|Title:||Interventions to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens in Swine and Cattle|
|Objective:||1. Determine particular ecological niches/reservoirs for pathogenic/antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, identifying nutritional/biological/environmental factors affecting ability to colonize/survive/persist within gut of food-producing animals & their production environment. a) Determine effect of feeding distillers grains & other diets & organic acids on gut microbial ecology; b) Determine effects of feeding diets high in rumen undegradable intake protein & of feeding monensin on colonization/carriage/shedding of Campylobacter in cattle; c) Evaluate mechanistic effects of short chain nitrocompounds & free fatty acids on hydrogen balance/fitness of foodborne pathogens; d) Determine if specific or shared reservoirs exist for Clostridium difficile in populations of swine & humans in integrated agri-business operations; phenotypically/genotypically characterize Cl. difficile isolates; e) Determine effects of lactoferrin & whey-protein concentrate on fecal shedding & gut populations of Salmonella Typhimurium in weaned piglets; f) Determine influence of vitamin D supplement on fecal prevalence/concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. |
2. Evaluate ways to better characterize/control Salmonella, in particular multi-drug-resistant Salmonella, for use on commercial dairy farms to enhance food safety. a) Develop Salmonella serotype-specific real-time PCR method; b) Determine if Salmonella serotype changes due to changing environment or acquisition of antimicrobial resistance; c) Determine if feeding sodium chlorate, with/without nitroethane, is effective in reducing populations of Salmonella as well as E. coli O157:H7 & generic E. coli in milk-replacer fed calves & cull dairy cattle.
3. Develop interventions that prevent/mitigate colonization of gut of food-producing animals (particularly lower GI tract before slaughter) or that reduce pathogenic/antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in production environment. a) Determine if porcine-derived competitive exclusion culture can stimulate innate immune responses in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets; b) Develop/characterize bactericidal effectiveness of thymol & diphenyliodonium chloride products bound to clay-based adsorbents; c) Establish feasibility of fresh/dried citrus peel & purified essential oils as feed additives to reduce pathogen populations in ruminants; d) Develop targeted management interventions to facilitate exclusion of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from gut of treated animals.
4. Develop understanding of microbial adaption to intrinsic/extrinsic stressors on acquisition/exchange/expression of incompatibility plasmids & antimicrobial resistance elements in foodborne pathogens in production/processing environments. a) Determine if number/size of plasmids possessed by different wildtype E. coli affects growth rate in nonselective & mixed culture environments, and if these plasmids are lost during long-term maintenance without selection pressure; b) Determine if IncN/Incl1 can mobilize IncA/C in tri-parental conjugations; c) Determine if occurrence of bacterial resistance to disinfectants is important in disinfectant control or impacts antibiotic resistance in microorganisms of animal origin.
|More Info:||Approach: Basic and applied research will be conducted to achieve project objectives. Ecological studies utilizing metagenomic analysis will elucidate niches or reservoirs where pathogens may exist and when combined with traditional epidemiological and microbiological cultural methods these studies will help reveal environmental, nutritional, and biological factors affecting fitness characteristics related to the persistent colonization, survival, and growth of these pathogens in food animals and their production environment. Research involving both in vitro and in vivo experimentation will be used to measure and characterize adaptive responses microbes may exhibit to intrinsic and extrinsic stressors, such as those exerted by disinfectants and antimicrobials, as well as to determine the role these stressors may play in pathogenicity, virulence, and resistance. Animal studies conducted under clinical and field situations will be used to develop and evaluate interventions, thereby revealing specific metabolic endpoints, cellular mechanisms, and sites of action of cellular processes that may ultimately be exploited to decrease carriage and shedding of pathogens during production and at slaughter. Opportunities for mitigation will be validated in the field. In some cases, Cooperative Research and Development Agreements will be implemented with industry partners to aid in technology transfer.|
|Funding Source:||United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)|
|Institutions:||USDA/ARS - Southern Plains Area|
|Project Reports:||2011 Annual Report|
|Pending USDA ARS Publications (NP 108):|
ARS (NP 108):
Evaluation of linalool, a natural antimicrobial and insecticidal essential oil from Basil: Effects on poultry
Beier RC, Byrd II JA, Kubena LF, Hume ME, Mcreynolds JL, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ .
Poult Sci. 2014 Feb;93(2):267-72.
Characterization of bovine ruminal and equine cecal microbial populations enriched for enhanced nitro-toxin metabolizing activity
Zhang Y, Long R, Warzecha CM, Coverdale JA, Latham EA, Hume ME, Callaway TR, O'Neil MR, Beier RC, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
Anaerobe. 2013 Dec 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and resorvoirs
Epps SV, Harvey RB, Hume ME, Phillips TD, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Nov 26;10(12):6292-304.
Codon optimization for the DNA sequence of a single chain Fv antibody against clenbuterol and expression in Pichia pastoris
Dong JX, Xie X, Hu DW, Chen SC, He YS, Beier RC, Shen YD, Sun YM, Xu ZL, Wang H, Yang JY.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Transfer of the virulence-associated protein A-bearing plasmid between field strains of virulent and avirulent Rhodococcus equi
Stoughton W, Poole TL, Kuskie K, Liu M, Bennentt K, Morrissey A, Takai S, Cohen N .
J Vet Intern Med. 2013 Nov;27(6):1555–62.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of dicyclanil in animal tissue
Hou X, Wang J, Sun Y, Lu Y, Beier RC .
Analyt Lett. 2013 Nov;46(18):2870-8.
The effect of chlortetracycline on faecal microbial populations in growing swine
Poole T, Suchodolski J, Callaway T, Farrow R, Loneragan G, Nisbet D.
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 2013 Sep;1(3):171-4.
Surface display of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase on Pichia pastoris and its bioactivity study
Dong J, Xie X, He Y, Beier RC, Sun Y, Xu Z, Wu W, Shen Y, Xiao Z, Lai L, Wang H, Yang J .
PLoS One. 2013 Aug 5;8(8):e70451.
Interactions between oil substrates and glucose on pure cultures of ruminal lipase-producing bacteria
Edwards HD, Anderson RC, Taylor TM, Miller RK, Hardin MD, Nisbet DJ, Krueger NA, Smith SB.
Lipids. 2013 Jul;48(7):749-55.
Development of challenge models to evaluate the efficacy of a vaccine to reduce carriage of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes of cattle
Edrington TS, Loneragan GH, Hill J, Genovese KJ, Brichta-Harhay DM, Farrow RL, Krueger NA, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
J Food Prot. 2013 Jul;76(7):1259-63.
Development of a transdermal Salmonella challenge model in calves
Edrington TS, Loneragan GH, Hill J, Genovese KJ, He H, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Brichta-Harhay DM, Nisbet DJ.
J Food Prot. 2013 Jul;76(7):1255-8.
Use of bioluminescent Escherichia coli to determine retention in the life cycle of the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, L)
Schuster GL, Donaldson JR, Buntyn JO, Duoss HA, Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Falkenberg SM, Schmidt TB.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013 May;10(5):442-7.
Monoclonal antibodies with group specificity toward sulfonamides: selection of hapten and antibody selectivity
Wang Z, Beier RC, Sheng Y, Zhang S, Jiang W, Wang Z, Wang J, Shen J.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 May;405(12):4027-37.
Ex vivo absorption of thymol and thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside in piglet everted jejunal segments
Petrujkić BT, Sedej I, Beier RC, Anderson RC, Harvey RB, Epps SV, Stipanovic RD, Krueger NA, Nisbet DJ.
J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Apr 17;61(15):3757-62.
Grazing activity and ruminal bacterial population associated with frothy bloat in steers grazing winter wheat
Min B, Pinchak W, Hernandez C, Hume M.
Professional Animal Scientist. 2013 Apr;29(2):179-87.
Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) ecology in cattle and management based options for reducing fecal shedding
Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Loneragan GH, Carr MA, Nisbet DJ .
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2013 Mar;3(1):39-69.
Simultaneous determination of 13 fluoroquinolone and 22 sulfonamide residues in milk by a dual-colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Jiang W, Wang Z, Beier RC, Jiang H, Wu Y, Shen J.
Anal Chem. 2013 Feb 19;85(4):1995-9.
Evaluation of the potential antimicrobial resistance transfer from a multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli to Salmonella in dairy calves
Edrington TS, Farrow RL, Hume ME, Anderson PN, Hagevoort GR, Caldwell DJ, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
Curr Microbiol. 2013 Feb;66(2):132-7.
Rapid detection of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes using a commercial real-time PCR system
Hill J, Edrington T, Loneragan G, Gragg S, Nisbet D.
PostDoc Journal. 2013 Feb;1(2):35-9.
Effect of citrus by-products on growth of O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli serogroups within in vitro bovine ruminal microbial fermentations
Duoss HA, Schmidt TB, Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Martin JM, Shields-Menard SA, Broadway PR, Donaldson JR .
Int J Microbiol. 2013 Jan;2013:398320.
Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology
Krause DO, Nagaraja TG, Wright AD, Callaway TR.
J Anim Sci. 2013 Jan;91(1):331-41.
Disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from cattle carcasses, feces, and hides and ground beef from the United States
Beier RC, Poole TL, Brichta-Harhay DM, Anderson RC, Bischoff KM, Hernandez CA, Bono JL, Arthur TM, Nagaraja TG, Crippen TL, Sheffield CL, Nisbet DJ.
J Food Prot. 2013 Jan;76(1):6-17.
Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 transformed with either the pAK1-lux or pXEN-13 plasmids in in vitro bovine ruminal and fecal microbial fermentations
Duoss HA, Donaldson JR, Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Broadway PR, Martin JM, Shields-Menard S, Schmidt TB.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013 Jan;10(1):1-5.
Simultaneous determination of cyromazine and dicyclanil in animal edible tissues using UPLC-MS/MS
Hou X, Zhou D, Huai W, Beier RC, Sun Y, Lu Y, Wu G, Sun Z, Wu Y.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30(4):660-5.
Current and near-market intervention strategies for reducing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) shedding in cattle
Callaway T, Edrington T, Loneragan G, Carr M, Nisbet D.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2013;3(2):103-20.
Rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid
Hristov AN, Callaway TR, Lee C, Dowd SE.
J Anim Sci. 2012 Dec;90(12):4449-57.
Lack of effect of feeding lactoferrin on intestinal populations and fecal shedding of Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally-infected weaned pigs
Nisbet DJ,Edrington TS, Farrow RL, Genovese KG, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Krueger NA.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Dec;2(4):280-90.
Developing an in vitro method for determining feed soluble protein degradation rate by mixed ruminal microorganisms
Crossland WL, Tedeschi LO, Callaway TR, Kononoff PJ, Karges K.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Dec;2(4):246-52.
Evaluation of the ruminal bacterial diversity of cattle fed diets containing citrus pulp pellets
Broadway PR, Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Donaldson J, Rathmann RJ, Johnson BJ, Cribbs LM, Nisbet DJ, Schmidt TB.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Dec;2(4):297-308.
Age and diet effects on fecal populations of a multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli in dairy calves
Edrington TS, Farrow RL, Carter BH, Islas A, Hagevoort GR, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Nov;2(3):162-74.
Effect of stressors on the viability of Listeria during an in vitro cold-smoking process
Pittman JR, Schmidt TB, Corzo A, Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Donaldson JR.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Nov;2(3):195-208.
Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks
Escarcha JF, Callaway TR, Byrd JA, Miller DN, Edrington TS, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012 Oct;9(10):945-51.
Transfer of tylosin resistance between Enterococcus spp. during continuous-flow culture of feral or domestic porcine gut microbes
Ramlachan N, Anderson RC, Andrews K, Harvey RB, Nisbet DJ.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Oct;2(2):111-20.
Impact of by-product feedstuffs in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in pure and mixed ruminal and fecal culture in vitro
Callaway TR, Block S, Genovese KJ, Anderson RC, Harvey RB, Nisbet DJ.
Agric Food Anal Bacteriol. 2012 Oct;2(2):139-148.
Competitive effect of commensal faecal bacteria from growing swine fed chlortetracycline-supplemented feed on β-haemolytic Escherichia coli strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance plasmids
Poole TL, Callaway TR, Bischoff KM, Loneragan GH, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Sep;113(3):659-68.
Glycerol inhibition of ruminal lipolysis in vitro
Edwards HD, Anderson RC, Miller RK, Taylor TM, Hardin MD, Smith SB, Krueger NA, Nisbet DJ.
J Dairy Sci. 2012 Sep;95(9):5176-81.
Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin
Stančić IB, Bošnjak DV, Radović IB, Stančić BL, Harvey RB, Anderson RC.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012 Aug 22;10:61.
Development of colonic microflora as assessed by pyrosequencing in dairy calves fed waste milk
Edrington TS, Dowd SE, Farrow RF, Hagevoort GR, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
J Dairy Sci. 2012 Aug;95(8):4519-25.
Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of the furaltadone etabolite, 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) in animal tissues
Luo PJ, Jiang WX, Beier RC, Shen JZ, Jiang HY, Miao H, Zhao YF, Chen X, Wu YN.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2012 Aug;25(4):449-57.
Effects of plant tannin supplementation on animal responses and in vivo ruminal bacterial populations associated with bloat in heifers grazing wheat forage
Min B, Pinchak W, Hernandez C, Hernandez K, Hume M, Valencia E, Fulford J.
Professional Animal Scientist. 2012 Aug;28(4):464-72.
Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro
Anderson RC, Vodovnik M, Min BR, Pinchak WE, Krueger NA, Harvey RB, Nisbet DJ.
Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2012 Jul;57(4):253-8.
Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains
Loneragan GH, Thomson DU, McCarthy RM, Webb HE, Daniels AE, Edrington TS, Nisbet DJ, Trojan SJ, Rankin SC, Brashears MM.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012 Jun;9(6):549-55.
Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards
Haneklaus AN, Harris KB, Griffin DB, Edrington TS, Lucia LM, Savell JW.
J Food Prot. 2012 Jun;75(6):1131-3.
Production and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment linked alkaline phosphatase fusion protein for detection of O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides in a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Xu ZL, Dong JX, Wang H, Li ZF, Beier RC, Jiang YM, Lei HT, Shen YD, Yang JY, Sun YM.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012 May 23;60(20):5076-83.
Effect of thymol or diphenyliodonium chloride on performance, gut fermentation characteristics, and campylobacter colonization in growing swine
Anderson RC, Krueger NA, Genovese KJ, Stanton TB, Mackinnon KM, Harvey RB, Edrington TS, Callaway TR, Nisbet AJ.
J Food Prot. 2012 Apr;75(4):758-61.
Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs
Farrow RL, Edrington TS, Krueger NA, Genovese KJ, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
J Food Prot. 2012 Mar;75(3):573-5.
The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers grains and solubles on milk production nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows
Ramirez H, Nestor K, Tedeschi L, Callaway T, Dowd S, Fernando S, Kononoff P.
Can J Anim Sci. 2012;92(3):365-80.
Comparison of real time polymerase chain reaction quantification of changes in hilA and rpoS gene expression of a Salmonella typhimurium poultry isolate grown at fast versus slow dilution rates in an anaerobic continuous
Dunkley K, Callaway T, O Bryan C, Kundinger M, Dunkley C, Anderson R, Nisbet D, Crandall P, Ricke S.
Food Biotechnol. 2012;26(3):239-51.
Investigation of Antigen-Antibody Interactions of Sulfonamides with a Monoclonal Antibody in a Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay Using 3D-QSAR Models
Wang Z, Kai Z, Beier RC, Shen J, Yang X.
Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(5):6334-51.
Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin® and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria
Božic AK, Anderson RC, Ricke SC, Crandall PG, O'Bryan CA.
J Environ Sci Health B. 2012;47(4):269-74.
Prebiotics in food animals, a potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease
Callaway T, Edrington T, Harvey R, Anderson R, Nisbet D.
Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 2012;17(6):7808-16.
Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat
Harvey RB, Norman KN, Andrews K, Hume ME, Scanlan CM, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011 Dec;8(12):1321-3.
Determination of nutritive value of forages in south Texas using an in vitro gas production technique
Aguiar A, Tedeschi L, Roquette F, Mccuistion K, Ortega-Santos J, Anderson R, Delaney D, Moore S.
Grass and Forage Science. 2011 Dec;66(4):526-40.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding
Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Arthington JD, Edrington TS, Rossman ML, Carr MA, Krueger NA, Ricke SC, Crandall P, Nisbet DJ.
J Food Prot. 2011 Nov;74(11):1917-21.
Ovarian activity and uterus organometry in delayed puberty gilts
Stancic I, Stancic B, Bozic A, Anderson R, Harvey R, Gvozdic D.
Theriogenology. 2011 Oct 1;76(6):1022-6.
Characterization of a ViI-like phage specific to Escherichia coli O157:H7
Kutter EM, Skutt-Kakaria K, Blasdel B, El-Shibiny A, Castano A, Bryan D, Kropinski AM, Villegas A, Ackermann HW, Toribio AL, Pickard D, Anany H, Callaway T, Brabban AD.
Virol J. 2011 Sep 7;8:430.
Conformational changes of hapten-protein conjugates resulting in improved broad-specificity and sensitivity of an ELISA for organophosphorus pesticides
Xu ZL, Wang H, Shen YD, Nichkova M, Lei HT, Beier RC, Zheng WX, Yang JY, She ZG, Sun YM.
Analyst. 2011 Jun 21;136(12):2512-20.
Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed
Li X, Luo P, Tang S, Beier RC, Wu X, Yang L, Li Y, Xiao X.
J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jun 8;59(11):6064-70.
Environmental prevalence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked trout processing plants
Dimitrijević M, Anderson RC, Karabasil N, Pavlićević N, Jovanović S, Nedeljković-Trailović J, Teodorović V, Marković M, Dojčinović S.
Acta Veterinaria. 2011;61(4):429-42.
Effects of breed, spermatozoa concentration, and storage on progressive motility of extended boar semen
Stancic I, Dragin S, Stancic B, Harvey R, Bozic A, Anderson R.
J Microbiol Biotechnol and Food Sci. 2011;1(3):287-95.
Food safety - mitigating pathogens in beef cattle: What can producers do? - (Proceedings)
Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Anderson, R.C., Poole, T.L., Nisbet, D.J. 2013. Food safety: Mitigating pathogens in beef cattle: What can producers do? Proc. Beef Cattle Symp. Can. Soc. Anim. Sci. Banff, AB. pp. 13-15.
Novel methods for pathogen control in livestock preharvest: An update - (Book / Chapter)
Callaway, T.R., Anderson, R.C., Edrington, T.S., Genovese, K.J., Harvey, R.B., Poole, T.L., Nisbet, D.J. 2013. Novel methods for pathogen control in livestock preharvest: An update. In: Sofos, J., editor. Advances in Microbial Food Safety. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited. p. 275-304.
Zoonotic transfer of pathogens from animals to farm products - (Book / Chapter)
Accepted Publication (11-Feb-13)
Prebiotics in food animals: A potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease - (Review Article)
Accepted Publication (01-Jun-12)
An introduction to on-farm strategies to control foodborne pathogens - (Book / Chapter)
Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S. 2012. Introduction. In: Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., editors. On-Farm Strategies to Control Foodborne Pathogens. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. p. 1-4.
Prebiotic use in food animals to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease - (Book / Chapter)
Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Harvey, R.B., Anderson, R.C., Nisbet, D.J. 2012. Prebiotic use in food animals to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease. In: Corcionivoschi, N., editor. Prebiotics Usage in Romania. Bucharest, Romania: Univ. Bucharest Press. p. 179-204.
Role of phages in the control of bacterial pathogens in food - (Book / Chapter)
Niu, Y.D., Stanford, K., Mcallister, T.A., Callaway, T.R. 2012. Role of phages in the control of bacterial pathogens in food. In: Abedon, S., Hyman, P., editors. Bacteriophages in Health and Disease. NY: CABI Publishing. p. 240-255.
Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in pork and retail meat in Texas - (Proceedings)
Harvey, R.B., Norman, K.N., Andrews, K., Norby, B., Hume, M.E., Scott, H.M. 2011. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in pork and retail meat in Texas. Proceedings of 9th International Safepork Conference. p. 79.
|Food Safety Categories:||Food and Feed Composition and Characteristics|
Food and Feed Handling and Processing
On-Farm Food Safety
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|Farm-to-Table categories:||On-farm food production|
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