpes simplex virus (n = 8), varicelia virus (n = 2), Powassan virus (n = 1), echovirus 30 (n = 1) and group B Streptococcus (n = 1); the cause was unknown in 18 cases. One patient died of encephalitis. The remaining 26 patients who met the suspect case definition were ultimately found to have nonencephalitic infections, vascular events or alcohol- or drug-related illness. The 128 (68%) tested for WNV who did not meet the suspect case definition included 9 patients ultimately discharged with a diagnosis of encephalitis. No cases of WNV infection were identified. INTERPRETATION: Only one-third of the tested patients met the suspect case definition of encephalopathy on admission, and nearly half of them were later found to have another diagnosis; others did not meet the case definition but were later discharged with a diagnosis of encephalitis. This affirms that identification of acute encephalitis on the basis of symptoms at the time of admission is often impossible.

 

Hall, RA; Broom, AK; Smith, DW; Mackenzie, JS. The ecology and epidemiology of Kunjin virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 253-69. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: West Nile Fever, epidemiology and etiology, Culicidae mosquitoes, horse diseases, insect vectors, population surveillance, virus genetics, immunology.

 

Hay, S.I.; Myers, M.F.; Maynard, N.; Rogers, D.J. Special Issue: remote sensing and human health. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 2002, 68: 2, 107-179. ISSN: 0099-1112. Special issue contains an introduction and 7 articles on remote sensing in human health.

NAL Call No.: 325.28 P56

Descriptors: disease outbreak predictions, satellite sensor data, distribution of West Nile fever in North America, diseases in other countries, predictive modeling.

 

Hochberg, Leigh R.; Sims, John R.; Davis, Benjamin T. West Nile encephalitis in Massachusetts. New England Journal of Medicine. March 28, 2002; 346 (13): 1030-1031. ISSN: 0028-4793.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 N442

Descriptors: human cases, pathogenesis, disease process, diagnosis.

 

Holick, J; Kyle, A; Ferraro, W; Delaney, RR; Iwaseczk, M. Discovery of Aedes albopictus infected with west nile virus in southeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 2002 Jun; 18(2): 131. ISSN: 8756-971X.

NAL Call No.: QL536 J686

Descriptors: Aedes albopictus as disease vector, transmission, identification of viral antigen, reverse transcription PCR, Pennsylvania.

Abstract: In August 2000, Aedes albopictus was found in a CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control light trap in eastern Philadelphia, PA. In late September 2000, West Nile viral antigen was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing from a pool of 2 Ae. albopictus mosquitoes that were collected in southwestern Montgomery County.

 

Hunt, A.R.; Hall, R.A.; Kerst, A.J.; Nasci, R.S.; Savage, H.M.; Panella, N.A.; Gottfried, K.L.; Burkhalter, K.L.; Roehrig, J.T. Detection of West Nile virus antigen in mosquitoes and avian tissues by a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. June 2002. v. 40 (6) p. 2023-2030. ISSN: 0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors: viral antigens, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex mosquitoes, Corvus brachyrhynchos, crows.

 

Kamimura K; Horio M; Nakamura M; Doi R; Takashima I; Igarashi A; Ahmed A; Takasu T. Sampling of Culex tritaeniorhynchus for virus isolation in Karachi and Haleji Lake, a suburb of Karachi, Pakistan. Medical Entomology and Zoology. 2002, 53: Supplement 2, 43-46; 6 ref.

NAL Call No.: QL99 E3

Descriptors: mosquito disease vectors, West Nile virus strains, mosquito surveys, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Karachi, Pakistan.

 

Katz, Yeshayahu; Lustig, Shlomo; Ben Shlomo, Izhar; Kobiler, David; Ben-Nathan, David. Inhalation anesthetic-induced neuroinvasion by an attenuated strain of West Nile virus in mice. Journal of Medical Virology. 2002 Apr; 66(4): 576-80. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: immune suppressors, nitrous oxide inhalation, anesthetics, West Nile viruses, mouse model, at risk populations, brain invasion factors, subclinical infections.

Abstract: There are contradictory reports regarding the effects of inhalation anesthetics on the immune system. Measurable immune responses have been studied in vitro, but little is known about the in vivo effects in the intact organism. We used an attenuated, non-neuroinvasive, nonlethal strain of the encephalitic West Nile virus, termed WN-25, which can become lethal in combination with environmental stressors, to study possible modulatory immune effects of inhalation anesthetics in mice. Both single short-term exposure and repeated exposure to halothane and nitrous oxide were studied. Exposure to 30% CO2 served as a positive control. Mortality, brain invasion, spleen weight, and antiviral antibodies served as the experimental endpoints. Halothane and nitrous oxide led to viral brain invasion, increased mortality, and suppressed immune response in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Repeated exposures had a cumulative effect. Assessment of the stability of the viral attenuation did not demonstrate any alteration in the character of the virus, suggesting an increased access to the brain by inhalation anesthetics that led to the fatal encephalitis. These findings may be of special concern to populations at risk, such as operating room staff and patients undergoing general anesthesia in endemic areas of encephalitic virus species, in which subclinical infection may develop into an overt disease.

 

Kennedy, D. A Tiger tale. Science. 2002 Aug 30; 297 (5586): 1445 ISSN: 1095-9203.

NAL Call No.: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: Aedes mosquito virology; West Nile Fever, epidemiology and transmission, virus physiology, Southeastern Asia; District of Columbia, ecosystem factors, Maryland.

 

Kesson, Alison M.; Cheng, Ying; King-Nicholas, J.C. Regulation of immune recognition molecules by flavivirus, West Nile. Viral Immunology. 2002; 15 (2): 273-283. ISSN: 0882-8245.

Descriptors: cell cycles, immune molecules, major histocompatability complex class-I and class-II (MHC-I, MHC-II), ICAM-1, VCAM, and E-selectin.

 

Klein, C.; Kimiagar, I.; Pollak, L.; Gandelman-Marton, R.; Itzhaki, A.; Milo, R.; Rabey, J.M. Neurological features of West Nile Virus infection during the 2000 outbreak in a regional hospital in Israel. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2002 Aug 15; 200(1-2): 63-6. ISSN: 0022-510X.

Descriptors: West Nile virus, Israel, disease symptoms, encephalitis, seasonal rates, bird migration pathways.

Abstract: During the summer of 2000, 35 patients with West Nile Virus Fever were admitted to our hospital. Of these, the 26 (21 adults, mean age 56 (19-86) and 5 children (aged 9-15)) presented have neurological involvement, 33% with meningitis, 52% with meningoencephalitis, 10% with encephalitis and 5% with acute polyneuropathy. Presenting clinical features were fever in 95% of cases, headache in 90%, nausea/vomiting in 52%, confusion in 48%, somnolence in 38%, neck stiffness in 33%, a skin rash in 19%, diarrhea in 14%, cervical pain in 14%, seizure in 9%, photophobia in 9% and limb weakness in 4%. Leucopenia was not found. Two patients diagnosed with meningoencephalitis died. Three patients had signs of an acute polyneuropathy, this being the only complaint of one patient. The EEG was abnormal in all cases of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, except in three cases. Outbreaks of West Nile Virus Fever are emerging as a worldwide disease with high rates of neurological involvement and death. It should be considered in cases presenting with aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis and acute polyneuropathy, especially during the summer months and in areas along bird migration pathways.

 

Knight, Jonathan. US zoos keep watch for cross-species killer. Nature. 2002 May 30; 417(6888): 477. ISSN: 0028-0836.

NAL Call No.: 472 N21

Descriptors: West Nile virus, zoo animals, risks of infection, epidemiology.

 

Komar, Nicholas; Lanciotti, Robert; Bowen, Richard; Langevin, Stanley; Bunning, Michel. Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. July, 2002; 8 (7): 741-742. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus, crows, jays postmortem swab sampling, detection method.

Abstract: We evaluated if postmortem cloacal and oral swabs could replace brain tissue as a specimen for West Nile virus (WNV) detection. WNV was detected in all three specimen types from 20 dead crows and jays with an average of >10(5) WNV PFU in each. These findings suggest that testing cloacal or oral swabs might be a low-resource approach to detect WNV in dead birds.


Lanciotti, R.S.; Ebel,G.D.; Deubel, V.; Kerst, A.J.; Murri, S.; Meyer, R.; Bowen, M.; McKinney, N.; Morrill, W.E.; Crabtree, M.B. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology. June 20, 2002. v. 298 (1) p. 96-105. ISSN: 0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: nucleotide sequences, phylogenetics, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Italy, Romania, Egypt, various isolated viral strains.

 

Lazar, Arye; Epstein, Eyal; Lustig, Shlomo; Barnea, Ada; Silberstein, Lea; Reuveny, Shaul. Inactivation of west-nile virus during peptic cleavage of horse plasma IgG. Biologicals. 2002 Jun; 30(2): 163-5. ISSN: 1045-1056.

NAL Call No.: QH301 J68

Descriptors: West Nile virus, plasma IgG, F(ab) products, immunotherapy, plasma-derived medical products, guidelines, viral clearance.

Abstract: Peptic cleavage of horse plasma IgG is a common procedure for the preparation of F(ab)(2) products for human use, such as antivenin and antitoxin.(1) The removal of the Fc fragment from the IgG molecule by enzymatic cleavage at low pH, ensures fewer side-effects of the F(ab)(2) product for passive immunotherapy compared with the whole IgG molecule. Since the starting material may be contaminated by zoonotic horse viruses, it is necessary to demonstrate the removal or inactivation of possible viral contaminants. Guidelines for performing such studies were published by the Commission for Plasma-Derived Medical Products (CPMP),(2) and updated by the Committee for Proprietary Medical Products.(3) It is recommended that viral clearance studies be performed on scaled down production processes that have been identified as possibly contributing to virus clearance and spiking of a model virus to the starting material. The model virus should be non-pathogenic but closely related to the potential infective virus. By quantifying the amount of virus in the product before and after the production process, the amount of virus cleared can be determined. Log(10) reductions of the order of 4 logs or more, and a biphasic inactivation curve (fast initial phase followed by a slower phase), are indicative of a clearance effect with a particular test virus under investigation.(3)

 

Li, W; Li, Y; Kedersha, N; Anderson, P; Emara, M; Swiderek, KM; Moreno, GT; Brinton, MA. Cell proteins TIA-1 and TIAR interact with the 3' stem-loop of the West Nile virus complementary minus-strand RNA and facilitate virus replication. Journal of Virology. 2002 Dec; 76(23): 11989-2000  ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:  membrane protein metabolism, RNA, viral genetics, binding proteins, viral physiology, viral pathogenicity.

Abstract: It was reported previously that four baby hamster kidney (BHK) proteins with molecular masses of 108, 60, 50, and 42 kDa bind specifically to the 3'-terminal stem-loop of the West Nile virus minus-stand RNA [WNV 3'(-) SL RNA] (P. Y. Shi, W. Li, and M. A. Brinton, J. Virol. 70:6278-6287, 1996). In this study, p42 was purified using an RNA affinity column and identified as TIAR by peptide sequencing. A 42-kDa UV-cross-linked viral RNA-cell protein complex formed in BHK cytoplasmic extracts incubated with the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA was immunoprecipitated by anti-TIAR antibody. Both TIAR and the closely related protein TIA-1 are members of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family of RNA binding proteins. TIA-1 also binds to the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA. The specificity of these viral RNA-cell protein interactions was demonstrated using recombinant proteins in competition gel mobility shift assays. The binding site for the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA was mapped to RRM2 on both TIAR and TIA-1. However, the dissociation constant (K(d)) for the interaction between TIAR RRM2 and the WNV 3'(-) SL RNA was 1.5 x 10(-8), while that for TIA-1 RRM2 was 1.12 x 10(-7). WNV growth was less efficient in murine TIAR knockout cell lines than in control cells. This effect was not observed for two other types of RNA viruses or two types of DNA viruses. Reconstitution of the TIAR knockout cells with TIAR increased the efficiency of WNV growth, but neither the level of TIAR nor WNV replication was as high as in control cells. These data suggest a functional role for TIAR and possibly also for TIA-1 during WNV replication.

 

Lok, C. Biting back. The West Nile virus and more-dangerous insect-carried relatives are in the U.S. to stay. U.S. News and World Report. 2002 Aug 19; 133(7): 14-7. ISSN: 0041-5537.

NAL Call No.: 280.8 Un33A

Descriptors:  Culicidae mosquito virology; insect vectors of zoonotic diseases, West-Nile fever epidemiology, prevention, repellents, vector control, U.S

 

Lopez, W. West Nile virus in New York City. American Journal of Public Health.2002 Aug; 92(8): 1218-21. ISSN: 0090-0036.

NAL Call No.: 449.9 Am3J

Descriptors: Communicable Disease Control legislation and jurisprudence, disease control, Public Health Administration, West Nile Fever prevention-and-control, bioterrorism, Culicidae mosquito virology, insect vectors virology, insecticides administration and dosage, New York City epidemiology, organizational case studies, politics, epidemiology. 

Abstract: In 1999, a cluster of encephalitis cases was detected in New York City. The city applied larvicide to standing water and aerially sprayed pesticides to control adult mosquitoes. The causative agent was West Nile virus, a type of encephalitis that had never before been transmitted in the western hemisphere. This experience offers many lessons for the practitioners of public health and of public health law. A public health infrastructure that does not lose sight of the old threats must be maintained. The public health and environmental governmental establishments must work together. Law is closely intertwined with policy and programmatic initiatives and can facilitate a better public health outcome.

 

Ludwig, GV; Calle, PP; Mangiafico, JA; Raphael, BL; Danner, DK; Hile, JA; Clippinger, TL; Smith, JF; Cook, RA; McNamara, T . An outbreak of West Nile virus in a New York City captive wildlife population. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2002 Jul; 67(1): 67-75. ISSN:  0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors:  bird virology, mammals, mortality of captive species, West Nile virus isolation and purification, New York City, RNA, species specificity, Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park, zoo as sentinels for emerging diseases, antibody testing.

Abstract: An outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in and around New York City during the late summer of 1999 was the cause of extensive mortality among free-ranging birds. Within the Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park, viral activity was also observed and produced some morbidity and mortality among specimens in the zoo's bird collection and probably caused morbidity in at least one specimen from the zoo's mammal collection. To determine the extent of the outbreak and attempt to ascertain the temporal appearance of virus within the park, a serologic survey of birds and mammals was performed. The survey showed that 34% of tested birds (125 of 368; 124 species) were positive for antibody to WNV. The virus caused a disease to infection ratio of 22% (27 of 125) among birds with a 70% (19 of 27) case fatality rate. In contrast, only 8% of the mammals (9 of 117; 35 species) possessed antibody to WNV and there was no virus-associated mortality. Testing of banked and fresh sera obtained from both birds and mammals revealed that there was no evidence of WNV circulation before the 1999 outbreak and that birds introduced into the park were not the source of the New York outbreak. West Nile virus RNA was detected in tissues from one bird that died in February 2000, long after the end of the mosquito transmission season. The potential importance of zoologic parks as possible sentinels for emerging diseases is discussed.

 

Mackenzie, JS; Barrett, AD; Deubel, V. The Japanese encephalitis serological group of flaviviruses: a brief introduction to the group. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 1-10  ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: encephalitis viruses of Japan, viral classification, pathogenicity,  arbovirus etiology, transmission, West Nile virus. 

 

Malakoff, D. Infectious disease. Bird advocates fear that West Nile virus could silence the spring. Science. 2002 Sep 20; 297(5589): 1989  ISSN:  1095-9203.

NAL Call No.: 470 SCI2

Descriptors: epidemiology of bird diseases, migratory birds, wild song birds, bird mortality levels, transmission, Caribbean, U.S. 

 

Malkinson, Mertyn; Banet, Caroline; Weisman, Yoram; Pokamunski, Shimon; King, Roni; Drouet, Marie Therese; Deubel, Vincent. Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating white storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Apr; 8(4): 392-7. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus, infected white storks, disease introduction from migrating birds, Israel, isolate typing.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated in a flock of 1,200 migrating white storks that landed in Eilat, a town in southern Israel, on August 26, 1998. Strong, hot westerly winds had forced the storks to fly under considerable physical stress before reaching the agricultural land surrounding the town. Most of the flock were fledglings, <1 year old, which had hatched in Europe. Thirteen dead or dying storks were collected 2 days after arrival and submitted to the laboratory for examination. Four WNV isolates were obtained from their brains. Out of 11 storks tested six days after arrival, three had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Comparative analysis of full-length genomic sequences of a stork isolate and a 1999 flamingo isolate from the USA showed 28 nucleotide (nt) (0.25%) and 10 amino acid (0.3%) changes. Sequence analysis of the envelope gene of the stork isolate showed almost complete identity with isolates from Israeli domestic geese in 1998 and 1999 and from a nonmigrating, white-eyed gull in 1999. Since these storks were migrating southwards for the first time and had not flown over Israel, we assume that they had become infected with WNV at some point along their route of migration in Europe.

 

Malkinson, M; Banet, C. The role of birds in the ecology of West Nile virus in Europe and Africa. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 309-22. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  wild birds, disease reservoirs, transmission, migratory patterns, viral detections, pathogenicity, geographical spread, Africa, Europe, equines in Italy and France, overwintering viral reservoirs.

Abstract: Surveys on wild birds conducted during the last two decades in Europe, notably Poland and the Czech Republic, to determine their infection rate with WN virus have revealed endemic foci of infection. Some species of seropositive birds were nonmigrators while others were hatchlings of migrating species. Persistently infected avian reservoirs are potential sources of viruses for mosquitoes that multiply in the temperate European zone in hot, wet summers. In the past, evidence for geographical circulation of WN viruses was based on antigenic analysis of strains from different countries while more recent epidemiological studies have relied on analysis of nucleotide sequences of the envelope gene. With the reappearance of epidemic WN fever in European countries, interest has been focused once again on the African origin of the causal agent carried by migrating wild birds. In some epidemics, isolates were made from human cases or mosquitoes and only serologic evidence for infection was available from domestic and wild bird populations. In this respect the unusual findings of anti-WN virus antibodies in a population of storks maintained in northern Germany could be interpreted as evidence for local infection. The unique susceptibility of young domestic geese in Israel in 1997-2000 to WN virus and the isolation of similar strains from migrating White storks in Israel and Egypt suggest that the recent isolates are more pathogenic for certain avain species and that migrating birds do play a crucial role in geographical spread of the virus. Knowledge of the routes taken by birds migrating between Africa and Europe will therefore help in selecting sites where attempts to isolate viruses will be most fruitful. The appearance of the disease in western European equine populations (Italy and France) requires that other birds and their migratory routes be investigated once more. It remains to be determined whether the European endemic foci of WN virus are in themselves sources of infection for other birds that migrate across Europe and do not necessarily reach sub-Saharan Africa. If this is the case it will be necessary to define the strategies for detection of virus overwintering in the European temperate climate.

 

Mandic, J. Ponovno uzrokuje smrtonosne bolesti ljudi i zivotinja. [West Nile virus again causes fatal diseases in animals and humans.] Veterinarska Stanica. 2002, 33: 3, 129-131. In Croatian .

Descriptors: vectors of  zoonotic diseases, horses, humans, West Nile virus, Croatia. 

 

Marx, KL; Roston, MA; Marx, KL (ed.); Roston, MA. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA, 28-30 April 2002. 2002, 186 pp.; many ref.

Note:  The proceedings contains 27 articles on various aspects of avian medicine surgery,  injuries and illness, disease surveillance of Wet Nile virus, and a variety of other diseases.  Toxicoses, pancreatic cancer and stifle luxation are also topics.  Some papers deal with basic and advanced diagnostic techniques, hematology, dermatology, behavior, nutrition, pet parrot taxonomy and disease susceptibility.

Descriptors:  handling and care of pet birds, diseases parasites, veterinary techniques, toxicology, etc. 

 

Mashimo, T; Lucas, M; Simon-Chazottes, D; Frenkiel, MP; Montagutelli, X; Ceccaldi, PE; Deubel, V; Guenet, JL; Despres, P. A nonsense mutation in the gene encoding 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase/L1 isoform is associated with West Nile virus susceptibility in laboratory mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002 Aug 20; 99(17): 11311-6. ISSN: 0027-8424

Descriptors:  animal disease model, mouse model, 2',5' oligoadenylate synthetase genetics, codon, nonsense genetics, genetic predisposition to disease, West Nile fever genetics and pathogenicity, DNA primers, inbred BALB-C mice, inbred C57BL mice, virulence, virus classification. 

Abstract: A mouse model has been established to investigate the genetic determinism of host susceptibility to West Nile (WN) virus, a member of the genus flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. Whereas WN virus causes encephalitis and death in most laboratory inbred mouse strains after peripheral inoculation, most strains derived from recently trapped wild mice are completely resistant. The phenotype of resistance/susceptibility is determined by a major locus, Wnv, mapping to chromosome 5 within the 0.4-cM-wide interval defined by markers D5Mit408 and D5Mit242. We constructed a high resolution composite/consensus map of the interval by merging the data from the mouse T31 Radiation Hybrid map and those from the homologous region of human chromosome 12q, and found the cluster of genes encoding 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (2'-5'-OAS) to be the most prominent candidate. This cluster encodes a multimember family of IFN-inducible proteins that is known to play an important role in the established endogenous antiviral pathway. Comparing the cDNA sequences of 2'-5'-OAS L1, L2, and L3 isoforms, between susceptible and resistant strains, we identified a STOP codon in exon 4 of the gene encoding the L1 isoform in susceptible strains that can lead to a truncated form with amputation of one domain, whereas all resistant mice tested so far have a normal copy of this gene. The observation that WN virus sensitivity of susceptible mice was completely correlated with the occurrence of a point mutation in 2'-5'-OAS L1 suggests that this isoform may play a critical role in WN pathogenesis.

 

Mayo, Donald R.; Beckwith III, William H. Inactivation of West Nile Virus during Serologic Testing and Transport. Journal of Clinical Mmicrobiology. 2002 Aug; 40(8): 3044-6. ISSN: 0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors: virus viability, effects of detergent buffers, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, temperature effects, sample transport.

Abstract: Inactivation of West Nile virus (WNV) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) wash buffer at 37 degrees C was studied, as well as inactivation of WNV in cell culture medium over several days at an ambient temperature (28 degrees C). Aliquots of WNV were removed from the 37 degrees C ELISA wash buffer at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min for the former experiment, while daily aliquots of medium were sampled for the latter experiment. No virus was detected in the wash buffer at 30 and 60 min, while virus was readily detected from cell culture medium over this time. In addition, titers of WNV consistently dropped over a 7-day period at 28 degrees C compared to control suspensions of virus held at 4 degrees C. These observations indicate that WNV is readily inactivated in the presence of detergent-containing buffers. Furthermore, the viability loss at ambient temperature suggests that WNV is easily inactivated during routine transportation and testing of human body fluids such as serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

 

McLean, RG; Ubico, SR; Bourne, D; Komar, N. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 271-308. ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  domestic animals, horses, geese, birds, Europe, North American birds, crows, songbirds, new disease characteristics and patterns, viral evolution, bird migration, viral reservoirs, impacts on wildlife, vectors, insect control, etiology, population surveillance, reptiles, amphibians. 

Abstract: WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to the emergence of one or more new strains of WN virus. Virus isolated in New York in 1999 was found to be identical to that from Israel. It was alarming for WN virus to so easily invade the United States and surprising that it became established so quickly in the temperature climate of New York. Its persistence and rapid expansion in the United States leave a number of unanswered questions. New disease characteristics and patterns have occurred and more are evolving as WN virus further invades the western hemisphere. Additional animal research is needed to answer these questions. Some of the research needs include bird migration as a mechanism of virus dispersal, vector and vertebrate host relationships, virus persistence mechanisms, laboratory diagnosis, viral pathogenesis, risk factor studies, vaccine development, and WN virus impact on wildlife (CDC 2001a). Determination of the primary reservoir host species that are involved in the epidemiology of WN virus and the suitable sentinel species for active surveillance are also important research areas.

 

Meek, James. West Nile virus in the United States. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 2002 Feb; 14(1): 72-7. ISSN: 1040-8703

Descriptors: West Nile virus, New York City, introduction site in 1999, review of U.S. introduction and spread.

Abstract: In the late summer of 1999, the first known cases of West Nile virus infection in the Western Hemisphere were recorded in New York City. These first cases were the hallmarks of an outbreak of West Nile virus infection that resulted in 7 deaths among 62 confirmed cases and an estimated 8200 asymptomatic to mild infections among residents and visitors in Queens, New York. This article reviews West Nile virus and its spread in the United States since its introduction in 1999.

Miller, EA; Marx, KL (ed.); Roston, MA. Common injuries and illnesses of native wild birds. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA, 28-30 April 2002. 2002, 2002, 81-87; 24 ref.

Descriptors: animal parasitic nematodes, drug toxicity, lead poisoning, pesticides, poisoning, toxicity, toxicology, trauma, wild animals, zoonoses.

 

Miller, E; Bunting, E; Welte, S; Jean, JH; Marx, KL (ed.); Roston, MA. West Nile Virus surveillance at a wild bird rehabilitation center in Newark, Delaware 2001. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA, 28-30 April 2002. 2002, 88-98; 7 ref.

Descriptors:  disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, wild birds, surveillance studies for West Nile virus, Delaware, U.S.

 

Mitchell, CJ; Morilla, A (ed.); Yoon, KJ (ed.); Zimmerman, JJ. Arthropod vector and vertebrate host associations of West Nile virus. Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine. 2002, 269-279; many ref.

Descriptors: arboviruses, disease control and prevention, disease transmission factors, epidemiology, genotypes, vector borne diseases, vectors, vertebrate hosts and reservoirs. 

 

Morrey, John D.; Smee, Donald F.; Sidwell, Robert W.; Tseng, Christopher. Identification of active antiviral compounds against a New York isolate of West Nile virus. Antiviral Research. 2002 Jul; 55(1): 107-16. ISSN: 0166-3542

NAL Call No.: QR355.A5

Descriptors: West Nile fever, NY and Uganda isolates, therapies, 34 compounds, vero cell culture, MA-104 cells, invitro tests, 6-azauridine triacetate, cyclopententylcytosine (CPE-C), mycophenolic acid, pyrazofurin.

Abstract: The recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in the United States has increased the need to identify effective therapies for this disease. A chemotherapeutic approach may be a reasonable strategy because the virus infection is typically not chronic and antiviral drugs have been identified to be effective in vitro against other flaviviruses. A panel of 34 substances was tested against infection of a recent New York isolate of WNV in Vero cells and active compounds were also evaluated in MA-104 cells. Some of these compounds were also evaluated in Vero cells against the 1937 Uganda isolate of the WNV. Six compounds were identified to be effective against virus-induced CPE with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) less than 10 microg/ml and with a selectivity index (SI) of greater than 10. Known inhibitors of orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase involved in the synthesis of GTP, UTP, and TTP were most effective. The compounds 6-azauridine, 6-azauridine triacetate, cyclopententylcytosine (CPE-C), mycophenolic acid and pyrazofurin appeared to have the greatest activities against the New York isolate, followed by 2-thio-6-azauridine. Anti-WNV activity of 6-azauridine was confirmed by virus yield reduction assay when the assay was performed 2 days after initial infection in Vero cells. The neutral red assay mean EC50 of ribavirin was only 106 microg/ml with a mean SI of 9.4 against the New York isolate and only slightly more effective against the Uganda isolate. There were some differences in the drug sensitivities of the New York and Uganda isolates, but when comparisons were made by categorizing drugs according to their modes of action, similarities of activities between the two isolates were identified.

 

Morrey, J.D.; Sidwell, R.W.; Smee, D.L.; Day, C.W. Cell line-dependent antiviral activity of ribavirin for West Nile virus. Antiviral Research. March, 2002; 53 (3): A49. ISSN: 0166-3542

NAL Call No.: QR355.A5

Descriptors: West Nile virus, antiviral compounds, efficacy.

 

Mullin, Sandra. Public health and the media: the challenge now faced by bioterrorism. Journal of Urban Health Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2002 Mar; 79(1): 12. ISSN: 1099-3460.

Descriptors: bioterrorism, public health concerns, communication, disaster planning, infectious diseases, HIV, West Nile virus, New York City.

 

Murgue, B; Zeller, H; Deubel, V. The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe and Asia.

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 195-221. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: historical perspective, disease, outbreaks, Africa, Asia, epidemiology, insect vectors, virology, virus isolation and purification.  

 

Ng, ML; Chu, JH. Interaction of West Nile and Kunjin viruses with cellular components during morphogenesis. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 353-72. ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: West Nile virus growth and development;  pathogenicity, Cercopithecus aethiops, cytopathogenic effect,  electron microscopy, microtubules ultrastructure, morphogenesis, Vero cells, virulence, virus replication,West Nile fever, etiology.

 

O'Leary, D.R.; Nasci, R.S.; Campbell, G.L.; Marfin, A.A. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile Virus activity--United States, 2001. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002 Jul 10; 288(2): 158-9; discussion 159-60. ISSN: 0098-7484.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 Am37

Descriptors: West Nile fever epidemiology, avian viral diseases, bird diseases, Culicidae, population surveillance, prevention and control, transmission, virus isolation and purification, public health concerns.

 

Pennycott, T.W.; Gough, R.E.; Wood, A.M.; Reid, H.W. Encephalitis of unknown aetiology in young starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Veterinary Record. Aug 17, 2002. v. 151 (7) p. 213-214. ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: sturnus vulgaris, passer domesticus, encephalitis, young animals, etiology, West Nile virus, brain, histopathology.

 

Perelygin, AA; Scherbik, SV; Zhulin, IB; Stockman, BM; Li, Y; Brinton, MA. Positional cloning of the murine flavivirus resistance gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002 Jul 9; 99(14): 9322-7. ISSN: 0027-8424.

NAL Call No.: 500 N21P

Descriptors:  flavivirus pathogenicity, infections and genetics, 2',5' oligoadenylate synthetase genetics, cell line, chromosome mapping, cloning, flavivirus physiology, gene expression, laboratory animals, hamsters, inbred strains of mice, viral replications. 

Sequence information:  GENBANK/AF217002; GENBANK/AF217003; GENBANK/AF261233; GENBANK/AF319547; GENBANK/AF328926; GENBANK/AF328927; GENBANK/AF418004; GENBANK/AF418005; GENBANK/AF418006; GENBANK/AF418007; GENBANK/AF418008; GENBANK/AF418009; GENBANK/AF418010; GENBANK/AF453830; GENBANK/AF459815; GENBANK/AF481733; GENBANK/AY055829; GENBANK/AY055830; GENBANK/AY055831; GENBANK/AY057107

Abstract: Inbred mouse strains exhibit significant differences in their susceptibility to viruses in the genus Flavivirus, which includes human pathogens such as yellow fever, Dengue, and West Nile virus. A single gene, designated Flv, confers this differential susceptibility and was mapped previously to a region of mouse chromosome 5. A positional cloning strategy was used to identify 22 genes from the Flv gene interval including 10 members of the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene family. One 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene, Oas1b, was identified as Flv by correlation between genotype and phenotype in nine mouse strains. Susceptible mouse strains produce a protein lacking 30% of the C-terminal sequence as compared with the resistant counterpart because of the presence of a premature stop codon. The Oas1b gene differs from all the other murine Oas genes by a unique four-amino acid deletion in the P-loop located within the conserved RNA binding domain. Expression of the resistant allele of Oas1b in susceptible embryo fibroblasts resulted in partial inhibition of the replication of a flavivirus but not of an alpha togavirus.

 

Perl, S; Fiette, L; Lahav, D; Sheichat, N; Banet, C; Orgad, U; Stram, Y; Malkinson, M. West Nile virus encephalitis in horses in Israel. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2002; 57 (2): 65-69. ISSN:  0334-9152.

Descriptors: 5 case studies, horses, clinical, histopathological and virological findings, neurological signs, West Nile virus antigen in brain and spinal column.

 

Pletnev, Alexander G.; Putnak, Robert; Speicher, Jim; Wagar, Eric J.; Vaughn, David W. West Nile virus/dengue type 4 virus chimeras that are reduced in neurovirulence and peripheral virulence without loss of immunogenicity or protective efficacy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002 Mar 5; 99(5): 3036-41. ISSN: 0027-8424.

NAL Call No.: 500 N21P

Descriptors: West Nile virus, attenuated vaccine strain, chimerization within dengue virus type 4, vaccine potential, mouse model.

Abstract: A candidate live attenuated vaccine strain was constructed for West Nile virus (WN), a neurotropic flavivirus that has recently emerged in the U.S. Considerable attenuation for mice was achieved by chimerization with dengue virus type 4 (DEN4). The genes for the structural premembrane and envelope proteins of DEN4 present in an infectious cDNA clone were replaced by the corresponding genes of WN strain NY99. Two of 18 cDNA clones of a WN/DEN4 chimera yielded full-length RNA transcripts that were infectious when transfected into susceptible cells. The two infectious clones shared a motif in the transmembrane signal domain located immediately downstream of the NS2B-NS3 protease cleavage site that separates the DEN4 capsid protein and the WN premembrane protein of the chimera. This motif, Asp and Thr at a position 3 and 6 amino acids downstream of the cleavage site, respectively, was not present in the 16 noninfectious cDNA clones. The WN/DEN4 chimera was highly attenuated in mice compared with its WN parent; the chimera was at least 28,500 times less neurovirulent in suckling mice inoculated intracerebrally and at least 10,000 times less virulent in adult mice inoculated intraperitoneally. Nonetheless, the WN/DEN4 chimera and a deletion mutant derived from it were immunogenic and provided complete protection against lethal WN challenge. These observations provide the basis for pursuing the development of a live attenuated WN vaccine.

 

Pollack, Richard J.; Kiszewski, Anthony E.; Spielman, Andrew. Repelling mosquitoes. New England Journal of Medicine. July 4, 2002; 347 (1): 2-3. ISSN: 0028-4793.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 N442

Descriptors: mosquito vector control, human and animal pests, repellent formulations, transmission, prevention and control, vector borne diseases, West Nile virus, Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, 134-62-3: N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, 134-62-3: N, N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide.

 

Prilipov, A G; Kinney, R M; Samokhvalov, E I; Savage, H M; Al'khovskii, S V; Tsuchiya, K R; Gromashevskii, V L; Sadykova, G K; Shatalov, A G; Vyshemirskii, O I; Usachev, E V; Mokhonov, V V; Voronina, A G; Butenko, A M; Larichev, V F; Zhukov, A N; Kovtunov, A I; Gubler, D J; L'vov, D K. Analiz novykh variantov virusa likhoradki Zapadnogo Nila. [Analysis of new variants of West Nile fever virus]. Voprosy Virusologii. 2002 Jul-Aug; 47(4): 36-41. ISSN:  0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors: West Nile virus classification, 6 strains, molecular sequence data, grouping of strains, viral envelope protein genetics.

Abstract: The complete nucleotide sequences for 6 strains of the West Nile fever virus were determined. For the first time the complete nucleotide sequences of the Indian isolate and Krsn190 strain, that is the most far phylogenetically from all isolates known at present time were established. The scheme for separation of virus variants into 4 groups and criteria for determination the group to which the isolate belongs are suggested.

 

Ramanathan, MP; Yang, JS; Curley, EMW; Su, M; Chambers, JA; Weiner, DB. Identification of a novel cellular receptor protein, Wip as a ligand for the West Nile Virus Capsid. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002; 102: 474. ISSN: 1060-2011. 102nd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, May 19-23, 2002.

NAL Call No.: QR1.A5

Descriptors: meeting abstract, West Nile capsid DNA, immunogen, mice, localization of the protein- ligand interaction, virus pathobiology.             

 

Reed, SM; Nout, Y; Sofaly, C; Saville, WJ. Review of selected neurological diseases of the horse. Ippologia. 2002, 13: 2, 3-25; 90 ref.  ISSN: 1120-5776. In English and Italian.

Descriptors:  horses, brain diseases, diagnosis, disease prevention, encephalitis, myeloencephalopathy, myelopathy, pathogenesis, polyneuropathy, prognosis, reviews, treatment, equine herpesvirus 1, Neospora, Sarcocystis, West Nile virus. 

 

Ricchi, R. Animali sinantropi e flavivirus in Toscana. [Synanthropic animals and flaviviruses in Tuscany.] Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari. 2002, 23: 3, 61-64; 20 ref.  ISSN:  0392-1913. In Italian.

Descriptors:  disease vectors, domestic animals, human diseases, mosquito borne diseases, reservoir hosts, tickborne diseases, tickborne encephalitis, vector borne diseases, zoonotic diseases, mosquitoes, Aedes vexans, Culex-pipiens, Dermacentor marginatus, horses, Hyalomma-marginatum, Ixodes-ricinus, humans, pigeons, West Nile virus, Tuscany, Italy, animal reservoirs.

 

Roehrig, J T; Layton, M; Smith, P; Campbell, G L; Nasci, R; Lanciotti, R S. The emergence of West Nile virus in North America: ecology, epidemiology, and surveillance. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 223-40.ISSN: 0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  West Nile fever, epidemiology, virus isolation and purification, emerging disease outbreaks, New York City, insect vectors, North America infections in birds and mosquitoes, surveillance program, seasonality. 

Abstract: In late summer 1999, the first domestically acquired human cases of WN encephalitis were documented in the USA. Aggressive vector-control and public education efforts by state and local public health officials limited the extent of human involvement. The discovery of virus-infected, overwintering mosquitoes during the winter of 1999-2000, predicted renewed virus activity for the following spring, and prompted early season vector-control activities and disease surveillance efforts in NYC and the surrounding areas. These surveillance efforts were focused on identifying WN virus infections in birds and mosquitoes as predictors of the potential risk of transmission to humans. By the end of the 2000 mosquito-borne disease transmission season, WN virus activity had been documented as far north as the states of Vermont and New Hampshire, and as far south as the state of North Carolina. The ongoing impacts that WN virus will have on wildlife, domestic animal and human populations of the western hemisphere are not yet known. Plans are in place for public health officials and scientists to monitor the further expansion of WN virus with the establishment or enhancement of vector-borne disease surveillance and control programs throughout the eastern seaboard. The valuable lessons learned from the detection and response to the introduction of WN virus into NYC should prove useful if and when subsequent intrusions of new disease agents occur.

 

Rogers, D.J.; Myers, M.F.; Tucker, C.J.; Smith, P.F,; White, D.J.; Backenson, P.B.; Eidson, M.; Kramer, L.D.; Bakker, B.; Hay, S.I. Predicting the distribution of West Nile fever in North America using satellite sensor data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 2002, 68: 2, 112-114; 7 ref. ISSN: 0099-1112.

NAL Call No.: 325.28 P56

Descriptors: human disease monitoring, remote sensing, West Nile fever, West Nile virus, computer modeling, disease expansion, US, Canada.

Abstract: This article focuses on the use of remotely sensed satellite data in monitoring and predicting the spread of West Nile fever in the USA.

 

Scherret, JH; Mackenzie, JS; Hall, RA; Deubel, V; Gould, EA. Phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of West Nile and Kunjin viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 373-90  ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors: epidemiology, virus classification and genetics, viral evolution, immunology, emvelope proteins genetics, pathogenicity.  

 

Shi, PY; Tilgner, M; Lo, MK. Construction and characterization of subgenomic replicons of New York strain of West Nile virus. Virology. 2002 May 10; 296(2): 219-33. ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors:  replication and pathogenesis, Lineage I strain of virus of North American origin, constructed cDNA replicons, C DNA plasmids and transfected into BHK-21 cells, TaqMan, replicons are potential effective tool to study virus replication, virus isolation and purification, hamsters.  

Abstract: The lineage I strain of West Nile virus (WNV) frequently causes human epidemics, including the recent outbreak in North America (Lanciotti et al., 1999, Science 286:2333-2337). As an initial step in studying the replication and pathogenesis of WNV, we constructed several cDNA clones of a WNV replicon derived from an epidemic strain (lineage I) isolated from the epicenter of New York City in the year 2000. Replicon RNAs were in vitro transcribed from cDNA plasmids and transfected into BHK-21 cells. RNA replication in transfected cells was monitored by immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) and 5' nuclease real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan). The replicon RNAs contained large in-frame deletions (greater than 92%) of the C-prM-E structural region yet still replicated efficiently in BHK-21 cells. 5' nuclease real-time RT-PCR showed that a great excess of plus-sense replicon RNA over the minus-sense RNA was synthesized in transfected cells. Replication efficiency decreased upon insertion of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the upstream end of the 3' untranslated region of the replicon. Strong GFP expression was detected in cells transfected with a replicon containing IRES-GFP positioned in the plus-sense orientation. IFA showed that GFP and viral proteins were exclusively coexpressed in transfected cells. In contrast, no GFP fluorescence was observed in cells transfected with a replicon containing IRES-GFP positioned in the minus-sense orientation, despite high levels of synthesis of viral proteins and RNA in the cells. Substitution of the GFP gene in the plus-sense GFP replicon with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene allowed selection of geneticin-resistant cells in which WNV replicons persistently replicated without apparent cytopathic effect. These results suggest that WNV replicons may serve as a noncytopathic RNA virus expression system and should provide a valuable tool to study WNV replication.

 

Shi, Pei Yong; Tilgner, Mark; Lo, Michael K.; Kent, Kim A.; Bernard, Kristen A. Infectious cDNA clone of the epidemic west nile virus from New York City. Journal of Virology. 2002 Jun; 76(12): 5847-56. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: West Nile virus, lineage I strain, clone, reverse transcription, PCR, viral RNA, New York City isolate, in vitro mammalian and insect cell culture, mouse model.

Abstract: We report the first full-length infectious clone of the current epidemic, lineage I, strain of West Nile virus (WNV). The full-length cDNA was constructed from reverse transcription-PCR products of viral RNA from an isolate collected during the year 2000 outbreak in New York City. It was cloned into plasmid pBR322 under the control of a T7 promoter and stably amplified in Escherichia coli HB101. RNA transcribed from the full-length cDNA clone was highly infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells, resulting in progeny virus with titers of 1 x 10(9) to 5 x 10(9) PFU/ml. The cDNA clone was engineered to contain three silent nucleotide changes to create a StyI site (C to A and A to G at nucleotides [nt] 8859 and 8862, respectively) and to knock out an EcoRI site (A to G at nt 8880). These genetic markers were retained in the recovered progeny virus. Deletion of the 3'-terminal 199 nt of the cDNA transcript abolished the infectivity of the RNA. The plaque morphology, in vitro growth characteristics in mammalian and insect cells, and virulence in adult mice were indistinguishable for the parental and recombinant viruses. The stable infectious cDNA clone of the epidemic lineage I strain will provide a valuable experimental system to study the pathogenesis and replication of WNV.

 

Sibbald, B. West Nile virus heads west. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2002 Sep 17; 167(6): 680.   ISSN: 0820-3946.

NAL Call No.: R11 C3

Descriptors:  bird diseases. epidemiology, veterinary aspects, Canada, disease mortality.

 

Slatter, Robin. US adult mosquito control: A changing picture. International Pest Control. March-April, 2002; 44 (2): 52-54. ISSN:  0020-8256.

NAL Call No.: 79.8 P432

Descriptors:  disease vectors control, West Nile virus reservoirs, pesticides, various pesticides mentioned, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenthion, lambda, cyhalothrin, malathion, methoprene, naled/dibrom, organo phosphates, permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrins, resmethrin, temphos.

 

Steinman, A.; Banet, C.; Sutton, G.A.; Yadin, H.; Hadar, S.; Brill, A. Clinical signs of West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses during the outbreak in Israel in 2000. Veterinary Record. 2002 Jul 13; 151(2): 47-9. ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: horses, West Nile virus, case studies, disease symptoms, behavior, Israel.

Abstract: Between August and October 2000, 76 horses were reported by veterinary practitioners as having signs of a neurological disorder, varying from an involvement of the spinal cord alone to the entire central nervous system; 15 of the horses died or were euthanased as a result of their grave prognosis or secondary complications. At the same time, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection affected people and birds, principally domestic geese. West Nile virus was isolated from four of the horses with encephalomyelitis and five other horses seroconverted, indicating that the virus was the probable cause of the outbreak in horses. Three of the cases from which the virus was isolated are described briefly and one case is described in detail. This horse behaved abnormally and had general proprioceptive deficits in all four limbs. Its neurological condition deteriorated after two days and severe inspiratory dyspnoea due to a failure to abduct the arytenoids necessitated a tracheostomy. It died on the fourth day and histological lesions were observed in the brain stem and grey matter of the spinal cord.

 

Tesh, Robert B.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Guzman, Hilda; Araujo, Tais P.; Xiao, Shu Yuan. Immunization with heterologous flaviviruses protective against fatal West Nile encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002 Mar; 8(3): 245-51. ISSN: 1080-6040.
NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: hamsters, heterologous flavivirus immunization, effects on West Nile viruses, experimental infection, viremia, antibody response, deaths.

Abstract: Prior immunization of hamsters with three heterologous flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] SA14-2-8 vaccine, wild-type St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV], and Yellow fever virus [YFV] 17D vaccine) reduces the severity of subsequent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Groups of adult hamsters were immunized with each of the heterologous flaviviruses; approximately 30 days later, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with a virulent New York strain of WNV. Subsequent levels of viremia, antibody response, and deaths were compared with those in nonimmune (control) hamsters. Immunity to JEV and SLEV was protective against clinical encephalitis and death after challenge with WNV. The antibody response inthe sequentially infected hamsters also illustrates the difficulty in making a serologic diagnosis of WNV infection in animals (or humans) with preexisting Flavivirus immunity.

 

Tordo, N. Les zoonoses virales.[1st European meeting on viral zoonoses, Meeting report.] Virologie Montrouge. Mars-Avril, 2002; 6 (2): 139-140. ISSN: 1267-8694.
Descriptors: topics at the meeting include human and animal viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, vectors, West Nile virus.

 

Turell, M.J.; Spring, A.R.; Miller, M.K.; Cannon, C.E. Effect of holding conditions on the detection of West Nile viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools. Journal of Medical Entomology. Jan 2002. v. 39 (1) p. 1-3. Includes references. ISSN: 0022-2585.
NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, West Nile virus, surveillance, detection, RNA, RVA, reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction, sample processing, temperature and time effects and viral detection.

Abstract: We evaluated the effect of holding temperature and time between mosquito death and processing mosquito pools for virus detection on our ability to detect West Nile (WN) viral RNA from pools of mosquitoes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pools of 24 uninfected Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes were "spiked" with either a single Cx. pipiens that had been inoculated previously with WN virus or with an uninfected mosquito. These pools were held dry at 20, 4, -20, or -70 degrees C for selected time intervals before all mosquito pools were triturated in TRIzol LS reagent and processed for detection of WNviral RNA. While infectious virus virtually disappeared from pools maintained at 20 degrees C by 48 h after mosquito death, neither holding temperature (20 to -70 degrees C) nor holding period (up to 2 wk) affected detection of WN viral RNA by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that we need not keep mosquitoes chilled to be able to detect WN viral RNA effectively by RT-PCR. This should enhance the feasibility of field-based WN virus surveillance programs where only detection of WN viral RNA is the objective and maintenance of a cold chain may not be possible.

 

Turell, M.J.; Morrill, J.C.; Rossi, C.A.; Gad, A.M.; Cope, S.E.; Clements, T.L.; Arthur, R.R.;Wasieloski, L.P.; Dohm, D.J.; Nash, D.; Hassan, M.M.; Hassan, A.N.; Morsy, Z.S.; Presley, S.M. Isolation of West Nile and Sindbis viruses from mosquitoes collected in the Nile Valley of Egypt during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever. Journal of Medical Entomology. Jan 2002. v. 39 (1) p. 248-250. Includes references. ISSN: 0022-2585.
NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors:West Nile virus, Sindbus virus, 33 isolates, Culicidae, isolation, identification, disease vectors, Rift Valley fever, outbreaks, Nile Valley, Egypt.

Abstract: As part of an evaluation of potential vectors of arboviruses during a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in the Nile Valley of Egypt in August 1993, we collected mosquitoes in villages with known RVF viral activity. Mosquitoes were sorted to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation both by intracerebral inoculation into suckling mice and by inoculation into cell culture. A total of 33 virus isolates was made from 36,024 mosquitoes. Viruses were initially identified by indirect fluorescent antibody testing and consisted of 30 flaviviruses (all members of the Japanese encephalitis complex, most probably West Nile [WN] virus) and three alphaviruses (all members of western equine encephalitis complex, most probably Sindbis). The identity of selected viruses was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Culex antennatus (Becker) and Culex perexiguus Theobald accounted for five (17%) and 23 (77%) of the WN virus isolations, respectively. Despite isolation of viruses from 32 pools of mosquitoes (both WN and Sindbis viruses were isolated from a single pool), RVF virus was not isolated from these mosquitoes, even though most of them are known competent vectors collected during an ongoing RVF outbreak. Thus, it should be remembered, that even during a known arbovirus outbreak, other arboviruses may still be circulating and causing disease.

 

Turell, MJ; Sardelis, MR; O'Guinn, ML; Dohm, DJ. Potential vectors of West Nile virus in North America. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 241-52. ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:  mosquito vectors, West Nile virus transmission, virus isolation and purification, Culicidae, emerging diseases, North America.

 

van den Hurk, AF; Nisbet, DJ; Foley, PN; Ritchie, SA; Mackenzie, JS; Beebe, NW. Isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from the Gulf Plains region of northwest Queensland, Australia. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2002 Sep; 39(5): 786-92. ISSN:  0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: Arboviruses, isolation and purification, Culicidae mosquito, insect-vector virology and genetics, Murray Valley Encephalitis, Queensland, Ross river-virus, Sindbis Virus, West Nile virus.

Abstract: As part of investigations into Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and related flaviviruses in northern Australia, 153,529 mosquitoes were collected and processed for virus isolation from the Gulf Plains region of northwest Queensland. Collections from within 30 km of each of the townships of Croydon, Normanton and Karumba yielded 3,087 (2.0%), 66,009 (43.0%), and 84,433 (55.0%) mosquitoes, respectively, from which 16 viruses were isolated. Four isolates of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), two of Kunjin (KUN), three of Ross River (RR), and one of Sindbis (SIN) viruses were obtained from Culex sitiens subgroup mosquitoes. Molecular identification of the mosquito species composition of these virus positive pools revealed that most isolates were from pools containing mainly Culex annulirostris Skuse and low numbers of Culex palpalis (Taylor). Only three pools, one each of MVE, KUN, and RR, were from mosquitoes identified exclusively as Cx. annulirostris. Other viruses isolated include one Edge Hill virus from Ochlerotatus normanensis (Taylor), an isolate of SIN from Anopheles meraukensis Venhuis, two isolates of RR from Anopheles amictus Edwards, and single isolates of RR from Anopheles bancroftii Giles and Aedes lineatopennis (Ludlow). The isolate of RR from Ae. lineatopennis was the first reported from this species. The public health implications of these isolations in the Gulf Plains region are discussed briefly.

 

Warrilow, David; Northill, Judith A.; Pyke, Alyssa; Smith, Greg A. Single rapid TaqMan fluorogenic probe based PCR assay that detects all four dengue serotypes. Journal of Medical Virology. April, 2002; 66 (4): 524-528. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: detection methods, diagnostics, vector control, flaviviruses, West Nile virus.

Abstract: Public health laboratories require rapid diagnosis of dengue outbreaks for application of measures such as vector control. We have developed a rapid single fluorogenic probe-based polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of all four dengue serotypes (FUDRT-PCR). The method employs primers and probe that are complementary to the evolutionarily conserved 3' untranslated region of the dengue genome. The assay detected viral RNA of strains of all four dengue serotypes but not of the flaviviruses Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin, Stratford, West Nile, Alfuy or Yellow fever. When compared to an existing nested-PCR assay for the detection of dengue on clinical samples, FUDRT-PCR detected dengue 1 (100%, n=14), dengue 2 (85%, n=13), dengue 3 (64%, n=14) and dengue 4 (100%, n=3) with the indicated sensitivities. FUDRT-PCR enables diagnosis of acute dengue infection in four hours from sample receipt. In addition, a single-test procedure should result in a reduction in the number of tests performed withconsiderable cost savings for diagnostic laboratories.

  

Westaway, EG; Mackenzie, JM; Khromykh, AA. Replication and gene function in Kunjin virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2002; 267: 323-51. ISSN:  0070-217X.

NAL Call No.: QR1 C8

Descriptors:West Nile virus, genetics, physiology, genes, viral biosynthesis, proteins, virus replication.

 

Zyzak, Michael; Loyless, Tom; Cope, Stanton; Wooster, Mark; Day, Jonathan F. Seasonal abundance of Culex nigripalpus Theobald and Culex salinarius Coquillett in north Florida, USA. Journal of Vector Ecology. 2002 Jun; 27(1): 155-62. ISSN: 1081-1710.

NAL Call No.: RA639.S63

Descriptors: mosquito vectors, West Nile virus vector, flavivirus transmission patterns May 1991-1994, Florida.

Abstract: North Florida is a transition zone between widespread Culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal Culex salinarius populations to the north. Culex nigripalpus is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses in south Florida, while Cx. salinarius is a suspected New World vector of West Nile (WN) virus. Abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. Extensive SLE transmission has never been reported from north Florida, but sporadic WN transmission was reported there during the summer of 2001. The disparate flavivirus transmission patterns observed in north and south Florida may be due, in part, to the local geographical and seasonal distribution of Culex vectors. Here we report that from May 1991 to April 1994, Cx. salinarius was most commonly observed during the winter and spring in northeast Florida (Duva County), whereas Cx. nigripalpus was most abundant during the summer and autumn. An unusually mild spring in 1991 allowed Cx. nigripalpus to reproduce early in the year, resulting in a summer population that emerged more than 8 wks earlier than in 1992 and 1993. The 1991 Cx. nigripalpus population persisted through October, when SLE transmission was detected by sentinel chickens. Transmission of SLE was not detected in Duval County during 1992 or 1993. These data indicate that mild winter and spring conditions in north Florida may favor increased abundance and survival of Cx. nigripalpus in a region where this species is normally not abundant. A seasonal shift in population structure may increase the transmission risk of arboviruses for which Cx. nigripalpus is a competent vector, including SLE, WN, and EEE.


Return to Contents


 

2001

 

     

Anderson, JF; Vossbrinck, CR; Andreadis, TG; Iton, A; Beckwith, WH 3rd; Mayo, DR. A phylogenetic approach to following West Nile virus in Connecticut. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001 Nov 6; 98(23): 12885-9. ISSN: 0027-8424.

NAL Call No.: 500 N21P

Descriptors:   genetic strains, geographic clusters of mutants, strain dissemination, phylogeny, virus classification, DNA primers, Cercopithecus-aethiops, skunk, birds, mosquitoes, Connecticut WN virus isolates.

Molecular sequence data: GENBANK/AF206517; GENBANK/AF206518; GENBANK/AF206519; GENBANK/AF206520; GENBANK/AF385215; GENBANK/AF385216; GENBANK/AF385217; GENBANK/AF385218; GENBANK/AF385219; GENBANK/AF385220; GENBANK/AF385221; GENBANK/AF385222; GENBANK/AF385223; GENBANK/AF385224; GENBANK/AF385225; GENBANK/AF385226; GENBANK/AF385227; GENBANK/AF385228; GENBANK/AF385229; GENBANK/AF385230; GENBANK/AF385231; GENBANK/AF385232; GENBANK/AF385233; GENBANK/AF385234; GENBANK/AF385235; GENBANK/AF385236; GENBANK/AF385237; GENBANK/AF385238; GENBANK/AF385239; GENBANK/AF385240; GENBANK/AF385241; GENBANK/AF385242; GENBANK/AF385243; GENBANK/AF385244; GENBANK/AF385245; GENBANK/AF385246; GENBANK/AF385247; GENBANK/AF385248; GENBANK/AF385249; GENBANK/AF385250; GENBANK/AF385251; GENBANK/AF385252; GENBANK/AF385253; GENBANK/AF385254; GENBANK/AF385255; GENBANK/AF385256; GENBANK/AF385257; GENBANK/AF385258; GENBANK/AF385259; GENBANK/AF385260; GENBANK/AF385261; GENBANK/AF385262; GENBANK/AF385263; GENBANK/AF385264; GENBANK/AF385265; GENBANK/AF385266; GENBANK/AF385267; GENBANK/AF385268; GENBANK/AF385269; GENBANK/AF385270; GENBANK/AF385271; GENBANK/AF385272; GENBANK/AF385273; GENBANK/AF385274; GENBANK/AF385275; GENBANK/AF385276; GENBANK/AF385277; GENBANK/AF385278; GENBANK/AF385279; GENBANK/AF385280; GENBANK/AF385281; GENBANK/AF385282; GENBANK/AF385283; GENBANK/AF385284; GENBANK/AF385285; GENBANK/AF385286; GENBANK/AF385287; GENBANK/AF385288; GENBANK/AF385289; GENBANK/AF385290; GENBANK/AF385291; GENBANK/AF385292

Abstract: The 1999 outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States was the first known natural occurrence of this flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere. In 1999 and 2000, 82 independent Connecticut WN virus isolates were cultured from nine species of birds, five species of mosquitoes, and one striped skunk. Nucleotide sequences obtained from these isolates identified 30 genetic changes, compared with WN-NY99, in a 921-nt region of the viral genome beginning at nucleotide position 205 and ending at 1125. This region encodes portions of the nucleocapsid and envelope proteins and includes the entire coding regions for the premembrane and membrane proteins. Amino acid changes occurred at seven loci in six isolates relative to the WN-NY99 strain. Although 34 of the isolates showed sequences identical to the WN-NY99 isolate, we were able to show geographical-based clusters of mutations. In particular, 26 isolates were characterized by mutation of C to T at position 858. This group apparently originated in Stamford, CT and disseminated to sites located as far as 54 miles from Stamford. Sequences of WN virus isolated from both brain and heart tissues from the same avian host were identical in all 14 tested individual birds, suggesting that the mutations we have documented are real and not caused by culture, RNA extraction, or PCR procedures. We conclude that this portion of the viral genome will enable us to follow the geographical and temporal movement of variant WN virus strains as they adapt to North America. 

 

Anderson, J F; Vossbrinck, C R; Andreadis, T G; Iton, A; Beckwith, W H 3rd; Mayo, D R. Characterization of West Nile virus from five species of mosquitoes, nine species of birds, and one mammal. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 328-31. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors: virus genetics, isolation and purification, Culicidae, mosquitoes, phylogeny, skunks, birds.

 

Andreadis, T G; Anderson, J F; Vossbrinck, C R. Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura. Emerging Infectious Diseases.

2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 670-4. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   surveillance data from June to October, mosquito infection rates with WN, seasonal differences in mosquito transmission, virus amplication patterns, Culex  species as disease vectors, sentinel surveillance, Cercopithecus aethiops, epidemiology, Vero cells, virus genetics, Connecticut.

Abstract: Fourteen isolations of West Nile (WN) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (Culex pipiens [5], Cx. restuans [4], Cx. salinarius [2], and Culiseta melanura [3]) in statewide surveillance conducted from June through October 2000. Most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in Fairfield and New Haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow sightings were reported and where WN virus was detected in 1999. Minimum field infection rates per 1,000 mosquitoes ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 (county based) and from 1.3 to 76.9 (site specific). Cx. restuans appears to be important in initiating WN virus transmission among birds in early summer; Cx. pipiens appears to play a greater role in amplifying virus later in the season. Cs. melanura could be important in the circulation of WN virus among birds in sylvan environments; Cx. salinarius is a suspected vector of WN virus to humans and horses.

 

Anonymous.  Serosurveys for West Nile virus infection--New York and Connecticut counties, 2000. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2001 Jan 26; 50(3): 37-9. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: West Nile fever epidemiology, areas of epizootic West Nile virus activity, CDC data, bird/avian mortality, humans, Connecticut, New York.

Abstract: In 2000, 21 persons were reported with acute illness attributed to West Nile virus (WNV) infection; 19 were hospitalized with encephalitis or meningitis. Of the 21, 10 resided in the Staten Island borough (Richmond County) of New York City. Other ill persons resided in nine other counties--Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), and Queens counties in New York; Hudson, Passaic, Monmouth, Morris, and Bergen counties in New Jersey; and Fairfield County in Connecticut. Because ill persons represent only a fraction of the persons who are infected, many more persons probably were infected in 2000. To determine the prevalence of recently acquired WNV infection and associated risk factors for infection, random household cluster serosurveys were conducted in Staten Island and portions of Fairfield County, Connecticut, and Suffolk County, New York, during October-November 2000. All three areas had intense WNV epizootics as determined by avian mortality and mosquito surveillance systems. This report summarizes the preliminary results of this survey and indicates that in areas with intense epizootic WNV activity, asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic human infections can occur.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--eastern United States, 2001. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2001 Jul 27; 50(29): 617-9. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors:   ArboNET surveillance system data, epidemiology, birds, Culex mosquitoes, mammals, viral isolation and purification, Mid-Atlantic region.

Abstract: In 2000, ArboNET, an enhanced human and animal surveillance system designed to monitor the geographic spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in the United States and to identify areas at increased risk for human infections with WNV, detected WNV activity in the District of Columbia and 12 states. This system, first implemented in the District of Columbia and 20 states along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, was later expanded throughout the continental United States. This report summarizes ArboNET data from January 1 through July 25, 2001, which documents epizootic WNV activity in the southeast and indicates the need for widespread implementation of WNV prevention activities.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus infection may be greater than previously thought. FDA Consumer. 2001 Sep-Oct; 35(5): 8. ISSN:  0362-1332.

NAL Call No.: HD9000.9 U5A1

Descriptors:   viral pathogenecity, disease prevalence, pathogenecity, epidemiology, New York. 

 

Anomymous. Proceedings of the International Conference on West Nile virus. April 5-7, 2001. White Plains, New York, USA. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 1-374. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   West Nile fever epidemiology, prevention and control, transmission, humans and animal species affected.

 

Arroyo, J; Miller, C A; Catalan, J; Monath, T P. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2001 Aug; 7(8): 350-4. ISSN: 1471-4914.

Descriptors: gene sequence modification on viral function, attenuated live virus as a vaccine candidate, recombinant technology, proteins, therapeutic use, adverse effects, immunology. 

Abstract: By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World afflicting humans, horses and birds, the success of this recombinant technology has prompted the rapid development of a live-virus attenuated candidate vaccine against West Nile virus.

 

Asnis, D S; Conetta, R; Waldman, G; Teixeira, A A. The West Nile virus encephalitis outbreak in the United States (1999-2000): from Flushing, New York, to beyond its borders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 161-71. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:  disease history in Western Hemisphere; flavivirus; endemic in Africa and Middle East, and S.W. Asia; New York City outbreak, epidemiology.

Abstract: Viruses cause most forms of encephalitis. The two main types responsible for epidemic encephalitis are enteroviruses and arboviruses. The City of New York reports about 10 cases of encephalitis yearly. Establishing a diagnosis is often difficult. In August 1999, a cluster of five patients with fever, confusion, and weakness were admitted to a community hospital in Flushing, New York. Flaccid paralysis developed in four of the five patients, and they required ventilatory support. Three, less severe, cases presented later in the same month. An investigation was conducted by the NewYork City (NYC) and New York State (NYS) health departments and the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The West Nile virus (WNV) was identified as the etiologic agent. WNV is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, with a geographic distribution in Africa, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia. It has also been isolated in Australia and sporadically in Europe but never in the Americas. The majority of people infected have no symptoms. Fever, severe myalgias, headache, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and a roseolar rash can occur. Rarely, encephalitis or meningitis is seen. The NYC outbreak resulted in the first cases of WNV infection in the Western Hemisphere and the first arboviral infection in NYC since yellow fever in the nineteenth century. The WNV is now a public health concern in the United States.

 

Beasley, D W; Li, L; Suderman, M T; Barrett, A D. West Nile virus strains differ in mouse neurovirulence and binding to mouse or human brain membrane receptor preparations. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 332-5. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   viral proteins, genetics, mouse brain tissue sampling, neuropathology, virulence, receptor binding, mouse model, humans, molecular sequence data. 

 

Beck, BR. Hermann Feldmeier: West-Nile-virus ante portas. [Comment on Hermann Feldmeier: West Nile virus ante portas] Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis Revue Suisse de Medecine. 2001 Jan 25; 90(4): 127. ISSN: 1013-2058. Letter in German.

Descriptors: viral horse diseases, virus isolation and purification.

 

Bernard, K.A.; Kramer, L.D. West Nile virus activity in the United States, 2001. Viral Iimmunology. 2001; 14(4): 319-38. ISSN: 0882-8245.

Descriptors: review article, viral ecology, pathobiology and physiology, transmission patterns, vectors, reservoirs, epidemic comparisons, other arboviruses, vector transmission cycles.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) first appeared in the naive environment of the Western Hemisphere in 1999 in New York. Genetic analysis determined that the virus was introduced into the United States from the Mediterranean Basin. This review discusses the spread of the virus in 2001 from the initial focus in Queens, New York, to widespread activity in the eastern and midwestern United States. It concentrates on viral ecology, epizootiology, pathology, prediction, and prevention. Research questions to further our understanding of the transmission cycle of WNV are discussed, including host-preference studies, molecular confirmation of implicated mosquito vectors, and survival of WNV in the temperate environment of the United States. Comparisons are drawn with two other arboviruses enzootic in the United States, eastern equine encephalitis, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Although not recently introduced, these two viruses also demonstrated increased activity in the United States in 2001.

Bernard, K A; Maffei, J G; Jones, S A; Kauffman, E B; Ebel, G; Dupuis, A P 2nd; Ngo, K A; Nicholas, D C; Young, D M; Shi, P Y; Kulasekera, V L; Eidson, M; White, D J; Stone, W B; Kramer, L D. West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 679-85. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus was found throughout New York State in 2000, with the epicenter in New York City and surrounding counties. We tested 3,403 dead birds and 9,954 mosquito pools for WN virus during the transmission season. Sixty-three avian species, representing 30 families and 14 orders, tested positive for WN virus. The highest proportion of dead birds that tested positive for WN virus was in American Crows in the epicenter (67% positive, n=907). Eight mosquito species, representing four genera, were positive for WN virus. The minimum infection rate per 1,000 mosquitoes (MIR) was highest for Culex pipiens in the epicenter: 3.53 for the entire season and 7.49 for the peak week of August 13. Staten Island had the highest MIR (11.42 for Cx. pipiens), which was associated with the highest proportion of dead American Crows that tested positive for WN virus (92%, n=48) and the highest number of human cases (n=10).

Descriptors:   mortality in bird species, susceptibility of birds, mosquito pools, Culex pipiens, Aedes, Anopheles, New York epidemiology, American crows mortality, transmission and spread of disease to humans and animals 

 

Borowski, P; Niebuhr, A; Mueller, O; Bretner, M; Felczak, K; Kulikowski, T; Schmitz, H. Purification and characterization of West Nile virus nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase: evidence for dissociation of the NTPase and helicase activities of the enzyme. Journal of Virology. 2001 Apr; 75(7): 3220-9. ISSN:  0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:   viral genetics, enzyme molecular structure, ATPase, acid anhydride, hydrolases, viral isolation and purification, Vero cells, RNA helicases, adenosine triphosphate pharmacology, Cercopithecus-aethiops, guanine, Vero cells

Abstract: The nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase associated with nonstructural protein 3 of West Nile (WN) virus was purified from cell culture medium harvested from virus-infected Vero cells. The purification procedure included sequential chromatography on Superdex-200 and Reactive Red 120 columns, followed by a concentration step on an Ultrogel hydroxyapatite column. The nature of the purified protein was confirmed by immunoblot analysis using a WN virus-positive antiserum, determination of its NH(2) terminus by microsequencing, and a binding assay with 5'-[(14)C]fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine. Under optimized reaction conditions the enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of ATP and the unwinding of the DNA duplex with k(cat) values of 133 and 5.5 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Characterization of the NTPase activity of the WN virus enzyme revealed that optimum conditions with respect to the Mg(2+) requirement and the monovalent salt or polynucleotide response differed from those of other flavivirus NTPases. Initial kinetic studies demonstrated that the inhibition (or activation) of ATPase activity by ribavirin-5'-triphosphate is not directly related to changes in the helicase activity of the enzyme. Further analysis using guanine and O(6)-benzoylguanine derivatives revealed that the ATPase activity of WN virus NTPase/helicase may be modulated, i.e., increased or reduced, with no effect on the helicase activity of the enzyme. On the other hand the helicase activity could be modulated without changing the ATPase activity. Our observations show that the number of ATP hydrolysis events per unwinding cycle is not a constant value.

 

Brinton, MA. Host factors involved in West Nile virus replication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 207-19. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   post viral replication factors, cell proteins in host, viral RNA promoters, protein isolation and purification, birds, Culicidae, mammals, birds, mice, disease susceptibility, carrier proteins, RNA binding-Proteins, West Nile virus genetics.

Abstract: Viruses use cell proteins during many stages of their replication cycles, including attachment, entry, translation, transcription/replication, and assembly. Mutations in the cell proteins involved can cause disruptions of these critical host-virus interactions, which in turn can affect the efficiency of virus replication. These host-virus interactions also represent novel targets for the development of new antiviral agents. The different alleles of the murine Flv gene confer resistance or susceptibility to flavivirus-induced disease and provide a natural mutant system for the study of a host protein that can alter the outcome of a flavivirus infection. Since flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, replicate in mosquitoes, mammals, and birds during their natural transmission cycles, it is expected that the critical cell proteins used by these viruses will be ones that are highly conserved between divergent host species. Our laboratory has focused on the identification and characterization of the flavivirus resistance gene product and of cell proteins that interact with the 3' terminal regions of the West Nile virus genomic and antigenomic RNAs. The 3' terminal regions of the viral RNAs function as promotors for viral RNA replication. Cell proteins that bind to the viral 3' RNAs were detected by gel shift and UV-induced cross-linking assays. Individual proteins were then purified and partially sequenced. Mutation of a mapped, protein-binding site within the 3' terminal region of the viral RNA in an infectious West Nile virus clone was used to demonstrate the functional importance of one of the cell proteins for efficient West Nile virus replication. Data from additional studies suggested possible roles for this viral RNA-cell protein interaction during the flavivirus replication cycle.

 

Bunning, M L; Bowen, R A; Cropp, B; Sullivan, K; Davis, B; Komar, N; Godsey, M; Baker, D; Hettler, D; Holmes, D; Mitchell, C J. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus and their potential to infect mosquitoes and serve as amplifying hosts. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 338-9. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors: Aedes mosquito as disease, vectors, transmission of horse diseases, virology,  pathogenicity, amplifying of viral disease, immunologic response.

 

Byrne, S N; Halliday, G M; Johnston, L J; King, N J. Interleukin-1beta but not tumor necrosis factor is involved in West Nile virus-induced Langerhans cell migration from the skin in C57BL/6 mice. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2001 Sep; 117(3): 702-9. ISSN:  0022-202X.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 J8292

Descriptors: interleukin-1 immunology, Langerhans cells, skin, tumor necrosis factor, cell movement, experimental infection in a mouse model, draining lymph, flow cytometry.

Abstract: Langerhans cells are bone marrow-derived epidermal dendritic cells. They migrate out of the epidermis into the lymphatics and travel to the draining lymph nodes where they are responsible for the activation of T cells in the primary immune response. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta, have previously been shown to be responsible for Langerhans cell migration in response to contact sensitizers in BALB/C mice; however, which cytokines are responsible for mediating Langerhans cell migration in response to a replicating cutaneously acquired virus such as the West Nile virus, are not known. We have devised a method for identifying Langerhans cells in the draining lymph nodes using E-cadherin labeling and flow cytometry. We infected tumor necrosis factor-deficient gene knockout mice (tumor necrosis factor-/-) intradermally with West Nile virus and found that levels of Langerhans cell emigration and accumulation in the draining lymph nodes were similar to wild-type C57BL/6 mice. This was borne out by the finding that high levels of systemic neutralizing anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody failed to inhibit the migration of Langerhans cells from the epidermis and their accumulation in the draining lymph nodes in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In West Nile virus-infected, tumor necrosis factor-/- mice treated with systemic neutralizing anti-interleukin-1beta antibodies, however, migration of Langerhans cells from the epidermis and their accumulation in the draining lymph nodes were significantly inhibited compared with control antibody-treated, infected animals. The results indicate that Langerhans cell migration, accumulation in the draining lymph nodes and the initiation of lymph node shut-down in response to a cutaneous West Nile virus infection is dependent on interleukin-1beta and can occur in the absence of tumor necrosis factor.

 

Campbell, G L; Grady, L J; Huang, C; Lanciotti, R; Kramer, L; Roehrig, J T; Shope, R E.  Laboratory testing for West Nile virus: panel discussion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 179-94. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors: West Nile virus, diagnosis, immunology, blood antigens, ELISA, reverse transcriptase PCR, epidemiology, viral genetics, viral isolation and purification.

 

Cannon, C E; Pavlin, J A; Vaeth, M F; Ludwig, G V; Writer, J V; Pagac, B B; Goldenbaum, M B; Kelley, P W. Department of Defense West Nile virus surveillance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 340-2. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:  U.S. Department of Defense, surveillance program, epidemiology, ELISA assay, mammals, humans, Culicidae, vector virology, U.S.

 

Cantile, C.; F. Del Piero; G. Di Guardo; M. Arispici. Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in naturally occurring West Nile virus infection in horses. Veterinary Pathology. July 2001. v. 38 (4) p. 414-421. ISSN: 0300-9858.

NAL call no:  41.8 P27

Descriptors: horses, West Nile virus, West Nile fever, pathology, lesions, immunohistochemistry, animal tissues, viral antigens, phenotypes, central nervous system, organs, USA, Italy.

 

Carlson, RH.  West Nile virus in the USA--an update. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2001 Oct; 1(3): 143. ISSN: 1473-3099.

Descriptors:  epidemiology, disease vectors, disease reservoirs, transmission factors, bird migration, disease spread, U.S.

 

Ceianu, C S; Ungureanu, A; Nicolescu, G; Cernescu, C; Nitescu, L; Tardei, G; Petrescu, A; Pitigoi, D; Martin, D; Ciulacu Purcarea, V; Vladimirescu, A; Savage, H M. West nile virus surveillance in Romania: 1997-2000. Viral Immunology.

2001; 14(3): 251-62. ISSN: 0882-8245.

Descriptors:  West Nile virus immunology, sentinel surveillance, wild bird diseases, humans, Culex mosquito virology, domestic fowl, seasonal persistence.

Abstract: In response to the 1996 West Nile (WN) fever epidemic that occurred in Bucharest and southeastern Romania, a surveillance program was established. The surveillance system detected 39 clinical human WN fever cases during the period 1997-2000: 14 cases in 1997, 5 cases in 1998, 7 cases in 1999, and 13 cases in 2000. Thirty-eight of the 39 case-patients lived in the greater Danube Valley of southern Romania, and 1 case-patient resided in the district of Vaslui, located on the Moldavian plateau. The estimated annual case incidence rate for the surveillance area during the period 1997-2000 was 0.95 cases per million residents. Thirty-four cases were serologically confirmed, and 5 cases were classified as probable. Twenty-four case-patients presented with clinical symptoms of meningitis (62%), 12 with meningoencephalitis (31%), 1 with encephalitis (3%), and 2 with febrile exanthema (5%). Five of the 39 cases were fatal (13%). Fourteen case-patients resided in rural areas, and 25 in urban and suburban areas, including 7 case-patients who resided in Bucharest. The ages of case-patients ranged from 8 to 76 years with a median age of 45 years. Twenty-four case-patients were males and 15 were females. Dates of onset of illness occurred from May 24 through September 25, with 82% of onset dates occurring in August and September. Limited entomological surveillance failed to detect WN virus. Retrospective sampling of domestic fowl in the vicinity of case-patient residences during the years 1997-2000 demonstrated seroprevalence rates of 7.8%-29%. Limited wild bird surveillance demonstrated seroprevalence rates of 5%-8%. The surveillance data suggest that WN virus persists focally for several years in poorly understood transmission cycles after sporadic introductions or that WN virus is introduced into Romania at relatively high rates, and persists seasonally in small foci.

     

Cherry, B; Trock, S C; Glaser, A; Kramer, L; Ebel, G D; Glaser, C; Miller, J R. Sentinel chickens as a surveillance tool for West Nile virus in New York City, 2000. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 343-6. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:  disease incidence, disease monitoring, chickens as sentinel animals, domestic fowl, disease prevention and control, ELISA, predictive value of tests, immunology.

 

Covello, V T; Peters, R G; Wojtecki, J G; Hyde, R C. Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: responding to the communication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting. Journal of Urban Health Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2001 Jun; 78(2): 382-91. ISSN:  1099-3460.

Descriptors: disease risk assessment communication, theoretical perspective, risk communication models, communication management, bioterrorism psychology, New York City.

Abstract: The intentional or unintentional introduction of a pathogen in an urban setting presents severe communication challenges. Risk communication--a science-based approach for communicating effectively in high-concern situations--provides a set of principles and tools for meeting those challenges. A brief overview of the risk communication theoretical perspective and basic risk communication models is presented here, and the risk communication perspective is applied to the West Nile virus epidemic in New York City in 1999 and 2000 and to a possible bioterrorist event. The purpose is to provide practical information on how perceptions of the risks associated with a disease outbreak might be perceived and how communications would be best managed.

 

Craven, R B; Roehrig, J T. West Nile virus. JAMA -- The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001 Aug 8; 286(6): 651-3. ISSN: 0098-7484.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 Am37

Descriptors:  disease diagnosis, epidemiology, disease prevention and control, birds, insect vectors, Culicidae, viral isolation and purification, therapy.  

 

Davis, B S; Chang, G J; Cropp, B; Roehrig, J T; Martin, D A; Mitchell, C J; Bowen, R; Bunning, M L. West Nile virus recombinant DNA vaccine protects mouse and horse from virus challenge and expresses in vitro a noninfectious recombinant antigen that can be used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Journal of Virology. 2001 May; 75(9): 4040-7. ISSN:  0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: intramuscular administration of vaccines, recombinant plasmid expressing WN virus prM and E proteins, efficacy in mice and horses, anitigen form cell culture, disease prevention and control.

Abstract: Introduction of West Nile (WN) virus into the United States in 1999 created major human and animal health concerns. Currently, no human or veterinary vaccine is available to prevent WN viral infection, and mosquito control is the only practical strategy to combat the spread of disease. Starting with a previously designed eukaryotic expression vector, we constructed a recombinant plasmid (pCBWN) that expressed the WN virus prM and E proteins. A single intramuscular injection of pCBWN DNA induced protective immunity, preventing WN virus infection in mice and horses. Recombinant plasmid-transformed COS-1 cells expressed and secreted high levels of WN virus prM and E proteins into the culture medium. The medium was treated with polyethylene glycol to concentrate proteins. The resultant, containing high-titered recombinant WN virus antigen, proved to be an excellent alternative to the more traditional suckling-mouse brain WN virus antigen used in the immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture and indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This recombinant antigen has great potential to become the antigen of choice and will facilitate the standardization of reagents and implementation of WN virus surveillance in the United States and elsewhere.

 

Deubel, V; Gubler, D J; Layton, M; Malkinson, M. West Nile virus: a newly emergent epidemic disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001; 7(3 Suppl): 536. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:  emerging disease epidemiology, Culex mosquitoes virology, disease prevention and control, birds as disease reservoirs, epidemiology, role of migratory birds.

 

Dohm, D.J.; M. Turell. Effect of incubation at overwintering temperatures on the replication of West Nile virus in New York Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. May 2001. v. 38 (3) p. 462-464. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL call no:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, West Nile virus, disease vectors, experimental infections, mosquitoes, viral replication, disseminated infections, overwintering, environmental temperature, simulation, New York.

Abstract: We examined the effect of simulated overwintering temperatures on West Nile (WN) virus replication in Culex pipiens L. derived from mosquitoes collected during the autumn 1999 WN epizootic in New York. The WN virus was a strain isolated from a dead crow also collected during this outbreak. Virus was recovered from most mosquitoes held exclusively at 26 degrees C. In contrast, none of the mosquitoes held exclusively at the lower temperatures had detectable infections. When mosquitoes were transferred to 26 degrees C after being held at 10 degrees C for 21-42 d, infection and dissemination rates increased with increased incubation at 26 degrees C. Future studies involving the attempted isolation of WN virus from overwintering mosquitoes may benefit from holding the mosquitoes at 26 degrees C before testing for infectious virus.

 

Ebel, G D; Dupuis, A P 2nd; Ngo, K; Nicholas, D; Kauffman, E; Jones, S A; Young, D; Maffei, J; Shi, P Y; Bernard, K; Kramer, L D. Partial genetic characterization of West Nile virus strains, New York State, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 650-3. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: viral strains analysis, envelope genes, nucleotide sequences, reverse transcriptase PCR, viral amplification methodologies, genetic differences.

Abstract: We analyzed nucleotide sequences from the envelope gene of 11 West Nile (WN) virus strains collected in New York State during the 2000 transmission season to determine whether they differed genetically from each other and from the initial strain isolated in 1999. The complete envelope genes of these strains were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting sequences were aligned, the genetic distances were computed, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Ten (0.7%) of 1,503 positions in the envelope gene were polymorphic in one or more sequences. The genetic distances were 0.003 or less. WN virus strains circulating in 2000 were homogeneous with respect to one another and to a strain isolated in 1999. 

 

Eidson, M "Neon needles" in a haystack: the advantages of passive surveillance for West Nile virus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 38-53. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:  disease reservoirs, epidemiology, population surveillance, crow mortality rates, virus levels, correlation of dead crows to human disease. 

Abstract: Passive surveillance is usually viewed as less efficient for case ascertainment than active surveillance. However, for diseases with nonhuman animal reservoirs, active surveillance can be like looking for a needle in a haystack and may be prohibitively expensive. Fortunately for surveillance of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeast US, the dead crows have served as "neon needles in a haystack"--indicators of viral activity that call attention to themselves. In 2000, laboratory testing of dead birds, including all species, birds found singly, with signs of trauma, or no compatible pathology, provided the first confirmation of viral activity in most areas. The surveillance factor most closely associated with the number of human cases was the dead crow density. In 2001, dead crow densities will be used as an additional index for monitoring human risk and need for prevention and control activities. If there are few crows in an area, if their case-fatality rate is reduced, or if there is public complacency about reporting dead crow sightings, this passive surveillance indicator may not be helpful in identifying areas likely to have occasional human cases or an outbreak.

 

Eidson, M; Komar, N; Sorhage, F; Nelson, R; Talbot, T; Mostashari, F; McLean, R. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 615-20. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:  virus prevalence, surveillance, songbirds, dead crows as indicators of viral activity, relationship of bird mortality to human cases, disease reservoir, geographic distribution, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut.

Abstract: In addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the West Nile (WN) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in New York State resulted in bird deaths in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. From August to December 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with WN virus infection; 262 (89%) were American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The New York State Department of Health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in Connecticut 1,040 dead crows were reported. Bird deaths were critical in identifying WN virus as the cause of the human outbreak and defining its geographic and temporal limits. If established before a WN virus outbreak, a surveillance system based on bird deaths may provide a sensitive method of detecting WN virus.

 

Eidson, M; Kramer, L; Stone, W; Hagiwara, Y; Schmit, K. Dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 631-5. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: early detection, virus surveillance system, dead diseased crows, songbirds, correlation between bird deaths and human disease, mosquito vector control, predictive value of tests, sentinel surveillance, New York.

Abstract: As part of West Nile (WN) virus surveillance in New York State in 2000, 71,332 ill or dead birds were reported; 17,571 (24.6%) of these were American Crows. Of 3,976 dead birds tested, 1,263 (31.8%) were positive for WN virus. Viral activity was first confirmed in 60 of the state's 62 counties with WN virus-positive dead birds. Pathologic findings compatible with WN virus were seen in 1,576 birds (39.6% of those tested), of which 832 (52.8%) were positive for WN virus. Dead crow reports preceded confirmation of viral activity by several months, and WN virus-positive birds were found >3 months before the onset of human cases. Dead bird surveillance appears to be valuable for early detection of WN virus and for guiding public education and mosquito control efforts.

 

Eidson, M; Miller, J; Kramer, L; Cherry, B; Hagiwara, Y. Dead crow densities and human cases of West Nile virus, New York State, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul Aug; 7(4): 662 4. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: epidemiolgy, monitoring of dead crow densities, viral levels, correlation with human cases, specimen collection and testing, disease reservoirs, New York City.

Abstract: In 2000, Staten Island, New York, reported 10 human West Nile virus cases and high densities of dead crows. Surrounding counties with <2 human cases had moderate dead crow densities, and upstate counties with no human cases had low dead crow densities. Monitoring such densities may be helpful because this factor may be determined without the delays associated with specimen collection and testing. 

 

Epstein, P R. West Nile virus and the climate. Journal of Urban Health Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2001 Jun; 78(2): 367-71. ISSN: 1099-3460.

Descriptors:  factors affecting survival and disease spread, urban dwelling birds and mosquitoes, effect of warm winters and spring drought, vector control measures, breeding places, climatic change, mosquito borne diseases, ovicides and larvicides, North America.

Abstract: West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

 

Farello, C A; Sorhage, F E; Bresnitz, E A; Grant, C. West Nile virus: New Jersey's 2000 experience and surveillance plans for 2001. New Jersey Medicine the Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey. 2001 Jul; 98(7): 25-32.

ISSN: 0885-842X.

Descriptors:  viral prevelance and dead birds surveillance program, transmission patterns, disease prevention and control, virus isolation and purification, New Jersey.

 

Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J; French, R A. The West Nile virus: its recent emergence in North America. Microbes and Infection Institut Pasteur. 2001 Mar; 3(3): 223-9. ISSN:  1286-4579.

NAL Call No.: QR180 M53

Descriptors:   review article, history of disease emergence starting in 1999, humans, horses, wild birds, correlation between human disease and bird mortality, mosquito vectors, Chiroptera virology, bats, Culicidae virology, surveillance data.

Abstract: West Nile fever emerged in New York in the summer of 1999 when seven people, several horses and thousands of wild birds died. It was soon established that the human disease and the mortality of birds were related. Continued surveillance detected West Nile virus in mosquitoes, birds, horses, small mammals, bats and humans, and has shown its spread to several northeastern states. These events confirm the establishment of West Nile virus endemically in the United States.

 

Gotham, I J; Eidson, M; White, D J; Wallace, B J; Chang, H G; Johnson, G S; Napoli, J P; Sottolano, D L; Birkhead, G S; Morse, D L; Smith, P F.   West Nile virus: a case study in how NY State Health Information infrastructure facilitates preparation and response to disease outbreaks. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2001 Sep; 7(5): 75-86. ISSN: 1078-4659 

Descriptors:   New York State Health Information Network, integrated surveillance system, humans, birds, other mammals, mosquitoes, tracking, retrieval of data on disease outbreaks, disaster planning, communication plans. 

Abstract: New York's (NY) Health Information Network (HIN) provided timely access to West Nile virus (WNV) data during the initial outbreak in the late Summer 1999. In December 1999, NY developed a plan to deal with WNV in 2000 that required an integrated surveillance system for humans, birds, mammals, and mosquitoes. The HIN infrastructure allowed NY to deploy this system statewide in three months. Local health departments throughout NY used the system to report, track, and retrieve surveillance data as WNV spread throughout NY in 2000. The HIN infrastructure includes partnerships, training/support, technical capacity and architecture similar to NEDSS as proposed by the US CDC.

 

Groot, de A S; Saint Aubin, C; Bosma, A; Sbai, H; Rayner, J; Martin, W.  Rapid determination of HLA B*07 ligands from the West Nile virus NY99 genome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul Aug; 7(4): 706 13. ISSN: 1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:  T lymphocyte epitopes, subunit vaccine development, genome mapping, rapid and inexpensive methodologies, ligands useful for cell-mediated response, possible diagnostic reagents.

Abstract: Defined T cell epitopes for West Nile (WN) virus may be useful for developing subunit vaccines against WN virus infection and diagnostic reagents to detect WN virus-specific immune response. We applied a bioinformatics (EpiMatrix) approach to search the WN virus NY99 genome for HLA B*07 restricted cytotoxic T cell (CTL) epitopes. Ninety-five of 3,433 WN virus peptides scored above a predetermined cutoff, suggesting that these would be likely to bind to HLA B*07 and would also be likely candidate CTL epitopes. Compared with other methods for genome mapping, derivation of these ligands was rapid and inexpensive. Major histocompatibility complex ligands identified by this method may be used to screen T cells from WN virus-exposed persons for cell-mediated response to WN virus or to develop diagnostic reagents for immunopathogenesis studies and epidemiologic surveillance.

 

Hadfield, T L; Turell, M; Dempsey, M P; David, J; Park, E J. Detection of West Nile virus in mosquitoes by RT-PCR. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 2001 Jun; 15(3): 147-50. ISSN: 0890-8508.

NAL Call No.: 0890-8508

Descriptors:   reverse transcriptase PCR assay, TaqMan, viral assay method, infected mosquitoes, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Ilheus virus, yellow fever virus, level of accuracy.

Abstract: A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay employing <<TaqMan>> detection technology was developed to identify West Nile virus in experimentally infected mosquitoes. The specificity of the assay was evaluated with the following viruses: eastern equine encephalitis, Ilheus, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. The limits of detection were determined using West Nile viral RNA extracted from serial dilutions of virus culture in infected mosquitoes. Limit of detection was 5 PFU from extracted mosquitoes. We were able to detect the presence of one infected mosquito in a pool of 50 repeatedly. When the RT-PCR was used with coded samples of intrathoracically-infected and uninfected mosquitoes, the assay detected the virus in all infected mosquitoes. Analytic sensitivity and specificity were 100%. This assay offers an efficient and rapid method of identifying West Nile virus in infected mosquitoes or cell culture.

 

Hadler, J; Nelson, R; McCarthy, T; Andreadis, T; Lis, M J; French, R; Beckwith, W; Mayo, D; Archambault, G; Cartter, M. West Nile virus surveillance in Connecticut in 2000: an intense epizootic without high risk for severe human disease.

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 636-42. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   monitoring bird deaths, testing dead crows and songbirds, horse disease levels, trapping and testing mosquitoes, human seropervalance survey, animal sentinel surveillance, Culex virology, insect vector monitoring, Connecticut.

Abstract: In 1999, Connecticut was one of three states in which West Nile (WN) virus actively circulated prior to its recognition. In 2000, prospective surveillance was established, including monitoring bird deaths, testing dead crows, trapping and testing mosquitoes, testing horses and hospitalized humans with neurologic illness, and conducting a human seroprevalence survey. WN virus was first detected in a dead crow found on July 5 in Fairfield County. Ultimately, 1,095 dead crows, 14 mosquito pools, 7 horses, and one mildly symptomatic person were documented with WN virus infection. None of 86 hospitalized persons with neurologic illness (meningitis, encephalitis, Guillain-Barre-like syndrome) and no person in the seroprevalence survey were infected. Spraying in response to positive surveillance findings was minimal. An intense epizootic of WN virus can occur without having an outbreak of severe human disease in the absence of emergency adult mosquito management.

 

Hayes, C G. West Nile virus: Uganda, 1937, to New York City, 1999. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 25-37. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   review article, 3 urban epidemics, risk factors, viral virulence changes, 60 years of observations about West Nile virus, Culex, pathogenicity, New York, Uganda.

Abstract: West Nile virus, first isolated in 1937, is among the earliest arthropod-borne viruses discovered by humans. Its broad geographical distribution, not uncommon infection of humans, transmission by mosquitoes, and association with wild birds as enzootic hosts were well documented by the mid-1960s. However, West Nile virus was not considered to be a significant human pathogen because most infections appeared to result in asymptomatic or only mild febrile disease. Several epidemics had been documented prior to 1996, some involving hundreds to thousands of cases in mostly rural populations, but only a few cases of severe neurological disease had been reported. The occurrence between 1996 and 1999 of three major epidemics, in southern Romania, the Volga delta in southern Russia, and the northeastern United States, involving hundreds of cases of severe neurological disease and fatal infections was totally unexpected. These were the first epidemics reported in large urban populations. A significant factor that appeared in common to all three outbreaks was the apparent involvement of the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens, as a vector. This species had not previously been implicated as important in the transmission of West Nile virus. In addition the epidemic in the northeastern United States was unusual in the association of West Nile virus infection with fatal disease of birds, suggesting a change in the virulence of the virus toward this host. Understanding the risk factors that contributed to these three urban epidemics is important for minimizing the potential for future occurrences. This review will attempt to compare observations on the biology of West Nile virus made over about 60 years prior to the recent epidemics to observations made in association with these urban epidemics.

 

Hindiyeh, M; Shulman, L M; Mendelson, E; Weiss, L; Grossman, Z; Bin, H. Isolation and characterization of West Nile virus from the blood of viremic patients during the 2000 outbreak in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 748-50. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   phylogenetic analysis of the West Nile virus, disease outbreaks in Israel in 2000, 2 isolates related to New York isolate and Russian isolate,  RNA viral analysis; reverse transcriptase.  

Abstract: We report the isolation of West Nile (WN) virus from four patient serum samples submitted for diagnosis during an outbreak of WN fever in Israel in 2000. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages, one closely related to a 1999 New York isolate and the other to a 1999 Russian isolate.

 

Hinkle N. Equine cases of West Nile virus from 1 January through 19 September, 2001. Vector Ecology Newsletter. 2001, 32: 3.

Descriptors: survey of West Nile virus in horses, veterinary diseases, disease incidence, Alabama, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

 

Hodgson, J.C.; A. Spielman; N. Komar; C. Krahforst; G. Wallace; R. Pollack. Interrupted blood-feeding by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) on European starlings. Journal of Medical Entomology. Jan 2001. v.38 (1) p. 59-66. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL call no:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culiseta melanura, mosquitoes, hematophagy, feeding frequency, blood meals, engorgement, volume, Turdus migratorius, Sturnus vulgaris, reservoir hosts, host preferences, animal behavior, defense, disease vectors, eastern equine encephalitis virus, robins, starlings, Massachusetts.

Abstract: To determine whether Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) mosquitoes tend to take multiple blood meals when birds of certain species serve as hosts, we compared the frequencies with which such mosquitoes fed upon caged starlings and robins and determined whether similar volumes of blood were imbibed from each. The blood of robins (Turdus migratorius) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) was marked contrastingly by injecting birds with rubidium or cesium salts. Caged birds were placed together in a natural wetland setting overnight. Mosquitoes captured nearby on the following morning were analyzed for each of the elemental markers. Where marked robins and starlings were equally abundant, 43% of freshly engorged Cs. melanura fed on more than or equal to two hosts. More Cs. melanura fed on robins than on starlings. Individual mosquitoes tended to contain far more robin- than starling-associated marker, indicating that mosquitoes "feasted" on robins but only "nibbled" on starlings. Mosquitoes marked with both elements apparently fed meagerly on the starlings then abundantly on the robins. Our estimates of bloodmeal volume indicate that 85% of mosquitoes that fed on marked starlings obtained <0.5 microliter of blood from them. We suggest that defensive behavior by starlings interrupts mosquito blood-feeding and that, in a communal roost of starlings, each mosquito will tend to feed on more than one bird, thereby promoting rapid transmission of such ornithonotic arboviruses as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and West Nile virus.

 

Johnson, D J; Ostlund, E N; Pedersen, D D; Schmitt, B J.  Detection of North American West Nile virus in animal tissue by a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 739-41. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: RT nested PCR virus detection method, bird tissue samples, infected cell cultures, sensitivity to detection of virus in equine tissues.

Abstract: A traditional single-stage reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure is effective in determining West Nile (WN) virus in avian tissue and infected cell cultures. However, the procedure lacks the sensitivity to detect WN virus in equine tissue. We describe an RT-nested PCR (RT-nPCR) procedure that identifies the North American strain of WN virus directly in equine and avian tissues.

 

Jupp, PG. The ecology of West Nile virus in South Africa and the occurrence of outbreaks in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 143-52.ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:  review paper, research/studies in South Africa’s inland plateau, epizootic transmission cycle, mosquitoes, birds as viral reservoirs and disease spreaders, dogs, Culex species, strain causes mild illness in humans, Culex univittatus, Culex theileri, vector mosquitoes. 

Abstract: This paper reviews studies done on West Nile virus (WNV) in South Africa, mainly between 1962 and 1980 on the temperate inland plateau (Highveld and Karoo). The virus is maintained in an enzootic transmission cycle between feral birds and the ornithophilic mosquito Culex univittatus. About 30 avian species have been shown to be involved without mortality. Humans, and other mammals, although they may have antibodies, are considered blind-alleys in the transmission cycle except perhaps some dogs. Cx. univittatus also transfers infection to humans, almost invariably causing only a mild illness. Its usually low anthropophilism may explain why annual human infection on the Highveld is limited to sporadic cases. Besides multiple isolations from field collections of Cx. univittatus, this mosquito is both highly susceptible to the virus and an efficient transmitter. Culex theileri is a minor vector. In the summer of 1974 there was a large epidemic in the dry Karoo after unusual rains: there were many human cases, the infection rate in Cx. univittatus was 39.0/1000, and postepidemic immune rates in humans and birds were high. In 1984 there was an epizootic in Gauteng Province in the Highveld with an infection rate in Cx. univittatus reaching 9.6/1000 and more human infections than usual. The much lower immune rates in the KwaZulu-Natal coastal lowlands than on the plateau and the single isolation from Cx. neavei, which replaces Cx. univittatus in the lowlands, are explained by the low susceptibility of Cx. neavei to the virus. Genetic relatedness of isolates from different countries showed two lineages, with one lineage comprising only African isolates, including 25 South African strains, which had a sequence homology of 86.3-100%. This suggests that the viral enzooticity does not depend on annual importation of virus in migrant birds.

 

Kallio S; Hanninen ML. West Nile-viruksen aiheuttamat epidemiat: kirjallisuuskatsaus [Epidemics caused by West Nile virus: a literature review.] Suomen Elainlaakarilehti. 2001, 107: 9, 501-504; 11 ref. In Finnish.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 N813

Descriptors:   history of pathogenic virus migration out of the Nile area of Africa, Romania, biology of disease, control of vector mosquitoes, mosquito control via larvae control, transmission factors. 

 

Kauffman, E B; Bernard, K A; Jones, S A; Maffei, J; Ngo, K; Kramer, L D. West Nile virus laboratory surveillance program: cost and time analysis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 351-3. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors: virology study, economics, epidemiology, isolation and purification, disease prevention and control, viral genetics, disease population surveillance, costs and cost analysis, Culicidae mosquito vectors, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, viral genetics, New York State program. 

 

Klimes, J.; Z. Juricova; I. Literak; P. Schanilec; E. Silva. Prevalence of antibodies to tickborne encephalitis and West Nile flaviviruses and the clinical signs of tickborne encephalitis in dogs in the Czech Republic. Veterinary Record. Jan 6, 2001. v. 148 (1) p. 17-20. ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL call no:  41.8 V641

Descriptors: dogs, tickborne encephalitis virus, seroprevalence, antibodies, tickborne encephalitis, West Nile virus, clinical aspects, cross reaction, rottweiler, Czech Republic.

 

Komar, N. West Nile virus surveillance using sentinel birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 58-73. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484 

Descriptors:   monitoring of virus levels, sentinel house sparrows and pigeons, selection of  monitoring sites, Culex pipiens disease vectors.

Abstract: Captive and free-ranging birds have been used for decades as living sentinels in arbovirus surveillance programs. This review summarizes information relevant to selecting sentinel bird species for use in surveillance of West Nile (WN) virus. Although experience using avian sentinels for WN virus surveillance is limited, sentinels should be useful for both detecting and monitoring WN virus transmission; however, sentinel bird surveillance systems have yet to be adequately tested for use with the North American strain of WN virus. Captive chickens are typically used for arbovirus surveillance, but other captive species may be used as well. Serosurvey and experimental infection data suggest that both chickens and pigeons show promise as useful captive sentinels; both species were naturally exposed during the epizootics in New York City, 1999-2000, and both species develop antibodies after infection without becoming highly infectious to Culex pipiens vectors. Wild bird species that should be targeted for use as free-ranging sentinels include house sparrows and pigeons. The ideal wild bird should be determined locally on the basis of seroprevalence studies. Interpreting serological data generated from studies using free-ranging sentinel birds is complex, however. Sentinel bird monitoring sites should be selected in enzootic transmission foci. Several years of observation may be required for selection of effective sentinel monitoring sites.

 

Komar, N; Panella, N A; Boyce, E. Exposure of domestic mammals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 736-8. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   monitoring of disease in horses, dogs and cats, possible role as sentinels, immunology, neutralization tests, seroepidemiology studies, New York City.

Abstract: We evaluated West Nile (WN) virus seroprevalence in healthy horses, dogs, and cats in New York City after an outbreak of human WN virus encephalitis in 1999. Two (3%) of 73 horses, 10 (5%) of 189 dogs, and none of 12 cats tested positive for WN virus-neutralizing antibodies. Domestic mammals should be evaluated as sentinels for local WN virus activity and predictors of the infection in humans.    

 

Komar, N; Panella, N A; Burns, J E; Dusza, S W; Mascarenhas, T M; Talbot, T O. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 621-5. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   seropositive songbirds, domestic geese, chickens, house sparrows, Canada geese, rock doves, sentinel animals, viral reservoirs, bood sampling. 

Abstract: As part of an investigation of an encephalitis outbreak in New York City, we sampled 430 birds, representing 18 species in four orders, during September 13-23, 1999, in Queens and surrounding counties. Overall, 33% were positive for West Nile (WN) virus-neutralizing antibodies, and 0.5% were positive for St. Louis encephalitis virus-neutralizing antibodies. By county, Queens had the most seropositive birds for WN virus (50%); species with the greatest seropositivity for WN virus (sample sizes were at least six) were Domestic Goose, Domestic Chicken, House Sparrow, Canada Goose, and Rock Dove. One sampled bird, a captive adult Domestic Goose, showed signs of illness; WN virus infection was confirmed. Our results support the concept that chickens and House Sparrows are good arbovirus sentinels. This study also implicates the House Sparrow as an important vertebrate reservoir host.

 

Kramer, L D; Bernard, K A West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2001 Oct; 14(5): 519-25. ISSN:  0951-7375

Descriptors:   review article, disease introduction into New York City, disease establishment, transmission biology and cycle, disease vector mosquitoes, prevention and control of spread, invasive species. 

Abstract: West Nile virus first appeared in the western hemisphere in 1999 in New York. Genetic analysis determined that the virus was introduced from the Mediterranean Basin. This review discusses the establishment of West Nile virus in the naive environment of the northeastern USA, its ecology, epizootiology, pathology, prevention and prediction, as well as laboratory studies that have been conducted to elucidate the transmission cycle.

 

Kramer, L D; Bernard, K A. West Nile virus infection in birds and mammals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 84-93. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   dead bird sampling, percentage carrying West Nile virus, highest mortality in crows, kidney viremia levels, experimental infection in mice. 

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) was found throughout New York State in year 2000. The epicenter was located in New York City with a high level of activity in the immediately surrounding counties, including Rockland, Westchester, Nassau, and Suffolk. During 2000, WNV testing was performed by the Wadsworth Center on 3,687 dead birds, representing 153 species, 46 families, and 18 orders. There were 1,203 WNV-positive birds, representing 63 species, 30 families and 14 orders. The percentage of WNV-positive birds was 33% for all birds tested throughout the state, with no significant difference in infection rates in migratory versus resident birds, although significantly more resident birds were submitted for testing. The highest apparent mortality for the entire season was observed in American crows in Staten Island, a location that also showed the highest minimal infection rate in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes. Studies examining tissue tropism of WNV in corvids and noncorvids from the epicenter and from remote locations indicated that the kidney was the most consistently infected tissue in birds, regardless of level of infection. The brain was the next most consistently positive tissue. The differences in infection among the tissues were most apparent when low levels of virus were present. Experimental mouse inoculation demonstrated a classical flavivirus infection pattern.

 

Krenick, F; Jany, W; Clarke, J L 3rd. Sumithrin: from inception to integration within West Nile virus programs. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 354-6. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   Culicidae vector mosquito prevention and control, insecticides, pyrethrins, efficacy.

 

Kulas, K E; Demarest, V L; Franchell, C S; Wong, S J. Use of an arboviral immunofluorescent assay in screening for West Nile virus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 357-60. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   fluorescent antibody technique, blood screening diagnostic test, predictive value of test, immunology, West Nile virus diagnosis, isolation and purification.

 

Kulasekera, V L; Kramer, L; Nasci, R S; Mostashari, F; Cherry, B; Trock, S C; Glaser, C; Miller, J R. West Nile virus infection in mosquitoes, birds, horses, and humans, Staten Island, New York, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 722-5. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   disease transition model, Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, primary enzootic and epizootic vectors among birds, Culex salinariun as bridge vector for humans, Aedes/Ochlerotatus as bridge vectors for horse infections. 

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus transmission in the United States during 2000 was most intense on Staten Island, New York, where 10 neurologic illnesses among humans and 2 among horses occurred. WN virus was isolated from Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens, Cx. salinarius, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox, and WN viral RNA was detected in Anopheles punctipennis. An elevated weekly minimum infection rate (MIR) for Cx. pipiens and increased dead bird density were present for 2 weeks before the first human illness occurred. Increasing mosquito MIRs and dead bird densities in an area may be indicators of an increasing risk for human infections. A transmission model is proposed involving Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans as the primary enzootic and epizootic vectors among birds, Cx. salinarius as the primary bridge vector for humans, and Aedes/Ochlerotatus spp. as bridge vectors for equine infection.

 

Lanciotti Robert S; Kerst Amy J; Nasci Roger S; Godsey Marvin S; Mitchell Carl J; Savage Harry M; Komar Nicholas; Panella Nicholas A; Allen Becky C; Volpe Kate E; Davis Brent S; Roehrig John T. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. November, 2001; 38 (11): 4066-4071.  ISSN: 0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors:   rapid TaqMan detection assay, various laboratory and field tested specimens, comparison, reverse transcriptase PCR assay, virus isolation in Vero cells, tissues from humans, wild mosquitoes, bird tissues, surveillance method, surveillance tool, oligonucleotide primers and FAM- and TAMRA-labeled WN virus-specific probes.

 

Langevin, S A; Bunning, M; Davis, B; Komar, N. Experimental infection of chickens as candidate sentinels for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 726-9. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   duration and level of viremia, serology, chickens, experimental infections, needle and oral inoculations, sentinel species, antibody levels, vector mosquitoes.

Abstract: We evaluated the susceptibility, duration and intensity of viremia, and serologic responses of chickens to West Nile (WN) virus (WNV-NY99) infection by needle, mosquito, or oral inoculation. None of 21 infected chickens developed clinical disease, and all these developed neutralizing antibodies. Although viremias were detectable in all but one chicken, the magnitude (mean peak viremia <10,000 PFU/mL) was deemed insufficient to infect vector mosquitoes. WNV-NY99 was detected in cloacal and/or throat swabs from 13 of these chickens, and direct transmission of WNV-NY99 between chickens occurred once (in 16 trials), from a needle-inoculated bird. Nine chickens that ingested WNV-NY99 failed to become infected. The domestic chickens in this study were susceptible to WN virus infection, developed detectable antibodies, survived infection, and with one exception failed to infect cage mates. These are all considered positive attributes of a sentinel species for WN virus surveillance programs.

 

Li, W; Brinton, M A. The 3' stem loop of the West Nile virus genomic RNA can suppress translation of chimeric mRNAs. Virology. 2001 Aug 15; 287(1): 49-61. ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors:   viral genetic effects, RNA translation inhibition, nucleic acid conformation, Northern blotting, ELISA,  hamsters. Abstract: Cis-acting elements that regulate translation have been identified in the 3' noncoding regions (NCRs) of cellular and viral mRNAs. As one means of analyzing the effect on translation of the conserved 3' terminal RNA structure of the West Nile virus (WNV) genome, the translation efficiencies of chimeric mRNAs composed of a CAT reporter gene flanked by viral or nonviral 5' and 3' terminal sequences were compared. In vitro, the WNV 3'(+) stem loop (SL) RNA reduced the translation efficiencies of chimeric mRNAs with either viral or nonviral 5' NCRs, suggesting that a specific 3'-5' RNA-RNA interaction was not involved. In contrast, the 3' terminal sequence of a togavirus, rubella virus, enhanced translation efficiency. The WNV 3'(+)SL reduced translation efficiency both in cis and in trans and of both capped and uncapped chimeric mRNAs. We have previously reported that three cellular proteins bind specifically to the WNV 3'(+)SL RNA. Competition between the WNV 3'(+)SL and the 5' terminus of the chimeric mRNAs for proteins involved in translation initiation could explain the translation inhibition observed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

 

Lord, C.C.; Day, J.F. Simulation studies of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses: the impact of bird mortality. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. Winter 2001. v. 1 (4) p. 317-329. ISSN: 1530-3667

NAL Call No.: RA639.5V43

Descriptors: St Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile Virus, mosquito borne diseases, disease transmission, epidemiology,  Culex nigripalpus, biting rates, blood meals, host preferences, seasonal variation, population dynamics, population density, wild birds mortality, epidemics, simulation models, Florida, host switching, epizootics.

 

Malkinson, M; Weisman, Y; Pokamonski, S; King, R; Deubel, V. Intercontinental transmission of West Nile virus by migrating white storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001; 7(3 Suppl): 540. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   disease transmission, bird physiology, West Nile virus dispersion patterns, greographic movement of disease, Europe, Israel, migration birds as disease reservoirs, storks. 

 

Marfin, A A; Petersen, L R; Eidson, M; Miller, J; Hadler, J; Farello, C; Werner, B; Campbell, G L; Layton, M; Smith, P; Bresnitz, E; Cartter, M; Scaletta, J; Obiri, G; Bunning, M; Craven, R C; Roehrig, J T; Julian, K G; Hinten, S R; Gubler, D J. Widespread West Nile virus activity, eastern United States, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 730-5. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   ArboNET, cooperative inter-state surveillance system, data collection of disease spread in the U.S., animal disease as predictors of human risks of disease, disease outbreaks, birds, horses, Culicidae mosquitoes, songbird disease, epidemiology.

Abstract: In 1999, the U.S. West Nile (WN) virus epidemic was preceded by widespread reports of avian deaths. In 2000, ArboNET, a cooperative WN virus surveillance system, was implemented to monitor the sentinel epizootic that precedes human infection. This report summarizes 2000 surveillance data, documents widespread virus activity in 2000, and demonstrates the utility of monitoring virus activity in animals to identify human risk for infection.

 

McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Docherty, D E; Hansen, W R; Sileo, L; McNamara, T S. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 54-7. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   captive crows, experimental infection, 1999 NY strain of virus, viremic levels, controls   infected by possible oral transmission, direct transmission.

Abstract: The ecology of the strain of West Nile virus (WNV) introduced into the United States in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but has unique features not observed with SLE virus or with WNV in the old world. The primary route of transmission for most of the arboviruses in North America is by mosquito, and infected native birds usually do not suffer morbidity or mortality. An exception to this pattern is eastern equine encephalitis virus, which has an alternate direct route of transmission among nonnative birds, and some mortality of native bird species occurs. The strain of WNV circulating in the northeastern United States is unique in that it causes significant mortality in exotic and native bird species, especially in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Because of the lack of information on the susceptibility and pathogenesis of WNV for this species, experimental studies were conducted at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. In two separate studies, crows were inoculated with a 1999 New York strain of WNV, and all experimentally infected crows died. In one of the studies, control crows in regular contact with experimentally inoculated crows in the same room but not inoculated with WNV succumbed to infection. The direct transmission between crows was most likely by the oral route. Inoculated crows were viremic before death, and high titers of virus were isolated from a variety of tissues. The significance of the experimental direct transmission among captive crows is unknown.

 

Mishra, AC; Jadi, RS; Paramasivan, R; Mourya, DT. Antigen distribution pattern of West Nile virus in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui and Culex pseudovishnui mosquitoes. Journal of Communicable Diseases. 2001 Sep; 33(3): 174-9. ISSN: 0019-5138.

Descriptors:  Culex, viral antigen patterns in Culex mosquitoes, virus isolation and purification, insect vectors, ovaries, salivary glands.

Abstract: Distribution of West Nile (WN) virus antigen in different tissues of mosquitoes was studied in three species viz., Culex tritaeniorhynchus, C. vishnui and C. pseudovishnui. Overall per cent positivity was higher i n the intra thoracically inoculated as compared to the orally infected mosquitoes, suggesting the existence of a midgut barrier. In a small number of mosquitoes salivary glands were found negative even though fluorescence was seen in the respective head s quashes, suggesting salivary gland barrier in these mosquitoes. There was no difference in the per cent salivary gland and salivary gland area positivity between these three species. Presence of virus antigen in the ovaries of these three species on the 3 rd post infection day suggests the possibility of transovarial transmission of virus even in the first gonotrophic cycle, which is of epidemiological importance.

 

Mishra, A C; Mourya, D T. Transovarial transmission of West Nile virus in Culex vishnui mosquito. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2001 Dec; 114: 212-4. ISSN:  0971-5916.

Descriptors:   Culex vishnui mosquito, biology of transovarial transmission of West Nile virus, 1st and 2nd gonotropic cycles, role of mosquito in maintaining population of West Nile virus,

Abstract: The phenomenon of transovarial transmission (TOT) of West Nile (WN) virus in Culex vishnui was studied. The virus was detected in the progeny of both first and second gonotropic cycles (G1 and G2). About 5.56 per cent pools of F1 progeny from the parent females infected by the oral route were found positive for WN virus. This is the first report of TOT of WN virus in this species of mosquito. The occurrence of this phenomenon is of considerable importance in view of complex natural cycle of the virus and the high density of this vector species in nature. The results suggest that this mosquito may be involved in the maintenance of this virus in nature.

 

Monath, TP; Arroyo, J; Miller, C; Guirakhoo, F. West Nile virus vaccine. Current Drug Targets Infectious Disorders. 2001 May; 1(1): 37-50. ISSN:  1568-0053.

Descriptors:  development of human and veterinary vaccines, the ChimeriVax technology for flavivirus, Culicidae virology, genomes, Macaca mulatto, mice, viremia prevention and control, virulence, epidemiology, virus transmission, pathogenicity. 

Abstract: Within the past 5 years, West Nile encephalitis has emerged as an important disease of humans and horses in Europe. In 1999, the disease appeared for the first time in the northeastern United States. West Nile vir us (a mosquito-borne flavivirus) has flourished in the North American ecosystem and is expected to expand its geographic range. In this review, the rationale for a human and veterinary vaccine is presented and a novel approach for rapid development of a m olecularly-defined, live, attenuated vaccine is described. The technology (ChimeriVax) is applicable to the development of vaccines against all flaviviruses, and products against Japanese encephalitis (a close relative of West Nile) and dengue are in or a re nearing clinical trials, respectively. ChimeriVax vaccines utilize the safe and effective vaccine against the prototype flavivirus -yellow fever 17D- as a live vector. Infectious clone technology is used to replace the genes encoding the pre-membrane ( prM) and envelope (E) protein of yellow fever 17D vaccine with the corresponding genes of the target virus (e.g., West Nile). The resulting chimeric virus contains the antigens responsible for protection against West Nile but retains the replication effic iency of yellow fever 17D. The ChimeriVax technology is well-suited to the rapid development of a West Nile vaccine, and clinical trials could begin as early as mid-2002. Other approaches to vaccine development are briefly reviewed. The aim of this brief review is to describe the features of West Nile encephalitis, a newly introduced infectious disease affecting humans, horses and wildlife in the United States; the rationale for rapid development of vaccines; and approaches to the development of vaccines against the disease.

 

Monath, TP. Prospects for development of a vaccine against the West Nile virus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 1-12. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   feasibility of vaccine development, humans, horses, formalin inactivated virus-based vaccine, comparison with live attenuated recombinant vaccine, viron, West Nile virus protein coat.

Abstract: Vaccination provides the ultimate measure for personal protection against West Nile disease. The development of a West Nile vaccine for humans is justified by the uncertainty surrounding the size and frequency of future epidemics. At least two companies (Acambis Inc. and Baxter/immuno) have initiated research and development on human vaccines. West Nile encephalitis has also emerged as a significant problem for the equine industry. One major veterinary vaccine manufacturer (Ft. Dodge) is developing formalin-inactivated and naked DNA vaccines. The advantages and disadvantages of formalin-inactivated whole virion vaccines, Japanese encephalitis vaccine for cross-protection, naked DNA, and live attenuated vaccines are described. A novel technology platform for live, attenuated recombinant vaccines (ChimeriVax) represents a promising approach for rapid development of a West Nile vaccine. This technology uses yellow fever 17D as a live vector for envelope genes of the West Nile virus. Infectious clone technology is used to replace the genes encoding the prM and E structural proteins of yellow fever 17D vaccine virus with the corresponding genes of West Nile virus. The resulting virion has the protein coat of West Nile, containing all antigenic determinants for neutralization and one or more epitopes for cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein, nonstructural proteins, and untranslated terminal regions responsible for replication remain those of the original yellow fever 17D virus. The chimeric virus replicates in the host like yellow fever 17D but immunizes specifically against West Nile virus.

Morrey J D; Smee D F; Sidwell R W. In vitro evaluation of compounds against West Nile virus. Antiviral Research. April, 2001; 50 (1): A70. ISSN: 0166-3542. Fourteenth International Conference on Antiviral Research, Seattle, Washington, USA, April 08-12, 2001.

NAL Call No.: QR355.A5

Descriptors: New York isolate, Vero cell line, anti-viral drugs, 2-thio-6-azauridine enzyme inhibitor drug,  6-azauridine enzyme inhibitor drug, GTP synthesis, IMP dehydrogenase, OMP decarboxylase, TTP synthesis, UTP synthesis, adenosine analogs, cyclopentenylcytosine [CPE-C] enzyme inhibitor drug, pyrazofurin enzyme inhibitor drug, selenazofurin enzyme inhibitor drug.

 

Musa Hindiyeh; Shulman LM; Mendelson E; Weiss L; Grossman Z; Bin H. Isolation and characterization of West Nile virus from the blood of viremic patients during the 2000 outbreak in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001, 7: 4, 748-750; 17 ref. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   viral strain lineages, 1999 New York isolate, Russian isolates, Israel isolate.

 

Nasci, R S; Savage, H M; White, D J; Miller, J R; Cropp, B C; Godsey, M S; Kerst, A J; Bennett, P; Gottfried, K; Lanciotti, R S. West Nile virus in overwintering Culex mosquitoes, New York City, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 742-4. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   overwintering adult mosquitoes tested for West Nile virus, RT  PCR, Culex pipiens, vector mosquitoes in northeastern U.S, Aedes cytology, Vero cells, seasonal effects.

Abstract: After the 1999 West Nile (WN) encephalitis outbreak in New York, 2,300 overwintering adult mosquitoes were tested for WN virus by cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. WN viral RNA and live virus were found in pools of Culex mosquitoes. Persistence in overwintering Cx. pipiens may be important in the maintenance of WN virus in the northeastern United States.

 

Nasci, R S; White, D J; Stirling, H; Oliver, J A; Daniels, T J; Falco, R C; Campbell, S; Crans, W J; Savage, H M; Lanciotti, R S; Moore, C G; Godsey, M S; Gottfried, K L; Mitchell, C J. West Nile virus isolates from mosquitoes in New York and New Jersey, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 626-30. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   mosquitoes survival, 24 mosquitoes species, 15 isolates of West Nile virus, main reservoir is Culex pipiens, other Culex sp, Aedes, Anopheles, Cereopithecus aethiops, viral genetics.

Abstract: An outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile (WN) virus occurred in New York City and the surrounding areas during 1999. Mosquitoes were collected as part of a comprehensive surveillance program implemented to monitor the outbreak. More than 32,000 mosquitoes representing 24 species were tested, and 15 WN virus isolates were obtained. Molecular techniques were used to identify the species represented in the WN virus-positive mosquito pools. Most isolates were from pools containing Culex pipiens mosquitoes, but several pools contained two or more Culex species.

 

Ng, M L; Tan, S H; Chu, J J. Transport and budding at two distinct sites of visible nucleocapsids of West Nile (Sarafend) virus. Journal of Medical Virology. 2001 Dec; 65(4): 758-64. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors:   cryo-immunoelectron microscopy, capsid proteins, neocapsid particles, nucleocapsid physiology, replication cycle, viral envelope protein analysis, virus ultrastructure, Vero cells.

Abstract: It has been difficult to detect and visualize the physical nucleocapsid particles during the replication process of the flaviviruses. The use of cryo-immunoelectron microscopy has clearly revealed the capsid proteins and nucleocapsid particles of West Nile (Sarafend) virus (a flavivirus) for the first time. Physical nucleocapsid particles accumulated in large numbers from 8 hr postinfection. Double immunolabeling of the envelope and capsid proteins showed a close association of these structural proteins for most of the replication cycle. By 10 hr postinfection, budding of nucelocapsids from the plasma membrane was very obvious. Although maturation at the plasma membrane was the dominant mode, during late infection, intracellular maturation into large vacuoles was also observed.

 

Nolen, R S. Nation's zoos and aquariums help track West Nile virus. JAMA -- Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2001 Nov 15; 219(10): 1327, 1330. ISSN:  0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3

Descriptors:   wild and captive animals susceptibility to West Nile virus, horses, songbirds, monitoring of disease spread, zoological parks and aquarium animal collections.

 

Panella, N A; Kerst, A J; Lanciotti, R S; Bryant, P; Wolf, B; Komar, N. Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 754-5. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   West Nile virus disease in birds, deaths of American crows, levels of virus in various organ tissues, detection in brain tissue.

Abstract: Widespread deaths of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)were associated with the 1999 outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus in the New York City region. We compared six organs from 20 crow carcasses as targets for WN virus detection. Half the carcasses had at least one positive test result for WN virus infection. The brain was the most sensitive test organ; it was the only positive organ for three of the positive crows. The sensitivity of crow organs as targets for WN virus detection makes crow death useful for WN virus surveillance.

 

Parquet, M C; Kumatori, A; Hasebe, F; Morita, K; Igarashi, A. West Nile virus-induced bax-dependent apoptosis.

FEBS Letters. 2001 Jun 29; 500(1-2): 17-24. ISSN: 0014-5793.

NAL Call No.: QD415.F4

Descriptors:   cell lines, K562 and Neuro-2a cells, cell shrinkage, chromatin concdensation, subdiploid DNA content, DAN destruction, cell wall membrane changes, viral replication.

Abstract: The mechanism of cell death induced by West Nile virus (WNV), a causative agent of human febrile syndrome and encephalitis, was investigated. WNV-infected K562 and Neuro-2a cells manifested the typical features of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and subdiploid DNA content by flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation into nucleosomal size and changes in outer cell membrane phospholipid composition were also observed in K562 cells. UV-inactivated virus failed to induce the above-mentioned characteristics, suggesting that viral replication may be required for the induction of apoptosis by WNV. Additionally, signals involved in WNV-induced apoptosis are associated with the up-regulation of bax gene expression.

 

Petersen, L R; Roehrig, J T. West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 611-4. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   zoonotic virus, emerging disease epidemiology, genetics, virus strains, isolation and purification, viral metabolism, review article, virulence mutations, Culex mosquitoes, insect vectors, world-wide pathogen movements.

 

Petersen LR; Roehrig JT; Petersen LR (ed.); Roehrig JT. West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001, 7: 4, 611-764. ISSN:  1080-6040. Special issue focusing on West Nile virus with 30 papers on a variety of topics.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   biology, ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus, surveillance systems, disease outbreaks, genetics, Culicidae mosquito vectors, humans, horses, birds, detection.

 

Sardelis, M.R.; M. Turell. Ochlerotatus j. japonicus in Frederick County, Maryland: discovery, distribution, and vector competence for West Nile virus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. June 2001. v. 17 (2) p. 137-141. ISSN: 8756-971X.

NAL call no:  QL536.J686

Descriptors: Culicidae, Aedes albopictus, surveys, oviposition traps, mosquitoes, geographical distribution, new geographic records, disease vectors, vector competence, West Nile virus, disseminated infections, disease transmission, Maryland.

 

Sardelis, M R; Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; O'Guinn, M L. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Nov-Dec; 7(6): 1018-22. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   viral transmission efficiency, vector potential of various mosquito species, Culex restuans, Culex salinarius, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus, Coquillettidia perturbans, chickens, North America.

Abstract: To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology.

 

Sbai, H; Mehta, A; DeGroot, AS. Use of T cell epitopes for vaccine development. Cur r. Drug Targets Infect. Disord. 2001 Nov; 1(3): 303-13  ISSN: 1568-0053

Descriptors: epitopes, T lymphocyte immunology, vaccines, computational biology, genetic vectors, HIV 1-immunology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetics, Salmonella typhimurium genetics, vaccines, DNA immunology, Vaccinia virus gen etics, West Nile virus.

Abstract: T lymphocytes play a major role in the recognition and subsequent elimination of tumors and intracellular pathogens. Induction of epitope-specific T cell responses can help in the clearance of diseases for which no conventional vaccines exist. However, the lack of simple methods to identify relevant T cell epitopes, the high mutation rate of many pathogens, and HLA polymorphism have made the development of efficient T cell epitope-based, or "epitope-driven& quot; vaccines difficult to achieve. Our research over the past several years has applied bioinformatics tools in conjunction with T cell assays to identify naturally processed putative T cell epitopes from several pathogens. This strategy will accelerate the development of new generation T cell epitope-based vaccines against various pathogens including viruses such as HIV and WNV, bacteria such as M.tb., and parasites such as plasmodium. This chapter will review the use of a bioinformatics-based approach to identify putative T cell epitopes. It will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T cell-epitope-based vaccines and discuss several ways to improve their efficacy.

 

Shi , P Y; Kauffman, E B; Ren, P; Felton, A; Tai, J H; Dupuis, A P 2nd; Jones, S A; Ngo, K A; Nicholas, D C; Maffei, J; Ebel, G D; Bernard, K A; Kramer, L D. High-throughput detection of West Nile virus RNA. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001 Apr; 39(4): 1264-71. ISSN: 0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors: surveillance protocols, automated RNA extraction, amplification and detection, robotic system, hight sensitivity method. RT PCR, virus isolation and purification, time factors,  large scale viral RNA surveillance.

Abstract: The recent outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States and other regions of the world have made it essential to develop an efficient protocol for surveillance of WNV. In the present report, we describe a high-throughput procedure that combines automated RNA extraction, amplification, and detection of WNV RNA. The procedure analyzed 96 samples in approximately 4.5 h. A robotic system, the ABI Prism 6700 Automated Nucleic Acid workstation, extracted RNA and set up reactions for real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in a 96-well format. The robot extracted RNA with a recovery as efficient as that of a commercial RNA extraction kit. A real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect and quantitate WNV RNA. Using in vitro transcribed RNA, we estimated the detection limit of the real-time RT-PCR to be approximately 40 copies of RNA. A standard RT-PCR assay was optimized to a sensitivity similar to that of the real-time RT-PCR. The standard assay can be reliably used to test a small number of samples or to confirm previous test results. Using internal primers in a nested RT-PCR, we increased the sensitivity by approximately 10-fold compared to that of the standard RT-PCR. The results of the study demonstrated for the first time that the use of an automated system for the purpose of large-scale viral RNA surveillance dramatically increased the speed and efficiency of sample throughput for diagnosis.

 

Sibbald, B. Quebec clears way for use of aerial pesticides to combat West Nile virus. Canadian Medical Association Journal . 2001 Aug 21; 165(4): 463. ISSN: 0820-3946.

NAL Call No.: R11 C3

Descriptors:   Canada, disease prevention, arial spraying for mosquito control, malathion, administration and dosages, adverse effects, birds, Quebec.

 

Snook, C.S.; S. Hyman; F. Del Piero; J. Palmer; E. Ostlund; B. Barr; A. Desrochers; L. Reilly. West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in eight horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. May 15, 2001. v. 218 (10) p. 1576-1579. ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL call no:  41.8 Am3

Descriptors: horses, West Nile virus, West Nile fever, encephalitis, symptoms, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, case reports, New York, New Jersey.

 

SoRelle, R. West Nile virus spreading. Circulation. 2001 Aug 14; 104(7): E9011-3 ISSN: 1524-4539.

Descriptors:  epidemiology, transmission, virus isolation and purification, disease spread, implication for prevention and control.

 

Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Smith, C S; Shieh, W J; Zaki, S R. Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused by West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 751-3. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:  experimental infection, young geese, effects of disease on geese, clinical signs, possible reservoir for the virus, mosquito vector.

Abstract: During 1999 and 2000, a disease outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus occurred in humans, horses, and wild and zoological birds in the northeastern USA. In our experiments, WN virus infection of young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused depression, weight loss, torticollis, opisthotonus, and death with accompanying encephalitis and myocarditis. Based on this experimental study and a field outbreak in Israel, WN virus is a disease threat to young goslings and viremia levels are potentially sufficient to infect mosquitoes and transmit WN virus to other animal species.

 

Trock, S C; Meade, B J; Glaser, A L; Ostlund, E N; Lanciotti, R S; Cropp, B C; Kulasekera, V; Kramer, L D; Komar, N. West Nile virus outbreak among horses in New York State, 1999 and 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 745-7. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   humans/horses disease correlations, epidemiology, Culex mosquitoes species as disease vectors, physiopathology, Aedes, disease pathology, viral genetics, immunology, RT PCR, New York State.

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus was identifiedin the Western Hemisphere in 1999. Along with human encephalitis cases, 20 equine cases of WN virus were detected in 1999 and 23 equine cases in 2000 in New York. During both years, the equine cases occurred after human cases in New York had been identified.

 

Turell, M J; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; O'Guinn, M L. Potential North American vectors of West Nile virus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 317-24.ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484       

Descriptors:   vector efficiency testing, Culex pipiens, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex salinarius, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vexans, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Ochlerotatus sollicitans, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus, mosquito from inoculated chicks, environmental factors, populations, lifespan, mosquito feeding habits.

Abstract: The outbreak of disease in the New York area in 1999 due to West Nile (WN) virus was the first evidence of the occurrence of this virus in the Americas. To determine potential vectors, more than 15 mosquito species (including Culex pipiens, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Aedes albopictus, Ae. vexans, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, and Oc. triseriatus) from the eastern United States were evaluated for their ability to serve as vectors for the virus isolated from birds collected during the 1999 outbreak in New York. Mosquitoes were allowed to feed on one- to four-day old chickens that had been inoculated with WN virus 1-3 days previously. The mosquitoes were incubated for 12-15 days at 26 degrees C and then allowed to refeed on susceptible chickens and assayed to determine transmission and infection rates. Several container-breeding species (e.g., Ae. albopictus, Oc. atropalpus, and Oc. japonicus) were highly efficient laboratory vectors of WN virus. The Culex species were intermediate in their susceptibility. However, if a disseminated infection developed, all species were able to transmit WN virus by bite. Factors such as population density, feeding preference, longevity, and season of activity also need to be considered in determining the role these species could play in the transmission of WN virus.

 

Turell, M.J.; M. O'Guinn; D. Dohm; J. Jones. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. Mar 2001. v. 38 (2) p. 130-134. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL call no:  421 J828

Descriptors: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes atropalpus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes sollicitans, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens, West Nile virus, susceptibility, disseminated infections, disease vectors, vector competence, disease transmission, New York City, Virginia, North America.

Abstract: We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately equal to 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus.

 

Tyler, KL. West Nile virus encephalitis in America. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001 Jun 14; 344(24): 1858-9. ISSN: 0028-4793.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 N442

Descriptors: disease outbreaks, New York City, epidemiology, virus isolation, PCR, surveillance, diagnosis, transmission. 

 

Wang, T; Anderson, J F; Magnarelli, L A; Bushmich, S; Wong, S; Koski, R A; Fikrig, E. West Nile virus envelope protein: role in diagnosis and immunity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 325-7. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   antibodies, viral envelope proteins, diagnosis, immunology,  inbred C3H mice, recombinant proteins immunology, level of protection, passive immunization, rabbits, mice, diagnostic aid. 

Abstract: The role of antibodies to the West Nile virus envelope (E) protein in serodiagnosis and protection was examined. The E protein was expressed and purified in recombinant form. Antibodies to the E protein were detected in patients with West Nile virus infection. Passive immunization with rabbit anti-E protein sera also partially protected mice from challenge with West Nile virus. The humoral response to the West Nile virus E protein is therefore useful as an aid in the diagnosis and may also play a role in immunity to infection.

 

Wang, T; Anderson, J F; Magnarelli, L A; Wong, S J; Koski, R A; Fikrig, E. Immunization of mice against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein. Journal of Immunology. 2001 Nov 1; 167(9): 5273-7. ISSN: 0022-1767.

Descriptors: recombinant envelope protein, C3H/HeN mice, immunized with E protein, antibody development, level of protection, possible immunization potential for a vaccine.

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus that emerged in the United States in 1999 and can cause fatal encephalitis. Envelope (E) protein cDNA from a WN virus isolate recovered from Culex pipiens in Connecticut was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E protein was purified and used as Ag in immunoblot assays and immunization experiments. Patients with WN virus infection had Abs that recognized the recombinant E protein. C3H/HeN mice immunized with E protein developed E protein Abs and were protected from infection with WN virus. Passive administration of E protein antisera was also sufficient to afford immunity. E protein is a candidate vaccine to prevent WN virus infection.

 

White, DJ. Vector surveillance for West Nile virus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Dec; 951: 74-83. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:   mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance programs, response plan, vector population data, movement of 8 mosquito species, control efficacy, public health concerns, epidemiology, New York State, Culicidae, sentinel surveillance, virus genetics.

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the metropolitan New York City (NYC) area during the summer and fall of 1999. Sixty-two human cases, including seven fatalities, were documented. The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) initiated and implemented a statewide mosquito and WNV surveillance system. We developed a WNV response plan designed to provide local health departments (LHD) a standardized means to begin to assess basic mosquito population data and to detect WNV circulation in mosquito populations. During the 2000 arbovirus surveillance season, local health agencies collected 317,676 mosquitoes and submitted 9,952 pools for virus testing. NYSDOH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing detected 363 WNV-positive pools. Eight species of mosquitoes were found to be infected. Of the 26 counties conducting mosquito surveillance, WNV-positive mosquitoes were detected only in NYC, on Long Island, and in four counties in the lower Hudson River valley region. LHD larval surveillance provided initial or enhanced mosquito habitat location and characterization and mosquito species documentation. Adult mosquito surveillance provided LHD information on species' presence, density, seasonal fluctuations, virus infection, minimum infection ratios (MIR) and indirect data on mosquito control efficacy after larval or adult control interventions. Collective surveillance activities conducted during 1999 and 2000 suggest that WNV has dispersed throughout the state and may affect local health jurisdictions within NYS, adjacent states, and Canada in future years. Vector surveillance will remain a critical component of LHD programs addressing public health concerns related to WNV.

 

White, D J; Kramer, L D; Backenson, P B; Lukacik, G; Johnson, G; Oliver, J A; Howard, J J; Means, R G; Eidson, M; Gotham, I; Kulasekera, V; Campbell, S. Mosquito surveillance and polymerase chain reaction detection of West Nile virus, New York State. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 643-9. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:   state-wide mosquito and virus surveillance system, 8 species as disease vectors, exposure risks, PCR testing to confirm the virus, human exposure risks, New York State.

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus was detected in the metropolitan New York City (NYC) area during the summer and fall of 1999. Sixty-two human cases, 7 fatal, were documented. The New York State Department of Health initiated a departmental effort to implement a statewide mosquito and virus surveillance system. During the 2000 arbovirus surveillance season, we collected 317,676 mosquitoes, submitted 9,952 pools for virus testing, and detected 363 WN virus-positive pools by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eight species of mosquitoes were found infected. Our mosquito surveillance system complemented other surveillance systems in the state to identify relative risk for human exposure to WN virus. PCR WN virus-positive mosquitoes were detected in NYC and six counties in the lower Hudson River Valley and metropolitan NYC area. Collective surveillance activities suggest that WN virus can disperse throughout the state and may impact local health jurisdictions in the state in future years.

 

Xiao, S Y; Guzman, H; Zhang, H; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Tesh, R B. West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a model for West Nile encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 714-21. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors: animal disease model, golden hamsters, New York isolate, levels of viremia, antibody responses, symptoms of disease, viral persistence pathogenesis.   

Abstract: This report describes a new hamster model for West Nile (WN) virus encephalitis. Following intraperitoneal inoculation of a New York isolate of WN virus, hamsters had moderate viremia of 5 to 6 days in duration, followed by the development of humoral antibodies. Encephalitic symptoms began 6 days after infection; about half the animals died between the seventh and 14th days. The appearance of viral antigen in the brain and neuronal degeneration also began on the sixth day. WN virus was cultured from the brains of convalescent hamsters up to 53 days after initial infection, suggesting that persistent virus infection occurs. Hamsters offer an inexpensive model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of WN virus encephalitis.

 

Yang, J S; Kim, J J; Hwang, D; Choo, A Y; Dang, K; Maguire,-H; Kudchodkar, S; Ramanathan, M P; Weiner, D B. Induction of potent Th1-type immune responses from a novel DNA vaccine for West Nile virus New York isolate (WNV-NY1999). Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2001 Oct 1; 184(7): 809-16. ISSN:  0022-1899.

Descriptors:   DNA vaccine development, encoded West Nile virus capsid protein, mouse model, muscle injections, humoral/cellular responses, lumphocyte responses, T-cells, macrophages, potential use as vaccine evaluated. 

Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is a vectorborne pathogen that induces brain inflammation and death. Recently, confirmed cases of infection and deaths have occurred in the United States Mid-Atlantic region. In this study, a DNA vaccine encoding the WNV capsid protein was constructed, and the in vivo immune responses generated were investigated in DNA vaccine-immunized mice. Antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were observed, including a potent induction of antigen-specific Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Strong induction of Th1-type immune responses included high levels of antigen-specific elaboration of the Th1-type cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 and beta-chemokines RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell-expressed and secreted) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. Dramatic infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages also was observed at the muscle injection site. These results support the potential utility of this method as a tool for developing immunization strategies for WNV and other emerging pathogens.

 

Yang, J; Ramanathan, M; Muthumani, K; Hwang, D; Yu, Q; Jin, S; Choo, A; Lee, M; Dang, K; Kim, J; Weiner, D. The West Nile virus capsid induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo through the mitochondrial based pathway. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2001; 41: 301. 41st Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 22-25, 2001.

Descriptors:  West Nile virus capsid apoptosis inducing region of HIV-1Vpr gene product homology, effect of expression of West Nile virus Cp gene contruct on human cells, plasmid gene delivery, nuclear condensation and cell death in tissue culture, mitochondrial membrane potential and Caspase 9 activation and Caspase 3 activation, mouse muscle,  mouse brain striatum, pathogenesis, therapeutic approach for treatment.

 

Zeller, HG; Murgue, B. Role des oiseaux migrateurs dans l'epidemiologie du virus West Nile. [The role of migrating birds in the West Nile virus epidemiology.] 10e Colloque sur le controle epidemiologique des maladies infectieuses (CEMI): Epidemiologie, surveillance et prevention des zoonoses, 4 mai 2001, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Medecine-et-Maladies-Infectieuses. 2001, 31: Supplement2, 168s-174s; 27 ref. ISSN: 0399-077X. In French with an English summary.

Descriptors:   West Nile virus outbreaks, transmission cycle, epidemiology, movement of disease via migrating birds, factors supporting outbreaks, disease vectors, humans, horses, Culex mosquitoes as disease vectors, susceptible birds, Europe, Africa.


Return to Contents


 

2000

 

 

Anonymous. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes--New York, 2000. JAMA -- The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2000 May 10; 283(18): 2380-1. ISSN: 0098-7484.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 Am37

Descriptors:  West Nile virus disease vector mosquitoes, levels of virus, overwintering mosquitoes, epidemiology, New York State, Culicidae, prevention and control.   

 

Anonymous. Guidelines for surveillance, prevention, and control of West Nile virus infection--United States. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2000 Jan 21; 49(2): 25-8. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors:  guidance for surveillance programs, disease prevention and control, CDC and USDA sponsored meeting report, guidelines summary, laboratory techniques and procedures, virus isolation and purification.   

Abstract: The introduction of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States during the summer and fall of 1999 raised the issue of preparedness of public health agencies to handle sporadic and outbreak-associated vector-borne diseases. In many local and state health departments, vector-borne disease capacity has diminished. Because it is unknown whether the virus can persist over the winter, whether it has already or will spread to new geographic locations, and the public health and animal health implications of this introduction, it is important to establish proactive laboratory-based surveillance and prevention and control programs to limit the impact of the virus in the United States. On November 8 and 9, 1999, CDC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cosponsored a meeting of experts representing a wide range of disciplines to review the outbreak and to provide input and guidance on the programs that should be developed to monitor WN virus activity and to prevent future outbreaks of disease. This report summarizes the guidelines established during this meeting.

 

Anonymous. Update: West Nile virus activity--Eastern United States, 2000. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2000 Nov 24; 49(46): 1044-7. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors:   disease epidemiology in wild birds, horses, and humans, sentinel chicken flocks, Culicidae mosquitoes virology, virus isolation and purification, levels of disease in Mid-Atlantic states.

Abstract:  Data reported to CDC through the West Nile Virus (WNV) Surveillance System have shown an increase in the geographic range of WNV activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that WNV was reported in the Western Hemisphere. In response to this occurrence of WNV, 17 states along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, New York City, and the District of Columbia conducted WNV surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e.g., horses and humans). In 1999, WNV was detected in four states (Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York) . In 2000, epizootic activity in birds and/or mosquitoes was reported from 12 states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia) and the District of Columbia. Of the 13 jurisdictions, seven also reported severe neurologic WNV infections in humans, horses, and/or other mammal species. This report presents surveillance data reported to CDC from January 1 through November 15.

 

Anonymous. Update: West Nile virus activity--Northeastern United States, January-August 7, 2000. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2000 Aug 11; 49(31): 714-8. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors:  bird diseases, epidemiology, Culicidae virology, insect vectors,  virus isolation and purification, mosquito monitoring, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, surveillance system, Eastern U.S.

Abstract:  Surveillance programs initiated in response to the 1999 West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak have detected increased transmission in the northeastern United States (1). Seventeen states along the Atlantic and gulf coasts, New York City (NYC), and Washington, D.C., have conducted WNV surveillance and are reporting to CDC (1). Surveillance for WNV infection includes monitoring of mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e.g., horses and humans) (2). This report summarizes findings of this surveillance system through August 7, 2000.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus activity--New York and New Jersey, 2000. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2000 Jul 21; 49(28): 640-2. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors:   bird diseases, epidemiology, diagnosis, Culicidae, virus isolation and purification, New York, New Jersey. 

Abstract:  In late August 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis caused by West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in New York City and subsequently identified in neighboring counties (1). In response, an extensive mosquito-control and risk-reduction campaign was initiated, including aerial and ground applications of mosquito adulticides throughout the affected areas. No human WNV infections were found in New York City with an onset date after the campaign was completed. Cases continued to occur among humans in surrounding counties that did not undertake mosquito-control efforts until later, suggesting that the campaign may have reduced human risk. In May 2000, CDC issued guidelines to direct national surveillance, prevention, and control efforts (2) and provided funds to support these efforts in 19 state and local health departments where WNV transmission had occurred or where transmission would probably occur based on known bird migration patterns. This report presents the findings of surveillance activities.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus in Rhode Island. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2000 Sep 15; 217(6): 812. ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3

Descriptors:   virology, prevention and control, isolation and purification, songbirds virology, Rhode Island, epidemiology, mosquito control.

 

Anonymous. West Nile virus in the Americas. Epidemiological Bulletin. 2000 Dec; 21(4): 9-11. ISSN: 0256-1859.

Descriptors:  epidemiology, Culicidae mosquito species, insect vectors of disease, transmission of virus, virus physiology, Mid-Atlantic states, U.S.

 

Anonymous. Infection a virus West Nile chez des chevaux dans le sud de la France, Septembre 2000. [West Nile virus infection in horses in the south of France, September 2000.] Bulletin Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 2000, No. 39, 173. In French.

Descriptors: horses, clinical signs of West Nile virus, control measures to eliminate Culex modestus as disease vector, serological testing, southern France.

 

Bertrand, T; Bandy, U. West Nile virus surveillance and prevention. Medicine and Health, Rhode Island. 2000 May; 83(5): 160-1. ISSN:  1086-5462.

Descriptors:  epidemiology, disease prevention and control, disease incidence, disease risk factors, Rhode Island. 

Calisher, C H. West Nile virus in the New World: appearance, persistence, and adaptation to a new econiche--an opportunity taken. Viral Immunology. 2000; 13(4): 411-4. ISSN:  0882-8245.

Descriptors:   disease movement, changes in pathogenicity, adaption to U.S. climates, insect disease vectors and reservoirs, disease prevention and control, birds, Culicidae mosquitoes, virus transmission, New York City. 

 

Cantile, C.; G. Di Guardo; C. Eleni; M. Arispici. Clinical and neuropathological features of West Nile virus equine encephalomyelitis in Italy. Equine Veterinary Journal. Jan 2000. v. 32 (1) p. 31-35. ISSN: 0425 1644.

NAL Call No.:  SF955.E6

Descriptors: horses, encephalitis, West Nile virus, clinical aspects, pathology, outbreaks, Italy.

 

Cernescu, C; Nedelcu, N I; Tardei, G; Ruta, S; Tsai, T F. Continued transmission of West Nile virus to humans in southeastern Romania, 1997-1998. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000 Feb; 181(2): 710-2. ISSN:  0022-1899.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 J821

Descriptors:  disease transmission, monitoring for West Nile virus in sentinel chickens, seroconversion, summer months, Romania.

Abstract: After an epidemic of West Nile (WN) virus neurologic infections in southeastern Romania in 1996, human and animal surveillance were established to monitor continued transmission of the virus. During 1997 and 1998, neurologic infections were diagnosed serologically as WN encephalitis in 12 of 322 patients in 19 southeastern districts and in 1 of 75 Bucharest patients. In addition, amid a countrywide epidemic of measles, the etiology of the febrile exanthem in 2 of 180 investigated cases was determined serologically to be WN fever; 1 case was complicated by hepatitis. Sentinel chickens placed in Bucharest seroconverted to WN virus during the summer months, indicating their potential value in monitoring transmission. The continued occurrence of sporadic WN infections in southeastern Romania in consecutive years after the 1996 epidemic is consistent with local enzootic transmission of the virus.

 

Chiang, W K. Update on emerging infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Update: surveillance for West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes--New York, 2000. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2000 Jul; 36(1): 61-3. ISSN:  0196-0644.

Descriptors:   surveillance data, Culex mosquitoes, RNA, viral genetics, behavior of overwintering mosquitoes, insect vectors and reservoirs, New York City. 

 

Cooper J; Miller J; Bennett P; White D; Smith P.Update: surveillance for West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes - New York, 2000. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2000, 49: 9, 178-179; 7 ref. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: Culex mosquitoes, virus isolates, detection of viral RNA, New York. 

Abstract:  The results of the analysis, which documented West Nile virus RNA in some Culex mosquito pools collected from structures in New York City, New York, USA between January and February 2000 are summarized. No pools prduced live virus isolates, however 67 pools containing Culex spp. mosquitoes, all of which were collected from Fort Totten, reproducibly demonstrated low but detectable levels of West Nile virus RNA.

 

Fio, L. Preparing for West Nile virus in California. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. Aug 2000. v. 20 (8) p. 480, 483-484, 527. ISSN: 0737-0806.

NAL Call No.:  SF951.J65

Descriptors: horses, West Nile virus, West Nile fever, California.

 

Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J; French, R A; Anderson, J F; Andreadis, T G; Kumar, A; West, A B. Recovery and identification of West Nile virus from a hawk in winter. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000 Aug; 38(8): 3110-1. ISSN:  0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors:   redtailed hawk, raptor virology, analysis of brain tissue for West Nile virus, cytoplasmic vesicles, ELISA testing, transmission routes, viral reservoirs, winter season, New York.

Abstract: West Nile virus was recovered from the brain of a red-tailed hawk that died in Westchester County, N.Y., in February 2000. Multiple foci of glial cells, lymphocytes, and a few pyknotic nuclei were observed in the brain. Three to 4 days after inoculation of Vero cells with brain homogenates, cytopathic changes were detected. The presence of West Nile virus antigen in fixed cells or cell lysates was revealed by fluorescent antibody testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Furthermore, Reverse transcriptase-PCR with primers specific for the NS3 gene of West Nile virus resulted in an amplicon of the expected size (470 bp). Electron microscopy of thin sections of infected Vero cells revealed the presence of viral particles approximately 40 nm in diameter, within cytoplasmic vesicles. The demonstration of infection with the West Nile virus in the dead of the winter, long after mosquitoes ceased to be active, is significant in that it testifies to the survival of the virus in the region beyond mosquito season and suggests another route of transmission: in this case, prey to predator.

 

Gough P. Discovery of West Nile virus in Connecticut and what was learned during the first year. Frontiers of Plant Science. 2000, 52: 2, 2-4. ISSN:   0016-2167.

NAL Call No.: 100 F92

Descriptors: viral isolation and identification, mosquitoes vectors, birds, Culicidae, Connecticut.

 

Gubler, D J; Campbell, G L; Nasci, R; Komar, N; Petersen, L; Roehrig, J T. West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for detection, prevention, and control. Viral Immunology. 2000; 13(4): 469-75. ISSN: 0882-8245.

Descriptors:  viral disease epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control, disease transmission patterns, Culicidae disease vectors, viral disease reservoirs, public health guidelines for monitoring viral activity, Northeast, U.S. 

Abstract:  The epidemic/epizootic of West Nile (WN) encephalitis in the northeastern United States in the summer and fall of 1999 was an unprecedented event, underscoring the ease with which emerging infectious pathogens can be introduced into new geographic areas in today's era of rapid transportation and increased movement of people, animals, and commodities. This epidemic/epizootic and the increased frequency of other exotic pathogens being imported into the United States raises the issue of whether local, state, and national public health agencies are prepared to deal with epidemics/epizootics of vector-borne infectious diseases. The overwintering of WN virus and the epizootic transmission in the summer of 2000 reinforces the need to rebuild the public health infrastructure to deal with vector-borne diseases in this country. This article summarizes guidelines for surveillance, prevention, and control of WN virus that were drafted in December 1999 to help prepare state and local health departments for monitoring WN virus activity in the spring and summer of 2000 and also summarizes the data collected from those surveillance systems through September 2000.

 

Holloway, M. Outbreak not contained. West Nile virus triggers a reevaluation of public health surveillance. Scientific American. 2000 Apr; 282(4): 20, 22. ISSN:  0036-8733.

NAL Call No.: 470 Sci25

Descriptors: epidemiology, songbird surveillance, chickens, Culicidae mosquito vectors, disease prevention and control.

 

Hubalek, Z. European experience with the West Nile virus ecology and epidemiology: could it be relevant for the New World? Viral Immunology. 2000; 13(4): 415-26. ISSN:  0882-8245.

Descriptors:   review article, West Nile virus epidemiology, Culex pipiens biotype molestus, vector cycles, transmission and population factors, human health risks, horses, migratory birds, four component surveillance system, virus isolation and purification. 

Abstract:  A review of West Nile virus (WNV) and the epidemiology of West Nile fever (WNF) in Europe is presented. European epidemics of WNF reveal some general features. They usually burst out with full strength in the first year, but few cases are observed in the consecutive 1 to 2 (exceptionally 3) years, whereas smaller epidemics or clusters of cases only last for one season. The outbreaks are associated with high populations of mosquitoes (especially Culex spp.) caused by flooding and subsequent dry and warm weather, or formation of suitable larval breeding habitats. Urban WNF outbreaks associated with Culex pipiens biotype molestus are dangerous. Natural (exoanthropic, sylvatic) foci of WNV characterized by the wild bird-ornithophilic mosquito cycle probably occur in many wetlands of climatically warm and some temperate parts of Europe; these foci remain silent but could activate under circumstances supporting an enhanced virus circulation due to appropriate abiotic (weather) and biotic (increased populations of vector mosquitoes and susceptible avian hosts) factors. It is very probable that WNV strains are transported between sub-Saharan Africa and Europe by migratory birds. The surveillance system for WNF should consist of four main components: (1) monitoring of mosquito populations and their infection rate; (2) wild vertebrate surveys; (3) sentinel birds (domestic ducks rather than chickens); and (4) monitoring of human disease. In the case of persisting high risk of WNF for humans and equids in certain enzootic areas, immunization against WNF should be considered. For that purpose a commercially available, cross-protective vaccine against Japanese encephalitis could be used.

 

Jerabek J. Virova encefalitida zapadniho Nilu ohrozuje nejenom kone. [West Nile virus encephalitis not only a threat to horses. An update.] Veterinarstvi. 2000, 50: 7, 285-286; 3 ref.  ISSN: 0506-8231. In Czech.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6439

Descriptors:  West Nile virus, zoonotic disease, horses, humans, other animals, epidemiology.

 

Johnston, BL; Conly, JM. West Nile virus - where did it come from and where might it go? Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000, 11: 4, 175-178; 30 ref.  ISSN: 1180-2332.

Descriptors:   vector borne viral diseases, incidence levels, geographic distribution, disease migration, emerging disease in North America, Canada.

 

Jones, W.E. West Nile virus activity northeastern United States. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. Sept 2000. v. 20 (9) p. 552. ISSN: 0737-0806.

NAL Call No.:  SF951.J65

Descriptors: West Nile virus, disease statistics, northeastern states of USA.

 

Lanciotti, R S; Kerst, A J; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Mitchell, C J; Savage, H M; Komar, N; Panella, N A; Allen, B C; Volpe, K E; Davis, B S; Roehrig, J T. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000 Nov; 38(11): 4066-71 ISSN:  0095-1137.

NAL Call No.: QR46.J6

Descriptors:  viral detection methods, NY1999 West Nile virus isolate, comparison of detection methods, sensitivity levels, Culex mosquito pools, field collected avian tissue sampling, assays, surveillance tool, Vero cells, TaqMan assay, Rt-PCR.

Abstract:  The authors report on the development and application of a rapid TaqMan assay for the detection of West Nile (WN) virus in a variety of human clinical specimens and field-collected specimens. Oligonucleotide primers and FAM- and TAMRA-labeled WN virus-specific probes were designed by using the nucleotide sequence of the New York 1999 WN virus isolate. The TaqMan assay was compared to a traditional reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay and to virus isolation in Vero cells with a large number ( approximately 500) of specimens obtained from humans (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue), field-collected mosquitoes, and avian tissue samples. The TaqMan assay was specific for WN virus and demonstrated a greater sensitivity than the traditional RT-PCR method and correctly identified WN virus in 100% of the culture-positive mosquito pools and 98% of the culture-positive avian tissue samples. The assay should be of utility in the diagnostic laboratory to complement existing human diagnostic testing and as a tool to conduct WN virus surveillance in the United States.

 

Lustig, S; Halevy, M; Fuchs, P; Ben Nathan, D; Lachmi, B E; Kobiler, D; Israeli, E; Olshevsky, U. Can West Nile virus outbreaks be controlled? Israel Medical Association Journal. 2000 Oct; 2(10): 733-7. ISSN: 1565-1088.

Descriptors: disease outbreaks prevention and control, diagnosis, epidemiology, transmission patterns, virus isolation and purification, viral vaccine potential. 

 

Lustig, S; Olshevsky, U; Ben Nathan, D; Lachmi, B E; Malkinson, M; Kobiler, D; Halevy, M. A live attenuated West Nile virus strain as a potential veterinary vaccine. Viral Immunology. 2000; 13(4): 401-10. ISSN:  0882-8245.

Descriptors:  attenuated virus—WNI 25 and WNI 25A, neuroinvasion, traits lost, virus strain development, amino acids, potential live vaccine strain, immunology, geese, SCID mice, serial passage. 

Abstract:  This article reviews the development of two attenuated West Nile virus (WNV) variants, WNI-25 and WNI-25A. These variants have lost the neuroinvasion trait of the parental virus. Attenuation was achieved through serial passages in mosquito cells and neutralization escape from WNV-specific monoclonal antibody. Genetic analysis reveals amino acid changes between the parental and each of the variants. The attenuated variants preserve the ability to replicate in mice and geese and to induce a protective immune response. WNI-25A was found to be a genetically stable virus. This variant was successfully used as a live vaccine to protect geese against a wild-type virulent WNV field isolate that closely resembles the WNV isolated during the 1999 New York epidemic.

 

Miller, B R; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Savage, H M; Lutwama, J J; Lanciotti, R S; Peters, C J. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2000 Feb; 62(2): 240-6. ISSN: 0002-9637

Descriptors: Culex univittatus virology, disease transmission, insect vector viral reservoirs, Culex pipiens, migratory birds as disease spreaders, amino acid sequence, antigens, viral analysis, base sequence, DNA primers chemistry, electrophoresis, indirect fluorescent antibody technique, Kenya epidemiology, phylogeny, RNA, viral chemistry; RT-PCR, homology of amino acids, Vero cells, viral envelope proteins chemistry and genetics.

Abstract: West Nile virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus endemic over a large geographic area including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the virus generally causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness in humans, it has sporadically caused central nervous system infections during epidemics. An isolate of West Nile virus was obtained from a pool of four male Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes while we were conducting an investigation of Rift Valley fever along the Kenya-Uganda border in February-March 1998. This represents the first field isolation of West Nile virus from male mosquitoes and strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996. This unexpected finding probably reflects the role of migratory birds in disseminating West Nile virus between Africa and Europe.

 

Murray-Kristy O; Komar N; McLean R; Glaser L; Eidson M; Sorhage F; Nelson R; Mostashari F; Khan A; Rotz L; Gubler D. Multi-state, multi-jurisdictional avian mortality surveillance as a detection method for geographical spread and reemergence of West Nile virus. American Journal of Epidemiology. June 1, 2000; 151 (11 Supplement): S91. ISSN:  0002-9262. Note: 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research, Seattle, Washington, USA, June 15-17, 2000.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 Am3

Descriptors:  bird mortality levels, geographic pattern of disease spread, disease dissemination, usefulness of detection method, multi-state surveillance system, U.S.

 

Nolen, RS. West Nile virus survives winter; no surprise, says CDC. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2000 Apr 15; 216(8): 1199-1200. 2000 Sep 15; 217(6): 812. 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3

Descriptors:  disease vector reservoirs, overwintering of Culex mosquitoes, transmission patterns, migratory birds, raptors, New York, Connecticut.

 

Nolen, RS. Multistate surveillance system in place for West Nile virus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2000 Jan 1; 216(1): 11. ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3

Descriptors: sentinel bird surveillance, songbirds, epidemiology, horses, vector mosquitoes, disease transmission patterns, control and prevention, surveillance system, Mid-Atlantic region, USDA/CDC.

 

Novello, AC. West Nile virus in New York State: the 1999 outbreak and response plan for 2000. Viral Immunology. 2000; 13(4): 463-7. ISSN: 0882-8245.

Descriptors: bird mortality, disease reservoirs, epidemiology, mosquito vectors of disease, vector control, sentinel  surveillance, virus isolation and purification.

 

Quarles, W. West nile encephalitis--again. Common Sense Pest Control Quarterly. Summer 2000. v. 16 (3) p. 4-5. ISSN: 8756-7881.

NAL Call No.:  SB950.A1C62

Descriptors: West Nile virus, wild birds, sentinel animals, outbreaks, insect control, public health, USA.

 

Rappole, JH; Derrickson, SR; Hubalek, Z. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000 Jul-Aug; 6(4): 319-28. ISSN:  1080-6040.

NAL Call No.: RA648.5 E46

Descriptors:  disease introduction into U.S., amplifying agents, vectors, arnithophilic mosquitoes, viremic migratory birds, disease spread, transovarial transmission, overwintering mosquitoes, viral disease persistence, New York, migratory birds, epidemiology, Western hemisphere. 

Abstract:  West Nile virus, an Old World flavivirus related to St. Louis encephalitis virus, was first recorded in the New World during August 1999 in the borough of Queens, New York City. Through October 1999, 62 patients, 7 of whom died, had confirmed infections with the virus. Ornithophilic mosquitoes are the principal vectors of West Nile virus in the Old World, and birds of several species, chiefly migrants, appear to be the major introductory or amplifying hosts. If transovarial transmission or survival in overwintering mosquitoes were the principal means for its persistence, West Nile virus might not become established in the New World because of aggressive mosquito suppression campaigns conducted in the New York area. However, the pattern of outbreaks in southern Europe suggests that viremic migratory birds may also contribute to movement of the virus. If so, West Nile virus has the potential to cause outbreaks throughout both temperate and tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere.

 

Ritchie, B.W. West Nile virus--a recent immigrant to the United States. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. June 2000. v. 22 (6) p. 576-587. ISSN: 0193-1903.

NAL Call No.:  SF601.C66

Descriptors: West Nile virus, zoonoses, disease vectors, mosquito borne diseases, wild birds, viremia, mammals, disease distribution and spread.

 

Senne, D.A.; J. Pedersen; D. Hutto; W. Taylor; B. Schmitt; B. Panigrahy. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus in chickens. Avian Diseases. July/Sept 2000. v. 44 (3) p. 642-649. ISSN: 0005-2086.

NAL Call No.:  41.8 Av5

Descriptors: chickens, pathogenicity, West Nile virus, clinical aspects, viremia, lesions, histopathology, animal tissues, disease transmission, immune response, experimental infections.

Abstract: In the fall of 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated for the first time in the Western Hemisphere during an outbreak of neurologic disease in humans, horses, and wild and zoo birds in the northeastern United States. Chickens are a potential reservoir for WNV, and little is known about the pathogenicity of WNV in domestic chickens. Seven-week-old chickens derived from a specific-pathogen-free flock were inoculated subcutaneously with 1.8 x 10(3) 50% tissue culture infectious dose of a crow isolate of WNV in order to observe clinical signs and evaluate the viremic phase, gross and microscopic lesions, contact transmission, and immunologic response. There were no observable clinical signs in the WNV-inoculated chickens during the 21-day observation period. However, histopathologic examination of tissues revealed myocardial necrosis, nephritis, and pneumonitis at 5 and 10 days postinoculation (DPI); moderate to severe nonsuppurative encephalitis also was observed in brain tissue from one of four inoculated birds examined at 21DPI. WNV was recovered from blood plasma for up to 8 DPI. Virus titers as high as 10(5)/ml in plasma were observed at 4 DPI. Fecal shedding of virus was detected in cloacal swabs on 4 and 5 DPI only. The WNV also was isolated from myocardium, spleen, kidney, lung, and intestine collected from chickens euthanized at 3, 5, and 10 DPI. No virus was isolated from inoculated chickens after 10 DPI. Antibodies specific to WNV were detected in inoculated chickens as early as 5 DPI by the plaque reduction neutralization test and 7DPI by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Chickens placed in contact with inoculated chickens at 1 DPI lacked WNV-specific antibodies, and no WNV was isolated from their blood plasma or cloacal swabs throughout the 21 days of the experiment.

 

Steele, K.E.; M. Linn; R. Schoepp; N. Komar; T. Geisbert; R. Manduca; P. Calle; B. Raphael; T. Clippinger; T. Larsen. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Veterinary Pathology. May 2000. v. 37 (3) p. 208-224. ISSN: 0300-9858.

NAL Call No.:  41.8 P27

Descriptors: wild birds, introduced species, West Nile virus, infections, outbreaks, horses, man, wildlife, postmortem examinations, histopathology, tissue ultrastructure, detection, immunohistochemistry, DNA hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, intestines, pancreas, lungs, ovaries, macrophages, monocytes, epithelium, cross-reaction, diagnostic techniques, evaluation, flavivirus, New York City.

 

Steffanus, D. West Nile virus attacks U.S. horses. Equine Practitioner. Jan 2000. v. 22 (1) p. 22-23. ISSN: 0162-8941.

NAL Call No.:  SF951.E62

Descriptors: horses, West Nile virus, encephalitis, New York.

 

Studdert, M.J. West Nile virus finds a new ecological niche in Queens, New York. Australian Veterinary Journal. 1927. June 2000. v. 78 (6) p. 400-401. ISSN: 0005-0423.

NAL Call No.:  41.8 Au72

Descriptors: West Nile virus, disease control, birds, man, Culicidae, horses, disease transmission, disease surveys, monitoring, epidemiology, New York City.

 

Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Zaki, S. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus for turkeys. Avian Diseases. 2000 Oct-Dec; 44(4): 932-7. ISSN: 0005-2086.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Av5

Descriptors:  domestic and wild strains of turkeys, pathogenicity in turkeys, crow tissue, experimental infection, viremic levels in various tissues, risk analysis, not a major disease for turkeys. 

Abstract:  In the fall of 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated during an outbreak of neurologic disease in humans, horses, and wild and zoological birds in New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey. Turkeys could potentially be a large reservoir for WNV because of the high-density turkey farming and the presence of large wild turkey populations in the eastern seaboard of the United States. Little is known about the pathogenicity of WNV in domestic or wild turkeys. Specific-pathogen-free 3-wk-old turkeys were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3.3) mean tissue culture infective doses of a WNV strain isolated fromthe index case in a New York crow. No clinical signs were observed in the turkeys over the 21 days of the experiment. One turkey died abruptly at 8 days postinoculation (DPI). Many turkeys developed viremia between 2 and 10 DPI, but the average level of virus was very low, less than needed to efficiently infect mosquitos. Low levels of WNV were detected in feces on 4 and 7 DPI, but no virus was isolated from oropharyngeal swabs. WNV wasnot transmitted from WNV-inoculated to contact-exposed turkeys. All WNV-inoculated poults seroconverted on 7 DPI. In the turkey that died, WNV was not isolated from intestine, myocardium, brain, kidney, or cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs, but sparse viral antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the heart and spleen. Turkeys in contact with WNV-inoculated turkeys and sham-inoculated controls lacked WNV specific antibodies,and WNV was not isolated from plasma and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. These data suggest that WNV lacks the potential to be a major new disease of turkeys and that turkeys will not be a significant amplifying host for infecting mosquitos.

 

Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M; Oliver, J. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2000 Mar; 62(3): 413-4. ISSN:  0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors:  Culicidae mosquitoes, insect vectors virology, disease transmission, isolation and purification, chickens, New York City, Culex pipiens, Aides vexans, oral infection, feeding study.

Abstract:  We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City Metropolitan Area during the recent (1999) WN outbreak were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that had died during this outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex pipiens mosquitoes were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection did transmit WN virus by bite. In contrast, Aedes vexans were only moderately susceptible to oral infection; however, those individuals inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite.

 

van der Poel, W H. De verspreiding van west Nile virus, voorbij New York 2000. [The spread of the West Nile virus, past New York 2000.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde. 2000 Sep 1; 125(17): 526-7. ISSN: 0040-7453.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431

Descriptors:  disease dissemination, birds as disease reservoirs, Culicidae, mosquito vector control, epidemiology, New York, prevention and control.

 

Zientara S. Le virus West Nile, un arbovirus reemergent en Europe? [The West Nile virus, a re-emerging arbovirus in Europe?] Equ'Idee. 2000, No. 39, 25-26.

ISSN: 1162-8103. In French.

Descriptors: horses, birds, insect vectors, detection by ELISA, Europe, France, risk of re-emergence.


Return to Contents


 

1999

 

 

Anderson, J.F.; T. Andreadis; C. Vossbrinck; S. Tirrell; E. Wakem; R. French; A. Garmendia; H. Van-Kruiningen. Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut. Science. Dec 17, 1999. v. 286 (5448) p. 2331-2333. ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL Call No.:  470 Sci2

Descriptors: West Nile virus, Culex pipiens, Aedes vexans, brain, animal tissues, public health concerns, mosquitoes, crows, Cooper’s hawk, Connecticut.

 

Anonymous. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: West Nile virus encephalitis--New York, 1999. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999 Nov 17; 282(19): 1806-7. ISSN: 0098-7484.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 Am37

Descriptors: disease outbreaks, epidemiology, virus isolation and purification, mosquito control, bird virology, disease prevention and control.

 

Centers for Disease Control (USA). Update: West Nile virus encephalitis - New York, 1999. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Oct. 22, 1999; 48 (41): 944-946; 955. ISSN: 0149-2195.

NAL Call No.: RA407.3 M56

Descriptors: insect vector disease, vector biology, Aedes vector, Culex vector, vector mosquitoes, animals, humans, New York.

 

Jones, W.E. West Nile virus new to North America. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. Nov 1999. v. 19 (11) p. 680-683. ISSN: 0737-0806.

NAL Call No.:  SF951.J65

Descriptors: West Nile virus, horses, symptoms, disease transmission, spread, disease vectors, new geographic records, North America.

 

Lanciotti, R.S.; J. Roehrig; V. Deubel; J. Smith; M. Parker; K. Steele; B. Crise; K. Volpe; M. Crabtree; J. Schereet. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. Dec 17, 1999. v. 286 (5448) p. 2333-2337. ISSN: 0036-8075.

NAL Call No.:  470 Sci2

Descriptors: West Nile virus, encephalitis, disease transmission, northeastern states of USA.

 

Miller, BR; Nasci, RS; Godsey, MS; Savage, HM; Lutwama, JJ; Lanciotti, RS; Peters, CJ; Gubler, DJ. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univitattus mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Washington, D.C., USA, November 28-December 2, 1999. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Sept., 1999; 61 (3 SUPPL.): 166-167. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: Culex univitattus, vertical transmission, field evidence, Rift Valley Province, Kenya, Africa, Ethiopian region.

 

van der Poel, WH. West Nile-like virus is oorzaak van encefalitis bij mensen en paarden en sterfte van honderden vogels in New York. [West Nile-like virus is the cause of encephalitis in humans and horses and the death of hundreds of birds in New York]. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde. 1999 Dec 1; 124(23): 704-5. ISSN: 0040-7453. In Dutch.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 T431

Descriptors: bird disease mortality, horse disease epidemiology, humans, virus isolation and purification, New York.

 

Zeller, HG. West Nile: une arbovirose migrante d'actualite. [West Nile virus: a migrating arbovirus of current interest]. Medecine Tropicale Revue du Corps de Sante Colonial. 1999; 59(4 Pt 2): 490-4 ISSN: 0025-682X. In French.

Descriptors: West Nile virus transmission, wild bird mortality, emerging disease, sentinel birds, epidemiology, pathological potential of circulating strains, Africa, South of the Sahara, Algeria, Romania, North America.

Abstract: West Nile (WN) virus is a common arbovirosis in sub-Saharian Africa. It has occasionally caused epidemics or epizootics in horses in Mediterranean regions and southern Europe. The virus is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes (primarily the Culex species) that are infected by biting viremic birds. Infections in humans are usually asymptomatic. Recently, however, a growing number of cases involving central nervous system manifestations and deaths have been reported in elderly people in Algeria and Romania. Deaths have also been recorded in migrating birds in zones where the virus is emerging. An outbreak of WN virus in an urban area of North America in 1999 underscored the ability of viruses to appear suddenly in unexpected places. Molecular biology techniques are required for positive identification of WN virus. Serological tests alone do not allow differentiation from other flavivirus in the encephalitis group including Japanese encephalitis in Asia and Saint Louis encephalitis in North America. Virological monitoring of sentinel birds should provide a better understanding of epidemiological factors and of the pathological potential of circulating strains.

 

Return to Contents



1998

 

 

Chambers, TJ; Halevy, M; Nestorowicz, A; Rice, CM; Lustig, S. West Nile virus envelope proteins: nucleotide sequence analysis of strains differing in mouse neuroinvasiveness. Journal of Virology. 1998 Oct; 79 ( Pt 10): 2375-80. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: viral envelope proteins chemistry, virus pathogenicity, amino acid sequence glycosylation, mice, molecular structure activity relationships, viral genetics, virulence levels, neuroinvasive determinants, E protein divergence.

Abstract: Several neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile (WN) viruses were characterized by nucleotide sequencing of their envelope (E) protein regions. Prolonged passage in mosquito cells caused loss of neuroinvasiveness and acquisition of an N-linked glycosylation site, which is utilized. Limited passage in cell culture also caused glycosylation but not attenuation, suggesting that glycosylation may not be directly responsible for attenuation and that a second mutation (L68 --> P) may also be involved. A monoclonal antibody-neutralization escape mutant with a substitution at residue 307, a site common to other flavivirus escape mutants, was also attenuated. A partially neuroinvasive revertant regained the parental E sequence, implying that determinants outside of the E region may also influence attenuation. Data suggest that the neuroinvasive determinants may be similar to those for other flaviviruses. Also, sequence comparison with the WN virus (Nigeria) strain revealed considerable divergence of the E protein at the nucleotide and amino acid levels.

 

Damle, RG; Yeolekar, LR; Rao, BL. Strain analysis and epitope mapping of West Nile virus using monoclonal antibodies. Acta Virologica. 1998 Dec; 42(6): 389-95. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: monoclonal antibodies, Egyptian and Indian strains of West Nile virus, envelope protein, immunoblot assay, ELISA, immunology; three groups of MAb’s: WNV-specific HAI-positive, WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-positive, and WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-negative MAbs, antigenic variation, cross-reaction immunology, Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, epitope mapping methods, inbred BALB-C mice.

Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an Indian strain (804994) and an Egyptian strain (E 101) of West Nile virus (WNV) were prepared in mice. Nine MAbs against the 804994 strain and 5 MAbs against E 101 strain were obtained. All 14 MAbs reacted with the envelope (E) protein of WNV in an immunoblot assay. They were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for their cross-reactivity with WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Dengue-2 virus (DEN-2), and for their reactivity in haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Based on these results MAbs were broadly grouped into three groups, namely WNV-specific HAI-positive, WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-positive, and WNV-JEV cross-reactive HAI-negative MAbs. The antigenic cross-reactivity between twelve WNV strains isolated from different geographical regions and their respective hosts was assessed using these MAbs in HAI and complement fixation (CF) tests. The strain analysis by CF distinguished Indian from South African strains. However, a similarity between some Indian and South African strains in HAI was observed. E 101 strain appeared to have antigenic similarity with Indian as well as South African strains. Overall it appears that antigenically similar strains of WNV are prevalent in India. A single heterogenous domain was apparent on the epitope map of WNV deduced by ELISA additivity test.

 

Hubalek, Z; Halouzka, J; Juricova, Z; Sebesta, O. First isolation of mosquito-borne West Nile virus in the Czech Republic. Acta Virologica. 1998 Apr; 42(2): 119-20. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: vector mosquitoes, Aides, Culex, virus isolation and purification, suckling animals, mice, Czech Republic.

   

Juricova, Z.; J. Pinowski; I. Literak; K. Hahm; J. Romanowski. Antibodies to alphavirus, flavivirus, and bunyavirus arboviruses in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and tree sparrows (P. montanus) in Poland. Avian Diseases. Jan/Mar 1998. v. 42 (1) p. 182-185. ISSN: 0005-2086.

NAL Call No.:  41.8 Av5

Descriptors: Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, sparrows, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus, tickborne encephalitis virus, tahyna virus, calovo virus, arboviruses, antibodies, serology, hemagglutination inhibition test, incidence, Poland.

Abstract: Sparrows from central Poland were examined by a hemagglutination-inhibition test (titer greater than or equal to 20) for the presence of antibodies to arbovirus, between 1995 and 1996. In house sparrows (Passer domesticus) (n = 179), antibodies to Sindbis, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, Tahyna, and Calovo viruses were detected at seroprevalences of 1.1%, 2.8%, 1.1%, 2.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. In tree sparrows (P. montanus) (n = 33), antibodies to the Sindbis, West Nile, and Tahyna viruses were detected at seroprevalences of 9.1%, 12.1%, and 3.0%, respectively.

 

Nicolescu G. A general characterisation of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) in the epidemic area for West Nile virus in the south of Romania. European Mosquito Bulletin. 1998, No. 2, 13-18; 9 ref.

Descriptors: Culex pipiens, 39 vector mosquitoes, distribution, habitats, population ecology, potential as effective vectors, human diseases, Culex modestus, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Aedes cantans, Culex theileri, Aedes geniculatus, Anopheles plumbeus, Aedes punctor.


Return to Contents


 

1997

 

 

Blackwell, JL; Brinton, MA. Translation elongation factor-1 alpha interacts with the 3' stem-loop region of West Nile virus genomic RNA. Journal of Virology. 1997 Sep; 71(9): 6433-44. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: 3’-terminal stem-loop, flavivirus replication, purification of cellular protein, EF-1 alpha and WNV 3' SL RNA, stoichiometry, RNase footprinting, nitrocellulose filter binding assays.

Abstract: The conserved 3'-terminal stem-loop (3' SL) of the West Nile virus (WNV) genomic RNA was previously used to probe for cellular proteins that may be involved in flavivirus replication and three cellular proteins were detected that specifically interact with the WNV 3' SL RNA (J. L. Blackwell and M. A. Brinton, J. Virol. 69:5650-5658, 1995). In this study, one of these cellular proteins was purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and liquid chromatography. Amino acid sequence Western blotting, and supershift analyses identified the cellular protein as translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha). Competition gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that the interaction between EF-1 alpha and WNV 3' SL RNA was specific. Dephosphorylation of EF-1 alpha by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibited its binding to WNV 3' SL RNA. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant for the interaction between EF-1 alpha and WNV 3' SL RNA was calculated to be 1.1 x 10(-9) M. Calculation of the stoichiometry of the interaction indicated that one molecule of EF-1 alpha binds to each molecule of WNV 3' SL RNA. Using RNase footprinting and nitrocellulose filter binding assays, we detected a high-activity binding site on the main stem of the WNV 3' SL RNA. Interaction with EF-1 alpha at the high-activity binding site was sequence specific, since nucleotide substitution in this region reduced the binding activity of the WNV 3' SL RNA for EF-1 alpha by approximately 60%. Two low-activity binding sites were also detected, and each accounted for approximately 15 to 20% of the binding activity. Intracellular association between the host protein and the viral RNA was suggested by coimmunoprecipitation of WNV genomic RNA and EF-1 alpha, using an anti-EF-1 alpha antibody.

 

Ilkal, MA; Mavale, MS; Prasanna, Y; Jacob, PG; Geevarghese, G; Banerjee, K. Experimental studies on the vector potential of certain Culex species to West Nile virus. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1997 Sep; 106: 225-8. ISSN: 0971-5916.

Descriptors: vector mosquitoes, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Culex univittatus, potential as vectors confirmed.

Abstract: Experimental studies were carried out to determine the vector potential of four species of mosquitoes to West Nile (WN) virus, viz. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus and Cx. univittatus. All the four species of mosquitoes successfully transmitted and supported the growth of WN virus. The study indicated that the four species of

mosquitoes could act as potential vectors of WN virus in nature.

 
Return to Contents


 

1996

 

 

Dobler, G. Arboviruses causing neurological disorders in the central nervous system. Archives of Virology. Supplementum. ISSN: 0939-1983; 11. Imported Virus Infections. Wien; New York: Springer, c1996. p. 33-40. ISBN: 3211828702

NAL call no:  QR355.A72 no.11

Descriptors: arboviruses, tickborne diseases, disease vectors, mosquito borne diseases, international travel, Phlebotomus papatasi, nervous system diseases, incidence, West Nile virus, California encephalitis virus, bhanja virus, kemerovo virus, Reoviridae, thogoto virus, nairovirus, literature reviews, Europe.


Return to Contents


 

1995

 

 

Ben Nathan, D.; G. Maestroni; S. Lustig; A. Conti. Protective effects of melatonin in mice infected with encephalitis viruses. Archives of Virology. 1995. v. 140 (2) p. 223-230. ISSN: 0304-8608.

NAL Call No.:  448.3 Ar23

Descriptors: Semliki Forest virus, West Nile virus, melatonin, disease resistance, stress, mice, spleen, thymus gland, body weight, mortality, fatal infections, experimental infections.

Abstract: We examined the effect of the pineal neurohormone melatonin (MLT) on protection from viral encephalitis. The antiviral activity of MLT was evaluated in normal mice inoculated with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and in stressed mice injected with the attenuated non-invasive West Nile virus (WN-25). Administration of MLT (s.c.) daily from 3 days before through 10 days after virus inoculation reduced viremia and significantly postponed the onset of disease and death by 7 to 10 days. Moreover, MLT injection reduced mortality of SFV (10 PFU) inoculated mice from 100% to 44%. In mice inoculated with high dose of SFV (100 PFU), MLT postponed death and reduced mortality by 20%. In all of the surviving mice anti-SFV antibodies were detected 22 days after virus inoculation. Infection of mice stressed by either isolation or dexamethasone injection with WN-25 induced mortality of 75% and 50% respectively, which was reduced by MLT administration to 31% and 25%, respectively. The efficiency of MLT in protecting from lethal viral infections warrants further investigations on its mechanisms of action.

 

Blackwell, JL; Brinton, MA. BHK cell proteins that bind to the 3' stem-loop structure of the West Nile virus genome RNA. Journal of Virology. 1995 Sep; 69(9): 5650-8. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: 3’nucleotides of WNV RNA, stem-loop structure, RNA replication, uninfected and WNV-infected BHK-21 S100 cytoplasmic extracts, cytoplasmic extracts, cell proteins, cross linking, binding studies.

Abstract: The first 83 3' nucleotides of the genome RNA of the flavivirus West Nile encephalitis virus (WNV) form a stable stem-loop (SL) structure which is followed in the genome by a smaller SL. These 3' structures are highly conserved among divergent flaviviruses, suggesting that they may function as cis-acting signals for RNA replication and as such might specifically bind to cellular or viral proteins. Cellular proteins from uninfected and WNV-infected BHK-21 S100 cytoplasmic extracts formed three distinct complexes with the WNV plus-strand 3' SL [(+)3'SL] RNA in a gel mobility shift assay. Subsequent competitor gel shift analyses showed that two of these RNA-protein complexes, complexes 1 and 2, contained cell proteins that specifically bound to the WNV (+)3'SL RNA. UV-induced cross-linking and Northwestern blotting analyses detected WNV (+)3'SL RNA-binding proteins of 56, 84, and 105 kDa. When the S100 cytoplasmic extracts were partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography, a complex that comigrated with complex 1 was detected in fraction 19, while a complex that comigrated with complex 2 was detected in fraction 17. UV-induced cross-linking experiments indicated that an 84-kDa cell protein in fraction 17 and a 105-kDa protein in fraction 19 bound specifically to the WNV (+)3'SL RNA. In addition to binding to the (+)3'SL RNA, the 105-kDa protein bound to the SL structure located at the 3' end of the WNV minus-strand RNA. Initial mapping studies indicated that the 84- and 105-kDa proteins bind to different regions of the (+)3'SL RNA. The 3'-terminal SL RNA of another flavivirus, dengue virus type 3, specifically competed with the WNV (+)3'SL RNA in gel shift assays, suggesting that the host proteins identified in this study are flavivirus specific.

 
Return to Contents


 

1994

 

 

Abbassy, M.M.; K. Stein; M. Osman. New artificial feeding technique for experimental infection of Argas ticks (Acari: Argasidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. Mar 1994. v. 31 (2) p. 202-205. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.:  421 J828

Descriptors: Argas, ticks, birds, membranes, blood, artificial rearing, West Nile virus, disease vectors, artificial feeding, fetal bovine serum.

Abstract: An artificial feeding technique using fetal bovine serum as a food source was established for the demonstration of West Nile virus transmission by Argas ticks in susceptibility studies. Fetal bovine serum does not coagulate and is free from contaminating microorganisms, antibodies, and anticoagulants, which are all known to reduce virus titers. This technique also compensates for the lack of suitable laboratory hosts as well as problems associated with disease agents, such as viruses that may not produce illness or antibodies after virus exposures.

 

Halevy, M; Akov, Y; Ben-Nathan, D; Kobiler, D; Lachmi, B; Lustig, S. Loss of active neuroinvasiveness in attenuated strains of West Nile virus: pathogenicity in immunocompetent and SCID mice. Archives of Virology. 1994; 137(3-4): 355-70. ISSN: 0304-8608.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ar23

Descriptors: neuropathogenicity of WN25 and WN25A, ICR and SCID mice, comparison of serology and RNA fingerprints between WNV and WN25, viral envelope proteins, IC and IP inoculations, attenuated strains.

Abstract: The neuropathogenicity of West Nile virus (WNV) and two derived attenuated strains WN25 and WN25A, was studied in young adult ICR mice and in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Similarity in serology and RNA fingerprints were found between WNV and WN25. The viral envelope proteins of the attenuates differed from WNV in their slower mobility in SDS-PAGE due probably to the presence of N-linked glycan. The three strains were lethal to ICR mice by intracerebral (IC) inoculation, but when inoculated intraperitoneally (IP), WNV caused viremia, invaded the CNS and was lethal, whereas the attenuates showed no viremia or invasion of the CNS. The attenuates elicited antibodies to comparable levels as WNV in IP-infected mice, conferring upon them immunity to IC challenge with the wild type. In IP-inoculated SCID mice the three strains exhibited similar high viremiae that lasted until death of the animals. All strains invaded the CNS and proliferated in the mouse brain to similar high titers, but differed largely in the time of invasion: WNV invaded the CNS of SCID mice (and two other mouse strains) much earlier than the attenuates, which showed large intervals in their time of invasion into individual mouse brains within the group. The data presented for SCID mice indicate that WN25 and WN25A have truly lost the neuroinvasive property, and that this property materialized by a prescribed, active process specific for WNV.

 

Ilkal, MA; Prasanna, Y; Jacob, PG; Geevarghese, G; Banerjee, K. Experimental studies on the susceptibility of domestic pigs to West Nile virus followed by Japanese encephalitis virus infection and vice versa. Acta Virologica. 1994 Jun; 38(3): 157-61. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: disease susceptibility, swine, WNV, JEV, experimental infections, antibody, inoculation and mosquito bites, Culex vishnui, virus levels, pigs poor hosts.

Abstract: A study on the susceptibility of domestic pigs to West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection was carried out. One batch of pigs was inoculated with WNV followed by JEV and another batch was inoculated vice versa. The first batch developed low level of viraemia and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies to both viruses. There was a booster effect on the already existing WNV antibodies after challenging with JEV. In the second batch the animals developed high level of JE viraemia but did not develop WN viraemia. They developed HI antibodies to both JEV and WNV with low booster effect of WNV infection on JEV antibodies. Fresh batches of pigs were infected through bite of WNV- and JEV-infected Culex vishnui mosquitoes. WNV-infected pigs did not show viraemia, whereas JEV-infected ones developed JE viraemia. The study indicated that pigs were poor hosts for WNV but good ones for JEV. However, WNV antibodies reduced the level of JE viraemia and JEV infection boosted the already existing WNV antibodies.

 

Traore-Lamizana, M.; H. Zeller; M. Mondo; J. Hervy; F. Adam; J. Digoutte. Isolations of West Nile and Bagaza viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Senegal (Ferlo). Journal of Medical Entomology. Nov 1994. v. 31 (6) p. 934-938. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culicidae, West Nile virus, flaviviridae, infections, mosquitoes, disease vectors, disease survey, Senegal.

Abstract: During October-November 1990, 31,497 mosquitoes consisting of 25 different species were collected in Barkedji, Ferlo area (Senegal), and tested for virus infection. Viruses were isolated from 55 of 407 pools. Eighteen pools were found positive for both Bagaza virus (BGA) and West Nile virus (WN). One alphavirus (Babanki [BBK] and 72 flaviviruses (19 BGA, 53 WN) were isolated from Culex poicilipes Theobald (29 WN, 8 BGA), C. neavei Theobald (3 WN, 1 BGA), Mimomyia hispida Theobald (8 WN, 6 BGA, and 1 BBK), M. lacustris Edwards (4 WN,1 BGA), M. splendens Theobald (6 WN,2 BGA), Mimomyia. spp. (2 WN), and Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire (1 WN). These were the first isolations of arboviruses from A. africana and Mimomyia species. C. poicilipes and possibly Mimomyia spp. may be involved in an avian-mosquito cycle of West Nile virus transmission in Senegal.

 

Yamshchikov, VF; Compans, RW. Processing of the intracellular form of the west Nile virus capsid protein by the viral NS2B-NS3 protease: an in vitro study. Journal of Virology. 1994 Sep; 68(9): 5765-71. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: mature capsid protein, in vitro expression cassettes, prM protein, C-prM precursor, viral protease components, characterized their translation products.

Abstract: According to the existing model of flavivirus polyprotein processing, one of the cleavages in the amino-terminal part of the flavivirus polyprotein by host cell signalases results in formation of prM (precursor to one of the structural proteins, M) and the membrane-bound intracellular form of the viral capsid protein (Cint) retaining the prM signal sequence at its carboxy terminus. This hydrophobic anchor is subsequently removed by the viral protease, resulting in formation of the mature viral capsid protein found in virions (Cvir). We have prepared in vitro expression cassettes coding for both forms of the capsid protein, for the prM protein, for the C-prM precursor, and for the viral protease components of West Nile flavivirus and characterized their translation products. Using Cint and Cvir translation products as molecular markers, we have observed processing of the intracellular form of the West Nile capsid protein by the viral protease in vitro both upon cotranslation of the C-prM precursor and the viral protease-encoding cassette and by incubation of C-prM translation products with a detergent-solubilized extract of cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the active viral protease. The cleavage of Cint by the viral protease at the predicted dibasic site was verified by introduction of point mutations into the cleavage site and an adjacent region. These studies provide the first direct demonstration of processing of the intracellular form of the flavivirus capsid protein by the viral protease.


Return to Contents


 

1993

 

 

Abbassy, MM; Osman, M; Marzouk, AS. West Nile virus (Flaviviridae:Flavivirus) in experimentally infected Argas ticks (Acari:Argasidae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1993 May; 48(5): 726-37. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: possible insect vector, adult ticks, Argas arboreus, Argas persicus, Argas hermanni, feeding of virus, virus titers, location of virus in ticks, vertical and horizontal transmission studies.

Abstract: To better define the possible role of argasid ticks in the epidemiology of West Nile virus, adult Argas arboreus, A. persicus, and A. hermanni were fed through a membrane on fetal bovine serum containing 10(5.5) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml of West Nile virus. The virus was detected for three and four days after feeding in A. persicus and A. hermanni, respectively. The virus titers then decreased to undetectable levels in both species. When the infective dose was increased to 10(6.2), virus was detected until days 6 and 8, respectively. In A. arboreus, virus titers in whole tick homogenates reached a peak of 10(4.0) on day 4 postfeeding and remained constant at 10(3.0) after day 6 throughout the 20- or 50-day observation periods. Virus was detected by isolation, indirect fluorescent antibody, and histochemical techniques in the salivary glands, ovaries, synganglia, and coxal fluids. Infected ticks successfully transmitted virus to clean chickens on day 20 postfeeding. No evidence of transstadial transmission from nymph to adult was detected. Larvae from experimentally infected females successfully transmitted virus to clean chicks and virus was recovered from F1 larvae. Venereal transmission was not detected. Virus was present in coxal fluids secreted by infected females after infective meals. This study demonstrates West Nile virus infection in experimentally infected A. arboreus ticks and documents horizontal and vertical transmission in this species.

 

Azarova, IA; Mishaeva, NP. Protective effect of aminoglycoside group antibiotics in experimental encephalitis of mice, induced by West-Nile virus. Sixth International Conference on Antiviral Research, Venice, Italy, April 25-30, 1993. Antiviral Research. 1993; 20 (SUPPL. 1) 180. ISSN: 0166-3542.

NAL Call No.: QR355.A5

Descriptors: Experimental infections in mice, efficacy of antibiotics, aminoglycoside family of antibiotics.

  

Baqar, S; Hayes, CG; Murphy, JR; Watts, DM. Vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex and Aedes species mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1993 Jun; 48(6): 757-62. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: transmission studies, mosquitoes as disease vector, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, intrathoracic inoculation with live virus, newborn mouse assay, F1 adults, vertical transmission, possible transmission mode in natural systems.

Abstract: Experiments were conducted to determine whether West Nile (WN) virus was transmitted vertically by colonized strains of Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Female mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation with WN virus, and the F1 progeny were tested for virus by the fluorescence antibody technique and the newborn mouse assay. Each of the three mosquito species transmitted WN virus to F1 adults derived from immature forms reared at 26 degrees C. The minimal filial infection rate (MFIR) ranged from 1:124 to 1:138 for Ae. albopictus, from 1:62 to 1:172 for Ae. aegypti, and from 1:325 to 1:859 for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The MFIR for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus reared at 20 degrees C was 1:213 for larvae and 1:390 for pupae, and 1:208 for larvae and 1:554 for pupae reared at 26 degrees C. These data are the first reported evidence of vertical transmission of WN virus by mosquitoes, and therefore warrant further studies to determine whether vertical transmission occurs among WN viral-infected mosquitoes in nature.

 

Cornel, A.J.; P. Jupp; N. Blackburn. Evironmental temperature on the vector competence of Culex univittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. Mar 1993. v. 30 (2) p. 449-456. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culex univittatus, mosquitoes, disease vectors, environmental temperature effects, medical entomology, vector competence, West Nile virus, South Africa.

Abstract: The effects of the extrinsic incubation temperature on the vector competence of Culex univittatus Theobald for West Nile (WN) virus were studied. A mean titer of 7.0 log(10) CPD(50)/ml of mosquito suspension was reached in orally infected mosquitoes after 11, 15, and 16 d of incubation at 26 and 30 degrees C and at fluctuating temperatures in an outside cage (mean temperature, 23.5 degrees C), respectively. In contrast, 22 and 58 d were required to reach the same titers at 18 and 14 degrees C, respectively. Transmission rates of 100% were reached after 58 d (14 degrees C), 22 d (18 degrees C), and 15 and 16 d (30 degrees C and outside). Except at 30 degrees C, transmission rates fluctuated; e.g., at 18 degrees C from day 19, the transmission rate was 80-100%, whereas at 14 degrees C on day 36, the transmission rate was 60% and thereafter 20-100%. The maximum transmission rate occurred concurrently with maximum titers of virus secreted into capillary tubes during in vitro transmission attempts. Mosquito longevity increased as incubation temperature decreased and was maximum at 114 d at 14 degrees C. Mosquitoes that were transferred from 14 to 26 degrees C after 49 d subsequently oviposited, engorged on a pigeon, and transmitted virus, which indicated the possibility for overwintering of WN virus in adult Cx. univittatus. Vector competence at outside cycling temperatures was intermediate between that at 26 and 30 degrees C, indicating that incubation at 26 degrees C would give a fair reflection of the vector competence of Cx. univittatus during the summer near Johannesburg. Two human epidemics of WN virus are reevaluated in the light of these results; it is concluded that, in addition to abnormal rainfall, higher than normal temperatures were important factors for their occurrence.

 

Porter, KR; Summers, PL; Dubois, D; Puri, B; Nelson, W; Henchal, E; Oprandy, JJ; Hayes, CG. Detection of West Nile virus by the polymerase chain reaction and analysis of nucleotide sequence variation. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1993 Mar; 48(3): 440-6. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: PCR based detection assay, 7 WNV isolates, Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, yellow fever, sensitivity levels, homology.

Abstract: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to rapidly detect and identify West Nile (WN) virus. The RNA from seven isolates of WN virus from six countries and four other flaviviruses (Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses) was reverse-transcribed (RT) and amplified by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified products were determined by a rapid, automated DNA sequencing method. The WN virus RT/PCR assay detected the target gene segment of sequencing method. The WN virus RT/PCR assay detected the target gene segment of isolates from both the African-Middle Eastern group and the Indian group with a sensitivity of approximately 0.05 pg of viral RNA. Kunjin virus was the only other flavivirus tested that produced a band of the appropriate size. Five of seven WN virus isolates showed 92-98% homology in the nucleotide sequence of their PCR products. The sequence of one isolate was virtually identical to the published sequence of the Nigerian isolate (99.5% homology). No correlation was established between the degree of nucleotide homology, geographic location, time of isolation, or source of the isolates.

 

Sreenivasan, V; Ng, KL; Ng, ML. Brefeldin A affects West Nile virus replication in Vero cells but not C6/36 cells. Journal of Virological Methods. 1993 Nov; 45(1): 1-17. ISSN: 0166-0934.

NAL Call No.: QR355.J6

Descriptors: virus-host interaction of glycoprotein processing, WNV Vero cells, C6/36 cells, brefeldin A, transport of glycoproteins to Golgi apparatus.

Abstract: A fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA) was used to study virus-host interaction in glycoprotein processing in West Nile virus-infected Vero and C6/36 cells. The results indicated that as little as 1 microgram/ml of BFA resulted in complete breakdown in the Golgi organelle in infected Vero cells. This led to modifications of the glycoproteins which could not be efficiently used in infectious virion formation. In contrast, as much as 10 micrograms/ml of BFA in culture medium did not affect either glycoprotein formation or production of infectious particles in C6/36 cells. The results showed that in Vero cells, the transport of glycoproteins to the Golgi apparatus is important in West Nile virus infection. It also showed that BFA could be used as a tool to understand further the trafficking of glycoprotein from the ER to Golgi in flavivirus infection in Vero cells.

 
Return to Contents


 

1992

 

 

Azarova, IA; Mishaeva, NP; Votiakov, VI; Golovneva, GP. Poisk ingibitorov virusa Zapadnogo Nila sredi antibiotikov. [Search for inhibitors of West Nile virus among antibiotics]. Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiia. 1992 Aug; 37(8): 29-31. ISSN: 0235-2990. In Russian.

Descriptors: comparison study, antibiotics, experimental laboratory infection, albino mouse model, gentamicin, kanamycin, efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents, disease prevention and treatment.   

Abstract: The activity of 24 antibiotics was studied in treatment of albino mice with experimental encephalitis caused by West Nile virus. The antiviral activity of gentamicin and kanamycin was stated. The survival rate of the animals 19. contaminated with 10-100 LD50 of the West Nile virus and treated parenterally with gentamicin in a dose of 80 to 400 micrograms/mouse was higher than that in the controls by 29.5 to 100 per cent and depended on the drug regimen. The efficacy of kanamycin was lower. The chemotherapeutic indices of gentamicin and kanamycin amounted to 100 and 10, respectively. Since there are no schemes for chemotherapy of the infection caused by the West Nile virus and the respective vaccines are not available the use of the antibiotics and gentamicin in particular appears to be promising in the disease prevention and treatment.

 

Ben-Nathan, D; Lustig, S; Kobiler, D; Danenberg, HD; Lupu, E; Feuerstein, G. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects mice inoculated with West Nile virus and exposed to cold stress. Journal of Medical Virology. 1992 Nov; 38(3): 159-66. ISSN: 0146-6615.

Descriptors: DHEA, anti-stressor, cold stress, experimental infection with WNV, mice, mortality levels, WNV, WN—25, modulation of host response.   

Abstract: The protective effect of pretreatment with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on stress-enhanced viral encephalitis was studied in mice exposed to cold following inoculation with West Nile virus (WNV). Exposure of WNV-inoculated mice to cold water (1 0.5 degrees C, 5 minutes/day for 8 days) resulted in a mortality rate of 83% as compared to 50% in nonstressed mice (p < 0.05). The effect of cold stress was more pronounced when mice were inoculated with WN-25, a noninvasive neurovirulent variant of WNV. Mice infected with WN-25 showed no mortality, whereas cold stressed mice inoculated with the same virus had a mortality rate of 67% (p < 0.05). The administration of DHEA (serial injections of 10-20 mg/kg with or without a loading dose of 1 gm/kg) resulted in a significant reduction in the mortality rate of stressed mice inoculated with either virus (p < 0.05). Virus levels in the blood and brain of the DHEA-treated mice, were significantly lower than in the control groups. DHEA also prevented the involution of lymphoid organs in stressed mice. The present study provides direct evidence of the protective effects of DHEA as an "anti-stress" agent. Its ability to prevent mortality associated with WNV or WN-25, and involution of lymphoid organs caused by stress-induced immunosuppression, supports the notion that its activity is based on the modulation of the host response.


Return to Contents


 

1991

 

 

Argall, KG; Armati, PJ; King, NJ; Douglas, MW. The effects of West Nile virus on major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecule expression by Lewis rat Schwann cells in vitro. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 1991 Dec; 35(1-3): 273-84. ISSN: 0165-5728.

Descriptors: tissue culture study, Schwann cells, infection with WNV, virally triggered autoimmune diseases of neural tissue.

Abstract: The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules by Lewis rat Schwann cells after infection with West Nile virus (WNV) in vitro was examined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. WNV enhanced the expression of MHC class I molecules and induced the expression of MHC class II molecules by Schwann cells. Irradiated medium from WNV-infected Schwann cell cultures upregulated class I molecule expression on dissociated Schwann cell cultures but did not induce the expression of class II molecules. This finding has implications for virally triggered autoimmune diseases of nervous tissue.

  

Debnath, NC; Tiernery, R; Sil, BK; Wills, MR; Barrett, AD. In vitro homotypic and heterotypic interference by defective interfering particles of West Nile virus. Journal of General Virology. 1991 Nov; 72 ( Pt 11): 2705-11. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors: type testing, homology, 6 cell lines--Vero, LLC-MK2, L929, HeLa, BHK-21 and SW13, virus propagation, defective interfering WNV particles, yield reduction assay, compared to hemagglutionation inhibition testing, monoclonal antibodies.  

Abstract: Defective interfering (DI) particles of the flavivirus West Nile (WN) were generated after as few as two high multiplicity serial passages in Vero and LLC-MK2 cells. Six cell lines (Vero, LLC-MK2, L929, HeLa, BHK-21 and SW13) were used to assay interference by DI particles in a yield reduction assay. Interference was found to vary depending on the cell type used. The highest levels of interference were obtained in LLC-MK2 cells, whereas no detectable effect was observed in BHK-21 and SW13 cells. The ability of DI virus to be propagated varied depending on the cell line used; no detectable propagation of DI virus was observed in SW13 cells. Optimum interference was obtained following co-infection of cells with DI virus and standard virus at a multiplicity of 5. Interference between DI and standard viruses occurred only when they were co-infected or when cells were infected with DI virus 1 h before standard virus. Investigation of heterotypic interference by DI particles of WN virus strains from Sarawak, India and Egypt revealed that interference was dependent on the strain of WN virus or flavivirus used as standard virus. A measure of the similarity between five strains of WN virus and other flaviviruses was made on the basis of interference by DI viruses, and was found to be similar to that based on haemagglutination inhibition tests using a panel of monoclonal antibodies.

 

Kulkarni, AB; Mullbacher, A; Blanden, RV. Effect of high ligand concentration on West Nile virus-specific T cell proliferation. Immunology and Cell Biology. 1991 Feb; 69 ( Pt 1): 27-38. ISSN: 0818-9641.

NAL Call No.: QR180 I43

Descriptors: T-cell proliferation suppression, cell cultures, evaluation study, contribution of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II and nominal WNV antigens.   

Abstract: In this paper the phenomenon of suppression of proliferation in vitro of 14 day primed, West Nile virus (WNV)-specific, murine CD4+ T cells by large numbers of antigen-presenting macrophages and B cells has been investigated. Suppression was apparently not mediated by prostaglandins, as the use of indomethacin in cultures at four times the usual concentration did not reverse suppression. Experiments were designed to evaluate the contribution of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II and nominal WNV antigens in causing suppression of T cell proliferation. Listeria- or thioglycollate-induced macrophages from CBA/H (H-2k) mice, when treated with heat-killed Listeria in vitro for 1 h to maintain or increase, respectively, MHC Class II levels before the addition of alloreactive Iak-specific T cells caused inverse dose-responses; the highest T cell proliferation occurred at a stimulator to responder (S : R) ratio of 0.25 and profound suppression at a S : R ratio of 1 or 2. In contrast, untreated thioglycollate-induced macrophages, which express low MHC Class II levels, gave a direct dose-response with increasing T cell proliferation as antigen-presenting cell (APC) numbers increased. Addition of anti-Ia antibodies (or their Fab fragments) to cultures caused a significant reversal of suppression of anti-WNV T cells imposed by high numbers of Listeria-induced macrophages or 14 day WNV-primed B cell APC. Suppression was also reversed by reducing the concentration of WNV antigen. These observations support the notion that the suppression of T cell proliferation observed at high S : R ratios was due to high concentrations of ligand (WNV-derived peptide complexed with Class II MHC) on APC.

 

Kulkarni, AB; Mullbacher, A; Blanden, RV. Functional analysis of macrophages, B cells and splenic dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells in West Nile virus-specific murine T lymphocyte proliferation. Immunology and Cell Biology. 1991 Apr; 69 ( Pt 2): 71-80. ISSN: 0818-9641.

NAL Call No.: QR180 I43

Descriptors: immune responses, efficacy of macrophages, B cells and splenic dendritic cells, presenting West Nile virus (WNV) antigens to WNV memory CD4+ T cells, histocompatibility complex, antigen presenting cells, mouse model.

Abstract: In this paper, the relative efficacy of macrophages, B cells and splenic dendritic cells (SDC) in presenting West Nile virus (WNV) antigens to WNV memory CD4+ T cells is examined. The results indicate that, under appropriate conditions, all these cell types can function as antigen-presenting cells (APC). Listeria-induced peritoneal macrophages induced higher proliferative responses than SDC or B cells derived from naive or 14 day WNV-primed mice. The ability of Listeria-induced macrophage populations to present antigen was specifically inhibited by anti-Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antibodies. On a cell population basis, B cells obtained from mice primed with WNV 14 days previously evoked higher responses than resting B cells. B cells from mice receiving weekly injections of WNV over a period of 4 weeks elicited optimal responses with lower doses of antigen than naive or 14 day WNV-primed B cells. When macrophages were used as APC, addition of specific antibodies to WNV resulted in increased efficiency of presentation, probably due to increased uptake of antigen by opsonization. In contrast, addition of anti-WNV antibodies to hyperimmune B cells reduced their efficacy presumably by reducing uptake of antigen by B cell surface immunoglobulin. When SDC from C57BL/6 mice were used as APC, WNV-specific proliferative responses were directly related to the number of stimulator cells used, and the background proliferation with mock antigen was two- to five-fold lower than specific responses. Higher levels of background proliferation were stimulated by SDC from CBA/H mice so that the antigen-specific responses were always less than two-fold higher than background.

 

Mirtskhulava, MB; Barnabishvili, NO; Ivanidze, EA; Tsibadze, AD; Khutsishvili, GI. Impact of a variable magnetic field on the West Nile fever virus. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzii. 1991; 143 (3) 317-319. In Georgian with summaries in Russian and English.

Descriptors: WNV, comparison of effects of magnetic field strengths.

 

Porter, KR; Oprandy, JJ; Dubois, DR; Summers, P; Nelson, WM; Henschal, EA; Hayes, CG. Detection of West Nile virus by the polymerase chain reaction and analysis of strain variation. 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, December 1-5, 1991. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1991; 45 (3 SUPPL): 100. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: PCR detection assay, WNV strains, genetic analysis, strain variation.

 

Summers, PL; Martinez, BC; Dubois, DR; Silor, DL; Barvir, DA; Timchak, RL; Eckels, KH. Antigenic comparison of African and Indian strains of West Nile virus by western blot analysis. 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, December 1-5, 1991. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1991; 45 (3 SUPPL): 166. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin virus, Dengue arbovirus, comparison study, immunology, Western blot assay, various strains.

  

Wengler, G; Czaya, G; Farber, PM; Hegemann, JH. In vitro synthesis of West Nile virus proteins indicates that the amino-terminal segment of the NS3 protein contains the active centre of the protease which cleaves the viral polyprotein after multiple basic amino acids. Journal of General Virology. 1991 Apr; 72 ( Pt 4): 851-8. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors: processing flavivirus polyprotein, viral protease, NS3 protein, serine protease.

Abstract: A virus-encoded protease that cleaves after multiple basic amino acid residues has been implicated in the processing of the flavivirus polyprotein. Recently, a computer search of amino acid residues which might form the active site of a protease led to the suggestion that the amino-terminal segment of the NS3 protein represents a serine protease. To examine this possibility we constructed an mRNA which encodes a polyprotein with an amino-terminal signal sequence derived from the influenza virus haemagglutinin, followed by a segment of the West Nile flavivirus polyprotein which includes the non-structural (NS) proteins NS2A, NS2B and the amino-terminal part of the NS3 protein. This polyprotein contains two sequences, located at the termini of the NS2B protein, which are cleaved by the viral protease that cleaves after multiple basic residues in the authentic polyprotein. The proteins that are generated by this mRNA during in vitro translation in the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes indicate that these two proteolytic cleavages occur in vitro. In vitro translation of polyproteins shortened at the carboxy terminus shows that a polyprotein which does not contain the complete set of proposed catalytic residues present in the NS3 protein segment accumulates as a membrane-associated molecule without proteolytic processing. Similarly, substitution of residue histidine 51 of the NS3 polyprotein segment, which is predicted to be part of the protease catalytic centre, with an alanine residue, blocks the processing of the polyprotein in vitro.


Return to Contents


 

1990

 

 

Ben-Nathan, D; Feuerstein, G. The influence of cold or isolation stress on resistance of mice to West Nile virus encephalitis. Experientia. 1990 Mar 15; 46(3): 285-90. ISSN: 0014-4754.

NAL Call No.: 475 Ex7

Descriptors: effects of stressors on mortality, mouse model, cold and isolation stressors, viral encephalitis enhancement.  

Abstract: The effect of cold or isolation stress on mortality rate and brain virus level were investigated in mice infected with West Nile virus (WNV). Exposure of mice for 5 min/day to cold water (1 0.5 degrees C) for 8-10 days resulted in 92% mortality as compared to 47% in control mice (p less than 0.001). Mice housed in individual cages (isolation stress) were also more susceptible to WN viral infection, as shown by increased mortality rate reaching 85% as compared to 50% in mice housed 6 per cage (p less than 0.01). Cold or isolation stress increased blood brain and spleen virus levels as early as 2 days after inoculation. After 8 days of isolation or cold stress, mice inoculated with WNV had 8.9 and 9.0 log10 plaque forming units in the brain, respectively, as compared to 6.9 in the control (p less than 0.01-0.001). Furthermore, lymphoid organs such as spleen and thymus showed severe mass loss. These data suggest that physical or non-physical stress situations enhance WNV encephalitis by accelerating virus proliferation and increase mortality in mice.

 

Blackburn, N.K.; A. Shepherd; B. Paterson; T. Besselaar. Susceptibility of the dog tick Haemaphysalis leachii Audouin (Acarina: Ixodidae) to West Nile virus. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. Mar 1990. v. 53 (1) p. 11-16. ISSN: 0013-8789.

NAL Call No.:  420 EN86

Descriptors: dogs, Haemaphysalis leachii, ticks, West Nile virus, susceptibility, disease transmission, South Africa.

 

Mathiot, CC; Georges, AJ; Deubel, V. Comparative analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from human and animal hosts using monoclonal antibodies and cDNA restriction digest profiles. Research in Virology. 1990 Sep-Oct; 141(5): 533-43. ISSN: 0923-2516.

NAL Call No.: QR355 A44

Descriptors: strain comparisons, 17 strains, humans, birds, mosquitoes, ticks, genetic strain typing, transmission factors, pathgenicity for humans.

Abstract: Three West Nile (WN) virus strains isolated in Bangui, Central African Republic (CAR), from patients with hepatitis were analysed comparatively with the prototype WN virus strain and 7 WN strains previously isolated from birds (2 strains), mosquitoes (3 strains) and ticks (2 strains) in CAR. The comparison was based on two techniques: an epitopic analysis by indirect immunofluorescence assay using a panel of 9 monoclonal antibodies to WN virus, and an analysis of HaeIII and TaqI restriction digest profiles of cDNA to infected cell RNA. Similar results were obtained with both techniques: the 3 human strains were found to be identical to each other and identical or very close to mosquito and tick strains, whereas prototype WN virus and bird strains were significantly different from the human strains. As "classical" infections due to WN virus without hepatic involvement were also reported during the period of isolation of the arthropod strains, we concluded that the same virus subtype may have been the cause of different infection patterns. A new definition of the disease spectrum of WN virus, including the possibility of liver involvement, should be established. Clearly, the Egyptian prototype WN virus represents a different topotype. Bird strains also appear to be different from human and arthropod strains, raising the question of their transmissibility and pathogenicity for man, and of the role of birds in the natural cycle of WN virus.

 

Morvan, J; Besselaar, T; Fontenille, D; Coulanges, P. Antigenic variations in West Nile virus strains isolated in Madagascar since 1978. Research in Virology. 1990 Nov-Dec; 141(6): 667-76. ISSN: 0923-2516.

NAL Call No.: QR355 A44

Descriptors: 52 isolates, immunofluorescent techniques, monoclonal antibodies, 5 groups of variants, human, birds, mosquitoes, bird migration, dissemination and transmission.  

Abstract: The antigenic interrelationship between 52 Madagascan West Nile isolates and two prototype viruses (Eg101 and G2266) was assessed by an immunofluorescent technique using monoclonal antibodies. This analysis enabled us to define 5 groups of variants, 4 of which were closer to the Egyptian strain (Eg101) than to the Indian prototype (G2266). Groups II and V were dominant whereas strains of groups I and IV were less numerous. One strain belonging to group III was antigenically similar to the Indian strain. Antigenic variations were observed among viruses isolated from man, birds and different mosquito genera. Geographic variations were also observed. Exchanges exist between Madagascar and the African continent by means of migratory birds which seem to be instrumental in disseminating the virus and introducing the antigenic variants.   

 

Morvan, J; Fontenille, D; Besselaar, TG; Coulanges, P. Utilisation des anticorps monoclonaux pour l'analyse antigenique des souches de virus West Nile isolees a Madagascar. Apport pour la comprehension du cycle epidemiologique. [Use of monoclonal antibodies for the antigenic analysis of West Nile viral strains isolated in Madagascar. Contribution to the understanding of the epidemiological cycle]. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. 1990; 57(1): 167-81. ISSN: 0020-2495. In French.

Descriptors: 53 isolates, antigen comparisons, immunofluorescent techniques, monoclonal antibodies, 5 groups of variants, human, birds, mosquitoes, bird migration, dissemination and transmission.

Abstract: The antigenic relationship of 53 MADAGASCAR West Nile isolates to each other and to the two prototype viruses (Eg 101 and G 2266) was assessed using monoclonal antibodies. In MADAGASCAR exist 5 antigenic groups: 4 which are much closer to the Egyptian strain Eg 101 than to the Indian, and antigenically distinct from South african H 442 strain. One other is closely related to Indian strain G 2266. Antigenic variations are observed in every periods of transmission cycle. Some differences between strains isolated in a same region are also observed. MADAGASCAR is an exchange place for West Nile virus through the instrumentality of migratory birds.

 

Olaleye, OD; Omilabu, SA; Ilomechina, EN; Fagbami, AH. A survey for haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to West Nile virus in human and animal sera in Nigeria. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 1990; 13(1): 35-9. ISSN: 0147-9571.

NAL Call No.: QR180.C62

Descriptors: hemagglutination inhibition antibody, sera survey, humans, camels, goats, cattle, sheep, prevalence levels, yellow fever virus antigens, Potiskum virus antigens, Nigeria, Africa.

Abstract: A survey for West Nile virus (WNV) haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody was carried out in humans and domestic animals. Human sera were collected from Ibadan, while the animal sera were collected from both Ibadan and Maiduguri. Out of 304 human sera tested, 123 were positive (40%). There was a higher prevalence of HI antibody in adults than children. Sex distribution of positive sera showed that 37% of males and 43% of females had WNV HI antibody. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of HI antibody in both sexes. On the 123 WNV HI positive sera tested, 104 (85%) and 78 (75%) had yellow fever and Potiskum HI antibody respectively. Monotypic WNV virus reactions were frequently found in children while polytypic reactions were frequently found in adults. A total of 200 animal sera were examined, 50 camels, 50 goats, 49 cattle and 51 sheep. The highest prevalence of HI antibody was found in camels (26%), followed by sheep (20%). Percentage of positive sera in other species were: goat (18%) and cattle (6%). Of the 35 WNV HI positive animal sera, 26 and 20% reacted with Yellow fever and Potiskum virus antigens respectively.

 

Wiederhold, A.H.; P. Jupp; J. Alexander. Sindbis and West Nile viruses: an electron microscope study of salivary gland infection in the vector mosquito Culex univittatus. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. Sept 1990. v. 53 (2) p. 141-149. ISSN: 0013-8789.

NAL Call No.:  420 EN86

Descriptors: Culex univittatus, salivary glands, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus, infection, electron microscopy, disease vectors, South Africa.


Return to Contents


 

1989

 

 

Ben-Nathan, D; Lustig, S; Feuerstein, G. The influence of cold or isolation stress on neuroinvasiveness and virulence of an attenuated variant of West Nile virus. Archives of Virology. 1989; 109(1-2): 1-10. ISSN:  0304-8608.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AR23

Descriptors:  stress effects on pathogenicity and neuroinvasion, mouse model, attenuated WNV strain, I.P. injection, cold and isolation stressors, change in strain virulence. 

Abstract:  The effect of cold or isolation stress on neuroinvasiveness and virulence was investigated in mice inoculated with an attenuated WNV (WN-25) strain. The WN-25 variant differed from the parent strain by its inability to kill mice after I.P. injection though it was able to immunize even after injection with low doses of virus. Exposure of inoculated mice for 5 minutes a day to cold water (1 +/- 0.5 degrees C) for 8 days resulted in 60% mortality, while in nonstressed infected mice no death was observed. Cold or isolation stress increased the virus level in the brain to 8.9 and 7.4 log 10 PFU as compared to no virus in the infected control. Moreover, it was found that virus level in the spleen of stressed mice reached 3.4 and 3.7 log 10 PFU respectively, while in non-stressed mice no virus was detected. The virus which was isolated from the brain of moribund stressed mice was extremely virulent: I.P. inoculation of as little as 10 PFU caused death to normal non-stressed mice. We suggest that cold or isolation stress conditions in mice inoculated with an attenuated strain induce a selection process. The virus which was isolated from the brain of stressed mice changes its virulence and kills like wild type WNV.

 

Blackburn, N.K.; F. Reyers; W. Berry; A. Shepherd. Susceptibility of dogs to West Nile virus: a survey and pathogenicity trial. Journal of Comparative Pathology. Jan 1989. v. 100 (1) p. 59-66. ISSN: 0021-9975.

NAL Call No.:  41.8 J82

Descriptors: dogs, flavivirus, susceptibility, disease resistance, pathogenicity, disease surveys, epidemiology, South Africa.

 

Fontenille, D; Rodhain, F; Digoutte, JP; Mathiot, C; Morvan, J; Coulanges, P. Les cycles de transmission du virus West-Nile a Madagascar, Ocean Indien. [Transmission cycles of the West-Nile virus in Madagascar, Indian Ocean]. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale. 1989 Sep; 69(3): 233-43. ISSN:  0365-6527. In French.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 So15

Descriptors:  humans and birds, oxen, bats, rodents, lemurs, mosquito disease vectors, Culex decens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex antennatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes, Anopheles, disease prevalence, serological testing, vertebrate hosts, transmission cycles.

Abstract:  Virological, serological and entomological research conducted in Madagascar since 1975, reveal the wide-spread presence of West-Nile virus on the island. This arbovirus has been isolated from humans, parrots and egrets. Vectors belong to the genus Culex (e.g. Cx. decens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. antennatus, Cx. univittatus), however the virus has also been isolated from Aedes and Anopheles. Serological tests carried out on over 1,600 human and almost 1,000 animal sera, revealed that human beings could be infected throughout the island. Other potential vertebrate hosts, apart from birds, are oxen and bats. Insectivores, rodents and lemurs are probably involved in the transmission cycles only to a very small extent.

 

King, NJ; Maxwell, LE; Kesson, AM. Induction of class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by West Nile virus on gamma interferon-refractory early murine trophoblast cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1989 Feb; 86(3): 911-5. ISSN:  0027-8424.

NAL Call No.: 500 N21P

Descriptors: maternal and/or species protective evolution, implanting semi-allogeneic embryo, major histocompatibity complex.  

Abstract:  Primary murine trophoblast giant cells (TGC) do not express detectable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and are refractory to the MHC-increasing effects of alpha and beta (virus-induced) interferons and gamma (immune type) interferon during early implantation (postcoital days 3.5-6). West Nile virus infection of primary TGC monolayers from postcoital-day-3.5 preimplantation blastocysts induced paternal MHC antigen expression within 16 hr, as detected by immunogold labeling for electron microscopy. Induction is unlikely to have been mediated by secreted virus-induced interferons or other factors, as it occurred in the presence of high concentrations of anti-alpha/beta interferon antibodies and was not induced by virus-inactivated supernatants from MHC-induced primary TGC cultures. Attempts to induce MHC antigen expression with poly(I.C) or recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha in primary TGC cultures also failed. Thus, the apparent inhibition of MHC antigen expression in primary TGC during early implantation and their refractoriness to induction of de novo MHC antigen expression is not absolute. This may represent a maternal-and/or species-protective evolutionary device. As such, manipulation of this phenomenon may allow a conclusive assessment of the significance of inhibition of MHC antigen expression on trophoblast cells in the implanting semiallogeneic embryo.

 

Liu, Y; Blanden, RV; Mullbacher, A. Identification of cytolytic lymphocytes in West Nile virus-infected murine central nervous system. Journal of General Virology. 1989 Mar; 70 ( Pt 3): 565-73. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors:  inflammatory cells, CBA/H (H-2k) mouse brains, cell surface markers, lymphocytes detected, T cells, natural killer cells, 2-color flow cytometry. 

Abstract:  Inflammatory cells were isolated from West Nile virus (WNV)-infected CBA/H (H-2k) mouse brains, and their function and cell surface markers were studied. Two populations of cytolytic lymphocytes were detected. One population, which lysed WNV-infected and uninfected L929 (H-2k), YAC-1 (H-2a), P815 (H-2d), OH (H-2KdDk) and 2R (H-2KkDb) target cells, had a phenotype of L3T4- Lyt2- Thy1 +/- asialo GM1+ and hence were natural killer (NK) cells. The other, which lysed WNV-infected cells to a greater extent than uninfected L929 cells, had a phenotype of L3T4- Lyt2+ Thy1+ asialo GM1- and were cytotoxic T cells. In addition, the presence of the latter population was demonstrated by the specific lysis of syngeneic WNV-infected astrocytes, a cell type which is resistant to NK cell lysis. The cell surface markers of isolated inflammatory cells were determined by two colour flow cytometry. This showed that 15 to 40% of the cells were Thy1+, among which about 3% were Lyt2+. No L3T4+ cells were detected.

 

Nowak, T; Farber, PM; Wengler, G; Wengler, G. Analyses of the terminal sequences of West Nile virus structural proteins and of the in vitro translation of these proteins allow the proposal of a complete scheme of the proteolytic cleavages involved in their synthesis. Virology. 1989 Apr; 169(2): 365-76.ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: proteolytic processe, synthesis of the structural proteins, West Nile virus, anchored C protein, cleavage of pre-M protein residues 215-216, animo-terminal fragment loss, release of virus from cells.

Abstract:  The proteolytic processes involved in the synthesis of the structural proteins of the West Nile (WN) flavivirus were analyzed: The carboxy-terminal sequences of the structural proteins were determined and the proteins translated in vitro in the presence of membranes from a mRNA coding for the structural polyprotein were analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the following proteolytic activities are involved in the synthesis and assembly of WN virus structural proteins: The growing peptide chain which contains the sequences of the structural proteins in the order C-pre-M-E is cleaved at three places by cellular signalase(s). This cleavage generates the primary amino acid sequence of the mature structural proteins pre-M and E (and the amino-terminus of the ensuing nonstructural protein NS 1). The amino-terminal part of the polyprotein containing the amino acid residues 1 to 123 is released as a molecule which migrates slightly slower than the mature viral core protein and which presumably is associated to the RER membranes via its carboxy-terminal sequence. This protein is called the anchored C virus particles the anchored C protein is converted into mature C protein by removal of the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic segment containing the amino acid residues 106 to 123. Presumably a virus-coded protease which can cleave the polyprotein after two basic amino acid residues is responsible for this cleavage. The cell-associated WN virus particles are constructed from the proteins C, pre-M, and E which contain the amino residues 1-105, 124-290, and 291-787 of the polyprotein, respectively. Cleavage of the pre-M protein between amino acid residues 215 and 216, presumably by a cellular enzyme located in the Golgi vesicles, and loss of the amino-terminal fragment of this protein are associated with the release of virus from the cells.

 

Wengler, G; Wengler, G. An analysis of the antibody response against West Nile virus E protein purified by SDS-PAGE indicates that this protein does not contain sequential epitopes for efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies. Journal of General Virology. 1989 Apr; 70 ( Pt 4): 987-92. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors:  E-protein analysis, neutralizing epitopes generated from linear segments of the protein. 

Abstract:  The large envelope (E) protein of flaviruses is the viral surface protein that contains neutralizing epitopes. We have analysed the E protein of the West Nile (WN) flavivirus for neutralizing epitopes generated from linear segments of the protein; if effective, these might allow the synthesis of peptides suitable for vaccination. For this study we used the E protein and defined fragments thereof as antigens in rabbits. The sera thus obtained, containing antibodies to E protein as shown by Western blot analyses, were tested for neutralizing activity by the plaque reduction neutralization test. If the E protein used as antigen was reduced (the native E protein contains six disulphide bridges) and denatured the resulting antibodies did not consistently demonstrate neutralizing activity. These results show that the E protein of WN virus does not contain a linear segment that is able to induce neutralizing antibodies efficiently. Studies using denatured E protein fragments containing subsets of the intact disulphide bridges showed that the local covalent primary structure of the protein involved in each of the six bridges was also insufficient for inducing the synthesis of neutralizing antibodies. The complete E protein, with all six disulphide bridges intact, purified by preparative SDS-PAGE under the conditions used in our experiments could, however, induce the synthesis of neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. These data indicate that at least one complex epitope which is able to induce neutralizing antibodies is not completely denatured or can be reformed to some extent if the complete E protein has been subjected to SDS-PAGE without prior destruction of the disulphide bridges.


Return to Contents


 

1988

 

 

Besselaar, TG; Blackburn, NK. Antigenic analysis of West Nile virus strains using monoclonal antibodies. Archives of Virology. 1988; 99(1-2): 75-88. ISSN:  0304-8608.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AR23

Descriptors: antigenic identification, 17 MAbs, WNV H442, indirect immunofluorescence, 17 isolates, strain comparisons.  

Abstract:  Seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against the flavivirus West Nile strain H442. While the majority of these were specific for the major envelope protein, MAbs directed against the NS1 and ns4a nonstructural proteins were also identified. The MAbs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence against 16 southern African West Nile (WN) isolates, representative strains from the two main WN antigenic groups and several viruses from other flavivirus complexes. The MAb reactivities ranged from WN strain-specific to broadly flavivirus-group reactive. Comparison of the local isolates revealed the presence of several different strains, all of which were antigenically distinct from the representative strains of the two WN antigenic groups.

 

Grun, JB; Brinton, MA. Separation of functional West Nile virus replication complexes from intracellular membrane fragments. Journal of General Virology. 1988 Dec; 69 ( Pt 12): 3121-7.ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors: protein functions, viral replication complexes, endoplasmic reticular membranes, ultra-pure detergents--Tween 20, maltoside, octylglucoside, lubrol PX and sodium deoxycholate tested, sodium deoxycholate, effects on polymerase activity and  replication.  

Abstract:  Flaviviruses encode seven non-structural proteins for which functions have not yet been described. The identification of the viral and possible host proteins which may be involved in flavivirus replication has been impeded by the fact that the viral replication complexes are tightly associated with endoplasmic reticular membranes within infected cells and that in vitro polymerase activity is associated with large membrane fragments. To facilitate further study of flavivirus replication complexes, selected ultrapure detergents were analysed for their effect on West Nile virus (WNV) in vitro RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and for their ability to release functional replication complexes from partially purified intracellular BHK-21 membrane fragments. A few previous reports indicated that flavivirus in vitro polymerase activity was sensitive to detergent treatment. The present study indicates that WNV polymerase activity is variably inhibited depending on the concentration and identity of the detergent used. Of the five detergents (Tween 20, maltoside, octylglucoside, lubrol PX and sodium deoxycholate) tested, sodium deoxycholate was the most efficient at releasing functional viral replication complexes from intracellular membranes.

 

Liu, Y; King, N; Kesson, A; Blanden, RV; Mullbacher, A. West Nile virus infection modulates the expression of class I and class II MHC antigens on astrocytes in vitro. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1988; 540: 483-5. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL Call No.: 500 N484

Descriptors:  major histocompatibility complex, tissue culture, astrocytes. 

 

Sixl, W; Stunzner, D; Withalm, H. Serological examinations for antibodies against West Nile virus, Semlikivirus and chikungunyavirus in laboratory mice, parasitized by nidicole fauna from swallow's nests. Geographia Medica. Supplement. 1988; 1: 51-5. ISSN:  0866-4323.

Descriptors: Hirundo rustica, experimental exposure, nidicole ectoparasites, West Nile virus immunity, infection pathway, migrating birds, insect vectors. 

Abstract:  Experimental mice in swallow's (NMRI) nests highly infested with swallow bugs (Hirundo rustica) revealed antibodies against West Nile virus, Semliki virus and Chikungunya virus. Additional nidicole ectoparasites were not controlled and could also play a role in the occurrence of infection in experimental mice. Swallows and sparrows (Passer domesticus) additional nest inhabitants appear to be the ultimate link in this infection pathway as swallow bugs seldom migrate into dwellings to infest humans. RMSF-group antibodies and antibodies against ornithosis are rather seldom found. The import of West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Semliki virus to Austria through bug-parasitized swallows or other nidicole mites and insects can be assumed based on the presented results.


Return to Contents


 

1987

 

 

Castle, E; Wengler, G . Nucleotide sequence of the 5'-terminal untranslated part of the genome of the flavivirus West Nile virus. Archives of Virology. 1987; 92(3-4): 309-13. ISSN:  0304-8608.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AR23

Descriptors: RNA, nucleotide sequence, primer extension method, genome analysis, translation.  

Abstract:  We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-terminal untranslated region of the 42 S genome RNA of the flavivirus West Nile virus by primer extension. These analyses make our primary structure determination of this genome, which comprises a total number of 10,960 nucleotides, complete. Some implications of our data concerning the structure of flavivirus-specific nucleic acids and the initiation of translation of WN virus-specific RNA are discussed.

 

Grun, JB; Brinton, MA. Dissociation of NS5 from cell fractions containing West Nile virus-specific polymerase activity. Journal of Virology. 1987 Nov; 61(11): 3641-4. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: replication complex, centrifugation, glycerol cushion, NS5, polymerase activity.  

Abstract:  West Nile virus replication complexes were partially purified from cytoplasmic extracts of virus-infected cells by centrifugation through a 20% glycerol cushion. Numerous cell proteins, as well as the largest nonstructural protein, NS5, were separated from the replication complexes without significant loss of in vitro West Nile virus polymerase activity.


Return to Contents


 

1986

 

 

Cardosa, MJ; Gordon, S; Hirsch, S; Springer, TA; Porterfield, JS. Interaction of West Nile virus with primary murine macrophages: role of cell activation and receptors for antibody and complement. Journal of Virology. 1986 Mar; 57(3): 952-9. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: WNV growth, mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (resident, thioglycolate elicited, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG activated) and in macrophagelike (P338D1) and nonmacrophage (L929, PS clone D) cell lines, infected with and without IgG, IgM antibodies and complement, virus yield, factor of interaction between virus and primary macrophages. 

Abstract:  We have measured growth of West Nile virus in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (resident, thioglycolate elicited, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG activated) and in macrophagelike (P338D1) and nonmacrophage (L929, PS clone D) cell lines infected in the absence or presence of specific antibodies (immunoglobulin G ([IgG], IgM), and complement. Monoclonal antibodies directed against Fc receptors (IgG1/2b, 2.4G2) and type 3 complement receptors (Mac-1) were used to define the role of each receptor. Virus yield depended on a balance between enhancement and neutralization and was influenced by the physiologic state of the macrophage, the receptor pathway of viral entry, the mouse strain and age of donor. BCG-activated macrophages displayed a greater ability to restrict West Nile virus than nonactivated cells only in the presence of antiviral IgM, with or without complement; the Fc receptors for various classes of IgG mediated striking enhancement. These studies identify some of the complex innate and acquired factors that determine the interaction between West Nile virus and primary macrophages in vitro.

 

Grun, JB; Brinton, MA. Characterization of West Nile virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and cellular terminal adenylyl and uridylyl transferases in cell-free extracts. Journal of Virology. 1986 Dec; 60(3): 1113-24. ISSN: 0022-538X

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:  RNA systhesis, no labeling of WNV RNA detected with enzymes, transferase, polymerase.  

Abstract:  To facilitate further studies of flavivirus transcription, cell extraction methods and in vitro reaction conditions which increased West Nile virus (WNV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity were determined. Subcellular fractions from WNV-infected BHK-21/W12 cells were characterized with regard to their protein and RNA content and in vitro polymerase activity. In both a cytoplasmic fraction, designated S1, and a fraction enriched for outer nuclear membranes, designated S2, seven virus-specific proteins, NS5 (96 kilodaltons [kDa]), NS3 (67 kDa), E (48 kDa), NS1 (47 kDa), ns4a (26 kDa), ns2a (17 kDa), and ns2b (14.5 kDa), were detected. The fractions also contained virus-specific RNA and cellular rRNA and mRNA. Polymerase activity in S1 and S2 fractions from WNV-infected cells was concentrated by pelleting and consisted of two types of enzyme activities: the WNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and terminal transferases of cellular origin. Enhanced levels of WNV polymerase activity were obtained from these cell fractions by altering several of the in vitro reaction conditions. Although Mg2+ was the divalent cation preferred by WNV polymerase, virus-specific in vitro transcription was detected at reduced levels when Mn2+ (0.05 or 0.5 mM) was present as the sole divalent cation. Product analysis revealed that the viral polymerase incorporated radiolabeled ribonucleotides into three distinct RNA species. Free single-stranded genome-sized RNA which was LiCl insoluble and RNase sensitive was found by fingerprint analysis to have an oligonucleotide pattern similar to that of WNV genomic RNA. RNA molecules which comigrated as a broad band near the top of the gel were separable into LiCl-insoluble, partially RNase-sensitive replicative-intermediate RNA and LiCl-soluble, RNase-resistant replicative-form RNA. The cellular transferases added UMP or AMP residues to the 3'-termini of cellular mRNA, tRNA, and 18S and 28S rRNA. Although a cellular terminal transferase has been reported to function in initiation of poliovirus transcription, no labeling of the WNV RNA by either of these cellular enzymes was detected. Therefore, they appear to play no specific role in flavivirus RNA synthesis.

 

Jupp, PG; Blackburn, NK; Thompson, DL; Meenehan, GM. Sindbis and West Nile virus infections in the Witwatersrand-Pretoria region. South African Medical Journal. 1986 Aug 16; 70(4): 218-20. ISSN:  0038-2469.

Descriptors:  viral activity, Culex univittatus-bird transmission cycle, level of infection in humans, mosquito insect vector levels, South Africa. 

Abstract:  From mid-December 1983 until mid-April 1984, there was an epidemic of Sindbis (SIN) virus infection in the Witwatersrand-Pretoria region in which hundreds of human cases were diagnosed clinically. Twenty-eight of these diagnoses were confirmed in the laboratory by seroconversion as being infections with SIN virus, and 5 cases of infection with West Nile (WN) virus were also found. Attempts to isolate virus from 66 patients, mainly from serum specimens, were unsuccessful. Infection rates for the mosquito vector Culex univittatus, collected at localities on the Witwatersrand in February and March, were mostly higher for both SIN and WN viruses than in previous years. The highest rates determined were 5.4 (SIN) and 9.6 (WN) per 1 000 mosquitoes. It is concluded that an epizootic of both viruses occurred which was manifested by a high level of viral activity in the feral Cx. univittatus-bird transmission cycle. Cx. univittatus efficiently transferred infection of SIN virus from this cycle to man to cause the epidemic of infection with that virus but it is unclear why there were apparently only a few cases of WN virus infection.

 

Kimura, T; Gollins, SW; Porterfield, JS. The effect of pH on the early interaction of West Nile virus with P388D1 cells. Journal of General Virology. Nov; 67 ( Pt 11): 2423-33. ISSN: 0022-1317.

NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors:  mouse cell line—P388D1, transmission electron microscopy, radiobinding assay, viral envelope surface protein, low pH values.

Abstract:  The interaction between the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) and cells of the mouse macrophage-like cell line, P388D1, was assayed by transmission electron microscopy, by following the association of [35S]methionine-labelled virus with cells, and by using a radiobinding assay with an 125I-labelled F(ab')2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody directed against the major viral envelope surface glycoprotein. Using electron microscopy, both fusion and endocytosis were observed at pH 6.4, but at pH 8.0 only endocytosis was observed. When 35S-labelled WNV was bound to the P388D1 cell surface at 0 degrees C, less virus eluted on warming to 37 degrees C at mildly acidic than at alkaline or neutral pH values. The monoclonal antibody fragment had an increased affinity for cell surface viral E glycoprotein after prebound WNV was warmed at mildly acidic pH values. It is proposed that the warming of cell-virus mixtures at low pH results in fusion with a consequent reduction in elution of virus and an increase in the recognition of cell surface-expressed viral envelope glycoprotein by labelled antibody.

  

Kostiukov, MA; Alekseev, AN; Bulychev, VP; Gordeeva, ZE. Eksperimental'nye dokazatel'stva zarazheniia komarov Culex pipiens L. virusom likhoradki Zapadnogo Nila na ozernykh liagushkakh Rana ridibunda Pallas i peredachi ego cherez ukus.  [Experimental evidence for infection of Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes by West Nile fever virus from Rana ridibunda Pallas and its transmission by bites]. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni. 1986 Nov-Dec; (6): 76-8. ISSN: 0025-8326. In Russian

Descriptors: frogs as a viral reservoir, Culex pipiens as insect vector, virus transmission.


Return to Contents


 

1985

 

 

Brinton, MA; Davis, J; Schaefer, D. Characterization of West Nile virus persistent infections in genetically resistant and susceptible mouse cells. II. Generation of temperature-sensitive mutants. Virology. 1985 Jan 15; 140(1): 152-8. ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: mouse embryofibroblast cell cultures, C3H/HE mice, congenic-resistant C3H/RV mice, cultural temperature effects, persistence of infections. 

Abstract:  Long-term persistent infections were established with the flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), strain E101, in embryofibroblast cultures derived from susceptible C3H/HE and congenic-resistant C3H/RV mice. Cultures were initially maintained by weekly subculture at 37 degrees, but at passage 6 sister cultures were shifted to 32 degrees. Virus progeny titers were observed to increase after the shift to 32 degrees indicating the possible presence of temperature-sensitive mutants. Temperature-sensitive mutants were found to arise in cultures of both susceptible and resistant cells. However, only in the resistant cultures did temperature-sensitive virus become the majority population. Temperature-sensitive mutants did not appear to be essential for either initiation or maintenance of WNV-persistant infections. The resistant cells appear to provide an environment which is advantageous for the amplification of temperature-sensitive mutants.

 

Castle, E.; T. Nowak; U. Leidner; G. Wengler. Sequence analysis of the viral core protein and the membrane-associated proteins V1 and NV2 of the flavivirus West Nile virus and of the genome sequence for these proteins. Virology. Sept 1985. v. 145 (2) p. 227-236. ill. ISSN: 0042-6822.

NAL Call No.:  448.8 V81

Descriptors: flavivirus, genomes, sequences, membranes, proteins, West Nile virus.

 

Kostiukov, MA; Gordeeva, ZE; Bulychev, VP; Nemova, NV; Daniiarov, OA. Ozernaia liagushka (Rana ridibunda)--odin iz prokormitelei krovososushchikh komarov Tadzhikistana--rezervuar virusa likhoradki Zapadnogo Nila. [The lake frog (Rana ridibunda)--one of the food hosts of blood-sucking mosquitoes in Tadzhikistan--a reservoir of the West Nile fever virus.] Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni. 1985 May-Jun; (3): 49-50. ISSN: 0025-8326. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 M469

Descriptors: disease reservoirs, frogs, Rara ridibunda, insect vectors, transmission, disease cycles, Russia.   

 

Liapustin, VN; Chunikhin, SP; Gritsun, TS; Reshetnikov, IA; Lashkevich, VA. Osobennosti sinteza belkov virusa Zapadnogo Nila i kharakter infektsii v kletkakh mokara i mlekopitaiushchego. [Characteristics of protein synthesis in the West Nile virus and the nature of infection in mosquito and mammalian cells.] Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni. 1985 May-Jun; (3): 50-4. ISSN: 0025-8326. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 M469

Descriptors: WNV, mammalian and insect cell cultures, viral proteins, protein synthesis, infective process.  

 

Lustig, S; Halevy, M; Akov, Y; Shapira, A. Attenuation of West-Nile virus in persistently West-Nile virus-infected mosquito cell culture. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. 1985; 21 (2): 182. ISSN:  0021-2180. Annual Meeting of the Israel Society of Microbiology, Ramat Gan, Israel, Dec. 24-25, 1984.

NAL Call No.: R97.I87

Descriptors: mosquito cells, cell culture passages, effects of culture on pathogenicity.   

  

Wengler, G; Castle, E; Leidner, U; Nowak, T; Wengler, G. Sequence analysis of the membrane protein V3 of the flavivirus West Nile virus and of its gene. Virology. 1985 Dec; 147(2): 264-74 .ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: membrane-associated protein V3, hemagglutination, amino acid sequences, coding area for protein, unglycosylated protein, protein synthese, endoplasmic reticulum membrane.   

Abstract:  Flaviviruses contain a large membrane-associated protein V3, having a mol mass of about 50 kDa which is responsible for hemagglutination. We have isolated the V3 protein from the West Nile (WN) flavivirus and determined its amino-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid sequences of fragments derived from this protein. We have also transcribed parts of the WN virus genome RNA into cDNA and cloned and sequenced this cDNA. The results of these analyses have allowed us to identify the region of the viral genome coding for the V3 protein. In this report we describe the total nucleotide sequence of the genome region coding for the WN virus V3 protein and the amino acid sequence of the V3 protein derived from these analyses. The exact carboxy terminus of the V3 protein has not been determined in these experiments. These analyses have shown that the V3 protein of WN virus does not contain an Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequence which could allow addition of N-linked carbohydrate chains to this protein. In accordance with this finding, analyses of metabolic labeling of the V3 protein using [3H]glucosamine indicate that the WN virus V3 protein is an unglycosylated protein. Together with our earlier analyses these results show that the viral structural proteins are present on the genome RNA in the order 5'-terminus-core protein (V2)-small membrane-associated protein (NV2)-large membrane-associated protein (V3) and describe the nucleotide sequences coding for all WN virus structural proteins identified so far. A hypothesis concerning the processes involved in the synthesis of all viral structural proteins and the probable orientation of these proteins relative to the endoplasmatic reticulum membrane based on the structure of these proteins is discussed.


Return to Contents


 

1984

 

 

Akov, Y; Lustig, S; Halevy, M; Shapira, A. Phenotypic changes in West Nile virus propagated in mosquito cells. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. 1984; 20 (5): 480. ISSN:  0021-2180. Annual Meeting of the Israel Society of Microbiology, Beersheva, Israel, Dec. 4-5, 1983.

NAL Call No.: R97.I87

Keywords:  insect cell cultures, mosquito cells, viral changes due to cycles in cell culture. 

 

Hayes, C.G.; R. Baker; S. Baqar; T. Ahmed. Genetic variation for West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex tritaeniorhynchus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. July 1984. v. 33 (4) p. 715-724. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.:  448.8 AM326

Descriptors: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, mosquito, disease vectors, viruses, susceptibility, genetic variation, strain differences, artificial selection.

 
Return to Contents


 

1983

 

 

Brinton, MA. Analysis of extracellular West Nile virus particles produced by cell cultures from genetically resistant and susceptible mice indicates enhanced amplification of defective interfering particles by resistant cultures. Journal of Virology. 1983 Jun; 46(3): 860-70. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors: viral particles from cell cultures, genetically resistant C3H/RV mice, congenic susceptible C3H/HE mice, compared, viral replication, genetically controlled resistance.

Abstract:  [3H]uridine-labeled extracellular West Nile virus (WNV) particles produced by cell cultures obtained from genetically resistant C3H/RV and congenic susceptible C3H/HE mice were compared by sucrose density gradient centrifugation as well as by analysis of the particle RNA. Defective interfering (DI) WNV particles were observed among progeny produced during acute infections in both C3H/RV and C3H/HE cells. Although only a partial separation of standard and DI particles was achieved, the DI particles were found to be more dense than the standard virions. Particles containing several species of small RNAs consistently constituted a major proportion of the total population of virus progeny produced by C3H/RV cells, but a minor proportion of the population produced by C3H/HE cells. Decreasing the multiplicity of infection or extensive plaque purification of the WNV inoculum decreased the proportion of small RNAs found in the progeny virus. The ratio of DI particles to standard virus observed in progeny virus was determined by the cell type used to grow the virus. The ratio could be shifted by passaging virus from one cell type to the other. Homologous interference could be demonstrated with WNV produced by C3H/RV cells but not with virus produced by C3H/HE cells. Continued passage of WNV in C3H/HE cells resulted in a cycling of infectivity. However, passage in C3H/RV cells resulted in the complete loss of infectious virus. Four size classes of small viral RNA, with sedimentation coefficients of about 8, 15, 26, and 34S, were observed in the extracellular particles. A preliminary analysis of these RNAs by oligonucleotide fingerprinting indicated that the smaller RNAs were less complex than the 40S RNA and differed from each other. The data are consistent with the conclusion that WNV DI particles interfere more effectively with standard virus replication and are amplified more efficiently in C3H/RV cells than in congenic C3H/HE cells. The relevance of these findings to the further understanding of genetically controlled resistance to flaviviruses is discussed.

 

Brinton, MA; Fernandez, AV. A replication-efficient mutant of West Nile virus is insensitive to DI particle interference. Virology. 1983 Aug; 129(1): 107-15. ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: mutant WNV, c3H/RV mouse cell cultures, replication-efficient mutant, insensitive to interference by defective interfering particles, two areas of differences in the genome as compared to the parental strain, viral reproduction.

Abstract:  A previous report described the isolation of a mutant of West Nile virus (WNV) from culture fluid obtained from persistently infected genetically resistant C3H/RV mouse cells that replicates significantly more efficiently in cultures of C3H/RV cells than does the parental virus. This replication-efficient mutant, designated RE-WNV, has now been found to be insensitive to interference by WNV defective interfering (DI) particles. This characteristic was demonstrated by several means. The RE-WNV mutant was able to superinfect persistently infected cultures that were no longer producing detectable parental virus, while the parental virus was not. Good yields of the mutant virus were produced during six serial undiluted passages of RE-WNV in both resistant C3H/RV and congenic susceptible C3H/HE cells. In contrast, during passage of parental virus in C3H/RV cells, progeny virus could not be detected after the third passage, due to an enhanced interference by WNV DI particles with standard virus replication in these cells. The RE-WNV was also insensitive to interference by a pool of parental virus enriched for DI particles. Analysis of the mutant genome by oligonucleotide fingerprinting indicated that the genome RNA of the mutant differs by two unique spots from the parental RNA. The relevance of this mutant to the eventual understanding of the mechanism by which C3H/RV and C3H/HE cells manifest their flavivirus-specific difference in the efficiency of progeny virus production is discussed.

 

Pogodina, VV; Frolova, MP; Malenko, GV; Fokina, GI; Koreshkova, GV; Kiseleva, LL; Bochkova, NG; Ralph, NM. Study on West Nile virus persistence in monkeys. Archives of Virology. 1983; 75(1-2): 71-86. ISSN:  0304-8608.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AR23

Descriptors: rhesus macques, various isolates, varying virulence, progress of the disease, viral resistance, sub-acute diseases of the central nervous system. 

Abstract:  Experiments in M. rhesus showed persistence to be a typical property of West Nile virus. This property was exhibited by strains belonging to different antigenic types, and varying in virulence and in the isolation area (U.S.S.R., Uganda, India). The duration of persistence was at least 5 1/2 months in asymptomatic infection and in convalescence after encephalitis or a febrile disease. The virus isolated within the first 2 weeks after inoculation of monkeys has the standard properties. The virus persisting for 2 months retains its cytopathic and antigenic activity, however, is non-pathogenic for white mice. After 5 1/2 months of persistence the virus has no neurovirulence or cytopathic properties but is capable of infecting the susceptible cells and induces in them the synthesis of virus-specific antigen detectable by immunofluorescence. The persisting virus has been isolated by cocultivation of trypsinized monkey organ cells and cells of the indicator culture. This virus was located mostly in the cerebellum, cerebral subcortical ganglia, lymph nodes, and kidneys. The monkeys experiencing encephalitis, febrile, or asymptomatic infection showed in morphological examinations a subacute inflammatory-degenerative process in the central nervous system. The results suggest that West Nile virus, one of the most widely spread arboviruses in Africa, Asia, and Europe, may be implicated in the etiology of subacute diseases of the CNS.


Return to Contents


 

1982

 

 

Akhter, R; Hayes, CG; Baqar, S; Reisen, WK. West Nile virus in Pakistan. III. Comparative vector capability of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and eight other species of mosquitoes. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1982; 76(4): 449-53. ISSN: 0035-9203.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 R813

Descriptors:  experimental mosquito vectors, experimental feeding of WNV in defibrinated blood, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx fuscocephala and Cx pseudovishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes albopictus, Aedes caspius, Aedes indicus, Aedes lineatopennis, feeding on viremic chickens, intrathoracic inoculationm ability to transmit disease, Pakistan. 

Abstract:  Eight species of mosquitoes from Pakistan were compared with Culex tritaeniorhynchus as experimental vectors of West Nile (WN) virus. When fed by the membrane or cotton-pledget methods on a dose of WN virus 100% infective for Cx tritaeniorhynchus, 95% and 73% of the females of Cx fuscocephala and Cx pseudovishnui became infected, respectively. Cx quinquefasciatus, Cx univittatus, Aedes albopictus, Ae. caspius, Ae. indicus and Ae. lineatopennis were all significantly less susceptible than Cx tritaeniorhynchus. In agreement with the single dose comparisons, the median per os infective dose of WN virus for Cx fuscocephala, Cx pseudovishnui and Ae. caspius was substantially greater than for Cx tritaeniorhynchus. The median parenteral infective dose for all six species tested was less than 1 SMICLD50. Both Cx tritaeniorhynchus and Cx quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to infection with WN virus when fed on viraemic chickens than when fed on defibrinated blood using cotton pledgets or membranes. After infection by intrathoracic inoculation, only Ae. indicus and Ae. lineatopennis showed a reduced ability to transmit WN virus when compared to Cx tritaeniorhynchus.

 

Brinton, MA. Characterization of West Nile virus persistent infections in genetically resistant and susceptible mouse cells. I. Generation of defective nonplaquing virus particles. Virology. 1982 Jan 15; 116(1): 84-98. ISSN:  0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors:  mouse cell cultures, virus physiology, viral reproduction and persistence, SV 40 transformed mouse embryo fibroblast cells, hamster kidned BHK cells, dense cytoplasmic vacuoles, RNA

 

George, TD St; St George, TD; Kay, BH; McIntosh, BM; Jupp, PG; St George, TD (ed.); Kay, BH (ed.). Ecological studies on West Nile virus in southern Africa. Arbovirus Research in Australia. Proceedings 3rd symposium. 15-17 February 1982. 1982?, 82-85; 13 ref.

NAL Call No.: RC114.5 A7

Descriptors: disease distribution, insect vectors, Culex univittatus, humans, birds.  

 

Hayes, CG; Baqar, S; Ahmed, T; Chowdhry, MA; Reisen, WK. West Nile virus in Pakistan. 1. Sero-epidemiological studies in Punjab Province. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1982; 76(4): 431-6. ISSN: 0035-9203.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 R813

Descriptors: epidemiology, sera surveys, humans, birds, a cow, other animals, antibody titers, Dengue, Pakistan I-746 strain of West Nile virus.  

Abstract:  Serum samples collected during 1978-79 from residents of the Chiniot and Changa Manga National Forest (CMF) areas of Punjab Province, Pakistan, had over-all neutralizing (N) antibody positive rates for West Nile (WN) virus of 32.8% (n = 192) and 38.5% (n = 239), respectively. Comparison of the age-specific antibody rates indicated that the pattern of exposure to infection was different in the two areas. Samples from a 1968 serosurvey of residents of the CMF area had an age-specific N antibody profile similar to the 1978 CMF sample, but both the over-all N and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody positive rates were much higher in the 1968 sample. When tested against antigen prepared from the Pakistan I-746 strain of WN virus, the percentage of sera HI antibody positive and the geometric mean titre of the sera were significantly higher than when tested against the Egypt-101 antigen. One of 124 and 11 of 50 sera from the 1978 and 1968 samples from CMF exhibited detectable HI antibody against dengue-3 virus, respectively, indicating cross-reacting flavivirus antibody was present. None of the positive sera had a higher titre against dengue-3 than against WN virus, but four of the 1968 sera reacted to equal titre against both antigens. During the 1978-79 CMF survey, serum samples from domestic and wild animals were tested for WN virus antibody. Of the 317 wild birds captured, 85 were N-antibody positive. The only frequently bled mammal was the Indian cow, from which 21 of 58 samples were positive for WN antibody.

 

Kislenko, GS; Chunikhin, SP; Rasnitsyn, SP; Kurenkov, VB; Izotov, VK. Study of Powassan and West-Nile virus reproduction in Aedes-aegypti mosquitoes and in their cell culture. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni. 1982; 51 (3): 13-15. ISSN: 0025-8326. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 M469

Descriptors: viral reproduction, physiology, pathology, tissue culture of mosquito cells.

 

Reisen, WK; Hayes, CG; Azra, K; Niaz, S; Mahmood, F; Parveen, T; Boreham, PFL. West Nile virus in Pakistan. II. Entomological studies at Changa Manga National Forest, Punjab Province. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1982, 76: 4, 437-448; 6 fig.; 43 ref. ISSN: 0035-9203.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 R813

Descriptors: infectivity, mosquito resting places, seasonal abundance cycles, rrigation water, prevention, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes lineatopennis, Aedes w albus, Aedes caspius, Culex fuscocephalus, Culex pseudovishnui, Mansonia uniformis, cattle, humans, Anopheles, Aedes yusafi,  Aedes-indicus, Aedes culicinus.

 

Vinograd, IA; Beletskaia, GV; Chumachenko, SS; Ardamatskaia, TB; Rogochii, EG. Vydelenie virusa Zapadnogo Nila na iuge Ukrainskoi SSR. [Isolation of West Nile virus in the Southern Ukraine]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1982 Sep-Oct; 27(5): 55-7. ISSN: 0507-4088. In Russian.

Descriptors: internal organs, birds, rook, virus isolation, pathogenic to mice, intro-cerebral injection, chick embryo culture, chick embryo fibroblast cultures, L cells, swine embryo kidney cells, pathogenecity, Ukrainian strain.

Abstract: A virus (strain No. 3266) was isolated from the blood and internal organs of a rook caught in May, 1980, in the territory of the Black Sea State Preserve of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (the Kherson region). The virus is pathogenic for 1--2-day-old mice by various routes of inoculation and for 3-week-old mice by the intracerebral route; it multiplies in chick embryos, in chick embryo fibroblast cultures without the cytopathic effect, and in continuous L cells and pig embryo kidney cells with definite cytopathic effect. The virus contains RNA and has a lipid-containing membrane; according to the results of filtration through Millipore filters, its size ranges from 50 to 100 nm. From the results of immunofluorescent studies and serological identification this strain has been classified as West Nile virus. The characteristics of the biological properties of this virus isolated in the Ukraine have first been described.


Return to Contents


 

1981

 

 

Akhtar, R.; C. Hayes; S. Baqar. Dual infections of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with West Nile virus and Nosema algerae. Journal of Parasitology. Aug 1981. v. 67 (4) p. 571-573. ISSN: 0022-3395. Bibliography p. 573.

NAL Call No.:  448.8 J824

Descriptors: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, mosquito, West Nile virus, Nosema algerae, feeding technique, replication, susceptibility, disease vector, pathogenic parasite, biological control.

 

Brinton, MA. Isolation of a replication-efficient mutant of West Nile virus from a persistently infected genetically resistant mouse cell culture. Journal of Virology. 1981 Aug; 39(2): 413-21. ISSN: 0022-538X.

NAL Call No.: QR360.J6

Descriptors:  mouse embryo fibroblasts C4H/RV, WNV strain E101, viral levels in cell culture, viral proteins, regulation of transcription of flavivirus RNA. 

Abstract:  Flavivirus-resistant mouse embryofibroblasts (C3H/RV) that were infected with West Nile virus, strain E101 (WNV), yielded fewer infectious virions than did cultures of congenic susceptible cells (C3H/HE). Analysis of intracellular viral RNA synthesis indicated that the incorporation of [3H]uridine into 40S genome RNA was markedly reduced in resistant cells, and about 100-fold less labeled 40S RNA was found in pelleted extracellular virions from resistant cultures than in those from susceptible ones. A non-temperature-sensitive mutant of WNV isolated from culture fluid of a persistently infected culture of genetically resistant mouse cells was found to produce higher yields of infectious virus than the parental WNV used to initiate the persistent infection. Analysis of intracellular actinomycin D-resistant RNA indicated that the mutant virus (WNV-RV) was more efficient at incorporating [3H]uridine into 40S RNA in resistant cells than was the parental virus. WNV-RV also synthesized 40S RNA more efficiently than parental virus in congenic susceptible cells and in BHK cells. Analysis of the incorporation of [35S]methionine into viral proteins was likewise enhanced in WNV-RV-infected cells. The WNV-RV mutant provides a tool for studying the regulation of transcription of flavivirus RNA.


Return to Contents


 

1980

 

 

Baqar, S.; C. Hayes; T. Ahmed. The effect of larval rearing conditions and adult age on the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus to infection with West Nile virus. Mosquito News. June 1980. v. 40 (2) p. 165-171. ISSN: 0027-142X.

NAL Call No.:  421 M85

Descriptors: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, mosquito, West Nile virus, environmental factors, age factor, pupation, stress indicators, feeding technique, susceptibility, biological control.

 

Deshmane, SL; Banerjee, K. Poly peptides of Japanese encephalitis virus and West-Nile virus. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1980; 71 (FEB): 157-163. ISSN: 0019-5340.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 In22

Descriptors: electrophoreses, study of peptides and amino acids, virology methods.  

 

Hayes, C.G.; A. Basit; S. Bagar; R. Akhter. Vector competence of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. Mar 31, 1980. v. 17 (2) p. 172-177. ill. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, mosquito, West Nile virus, disease vector, vector competence, inoculation, replication, transmission, feeding technique, susceptibility, Egypt.

 

Izotov, VK; Chunikhin, SP. Comparative characteristcs of Getah and West-Nile virus reproduction in cell cultures of mosquitoes of 3 species. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni. 1980; 49 (4): 34-37. ISSN:  0025-8326. In Russian

NAL Call No.: 448.8 M469

Descriptors:  comparative reproduction, mosquito cell cultures, Aedes albopictus, Aedes pseudoscutellaris, Aedes aegypti, Hanks’ medium plus 10% calf serum, C-45 solution, virus reproduction. 

 

Oaten, SW; Webb, HE; Jagelman, S. Resistance of mice to infection with West Nile virus following pre treatment with Sindbis Semliki-Forest and Chikungunya virus. Microbios Letters. 1980; 13 (50): 85-90. ISSN: 0307-5494.

NAL Call No.: QR1 M49

Descriptors:  mouse model, intra-cutaneous injection, virology, effects of multiple infections. 


Return to Contents


 

1979

 

 

Ahmed, T.; C. Hayes; S. Baqar. Comparison of vector competence for West Nile virus of colonized populations of Culex tritaeniorhynchus from southern Asia and the far east. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. Dec 1979. v. 10 (4) p. 498-504. ill. ISSN: 0038-3619. Bibliography p. 502-504.

NAL Call No.:  RC960.S6

Descriptors: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, mosquito, West Nile virus, disease vector, transmission, feeding technique, susceptibility, juvenile mice, inoculation, biological control, far east, Asia.

  

Wengler, G; Beato, M; Wengler, G. In vitro translation of 42 S virus-specific RNA from cells infected with the flavivirus West Nile virus. Virology. 1979 Jul 30; 96(2): 516-29. ISSN:0042-6822.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 V81

Descriptors: arboviruses metabolism viral RNA, translation genetics, biosysthesis of viral proteins, hamster kidney cell line, methionine metabolism, peptides fragment analysis.


Return to Contents


 

1978

 

 

Eylar, O.R.; C. Wisseman. An unusually high divalent cation requirement for attachment of West Nile virus to primary chick embryo cells. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Feb 1978, 157 (2): 322-325. Ref.

NAL Call No.:  442.9 SO1

Descriptors: West Nile virus, cell culture, cell adsorption, plaque assay, viral attachment, experimental infection, divalent cations, chick embryo cells.

 

Gaidamovich, SY; Ismailov, AS; Klisenko, GA; Mirzoeva, NM. Detection of Sindbis virus and West-Nile virus in the blood of living birds by indirect hemagglutination. Acta Virologica. 1978; 22 (5): 430. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: birds, sheep erythrocyte viremis, Ardeola ralloides, Bubulcus ibis, Nycticoras nycticoras, Larus argentatus. 


Return to Contents


 

1977

 

 

Lavrova, NA. Dinamika nakopleniia infektsionnogo virusa Zapadnogo Nila, virusnykh antigenov pri eksperimental'noi infektsii myshei. [Dynamics of accumulation of infectious West Nile virus and viral antigens in experimental infection of mice]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1977 Mar-Apr; (2): 193-6. ISSN:  0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors: mouse model, experimental model, antigens, infectious virus, blood and brain sampling, virus titers, soluble antigens levels.

Abstract:  The appearance of the hemagglutinating (HA), complement-fixing (CF) and soluble (S) antigens and infectious virus in the blood and brain of suckling mice inoculated with various doses of West Nile virus was studied. The infectious virus was isolated from the blood and brains of mice as early as 24 hours after inoculation. Its titres increased in parallel in the brain and blood reaching maximum levels by the end of infection. The HA antigen was detected only in the brain at 2-3 days after inoculation. The CF antigen was detected in the blood in a low titre only in the terminal stage of infection; in the brain the CF antigen was detected within 24 hours after infection with a low dose and within 48 hours with a high dose. The S antigen was isolated only from the brain tissue, and in higher titres after infection with a large dose. This may be associated with excess synthesis of the S antigen at a high multiplicity of infection.

 

Odelola, HA; Fabiyi, A. Biological characteristic of Nigerian strains of West Nile virus in mice and cell cultures. Acta Virologica. 1977 Mar; 21(2): 161-4. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: 7 Nigerian isolates, experimental infections in mice, virus levels in cell cultures, organ sampling, viral biology and physiology.

Abstract:  The biological characteristic in mice and cell cultures of 7 strains of West Nile (WN) virus isolated in Nigeria were studied. The pattern of virus development in most organs of mice infected with two of the seven strains tested was identical, while it varied with the remaining five strains. All 7 strains of WN virus multiplied with a cytopathic effect (CPE) in the four cell cultures examined.

 

Odelola, H.A.; O. Oduye. West Nile virus infection of adult mice by oral route. Archives of Virology. 1977, 54 (3): 251-253. Ref.

NAL Call No.:  448.3 AR23

Descriptors: West Nile virus, experimental infection, Swiss albino mice, antibodies, histology, transmission, feeding technique, Nigeria.

 

Umrigar, MD; Pavri, KM. Comparative biological studies on Indian strains of West Nile virus isolated from different sources. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1977 May; 65(5): 596-602. ISSN: 0971-5916.

Descriptors: pathogenicity, cell lines, cytopathogenic effects, LD 50, plaque assay, India. 

Umrigar, MD; Pavri, KM. Comparative serological studies on Indian strains of West Nile virus isolated from different sources. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1977 May; 65(5): 603-12. ISSN: 0971-5916.

Descriptors: viral antigen analysis, epitopes, immunology, cross reactions, Indian strains.  


Return to Contents


 

1976

 

Jupp, PG. The susceptibility of 4 South African species of Culex to West-Nile virus and Sindbis virus by 2 different infecting methods. Mosquito News. 1976; 36 (2): 166-173. ISSN: 0027-142X.

NAL Call No.: 421 M85

Descriptors:  pigeons, birds, chickens, Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex fatigans, Cules univittatus, Culex theirleri, insect disease vectors.  

 

Labuda, M; Kozuch, O; Gresikova, M. Relationship of West-Nile virus to mosquitoes under central European conditions. Folia Microbiologica. 1976; 21 (3): 248. ISSN:  0015-5632.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 C332

Descriptors: Aides, contans, Aedes communis, Aedes punctar, Aedes cataphylla, Aedes sticticus, Aedes annulipis, Aedes cinereus, Aedes vexans, Mansonia richiardii, pathogenicity, effects of climate.  

 

Lengle, E.E.; F. Frerman; S. Grossberg. Alterations in the developmental patterns of enzymes in chicken embryos infected with West Nile virus. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Nov 1, 1976, 177 (1): 157-169. Ref.

NAL Call No.:  381 AR2

Descriptors: West Nile virus, experimental infection, embryonic development, enzymes, metabolites, pathway, lipids, liver, Group B Togavirididae, chicken embryos.

 

Odelola, HA; Fabiyi, A. Antigenic relationships among Nigerian strains of West Nile virus by complement fixation and agar gel precipitation techniques. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1976; 70(2): 138-44. ISSN: 0035-9203.

NAL Call No.: 448.9 R813

Descriptors:  Nigerian isolates, antigenic relationships between local and world strains, 2 intra-typic groups.

Abstract:  Using two serological techniques, eight Nigerian West Nile virus isolates were investigated to determine antigenic relationships among them, and to find out if these virus isolates were related to West Nile virus strains from the different zoogeographic areas of the world. One virus differed significantly from the seven other strains and was later found to be a strain of Usutu virus. The remaining strains were differentiated into two serological intratypic groups depending on their cross reactions with two strains which served as prototypes for each group. Five virus isolates which constitute one of the antigenic groups were found to be related to the Egypt 101 strain of West Nile virus originating from general Palearctic zone (European and Middle East). The other two virus isolates did not show any relationship to the strains from any of the different zoogeographic zones.

 

Sekeyova, M; Gresikova, M; Batikova, M. Serological surveys showing West-Nile virus in some parts of central Europe. Folia Microbiologica. 1976; 21 (3): 249. ISSN: 0015-5632.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 C332

Descriptors:  epidemiology, insects disease vectors, aquatic birds, cattle, dogs, humans, Aedes cantans, Czechoslovakia, Austria. 


Return to Contents


 

1975

 

 

Ajello, C.; M. Gresikova; S. Buckley; J. Casals. Detection of West Nile [virus] complement-fixing antigen in Aedes albopictus cell cultures. Acta Virologica. Sept 1975, 19 (5): 441-442.

NAL Call No.:  448.3 AC85

Descriptors: Aedes albopictus, mosquito, West Nile virus, cell culture, antigen, encephalitis, antisera, ticks, plaque assays, detection.

 

Harley, EH; Losman, MJ; Hall, E; Naude, WDT. The RNA forms of West-Nile virus with some comparative studies on Sindbis virus. South African Journal of Science. 1975; 71 (10): 305-308. ISSN:   0038-2353.

NAL Call No.: 515 SO84

Descriptors:  HeLa cells, comparative studies, genetics, cytology genetics, reproduction.

 

Harley, EH; Losman, MJ; Hall, E; Naude, WDT. The RNA forms of West-Nile virus with some comparative studies on Sindbis virus. South African Journal of Science. 1975; 71 (10): 305-308. ISSN:   0038-2353.

NAL Call No.: 515 SO84

Descriptors:  comparative studies, RNA, viral genetics.  

 

Johnson, B.K.; M. Varma. Infection of the mosquito Aedes aegypti with infectious West Nile virus-antibody complexes. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1975, 69 (3): 336-341. Ref.

NAL Call No.:  448.9 R813

Descriptors: Aedes aegypti, mosquito, West Nile virus, antibody, experimental infection, yellow fever virus, susceptibility, dengue virus, antisera, plaque assay, feeding technique.

 

Lengle, EE; Grossberg, SE. Development of a hyper lipidemia in chicken embryos infected with West-Nile virus. Federation Proceedings. 1975; 34 (3): 673. ISSN: 0014-9446.

NAL Call No.: QH301 F3

Descriptors:  cell culture procedure, chick embryos, effects of infection, biochemistry of infection. 

 

Odelola, HA; Koza, J. Characterization of Nigerian strains of West-Nile virus by plaque formation. Acta Virologica. 1975; 19 (6): 489-492. ISSN: 0001-723X

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors:  monkey kidney cell culture plates, antigenic relatedness, intro-typic groups, strain genetics, virus plaques causing potential tested, intratypic group, 5 strains tested. 

Abstract:  Seven strains of West nile virus isolated in Nigeria were investigated for their ability to form plaques in monkey kidney cell monolayers. Five strains antigenically related to one another produced plaques of about the same size 3 to 4 days after the addition of the overlay medium. The two other strains closely related to each other produced no plaques. Their inability to produce plaques was regarded as a significant characteristic of the intratypic group to which the two strains belong.


Return to Contents


1974

 

 

 

Gaidamovich, S IA; Lavrova, NA. Izuchenie razlichnykh antigenov virusa Zapadnogo Nila. [Study of West Nile virus antigens]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1974 Nov-Dec; (6): 692-6. ISSN: 0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors:  infected mouse brain tissue, centrifugation, soluable antigens, other antigens, African and Indian strains, complement fixation. 

 

Joubert, L.; J. Oudar. West Nile meningoencephalitis virus of the horse in the Mediterranean south of France.

Bulletin de la Societe des sciences veterinaires et de medecine comparee de Lyon. 1974, 76 (4): 255-260. Ref. In French.

NAL Call No.:  SF1.B84

Descriptors: West Nile virus, horse, meningoencephalitis, Mediterranean, south of France.

 

Jupp, P.G. Laboratory studies on the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex (Culex) univittatus Theobald; factors influencing the transmission rate. Journal of Medical Entomology. Aug 1974, 11 (4): 455-458. Ref.

NAL Call No.:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culex univittatus, mosquito, West Nile virus, experimental infection, feeding technique, transmission rate, temperature and other environmental factors.

 

Labuda, M.; O. Kozuch; M. Gresikova. Isolation of West Nile virus from Aedes cantans mosquitoes in west Slovakia. Acta Virologica, Sept 1974, 18 (5): 429-433. Ref.

NAL Call No.:  448.3 AC85

Descriptors: Aedes cantans, mosquito, West Nile virus, cell culture, experimental infection, isolation technique, cytopathic effect, inhibition test, neutralization test, complement fixation test, sensitivity, Malacky, western Slovakia, central Europe.

 

Lengle, EE; Grossberg, SE; Frerman, FE. Control of hepatic lipid biosynthesis in chicken embryos infected with West Nile virus. Federation Proceedings. 1974; 33 (5 PART 2): 1543. ISSN: 0014-9446

NAL Call No.: QH301 F3

Descriptors: liver lipids, cell cultures, chick embryos, biochemical effects of viral infection of embryos.  

 

Naude, WDT; Stannard, LM. Buoyant density of the RNA of West-Nile virus. South African Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 1974; 20 (2): 1218. ISSN:  0038-2299.

Descriptors:  RNA, density testing of viral RNA.  


Return to Contents


 

1973

 

 

Filipe, AR; Sobral, M; Campanico, FC. Encefalomielite equina por arbovirus. A proposito de uma epizootia presuntiva causada pelo virus West Nile. [Equine encephalomyelitis caused by arbovirus. On an epizootic attributed to West Nile virus]. Revista Portuguesa de Ciencias Veterinarias. 1973, 68: 426, 90-101; 1 fig.; 19 ref. In Portuguese with English and French summaries.

NAL Call No.: SF604 R46

Descriptors: horse deaths, epidemiology, southern Portugal, antibody survey, Anopheles maculipennis as insect disease vector, Anopheles coustani. 

 

Gaidamovich, S YA; Lavrova, NA. Soluble antigen of West Nile virus. Acta Virologica. 1973; 17 (6): 513. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors:  ascetic fluid immunology, complement fixation tests, epitopes, hemagglutination tests, sera, mice, genetic variation, mouse brain tissue, antigens, infected brain tissue.  

 

Gaidamovich, SY; Sokhey, J. Studies on antigenic peculiarities of West Nile virus strains isolated in the U.S.S.R. by three serological tests. Acta Virologica. 1973 Jul; 17(4): 343-50. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85

Descriptors: antigens, immunology, ascetic fluids, complement fixation tests, cross reactions, hemagglutination inhibition tests, mice, immunodiffusion, sera, isolation and purification of virus. 

 

Joubert, L.; P. Tuaillon; M. Prave; F. Chabrouty. Culture of West Nile virus on an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line: Persistent cellular infection without cytopathogenic action. [Culex modestus, insect vectors]. Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Veterinaires et de Medecine Comparee de Lyon. 1973, 74 (5): 373-379. Ref. In French.

NAL Call No.:  SF1.B84

Descriptors: Aedes albopictus, Culex modestus, mosquito, West Nile virus, cell culture, cellular infection, experimental infection, insect vector.

 

Kemp, GE; Causey, OR; Moore, DL; O'Connor, EH. Viral isolates from livestock in northern Nigeria: 1966-1970. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1973, 34: No.5, 707-710. ISSN: 0002-9645.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 Am3A

Descriptors: blood sampling survey, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, pre-slaughter, introcerebral inoclulation of mice, 33 viral isolates, 10 viral types including West Nile and other arboviruses, Nigeria.

 

Semenov, BF; Chunikhin, SP; Karmysheva, V YA; Yakovleva, NI. Study of chronic forms of arbovirus infections in birds. Part I. Experiments with Sindbis virus, West-Nile virus and Bhandja virus and Sicilian mosquito fever virus. Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR. 1973; 28 (2): 79-83. ISSN: 0002-3027.

Descriptors:  birds, chronic infections, several viral diseases. 

 

Sidorova, GA; Gromashevskii, VL; Veselovskaya, OV; Neronov, VM; Rustamov, BR; Musatova, AI; Ipatov, VP; L'-vov, DK (ed.). Isolation of West Nile virus from Ixodid and Argasid ticks collected in the arid regions of Uzbekistan. Ekologiya Virusov Sbornik Trudov. Vypusk I. 1973, 87-90; 11 ref. In Russian.

Descriptors: Hyalomma asiaticum ticks, insect vector, disease reservoir, epidemiological implications.


Return to Contents


 

1972

 

 

Filipe, A.R. Isolation in Portugal of West Nile virus from Anopheles maculipennis mosquitoes. Acta Virologica. July 1972, 16 (4): 361.

NAL Call No.:  448.3 AC85

Descriptors: Anopheles maculipennis, mosquito, West Nile virus, antigenicity, experimental infection, mice, inhibition test, characteristics, sera, antibodies, southern Portugal.

 

Joubert, L; Tuaillon, P; Prave, M; Chabrouty, F. Culture du virus West Nile sur une lignee cellulaire de moustique 'Aedes albopictus'. Infection cellulaire persistante sans action cytopathogene. [Culture of West Nile virus in the cell-line of the mosquito 'Aedes albopictus'. Persistent cellular infection without cytopathogenic action]. Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Veterinaires et de Medecine Comparee de Lyon. 1972, 74: 5, 373-378; 4 fig.; 28 ref. In French.

NAL Call No.: SF1 B84

Descriptors:  mosquito cell line, Aedes albopictus, viral infection, cytopathogenic action. 

 

Oudar, J; Joubert, L; Lapras, M; Hannoun, C; Guillon, JC. Reproduction experimentale de la meningo-encephalomyelite animale par l'arbovirus West-Nile. IV. Recherche des reservoirs de virus. Inoculation au mouton et au porc. [Experimental reproduction of animal meningo-encephalomyelitis by West Nile arbovirus. IV. Investigation of reservoirs of the virus. Inoculation into sheep and pigs]. Bulletin de l'Academie Veterinaire de France. 1972, 45: No.4, 195-206. ISSN: 0001-4192. In French.

NAL Call No.: 41.9 R24

Descriptors: experimental infection, sheep and pigs, animal disease reservoirs. 

 

Price, WH; Thind, IS. The mechanism of cross-protection afforded by dengue virus against West Nile virus in hamsters. Journal of Hygiene. 1972 Dec; 70(4): 611-7. ISSN: 0022-1724.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 J82

Descriptors:  immunology, effects of double infection, experimental infection, arboviruses, immune effects, hamsters.  

  

Semenov, BF; Vargin, VV. Izmenenie svoistv antitel v protsesse immunnogo otveta krolikov na vvedenie virusa Zapadnogo Nila. Kharakteristika gomo- i geterologicheskoi aktivnosti immunoglobulinov v reaktsii podavleniia gemaggliutinatsii. [Change in antibody properties in the course of the immune response in rabbits to West Nile virus inoculation. Characteristics of the homo- and heterologous activity of immunoglobulins in the hemagglutination inhibition reaction]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1972 Sep-Oct; 17(5): 540-4. ISSN: 0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors:  experimental infection, rabbits, immune response, antibody variation as the disease progresses, immunoglobulins, hemagglutination inhibition test. 

 

Semenov, BF; Vargin, VV. Izmenenie svoistv antitel pri pervichnom immunnom otvete krolikov na vvedenie virusa Zapadnogo Nila. I. Kharakteristika virusneitralizuiushchikh antitel. Sootnoshenie spetsificheskikh i nespetsificheskikh faktorov immuniteta. [Change in the properties of antibodies in the primary immune response of rabbits to inoculation with West Nile virus. I. Characteristics of virus-neutralizing antibodies. Correlation between specific and non-specific factors of immunity]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1972 Mar-Apr; 17(2): 138-43. ISSN:   0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors:  experimental infection, rabbits, primary immune response, antibody variation as the disease progresses, immunoglobulins, characteristics of virus-neutralizing antibodies. 


Return to Contents


 

1971

 

 

Aleshin, LP; Gaidamovich, S Ia; Nikiforov, LP; Chervonskii, VI; Gromashevskii, VL. Uchastie ptits vodno-okolovodnogo kompleksa iugo-vostochnogo Azerbaidzhana v tsirkuliatsii virusa Zapadnogo Nila. [Participation of birds in the water-nearwater complex of southeastern Azerbaijan in the circulation of the West Nile virus]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1971 Mar-Apr; 16(2): 211-5. ISSN: 0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors: birds as disease reservoirs, insect vectors, disease transmission and spread, Russia. 

 

Darwish, MA; Ibrahim, AH. Survey for antibodies to arboviruses in Egyptian sera. I. West Nile virus antihemagglutinins in human and animal sera. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 1971; 46(2): 61-70. ISSN: 0013-2446.

Descriptors: birds, Dengue virus, immunology, Egypt, encephalitis viruses, hemagglutination inhibition tests.

 

Gallifet, P. Contribution a l'etude des zoonoses arbovirales. Essai de reproduction experimentale de l'encephalomyelite West-Nile chez le mouton et chez le porc. [Arboviral zoonoses. Attempt to induce West Nile encephalomyelitis in sheep and pigs]. 1971, 62 pp. Thesis. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon. In French.

Descriptors:  experimental infection of sheep and swine, results of infection, immunology. 

 

Haahr, S. The influence of Poly I:C on the course of infection in mice inoculated with West Nile virus. Archiv fur die Gesamte Virusforschung. 1971; 35(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0003-9012.

Descriptors:  antibodies analysis, encephalitis viruses, prevention and control, interferons, hemagglutination inhibition tests, mice, inbred strains of mice, polynucleotides, Semliki forest virus.

 

Joubert, L.; J. Oudar; C. Hannoun; M. Chippaux. Experimental reproduction of meningoencephalomyelitis in the horse with the West Nile virus. III. Relations between virology, serology and anatomical and clinical development: epidemiological and prophylactic consequences. Bulletin de l'Academie veterinaire de France. Mar 1971, 44 (3): 159-167. In French.

NAL Call No.:  41.9 R24

Descriptors: West Nile virus, menigoencephalomyelitis, horse, experimental reproduction, virology, serology, anatomical and clinical development, epidemiological and prophylactic consequences.

 

Oudar, J.; L. Joubert; C. Hannoun; B. Corniou. Experimental reproduction of meningoencephalomelitis in the horse with the West Nile virus. I. Virological and serological study. Bulletin de l'Academie veterinaire de France. Feb 1971, 44 (2): 107-122. Ref. In French.

NAL Call No.:  41.9 R24

Descriptors: West Nile virus, menigoencephalomyelitis, horse, experimental reproduction, virology, serology.

 

Oudar, J.; L. Joubert; M. Lapras; J. Guillon. Experimental reproduction of meningoencephalomyelitis in the horse with the West Nile virus. II. Anatomical and clinical study. Bulletin de l'Academie veterinaire de France. Mar 1971, 44 (3): 147-158. In French.

NAL Call No.:  41.9 R24

Descriptors: West Nile virus, menigoencephalomyelitis, horse, experimental reproduction, anatomical and clinical study.

 

Price, WH; Thind, IS. Protection against West Nile virus induced by a previous injection with dengue virus. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1971 Dec; 94(6): 596-607. ISSN: 0002-9262.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 Am3

Descriptors: antibody formation, viral vaccine potential, cross reactions, viral interference, infection physiology, hamsters.  

 

Work, T.H. On the Japanese B--West Nile virus complex or an arbovirus problem of six continents. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Mar 1971, 20 (2): 169-186. map. Bibliography: p. 184-186.

NAL Call No.:  448.8 AM326

Descriptors: West Nile virus, arbovirus, mosquitoes, epidemiology, virology, presidential address, India.


Return to Contents


 

1970

 

 

Bargin, VV; Semenov, BF. Use of the color test for titration of the antibody to West Nile virus in micro volumes of sera. Voprosy Virusologii. 1970; 15 (4): 500-502. ISSN: 0507-4088.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942

Descriptors:  antibody testing, titration methods, blood sera.

 

Chippaux-Hyppolite, C; Choux, R; Olmer, H; Tamalet, J. Multiplication du virus West-Nile dans les cultures cellulaires d'embryon de poulet, observee en microscopie electronique. [Multiplication of West Nile virus in cell cultures of chick embryo, observed by electron microscope]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences. Serie D Sciences Naturelles. 1970 Jun 22; 270(25): 3162-5. ISSN: 0567-655X. In French.

NAL Call No.: 505 P21

Descriptors: chick embryos cell culture, viral multiplication, electron microscopic images of changes after infection. 

 

Gresset, M. Contribution a l'etude des zoonoses arbovirales. Reproduction experimentale de l'encephalomyelite a virus West-Nile du cheval. [Arbovirus zoonoses: experimental reproduction of West Nile encephalomyelitis in horses]. 1970, 78 pp. These. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon. In French.

Descriptors:  experimental viral infection, encephalomyelitis, horses. 

 

Haahr, S. The effect of anti lymphocyte serum on circulating interferon and viremia in mice infected with West Nile virus. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica Supplementum. 1970; SEC (215): 15.

NAL Call No.: QR1 A361

Descriptors:  white cell anti-sera sera, experimental infection, mice, effects on immune response, viral concentrations, interferon. 

 

Joubert, L; Oudar, J; Hannoun, C; Beytout, D; Corniou, B; Guillon, JC; Panthier, R. Epidemiologie du virus West Nile: etude d'un foyer en Camargue. IV. La meningo-encephalomyelite du cheval. [Epidemiology of the West Nile virus: study of a focus in Camargue. IV. Meningo-encephalomyelitis of the horse]. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. 1970 Feb; 118(2): 239-47.ISSN: 0020-2444. In French.

Descriptors: horses, southern France, epidemiology of disease in horses, progress of the disease.  

 

Joubert, L; Oudar, J.Arboviral zoonoses their presence in France. Part 2. West Nile virus horse meningo encephalo myelitis in the Mediterranean District of France. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire Toulouse. 1970; 121 (3): 221-246. ISSN: 0035-1555.

NAL Call No.: 41.8 R32

Descriptors:  arboviruses, epidemiology, horses, encephalomyelitis, southern France. 

 

Jupp, PG; McIntosh, BM. Quantitative experiments on the vector capability of Culex-culex-pipens-fatigans with West Nile virus and Sindbis virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1970; 7 (3): 353-356. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors: insect vector competence, Culex pipiens.  

 

Jupp, PG; McIntosh, BM. Quantitative experiments on the vector capability of Culex-culex-univittatus with West Nile virus and Sindbis virus. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1970; 7 (3): 371-373. ISSN: 0022-2585.

NAL Call No.: 421 J828

Descriptors:  vector competence study, Culex univittatus, arboviruses infection. 

 

Mouchet, J.; J. Rageau; C. Laumond; C. Hannoun; D. Beytout; J. Oudar; B. Corniou; A. Chippaux. Epidemiology of the West Nile virus: study of a focus in Camargue. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. June 1970, 118 (6): 839-855. In French with English summary. Bibliography: p. 853-855.

NAL Call No.:  448.3 AN75

Descriptors: Culex molestus, mosquitoes, insect vectors, epidemiology, Camargue (Rhone river delta).

 

Paul, SD; Rajagopalan, PK; Sreenivasan, MA. Isolation of the West Nile virus from the frugivorous bat, Rousettus leschenaulti. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1970 Sep; 58(9): 1169-71. ISSN: 0971-5916.

Descriptors:  bat as a disease reservoir for WNV, Rousettus lischenaulti, India. 

 

Pilo-Moron, E; Vincent, J; Le-Corroller, Y. Isolement d'un virus West-Nile dans l'extreme sud du Sahara algerien (Djanet. [Isolation of a West-Nile virus in the extreme south of the Algerian Sahara (Djanet)]. Archives Institut Pasteur d'Algerie. 1970; 48: 181-4. ISSN: 0020-2460. In French.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 IN7A

Descriptors: virus isolation,  insect vectors, reservoirs, Algeria.  

 

Weiner, LP; Cole, GA; Nathanson, N. Experimental encephalitis following peripheral inoculation of West Nile virus in mice of different ages. Journal of Hygiene. 1970 Sep; 68(3): 435-46. ISSN: 0022-1724.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 J82

Descriptors:  experimental infection, mouse model, viral disease, thigh injection, brain pathology, tickborne blood, immunology, fluorescent antibody techniques, hemagglutination inhibition tests, kidney and spleen sampling. 


Return to Contents


 

1969

 


Duca, E; Buiuc, D; Bernescu, E; Morosanu, V. Efectul conditiilor de recoltare si conservare a serurilor pina in momentul testarii, asupra eficientei adsorbtiei cu caolin sau extractiei cu acetona in vederea RIH cu virusul West Nile. [The effect of conditions of collection and preservation of serum until the time of testing on the efficiency of adsorption with kaolin or extraction with acetone for the purpose of hemagglutination inhibition with West Nile virus]. Studii si Cercetari de Inframicrobiologie. 1969; 20(5): 365-72. ISSN: 0039-3975. In Romanian.
Descriptors: sampling procedures, guidelines for collection and preservation of sera, preparation of hemagglutination inhibition.

Duca, M; Buiuc, D; Duca, E. Dynamics of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies in white mice inoculated with West Nile virus. Specificity of the immunoglobulin fractions. Revue Roumaine d'Inframicrobiologie. 1969; 6 (4): 257-261.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 R323
Descriptors: immunology, dynamics of various antibodies, white mice, immunoglobulin fractions.

Haahr, S. The possible role of circulating interferon on autointerference in mice infected intraperitoneally with West Nile virus. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica. 1969; 77(3): 425-32. ISSN: 0365-5555.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac8
Descriptors: mortality, heamagglutionation tests, hydrocortisone, therapeutic use, intraperitoneal injection, neutralization tests, Semliki Forest virus, time factors.

Haahr, S. The occurrence of virus and interferon in spleen, serum and brain in steroid-treated mice under experimental infection with West Nile virus. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica. 1969; 75(2): 303-12. ISSN: 0365-5555.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac8

Descriptors: hydrocortisone, injection, experimental infection of mice, intraperitoneal injections, lymphoid tissue, physiology, methods, organ weights, time factors.

Haahr, S. The effects of antilymphocyte serum on viraemia and serum interferon of mice infected with West Nile virus. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica. 1969; 77(1): 167-8 . ISSN: 0365-5555.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac8

Descriptors: mice, rabbits, viral interference drug effects, interferons, blood cell count, lymphocytes, blood cell count, lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue.

McIntosh, BM; McGillivray, GM; Dickinson, DB; Taljaard, JJ. Ecological studies on Sindbis virus and West Nile virus in South Africa. IV. Infection in a wild avian population Ploceus-velatus. South African Medical Journal. 1969; 33 (4): 105-112.
Descriptors: animal viruses, Aves, birds, biochemistry, Ploceus velatus, ecology of the virus, disease reservoirs, wild birds, disease transmission.

Seledtsov, II; Kostyrko, IN. Predvaritel'nye dannye o vozmozhnoi roli Culicoides nubeculosus v tsirkuliatsii virusa Zapadnogo Nila. [Preliminary findings on the possible role of Culicoides nubeculosus in circulating West Nile Fever virus]. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni. 1969 Jul-Aug; 38(4): 496. ISSN: 0025-8326. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 M469
Descriptors: insect vectors of disease, biting flies, Culicoides nubeculosus, disease carriers, transmission factors.

Tamalet, J; Toga, M; Chippaux-Hyppolite, C; Choux, R; Cesarini, JP. Encephalite experimentale a virus West-Nile de la sourISSN: aspects ultrastructuraux du systeme nerveux central. [Experimental encephalitis caused by West-Nile virus in mice: ultrastructural aspects of the central nervous system]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences. Serie D Sciences Naturelles. 1969 Aug 4; 269(5): 668-71. ISSN: 0567-655X. In French.

NAL Call No.: 505 P21 (3)
Descriptors: horses, mice, virus replication, pathology, electron microscopy, changes in neural tissue.

 

Rozeboom, L.E.; E. Kassira. Dual infections of mosquitoes with strains of West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology, Oct 30, 1969, 6 (4): 407-411.

NAL Call No.:  421 J828

Descriptors: Culex pipiens molestus, mosquito, West Nile virus, experimental infection, white Swiss mice, resistence, antigenicity.


Return to Contents


 

1968

 


Butenko, AM. West Nile virus in the USSR. Part 2. Serological identification of Astrakhan tick-borne strains of West Nile virus. Trudy Instituta Poliomielita i Virusnykh Entsefalitov Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR. 1968; 12: 374-388.
Descriptors: animal viruses, Acarina, Chelicerata, blood forming organs, body fluids, lymph studies.


Buttner, DW. Crystalloid structures in the cytoplasm of lymphatic cells of various monkeys Yellow Fever virus, West Nile virus, Rubella virus. Experientia. 1968; 24 (3): 261-262. ISSN: 0014-4754.

NAL Call No.: 475 Ex7
Descriptors: animal viruses, crystalloid structures, microscopy, lymphatic tissue, non-human primates.

Chumakov, MP; Belyaeva, AN; Butenko, AM; Mart-Yanova, LI. West Nile virus in the USSR. Part 1. Isolation of West Nile virus strains from Hyalomma-plumbeum-plumbeum. Trudy Instituta Poliomielita i Virusnykh Entsefalitov Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR. 1968; 12: 365-373.
Descriptors: animal viruses, Acarina ticks, Hyalomma plumbeum, comparative morphology, physiology and pathology, temperature effects, virus isolation, viral strains, insect disease vectors.

Guillon, JC; Oudar, J; Joubert, L; Hannoun, C. Lesions histologiques du systeme nerveux dans l'infection a virus West Nile chez le cheval. [Histological lesions of the nervous system in West Nile virus infection in horses]. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. 1968 Apr; 114(4): 539-50. ISSN: 0020-2444. In French.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AN75
Descriptors: brain stem pathology, horse disease, pathology, viral isolation and purification.

Haahr, S. The occurrence of virus and interferon in the spleen, serum and brain in mice after experimental infection with West Nile virus. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica. 1968; 74(3): 445-57. ISSN: 0365-5555

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac8
Descriptors: etiology, biosynthesis of interferons, blood, grain tissue analysis, mice spleen analysis, splenectomy, viral isolation and purification.

Hoffmann, L; Mouchet, J; Rageau, J; Hannoun, C; Joubert, L; Oudar, J; Beytout, D. Epidemiologie du virus West Nile: etude d'un foyer en Camargue. II. Esquisse du milieu physique, biologique et humain. [Epidemiology of the West Nile virus: study of an outbreak in Camargue. II. Outline of the physical, biological and human environment]. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. 1968 Apr; 114(4): 521-38. ISSN: 0020-2444. In French.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AN75
Descriptors: epidemiology, disease outbreaks, disease reservoirs, Culex mosquitoes, climate and inverimental factors.

Jarman, RV; Morgan, PN; Duffy, CE. Persistence of West Nile virus in L-929 mouse fibroblasts. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1968 Nov; 129(2): 633-7. ISSN: 0037-9727.

NAL Call No.: 442.9 So1
Descriptors: immunodiffusion, mice, tissue culture, immunology.

Katz, E; Goldblum, N. Isolation of an "antigenic variant" of West Nile virus, originating from a chronic infection of the virus in LLC cells. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. 1968 Jul-Aug; 4(4): 911-3. ISSN: 0021-2180.

NAL Call No.: R97.I87
Descriptors: immunodiffusion, mice, tissue culture, immunology.

Katz, E; Goldblum, N. Establishment, steady state and cure of a chronic infection of LLC cells with West Nile virus. Archiv fur die Gesamte Virusforschung. 1968; 25(1): 69-82. ISSN: 0003-9012.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AR23
Descriptors: chick embryos, cytarobine pharmacology, fibroblasts, fluorescent antibody techniques, various drugs, haplorhine, idoturidine, interferon metabolism, phenylalanine.

Katz, E; Goldblum, N. Selection of a "temperature" resistant mutant of West Nile virus. Archiv fur die Gesamte Virusforschung. 1968; 25(1): 65-8. ISSN: 0003-9012.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 AR23
Descriptors: tissue culture, selection genetics, temperature as a selection factor.

Koller, M; Sekeyova, M; Gresikova, M. Study on a serum inhibitor to West Nile virus. Acta Virologica. 1968 Mar; 12(2): 184. ISSN: 0001-723X.

NAL Call No.: 448.3 Ac85
Descriptors: guinea pigs, hemagglutination inhibition tests, horses, mice, rabbits, virus inhibitors.

Nir, Y; Goldwasser, R; Lasowski, Y; Margalit, J. Isolation of West Nile virus strains from mosquitoes in Israel. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1968 Mar; 87(2): 496-501. ISSN: 0002-9262.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 Am3
Descriptors: Anopheles, Culex, mosquitoes as insect vectors, virus isolation and purification.

Peleg, J. Growth of arboviruses in primary tissue culture of Aedes-aegypti embryos Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Semliki Forest virus, West Nile virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1968; 17 (2): 219-223. ISSN: 0002-9637.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 Am326

Descriptors: animal viruses, cell culture, Aedes aegypti embryos, growth in culture, comparative growth, culture media.

Peries, J; Canivet, M; Gullemain, B; Boiron, M. Inhibitory effect of interferon preparations on the development of foci of altered cells induced in-vitro by mouse sarcoma virus, West Nile virus, Swiss mouse embryo. Journal of General Virology. 1968; 3 (PART 3): 465-468. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call No.: QR360.A1J6

Descriptors: animal virus, mice model, biochemical studies, proteins, peptides, methods, developmental biology, interferon, cell cultures.

 

Shalunova, NV; Zgurskaya, GN; Berezin, VV. West Nile virus in the USSR. Part 3. Isolation of another strain of West Nile virus from Hyalomma-plumbeum-plumbeum panz in Astrakhan Oblast in 1965. Trudy Instituta Poliomielita i Virusnykh Entsefalitov Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR. 1968; 12: 389-393.
Descriptors: animal viruses, ticks, Acarina, isolation of virus strains, insect vectors, disease reservoirs, environmental effects.

Thion, P.Y. The normal electroencephalogram of horses, its variations in meningoencephalomyelitis caused by West-Nile virus. Lyons. Ecole nationale veterinaire. These. 1968, no. 31. Lyon, 44 p. ill. In French. Bibliography: p. [43]-44.

NAL Call No.:  41.2 L99 1968 No.31

Descriptors: West Nile virus, meningoencephalomyelitis, horses, electroencephalogram variations.


Return to Contents


 

1967

 


Eldadah, AH; Nathanson, N. Pathogenesis of West Nile virus encepahlitis in mice and rats. II. Virus multiplication, evolution of immunofluorescence, and development of histological lesions in the brain. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1967 Nov; 86(3): 776-90. ISSN: 0002-9262.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 Am3
Descriptors: etiology of arbovirus infections, viral growth and development, brain pathology, cerebral cortex pathology, fluorescent antibody technique, mice, rats, tssue culture, virus cultivation, newborn animals.

Eldadah, AH; Nathanson, N; Sarsitis, R. Pathogenesis of West Nile virus encephalitis in mice and rats. 1. Influence of age and species on mortality and infection. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1967 Nov; 86(3): 765-75. ISSN: 0002-9262.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 Am3

Descriptors: etiology of arbovirus infections, viral growth and development, brain pathology, cerebral cortex pathology, antibody development, hamsters, mice, rats, experimental animal models, hemagglutination inhibition tests, newborn animals, age factors, species specificity and virulence.

Filipe, A R. Anticorpos contra virus transmitidos por artropodos arbovirus do grupo B em animais do sul de Portugal. Inquerito serologico preliminar com o virus West Nile, estirpe Egypt 101. [Antibodies against virus transmitted by arbovirus of the B group arthropods in animals of the south of Portugal. Preliminary blood analysis with the West Nile virus, Egypt 101 species]. Anais da Escola Nacional de Saude Publica e de Medicina Tropical. 1967 Jan-Dec; 1(1): 197-204. ISSN: 0075-9767. In Portuguese.
Descriptors: antibodies, arboviruses, immunology, domestic animals, dogs, goats, sheep, public health concerns, veterinary medicine, Portugal.

Neustroev, VD; Rezepova, AI. Izuchenie gemaggliutiniruiushchikh svoistv virusa zapadnogo Nila. [A study of the hemagglutinating properties of West Nile virus]. Voprosy Virusologii. 1967 May-Jun; 12(3): 290-5.ISSN: 0507-4088. In Russian.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 P942
Descriptors: antigens, viral immunology, drug effects, hemagglutination inhibition tests, viral hemagglutinins, lactones pharmacology, virus cultivation.

Price, WH; O'Leary, W. Geographic variation in the antigenic character of West Nile virus. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1967 Jan; 85(1): 84-6. ISSN: 0002-9262.

NAL Call No.: 449.8 Am3

Descriptors: immunology, Congo, Egypt, hemagglutination inhibition tests, India, Pakistan.

Ramachandra, Rao. Vector control in Asia. Human mosquito borne viruses: Japanese encephalitis, Culex-tritaencorhynchus, Culex-gelidus, West Nile virus, Sindbis virus. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology. 1967; 20 (SUPP): 59-60. ISSN: 0021-5112.

NAL Call No.: R97.J28
Descriptors: animal viruses, Culex tritaencorhynchus, Culex gleidus, mosquitoes as insect vectors, public health concerns, vector control.


Vilner, LM; Chumakov, MP; Zeitlenok, NA; Goldfarb, MM; Rodin, IM; Brodskaya, LM; Finogenova, EV. Study of optimal conditions for interferon formation during arboviral infections of chick embryo cell cultures, Semliki Forest virus, Chichungunya virus, tick borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus. Antibiotiki. 1967; 12 (12): 1093-1099. ISSN: 0003-5637.

NAL Call No.: 396.8 AN84
Descriptors: animal viruses, chick embryo cell cultures, interferon formation, comparative study, materials, media, and methods, viral development.


Return to Contents



 

1966

 


Donaldson, JM. An assessment of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say as a vector of viruses in the Witwatersrand region of the Transvaal. I. West Nile virus. South African Journal of Medical Sciences. 1966 Jul; 31(1): 1-10. ISSN: 0038-2310.
Descriptors: insect vectors, Culex mosquitoes, viral reservoir, transmission, birds, poultry, mice, South Africa.

Pantheir, R; Hannoun, C; Oudar, J; Beytout, D; Corniou, B; Joubert, L; Guillon, J C; Mouchet, J. Isolement du virus West Nile chez un cheval de Camargue atteint d'encephalomyelite. [Isolation of West Nile virus in a Camarge horse with encephalomyelitis]. Compte Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences. Serie D Sciences Naturelles. 1966 Mar 14; 262(11): 1308-10. ISSN: 0567-655X. In French.
NAL Call No.: 505 P21 (3)
Descriptors: encephalitis virus isolation and purification, horses, complement fixation tests, France.

Rozeboom, LE; Behin, R; Kassira, EN. Dual infections of Aedes aegypti L. with Plasmodium gallinaceum Brumpt and West Nile virus. Journal of Parasitology. 1966 Jun; 52(3): 579-82. ISSN: 0022-3395.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 J824
Descriptors: Aedes mosquitoes, insect vectors, Plasmodium gallinaceum, Aedes aegypti, effects of dual infections, viral interference.


Return to Contents


 

1965

 


Nir, Y; Beemer, A; Goldwasser, RA. West Nile virus infection in mice following exposure to a viral aerosol. British Journal of Experimental Pathology. 1965 Aug; 46(4): 443-9. ISSN: 0007-1021
NAL Call No.: 448.8 B772
Descriptors: aerosols, arbovirual infections, mice exposed to air borne virus, antigen-antibody reactions, various organ pathology, fluorescent antibody techniques, brain, kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes, lung, nasal mucosa, spleen.

Shirodkar, M V. The blocking effect of West Nile virus on production of sarcoma by Rous virus in chickens. Journal of Immunology. 1965 Dec; 95(6): 1121-8. ISSN: 0022-1767.

NAL Call No.: 448.8 J8232
Descriptors: interferons for therapeutic use, Sarcoma, experimental drug therapy, mice embryos, genetic code, interferons antagonists and inhibitors, protein biosynthesis, RNA, transfer metabolism, tissue culture, virus replication.


Return to Top of Document



USDA logo ARS logo NAL logo
The Animal Welfare Information Center, http://awic.nal.usda.gov/contact-us
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/westnile/westnilebib2.htm
March 2007