Pharmacology and Toxicology

TSAR: Tracking System for Alternative test methods Review, Validation and Approval in the Context of EU Regulations on Chemicals   html

European Commission. Joint Research Centre. Institute for Health and Consumer Protection.

A tool to provide information on the status of alternative methods as they progress from scientific protocols to validation for being used in a regulatory context.

Access: free online

ALTBIB: Resources for Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing   html

DHHS. National Library of Medicine.

The intent of the bibliography is to assist in identifying methods and procedures helpful in supporting the development, testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. Contents are a subset of MEDLINE records.

Years of coverage: 1980 - present Content types: journal articles Access: free online


Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET).

ZEBET is scientific institution that aims to bring about the replacement of legally prescribed animal experiments with alternative test methods, to reduce the number of test animals to the absolutely necessary level and to alleviate the pain and suffering of animals used in experiments. ZEBET is responsible for documenting alternatives to animal experiment, for assessing them, for recommending their use both nationally and internationally. They are also involved in research of their own to develop alternative methods.

Years of coverage: 2002 - present Content types: books; journals; monographs; laws; regulations; directions; guidelines; recommendations; pharmacopoea; dissertations; congress papers; proceedings of meetings; conferences; symposia Access: free online



A full-text scientific database offering journal articles and book chapters on topics including physical sciences and engineering; life sciences such as agriculture, biology, biochemistry, and neuroscience; health sciences; and social sciences and humanities.

Years of coverage: 1823 - present Content types: journal articles; books and book chapters Access: fee based

Web of Science

Thompson Reuters.

An international, multidisciplinary database that includes information in areas such as agriculture, biological sciences, engineering, medical and life sciences, physical and chemical sciences, anthropology, law, library sciences, and the humanities. Provides access to citation databases including Science Citation Index® (SCI®). Cited reference searching allows you to track prior research, see who is citing your work, and follow new developments.

Years of coverage: 1900 - present Content types: journal articles; review papers; meeting abstracts; letters; editorials; conference proceedings Access: fee based

DataBase on ALternative Methods (DB-ALM)

European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM).

The EURL ECVAM is an international center for coordinating the validation of alternative methods, providing advice on theoretical and practical aspects of the validation of new tests, and the current state of validation of alternative methods for use in toxicology and the biosciences in general. DB-ALM (formerly called the Scientific Information Service -SIS) is a database on advanced alternative methods in biomedical sciences, providing factual and evaluated (therefore ready-to-use) informative data sheets on advanced non-animal test development and validation for toxicology assessments.

Access: free online



This is a comprehensive international database on pharmacological and biomedical literature, similar to Medline. It contains drug-related and clinical literature, with a particular focus on comprehensive indexing of adverse drug reactions; emphasis on Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) indexing including systematic reviews, and coverage and indexing of journals and articles relevant to the development and use of medical devices.

Years of coverage: 1947 - present Content types: journal articles; conference proceedings; symposia; meetings; books Access: fee based


DHHS. NIH. National Library of Medicine.

Database with millions of references, primarily from MEDLINE, to citations on biomedicine and health, including portions of the life sciences, behavioral sciences, chemical sciences, and bioengineering.

Years of coverage: 1948 - present Content types: journal articles; some online books Access: free online and by vendor



Scopus is a large abstract and citation database of research literature and quality web sources. Coverage includes scientific, technical, medical and social sciences literature with complete coverage of Medline, along with more life sciences and health related citations and web sites.

Years of coverage: 1823 - present Content types: journal articles; trade publications; books Access: fee based


DHHS. NIH. National Library of Medicine.

Search databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases. TOXNET includes Toxicology Literature Online (TOXLINE) with journal articles and technical reports covering the biochemical, pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals.

Years of coverage: 1965 - present Content types: journal articles; technical reports; chemicals, mixtures, and products; chemical nomenclature Access: free