The Water Quality Information Center (WQIC)
Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture

Who Will Pay for On-Farm Environmental Improvements in the 21st Century?

Compiled by Andy Clark, Stuart Gagnon, Mary Gold, Joseph Makuch, Roberta Rand, Susan Wilzer

National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351
Table of Contents
Print Sources
World Wide Web Sites
Document Delivery Services at NAL

Disclaimer Information

This resource guide was assembled by a group of National Agricultural Library (NAL) staff for distribution at the symposium "Who Will Pay for On-Farm Environmental Improvements in the 21st Century?" held April 12, 2000 at NAL in Beltsville, Maryland.

The symposium offered individuals with different perspectives on the economic aspects of agricultural operations and environmental quality the opportunity to exchange views and ideas on the topic. Agriculture in the United States has historically produced a food supply that is relatively inexpensive. That benefits our society. However, agriculture, like other land uses, can have negative impacts on the natural environment. That detracts from our quality of life. To counter this, many people are working toward the goal of protecting the environment while maintaining the agricultural producer's ability to operate a viable enterprise that provides an adequate standard of living, contributes to the community and produces high quality, affordable food.

The guide has two sections: The first contains literature citations selected from AGRICOLA--NAL's database of agricultural literature. Citations cover United States agriculture during the past five years. To find additional citations, search AGRICOLA. The second section contains annotated links to selected World Wide Web sites relevant to the topic.

Information sources in this guide focus on policies and programs related to agriculture and the environment. You'll also find items that examine how these broad policies interface with production factors and issues of environmental stewardship to influence farm-level decisions.

You can use these resources to learn more about the complexities involved with agricultural production that must be both economically viable and environmentally friendly. Given the diversity of agricultural enterprises and natural landscapes, it will require a variety of creative and knowledgeable people to craft equitable and effective solutions.

This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic and is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion or omission of a particular publication or citation should not be construed as endorsement or disapproval. (See all NAL Disclaimers.)

Joseph R. Makuch
Acting Team Leader
Natural Resources and Rural Information Team
National Agricultural Library

Print Source Bibliography

  1. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    The 1990 Farm Bill and Water Quality in Corn Belt Watersheds: Conserving Remaining Wetlands and Restoring Farmed Wetlands.
    Lant, C. L., Kraft, S. E., and Gillman, K. R.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 50 (2): pp. 201-205. (Mar/Apr 1995).

  2. NAL Call #: 282.9-G7992
    The 1995 Farm Bill: Issues, Options and Trade-Offs.
    Johnson, S. R.
    Proc Great Plains Agric Counc.: pp. 13-22. (1995).

  3. NAL Call #: 1--Ag84Te-no.1847
    Accounting for the Environment in Agriculture: An Economic Research Service Report.
    Hrubovcak, J., LeBlanc, M., Eakin, B. K., and United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic Research Service.
    Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, ERS, 1995. iv, 27 p.

  4. NAL Call #: HD9000.5.A33--1997
    Adding Values to Our Food System: An Economic Analysis of Sustainable Community Food Systems.
    USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program.
    Everson, WA: Integrity Systems Cooperative, 1997. 85, [15] p.

  5. NAL Call #: S494.5.P73E97-1997
    Adoption Rates for Recommended Crop Management Practices: Implications for Precision Farming.
    Daberkow, S. G.
    Precision Agriculture '97 Papers Presented at the First European Conference on Precision Agriculture, Warwick University Conference Centre, UK, 7 10 September 1997 / European Conference on Precision Agriculture.: pp. 941-948 (1997).

  6. NAL Call #: 47.8 Am33P
    Agricultural Phosphorus, Water Quality, and Poultry Production: Are They Compatible?
    Sharpley, A.
    Poult Sci. v. 78 (5): pp. 660-673. (May 1999).

  7. NAL Call #: HD1401.A89
    Agricultural Policy Reform in the United States: An Unfinished Agenda.
    Stuart, K. and Runge, C. F.
    Aust J Agric Resour Econ. v. 41 (1): pp. 117-136. (Mar 1997).

  8. NAL Call #: 292.8-W295
    Agriculture and Endangered Species: An Analysis of Trade-Offs in the Klamath Basin, Oregon.
    Adams, R. M. and Cho, S. H.
    Water Resour Res. v. 34 (10): pp. 2741-2749. (Oct 1998).

    Abstract: In 1988 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, under provisions of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), declared two fish species in the Klamath Basin as endangered and mandated minimum water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect habitat for these species. The lake is the key hydrological feature of the basin; inflows and lake storage provide irrigation water for over 220,000 acres (890.34 km2) in the area. The ESA lake level restrictions reduced both expected average irrigation water supplies and the capacity of the lake to stabilize water supplies during drought cycles. This research explores trade-offs between lake levels for fish protection and the profits of farmers under a range of lake level and farmer adaptations. The results indicate that farmers can adjust their irrigation decisions to offset some of the water supply reductions. However, there are costs to agriculture. The expected average cost of maintaining ESA lake levels (estimated over 73 water years) is approximately $2 million annually; for severe drought years, annual costs exceed $15 million or about 60% of average farm profits. The steeply increasing marginal cost curve shows an increasingly heavier economic burden to agriculture as lake level restrictions increase.

  9. NAL Call #: S601.A34
    Agronomic, Economic, and Environmental Comparison of Pest Management in Conventional and Alternative Tomato and Corn Systems in Northern California.
    Clark, M. S., Ferris, H., Klonsky, K., Lanini, W. T., Van Bruggen, A. H. C., and Zalom, F. G.
    Agric Ecosyst Environ. v. 68 (1/2): pp. 51-71. (Mar 1998).

  10. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Alternative Spatial Criteria for Targeting Soil and Water Quality Improvements in an Agricultural Watershed.
    Prato, T. and Wu, S.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 18 (2): pp. 293-301. (May 1996).

    Abstract: This article evaluates changes in net farm returns, erosion, and surface water quality from increasing the level of erosion targeting for conservation compliance from the field to the farm or watershed. The hypothesis is that private and social benefits increase with the level of targeting, but at the expense of greater erosion and nonpoint source pollution. Linear programming is used to determine optimal resource management systems (RMSs) for reducing erosion and nonpoint source pollution under field-, farm-, and watershed-level targeting for an agricultural watershed in northern Idaho. Field-level targeting achieves an average erosion limit of 5 or 7.5 tons per acre per year on all fields in the watershed. Farm-and watershed-level targeting achieve the same average erosion rate for each farm in the watershed and the entire watershed, respectively. RMSs consist of seven tillage-land treatment practices and nine crop rotations. Erosion rates are estimated using the universal soil loss equation. Mass loadings of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand to the outlet of the watershed are simulated for four storm events using the Agricultural Nonpoint Source simulation model. Increasing the level of targeting from field to farm to watershed increases net private benefit and net social benefit, but at a decreasing rate. Total erosion and loading of nitrogen and phosphorus attached to sediment and dissolved in water, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed increase as the level of targeting increases. For most nonpoint source pollutants, the relative efficiency of conservation compliance decreases as the level of targeting increases.

  11. NAL Call #: 286.81 F322
    Analysis Finds Swine Expansion Driven Most by Economic Factors, Local Decisions.
    Mo, Y. and Abdalla, C. W
    Feedstuffs. v. 70 (22): pp. 20 , 29-35. (Jun 1998).

  12. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    An Analysis of On-Farm Costs of Timing N Applications to Reduce N Losses.
    Huang, W. Y., Hewitt, T. I., and Shank, D.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (2): pp. 445-467. (Dec 1998).

  13. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Asymmetric Information and the Pricing of Natural Resources: The Case of Unmetered Water.
    Smith, R. B. W. and Tsur, Y.
    Land Econ. v. 73 (3): pp. 392-403. (Aug 1997).

  14. NAL Call #: 292.8-W295
    Benefit-Cost Analysis of Best Management Practices Implemented to Control Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater.
    Yadav, S. N. and Wall, D. B.
    Water Resour Res. v. 34 (3): pp. 497-504. (Mar 1998).

    Abstract: Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can reduce nitrate concentration in groundwater, but does it pay to invest in programs that reduce nitrate by encouraging increased adoption of BMPs? In this paper we evaluate water quality improvement by benefit-cost analysis of adopting BMPs under such a program. The analysis shows that under current levels of contamination, costs of the program to foster BMP implementation will be equal to annually accrued benefits over a period of 6 years. However, under the worsening scenarios of increased nitrate-N concentrations, the same costs will be equal to the benefits in a 4- to 5-year period. If water quality improves to acceptable levels through adoption of BMPs, the results reveal that in the long run, investing in a BMP program will be more cost effective to reduce contamination than to seek alternative sources of safe drinking water supplies.

  15. NAL Call #: SD1.S63
    Benefits and Costs of Forestry Best Management Practices in Virginia.
    Aust, W. M., Shaffer, R. M., and Burger, J. A.
    South J Appl For. v. 20 (1): pp. 23-29. (Feb 1996).

    Abstract: Benefits and costs of Virginia's forestry best management practices (BMPs) were estimated for the Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain regions Using three actual nonregulatory phases and one theoretical regulatory phase of forest water quality protection. The four phases ranged from passive, nonregulatory to regulatory BMPs with increasingly restrictive provisions. As the level of regulation increased, the benefit:cost ratio decreased, indicating that costs were accruing at a proportionately greater rate than benefits. This pattern was most pronounced in the Coastal Plain region where average erosion rates were low, and substantial acreages were harvested. Results suggested that an aggressive, nonregulatory BMP program is the most efficient approach to forest water quality protection assuming that overall program compliance levels are sufficient to satisfy society's needs.

  16. NAL Call #: SB191.W5H52--1995
    Best Management Practices for Wheat: A Guide to Profitable and Environmentally Sound Production.
    Hickman, J., Jacobsen, J., Lyon, D., and Cooperative Extension System (U.S.).
    Washington, D.C. Cooperative Extension System : National Association of Wheat Growers Foundation, 1995. 119 p.

  17. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    A Bioeconomic Analysis of Site-Specific Management for Weed Control.
    Oriade, C. A., King, R. P., Forcella, F., and Gunsolus, J. L.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 18 (4): pp. 523-535. (Oct 1996).

    Abstract: Environmental awareness concerning pesticide hazards is kindling interest in pest control strategies that are both environmentally friendly and profitable. One such strategy is site-specific management (SSM) for weed control. SSM prescribes spot application of pesticides based on the distribution of pest populations in the field rather than a single standard control applied to the entire field. This study examines the potential economic and environmental benefits of SSM as a weed control instrument, using a variant of the computer-based dynamic bioeconomic model, WEEDSIM. Simulations with the model were carried out within a dynamic but deterministic framework. Differences in model performance under SSM when compared to performance under standard practices impute value to SSM. Findings show that patchiness in weed distributions plays a key role in the usefulness of SSM as a weed control tool. SSM seems to be a promising tool for enhancing profit and reducing the environmental hazards of herbicide use once the technology for its implementation can be provided at a reasonable cost.

  18. NAL Call #: TD224.M2B57--1995
    BMPs: Cost-Effective Solutions to Protect Maine's Water Quality.
    Dufresne Henry, Inc.
    Augusta, Me.: Maine Dept. of Environmental Protection, 1995. 21 p.

  19. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Calibrating Benefit Function Transfer to Assess the Conservation Reserve Program.
    Feather, P. and Hellerstein, D.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 79 (1): pp. 151-162. (Feb 1997).

  20. NAL Call #: S494.5.S86S8
    Can Biotechnology Contribute to Sustainable Agriculture?
    Mannion, A. M.
    J Sustain Agric. v. 11 (4): pp. 51-75. (1998).

  21. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    Carbon Dynamics of the Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs.
    Barker, J. R., Baumgardner, G. A., Turner, D. P., and Lee, J. J.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 51 (4): pp. 340-346. (July/Aug 1996).

  22. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    The Choice of Tillage, Rotation, and Soil Testing Practices: Economic and Environmental Implications.
    Wu, J. J. and Babcock, B. A.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 80 (3): pp. 494-511. (Aug 1998).

    Abstract: Farmers' management practices can have a significant effect on agricultural pollution. Past research has analyzed factors influencing adoption of a single management practice. But often adoption decisions about many practices are made simultaneously, which suggests use of a polychotomous-choice model to analyze decisions. Such a model is applied to the choice of alternative management practices on cropland in the Central Nebraska Basin and controlled for self-selection and the interaction between alternative practices. The results of the choice model are used to estimate the economic and environmental effects of adopting alternative combinations of management practices.

  23. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Combining Actual and Contingent Behavior Data to Model Farmer Adoption of Water Quality Protection Practices.
    Cooper, J. C.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 22 (1): pp. 30-43. (July 1997).

  24. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    Combining Alternative and Conventional Systems for Environmental Gains.
    Painter, K. M., Young, D. L., Granatstein, D. M., and Mulla, D. J.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 10 (2): pp. 88-96 (Spring 1995).

    Abstract: Two conventional cropping systems (winter wheat/dry peas and winter wheat/spring barley/dry peas) in the dryland grain region of southeastern Washington were compared with several alternative systems regarding profitability and environmental impacts. Two of the alternative systems use green manure crops and have low fertilizer and pesticide requirements. The remaining two are otherwise conventional rotations modified to include soil-building crops, bluegrass seed and rapeseed. Estimates of annual off-site erosion damage ranged from $6.56 to $20.50 per rotational acre, while on-site damage estimates ranged from $0.50 to $1.55 per rotational acre. Estimated leaching losses of pesticides to a water table 3.6 feet deep were negligible, but significant leaching losses of nitrate-N were predicted to occur from fall-applied inorganic fertilizer. Including bluegrass in a conventional grain rotation increased estimated net returns over variable costs by 16% and decreased soil loss by 33% compared with the most profitable conventional rotation. The next most profitable alternative system, rapeseed plus a conventional grain rotation, had slightly higher net returns over variable costs than the second most profitable conventional rotation, with slightly less soil loss. When fixed costs of machinery depreciation and land are included, the alternative systems fared relatively better. An experimental wheat/pea/medic system had higher projected net returns over total costs than the most profitable conventional rotation, while averaging just one-third as much soil loss per year. A wheat/barley/sweetclover green manure rotation was similar in profitability to the less profitable conventional rotation, but had. to determine the profit maximizing combination of conventional and alternative rotations under 1990 farm bill provisions. Planting all or nearly all land to the bluegrass plus conventional grain rotation maximized returns over total costs for high, medium, and low program crop price scenarios. Farmers maximized profit by participating in both the wheat and barley programs under the low price scenario, only in the wheat program with moderate prices, and in neither the wheat nor the barley program under the high price scenario.

  25. NAL Call #: TD223.N386-1997
    Communication and Adoption Evaluation of USDA Water Quality Demonstration Projects.
    O'Keefe, G. J., Nowak, P. J., Anderson, S., Bennett, C. F., and Trumbo, C.
    Proceedings National Watershed Water Quality Project Symposium.: pp. 73-77. (1997).

  26. NAL Call #: S671.A66
    Comparison of Energy Use and Piglet Performance Between Conventional and Energy-Efficient Heat Lamps.
    Xin, H., Zhou, H., and Bundy, D. S.
    Appl Eng Agric. v. 13 (1): pp. 95-99. (Jan 1997).

    Abstract: A one-year field study compared the conventional 250W IR heat lamp with an energy-efficient 175W radiant heat lamp for swine farrowing operations. The energy-efficient heat lamp showed a $36 annual cash savings per unit (assuming $0.10/kWh electricity); a 1.2% absolute reduction in piglet mortality from birth to weaning (5.0 +/- 0.28% vs. 6.2 +/- 0.44%) (P<0.01); a 45% lower lamp failure rate (18 +/- 4% vs. 32 +/- 3%) (P<0.05); and a slightly higher rate of weight gain for the piglets (217 +/- 4 g/day vs. 211 +/- 4 g/day) (P>0.05). The possible benefits of using the energy-efficient heat lamp include an annual energy savings of $5,400 and 284 more weaned pigs for a 1,000-sow farrowing operation. The study also revealed circadian patterns of thermoregulatory behavior of the piglets, i.e., higher heat lamp usage during the day and lower at night. Both the frequency and the magnitude of heat lamp usage seemed to depend on heat lamp size and piglet age. Particularly, piglets spent more time under the 175W heat lamp than under the 250W heat lamp, although visits to the heat lamps decreased with piglet age in both instances. The results suggest that to accommodate the progressively decreasing thermal needs of the piglets, a variable-output heat lamp would be more suitable than a constant-output heat lamp. Further research is warranted to quantify the dynamic thermal needs of the piglets during this critical phase of their life cycle.

  27. NAL Call #: SB320.J68
    A Comparison of Financial Returns During Early Transition From Conventional to Organic Vegetable Production.
    Sellen, D., Tolman, J. H., McLeod, D. G. R., Weersink, A., and Yiridoe, E. K.
    J Veg Crop Prod. v. 1 (2): pp. 11-39. (1995).

  28. NAL Call #: 81-SO12
    A Comparison of Four Processing Tomato Production Systems Differing in Cover Crop and Chemical Inputs.
    Creamer, N. G., Bennett, M. A., Stinner, B. R., and Cardina, J.
    J Am Soc Hortic Sci. v. 121 (3): pp. 559-568. (May 1996).

    Abstract: Four tomato production systems were compared at Columbus and Fremont, Ohio: 1) a conventional system; 2) an integrated system [a fall-planted cover-crop mixture of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), rye (Secale cereale L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) killed before tomato planting and left as mulch, and reduced chemical inputs]; 3) an organic system (with cover-crop mixture and no synthetic chemical inputs); and (4) a no-input system (with cover-crop mixture and no additional management or inputs). Nitrogen in the cover-crop mixture above-ground biomass was 220 kg.ha-1 in Columbus and 360 kg.ha-1 in Fremont. Mulch systems (with cover-crop mixture on the bed surface) had higher soil moisture levels and reduced soil maximum temperatures relative to the conventional system. Overall, the cover-crop mulch suppressed weeds as well as herbicide plots, and no additional weed control was needed during the season. There were no differences in the frequency of scouted insect pests or diseases among the treatments. The number of tomato fruit and flower clusters for the conventional system was higher early in the season. In Fremont, the plants in the conventional system had accumulated more dry matter 5 weeks after transplanting. Yield of red fruit was similar for all systems at Columbus, but the conventional system yielded higher than the other three systems in Fremont. In Columbus, there were no differences in economic return above variable costs among systems. In Fremont, the conventional systems had the highest return above variable costs.

  29. NAL Call #: 100--Or3M-no.963
    A Comparison of the Revenue and Costs of Wheat Production With Conservation Reserve Program Payments in North Central Oregon.
    McLeod, D. M.
    Corvallis, OR: Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Oregon State University, 1996. 21 p.

  30. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    The Conservation Compliance Program and Best Management Practices: An Integrated Approach for Economic Analysis.
    Govindasamy, R. and Cochran, M. J.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (3): pp. 244, 369-381. (Sept 1995).

    Abstract: Soil erosion not only depletes soil resources, but also causes water pollution. Federal programs have evolved over time to curtail soil erosion. However, soil erosion still persists in farmland and is expected to intensify with the growing world food demand. These concerns have led to the formulation of the Conservation Compliance Program (CCP) which requires every land owner farming highly-erodible soil to develop and implement a suitable conservation plan in order to be eligible for commodity program payments. Although the CCP has received a great deal of attention, the linkages between environmental policies and soil erosion have not been adequately addressed. The objectives of this article are to analyze the efficiency of the CCP using the concept of marginal land value and rank the Best Management Practices (BMPs) to control soil erosion on 12 major soils in Iowa. This article also examines the effect of CCP on net farm returns and the sensitivity of the optimal solutions to changes in T-values. Net returns for each soil type were estimated using the cost of production budgets and prices for corn, soybeans, oats, and meadow. The Universal Soil Equation was used to estimate the soil erosion under each rotation and management technique. The cost and return budgets were used to formulate a series of representative farms using a linear programming model to analyze the impact of CCP on net returns. The efficiency analysis of the CCP indicated that marginal values of different soil types do vary which implies that society may benefit from equalizing the marginal values through a traceable coupon system. The results on the BMP suggest that producers will comply with the CCP because the net returns from compliance are higher than the net returns from non-compliance in all soil types.

  31. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    The Conservation Reserve Program As a Least-Cost Land Retirement Mechanism.
    Smith, R. B. W.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 77 (1): pp. 93-105. (Feb 1995).

    Abstract: Mechanism design theory is used to characterize the properties of a least-cost CRP. If marginal land rents decrease with acres farmed then a least-cost CRP is a set of nonlinear price schedules. If marginal land rents are independent of acres farmed then an offer system constitutes a least-cost CRP. The least-cost offer system gives a useful estimate ot the upper bound of a least-cost CRP. Empirical results suggest that a 34-million-acre CRP should have cost no more than $1 billion per year.

  32. NAL Call #: S604.6-.Z56-1997
    Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues.
    Zinn, Jeffrey A. and Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
    Washington, D.C.: Committee for the National Institute for the Environment, 1997.

  33. NAL Call #: HT421.G46-1998
    Conserving Nature: Agri-Environmental Policy Development and Change.
    Potter, C.
    The Geography of Rural Change: pp. 85-105 (1998).

  34. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Construct Validity of Averting Cost Measures of Environmental Benefits.
    Laughland, A. S., Musser, W. N., Shortle, J. S., and Musser, L. M.
    Land Econ. v. 72 (1): pp. 100-112. (Feb 1996).

  35. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Consumers' Valuation of Insecticide Use Restrictions: An Application to Apples.
    Roosen, J., Fox, J. A., Hennessy, D. A., and Schreiber, A.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (2): pp. 367-384. (Dec 1998).

  36. NAL Call #: HD101.S6
    Contingent Valuation in Food Policy Analysis: A Case Study of a Pesticide-Residue Risk Reduction.
    Buzby, J. C., Ready, R. C., and Skees, J. R.
    J Agric Appl Econ. v. 27 (2): pp. 613-625. (Dec 1995).

    Abstract: This study demonstrates how contingent valuation techniques can be used in a cost-benefit analysis of a food safety policy issue. The analysis focuses on banning a specific postharvest pesticide used in fresh grapefruit packinghouses. Benefits of the ban are measured using consumers' aggregated willingness to pay (WTP) for safer grapefruit. A national contingent valuation survey used the payment card method to obtain WTP data. Costs of the ban stem predominantly from increased postharvest losses and were estimated using a model of the market for Florida grapefruit. Results indicate that benefits of the ban outweigh costs.

  37. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Contract Design for the Purchase of Environmental Goods From Agriculture.
    Wu, J. J. and Babcock, B. A.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (4): pp. 935-945. (Nov 1996).

    Abstract: An environmental stewardship program, whereby farmers are paid directly for the environmental goods they provide, is developed by combining the microparameter distribution model with mechanism design principles. The program overcomes the information asymmetry between farmers and governments and accounts for the deadweight losses from distortionary taxes. The characteristics of optimal input and payment schedules of the program are derived. These optimal schedules are determined by the tradeoffs between farming profits, environmental benefits, and deadweight losses from taxes, and are second-best except under restrictive conditions on deadweight losses from taxes and on the marginal product of inputs and marginal pollution costs.

  38. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Contracting for Nonpoint-Source Pollution Abatement.
    Bystrom, O. and Bromley, D. W.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (1): pp. 39-54. (July 1998).

  39. NAL Call #: 100-C12Cag
    Conversion to Organic Strawberry Management Changes Ecological Processes.
    Gliessman, S. R., Werner, M. R., Swezey, S. L., Caswell, E., Cochran, J., and Rosado May, F.
    Calif Agric. v. 50 (1): pp. 24-31. (Jan/Feb 1996).

  40. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    Cost-Effectiveness of Conservation and Nutrient Management Practices in Pennsylvania.
    Epp, D. J. and Hamlett, J. M.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 51 (6): pp. 486-494. (Nov/Dec 1996).

  41. NAL Call #: HD1401.A47
    The Cost of Agricultural Production Risk.
    Babcock, B. A. and Shogren, J. F.
    Agric Econ. v. 12 (2): pp. 141-150. (Aug 1995).

    Abstract: We examine the relative influence of preferences and technology on producers' ex ante willingness to pay for a reduction in production risk. A risk averse producer pays both an Arrow-Pratt risk premium to stabilize income and a 'production premium' to stabilize yield. Using soil-nitrate risks as our motivating example, we demonstrate that the production premium accounts for 40-85% of producers' willingness to pay for risk reduction. These results demonstrate the relative importance of technology over risk preferences when estimating the costs of agricultural production risk.

  42. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Cost-Share Incentives and Best Management Practices in a Pilot Water Quality Program.
    Houston, J. E. and Sun, H.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 24 (1): pp. 239-252. (July 1999).

  43. NAL Call #: S675 N72 no.96
    Cost-Sharing As a Public Policy Tool
    Abdalla, C. W.
    Proceedings Animal Agriculture and the Environment: Nutrients, Pathogens and Community Relations, North American Conference; Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service Publication No. NRAES-96.: pp. 299-307. (1996).

  44. NAL Call #: TD365.C54-1995
    Costs and Returns of Alternative Farming Systems in Missouri MSEA Project.
    Prato, T., Xu, F., Wu, X. S., and Ma, J. C.
    Clean Water, Clean Environment, 21st Century Team Agriculture, Working to Protect Water Resources Conference Proceedings, March 5 8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, Mich. v. 3: pp. 207-210. (1995).

  45. NAL Call #: S441.S8558
    Cover Crops Incorporated With Reduced Tillage on Semi-Permanent Beds: Impacts on Nitrate Leaching, Soil Fertility, Pests, and Farm Profitability.
    Jackson, L. E.
    Agriculture in Concert With the Environment ACE Research Projects Western Region.: pp. 14 (1995).

  46. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Critical Issues Suggested by Trends in Food, Population, and the Environment to the Year 2020.
    Rosegrant, M. W. and Sombilla, M. A.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 79 (5): pp. 1467-1470, 1485-1488. (1997).

  47. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Crop Insurance, Moral Hazard, and Agricultural Chemical Use.
    Smith, V. H. and Goodwin, B. K.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (2): pp. 428-438. (May 1996).

    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between chemical input use and crop insurance purchase decisions for a sample of Kansas dryland wheat farmers. Recent research by Horowitz and Lichtenberg indicated that, contrary to conventional wisdom, farmers that purchased insurance tended to use relatively more chemical inputs than farmers who did not insure. In contrast, our results confirm the conventional view that moral hazard incentives lead insured farmers to use fewer chemical inputs. Implications for the joint determination of insurance and input use decisions and appropriate estimation techniques are discussed.

  48. NAL Call #: S441.S8557
    CROPS, the Crop Rotation Planning System, for Whole-Farm Environmental and Economic Planning.
    Stone, N. D.
    Agriculture in Concert With the Environment ACE Research Projects Southern Region (SARE Project Number AS92-4): 40 p. (1995).

  49. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    CRP: A Wake-Up Call for Agriculture.
    Dukes, D.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 51 (2): pp. 140-141. (Mar/Apr 1996).

  50. NAL Call #: S441.S8556
    Develop Crop Rotational Budgets for Three Cropping Systems in the Northeast.
    Brumfield, R. G.
    Agriculture in Concert With the Environment ACE Research Projects Northeast Region (SARE Project Number: LNE93-35): 14 p. (1995).

  51. NAL Call #: 10-Ou8
    The Development of Integrated Arable Production Systems to Meet Potential Economic and Environmental Requirements.
    Jordan, V. W. L.
    Outlook Agric. v. 27 (3): pp. 145-151. (Sept 1998).

  52. NAL Call #: S441.S855
    Development of Sustainable Cropping Systems for New York Cash Crop Producers.
    Cox, W. J.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, Northeast Region (SARE Project Report: ANE92-8).: 38 p. (1997).

  53. NAL Call #: S441.S8554
    Development of Sustainable Potato Production Systems for the Pacific Northwest.
    Stark, J. C.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, Western Region (SARE Project Report: LW91-29).: 13 p. (1995).

  54. NAL Call #: 100-Id14
    Direct Benefits and Costs of Conservation on a Northern Idaho Farm.
    Michalson, E. L.
    Bull Univ Ida, Coll Agric. Moscow : Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. v. EXP771: 6 p. (Aug 1995).

  55. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    A Dynamic Economic Analysis of Nitrate Leaching in Corn Production Under Nonuniform Irrigation Conditions.
    Vickner, S. S., Hoag, D. L., Frasier, W. M., and Ascough, J. C. II.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 80 (2): pp. 397-408. (May 1998).

    Abstract: We develop a dynamic economic model that includes control variables for both nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation water to analyze interseasonal corn production and nitrate leaching in the presence of irrigation system nonuniformity. The economic model is used to estimate profit-maximizing nutrient management plans under varying levels of system uniformity. The model is also used to appraise several policy options that have been proposed in the nitrate leaching literature as a means of regulating water quality. Investments in technology are considered, as well as limits on nitrate leaching, nitrogen fertilizer, and irrigation water.

  56. NAL Call #: HD1775.N8E35-no.85
    Economic Analysis of Alternative Poultry Litter Compost Systems.
    Safley, C. D.
    Raleigh, N.C.: Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics, N.C. State University, 1991. 70 p.

  57. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    Economic Analysis of Best Management Practices in the Gum Creek Watershed Water Quality Program.
    Sun, H., Houston, J., and Bergstrom, J.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 51 (2): pp. 176-180. (Mar/Apr 1996).

  58. NAL Call #: A281.9--Ag8A-no.720
    Economic Analysis of Selected Water Policy Options for the Pacific Northwest: An Economic Research Service Report.
    Schaible, Glenn David. and United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic Research Service.
    Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 1995. ix, 53 p.

  59. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    An Economic Analysis of the Pre-Sideress Nitrogen Test for Pennsylvania Corn Production.
    Musser, W. N., Shortle, J. S., Kreahling, K., Roach, B., Huang, W. C., Beegle, D. B., and Fox, R. H.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (1): pp. 25-35. (Jan 1995).

    Abstract: The impact of agriculture on water quality is increasing attention to management practices that decrease pollution while increasing farm profits. The pre-sidedress nitrogen test (PSNT) is a new management practice that increases the feasibility of nitrogen tests in humid production regions. This article evaluates the impacts on profits and excess nitrogen of adoption of the PSNT by Pennsylvania corn producers. Three data sources are used in this study. A 1990 survey of Pennsylvania dairy producers provided data on PSNT use, corn yields, and nutrient management practices. A 1989 to 1991 field evaluation provided data on changes in PSNT fertilizer recommendations compared to traditional recommendations. Fertilizer response and nitrogen uptake functions were estimated from fertilizer response experiments. These data were limited to a few years and reflected the behavior of early adopters and agronomy research results. However, the similarity of results from separate analyses validates the procedures. Statistical analysis of the farmer survey data found no changes in yields, but did find an approximately 42 pound per acre decrease in nitrogen fertilizer and total nitrogen from using the PSNT. The average decrease in recommended nitrogen applications in the field test study ranged from 15 to 60 pounds per acre. Profit increases from PSNT use are $3.78 per acre for the farmer survey and $13.65 per acre for the field test. Excess nitrogen decreases are 42.51 and 38.06 pounds per acre from the farmer survey and field evaluation, respectively. The modest increase in profits and large decreases in excess nitrogen indicate that the PSNT is a desirable practice, but that policy incentives may be necessary.

  60. NAL Call #: ArU S589.757.A8B82-1991
    An Economic and Environmental Analysis of Land Application of Poultry Litter in Northwest Arkansas. (Thesis)
    Buchberger, Eta.
    Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, 1991. 98 p.

  61. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Economic and Environmental Impacts of Planting Flexibility and Conservation Compliance: Lessons From the 1985 and 1990 Farm Bills for Future Farm Legislation.
    Wu, S., Walker, D. J., and Brusven, M. A.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 26 (2): pp. 216-228. (Oct 1997).

  62. NAL Call #: S441.S8553
    Economic and Environmental Implications of 1990 Farm Bill Sustainability Provisions in Water Quality Sensitive Areas.
    Dobbs, T. L.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, North Central Region (SARE Project Report: LNC93-55).: 27 p. (1996).

  63. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Economic and Environmental Implications of Soil Nitrogen Testing: A Switching-Regression Analysis.
    Fuglie, K. O. and Bosch, D. J.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 77 (4): pp. 891-900. (Nov 1995).

    Abstract: A simultaneous equations, or "switching-regression," model is developed to assess the impact of soil nitrogen (N) testing on N fertilizer use, crop yields, and net returns in corn growing areas of Nebraska. The results indicate that when there is uncertainty about the quantity of available "carry-over" N, N testing enables farmers to reduce fertilizer use without affecting crop yields. However, the value of information from N tests depends critically on cropping history and soil characteristics. These findings have implications for environmental and technology transfer policies designed to reduce nonpoint source water pollution.

  64. NAL Call #: S494.5.S86S8
    Economic and Environmental Simulation of Alternative Cropping Sequences in Michigan.
    Hewitt, T. I. and Lohr, L.
    J Sustain Agric. v. 5 (3): pp. 59-86. (1995).

  65. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Economic and Financial Viability of Residue Management: An Application to the Texas High Plains.
    Gray, A. W., Harman, W. L., Richardson, J. W., Wiese, A. F., Regier, G. C., Zimmel, P. T., and Lansford, V. D.
    J Prod Agric. v. 10 (1): pp. 175-183. (Jan/Mar 1997).

    Abstract: Costs and benefits of no-tillage (NT) were analyzed and compared with conventional tillage (CT) for irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) in the northern Texas High Plains. Research results, from a 4-yr wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/corn/fallow rotation, were used to validate the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), a widely used daily time-step hydrologic and crop growth simulator. The yields generated by EPIC were used in the Farm Level Income and Policy Simulation Model (FLIPSIM), to analyze the long-term (10 yr) economics of NT and CT corn production on a whole farm basis under various irrigation strategies. The results indicated that NT increased the probability of survival for the low water irrigation strategy while increasing net cash farm income by 8.5% on the more frequent irrigations strategy. NT resulted in higher present values of ending net worth for all irrigation strategies. NT's ability to reduce water needs, decrease yield variability, and reduce machinery use (fuel, replacement, and repair costs) more than offset the increase in chemical costs associated with NT compared with CT.

  66. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Economic and Hydrologic Implications of Suspending Irrigation in Dry Years.
    Keplinger, K. O., McCarl, B. A., Chowdhury, M. E., and Lacewell, R. D.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (1): pp. 191-205. (July 1998).

  67. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Economic and Water Quality Impacts of Reducing Nitrogen and Pesticide Use in Agriculture.
    Randhir, T. O. and Lee, J. G.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 26 (1): pp. 39-51. (Apr 1997).

  68. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    An Economic Comparison of Conventional and Alternative Cropping Systems for a Representative Northeast Kansas Farm.
    Diebel, P. L., Williams, J. R., and Llewelyn, R. V.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (3): pp. 242, 323-335. (Sept 1995).

    Abstract: Alternative agriculture studies are important to producers developing production plans to meet the increasing demands of agricultural and environmental policies. However, the profitability of these systems is sensitive to several factors, including the type and length of rotations, yields, crop prices, and government commodity program provisions. An analysis of net returns and costs for a conventional farming system and three alternative farming systems for a typical northeast Kansas farm is performed with and without the basic government commodity provisions. Initially, constant crop yields are assumed across all production systems. Price, break-even, and equivalent net-return yield sensitivity analyses are used to determine how sensitive the initial results are to forage price changes and yield reductions in corn, soybean, wheat, and grain sorghum. A unique analysis is used in order to address the possibility of reduced yields under the alternative systems compared to the conventional system. The reduction in yield for the crops in the alternative systems is estimated based on reduced nitrogen uptake simulated by the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management System (GLEAMS) model. The highest net return is from an alternative cropping system of wheat/clover-sorghum-soybean when the ideal of each respective crop is equivalent across systems. This occurs both with and without government commodity program participation. When the analysis is re-examined using yields based upon estimated nitrogen uptake and alternative forage prices, all alternative and transitional systems are less profitable than the conventional system. This analysis shows that under the combination of lower yields from reduced nitrogen uptake and likely reduced forage prices, the alternative systems are less profitable than the conventional farming system.

  69. NAL Call #: HD1401.J68
    Economic Comparisons of Alternative and Conventional Production Technologies for Eggplant in Southern Georgia.
    Brunson, K. E., Stark, C. R. Jr., Wetzstein, M. E., and Phatak, S. C.
    J Agribusiness. v. 13 (2): pp. 159-173. (Fall 1995).

  70. NAL Call #: S601.A34
    Economic-Environmental Tradeoffs Among Alternative Crop Rotations.
    Kelly, T. C., Lu, Y., and Teasdale, J.
    Agric Ecosyst Environ. v. 60 (1): pp. 17-28. (Nov 1996).

  71. NAL Call #: HD1401.J68
    An Economic Evaluation of Adoption of the Conservation Compliance Program: A Stochastic Dominance Approach.
    Govindasamy, R. and Cochran, M. J.
    J Agribusiness. v. 15 (1): pp. 121-133. (Spring 1997).

  72. NAL Call #: GB651.W315
    Economic Evaluation of Riparian Buffers in an Agricultural Watershed.
    Qui, Z. and Prato, T.
    J Am Water Resour Assoc. v. 34 (4): pp. 877-890. (Aug 1998).

    Abstract: This study determines the most cost effective spatial pattern of farming systems for improving water quality and evaluates the economic value of riparian buffers in reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution in a Midwestern agricultural watershed. Economic and water quality impacts of alternative farming systems are evaluated using the CARE and SWAT models, respectively. The water quality benefits of riparian buffers are estimated by combining experimental data and simulated water quality impacts of farming systems obtained using SWAT. The net economic value of riparian buffers in improving water quality is estimated by total watershed net return with riparian buffers minus total watershed net return without riparian buffers minus the opportunity cost of riparian buffers. Exclusive of maintenance cost, the net economic value of riparian buffers in reducing atrazine concentration from 45 to 24 ppb is $612,117 and the savings in government cost is $631,710. Results strongly support efforts that encourage farmers to develop or maintain riparian buffers adjacent to streams.

  73. NAL Call #: HD1775.S8E262--no.97-1
    Economic Impact Analysis of Post-CRP Policy Options in South Dakota.
    Venhuizen, Laurel. and South Dakota State University. Economics Dept.
    Brookings, S.D.: Economics Dept., South Dakota State University, 1997. 19 p.

  74. NAL Call #: 44.8-J822
    Economic Impacts Water Quality Programs in the Lake Okeechobee Watershed of Florida.
    Boggess, W. G., Johns, G., and Meline, C.
    J Dairy Sci. v. 80 (10): pp. 2682-2691. (Oct 1997).

    Abstract: For the past 20 yr, Florida has attempted to control phosphorus runoff from dairy manure into Lake Okeechobee. The elevated phosphorus levels in runoff water entering the lake has resulted in eutrophic conditions that threaten lake uses, including recreational and municipal water supplies. The lake watershed is also an important milkshed for southeastern Florida. In the 1980s, three water quality programs were implemented by Florida state agencies in the Lake Okeechobee basin in order to reduce phosphorus loads into the lake. This paper presents estimates of the economic impacts of the three water quality programs on the economy of Okeechobee County and the regional area during the period 1987 to 1993. Direct impacts of the water quality program include a 26% reduction in dairy cows and a 17% reduction in milk production in the affected area. Dairies that remained in production spent an average $1.14/cwt (net of approximately 30% cost share) on both mandatory and optional components. This additional private cost was more than offset by the 13% mean increase in milk production that was experienced as a result of the investments. The total economic impacts of the water quality programs included a 4% ($18 million) decline in income and a 4% (492 full-time equivalents) decline in jobs.

  75. NAL Call #: TC801.I66
    Economic Incentives Reduce Irrigation Deliveries and Drain Water Volume.
    Wichelns, D., Houston, L., and Cone, D.
    Irrig Drain Syst. v. 10 (2): pp. 131-141. (May 1996).

  76. NAL Call #: S655.A57-1998
    Economic Issues in Animal Waste Management.
    Forster, D. L.
    Animal Waste Utilization Effective Use of Manure As a Soil Resource: pp. 33-48. (1998).

  77. NAL Call #: S655.M84-1998
    The Economic Merit of Animal Manures As a Source of Plant Nutrients or Energy Generation.
    Mullinax, D. D., Meyer, D., and Garnett, I.
    Davis, CA: UCD Animal Agriculture Research Center : UC Agricultural Issues Center, 1998. vi, 42 p.

  78. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    Economic Methods for Comparing Alternative Crop Production Systems: A Review of the Literature.
    Roberts, W. S. and Swinton, S. M.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 11 (1): pp. 10-17 (1996).

    Abstract: New crop production technologies developed in response to growing concern over environmental contamination from agriculture may be neither more profitable nor higher yielding than the systems they replace, but they often reduce environmental contamination or improve soil and water quality. Systems designed with environmental objectives cannot be evaluated fairly just by productivity, which is what often is done in economic studies of alternative systems. We review 58 recent studies comparing alternative crop production systems to identify the key criteria for system comparisons, the system characteristics important in designing the analysis, and the methods most suited for comparing alternative systems. The four key criteria we looked for in system comparisons are expected profit, stability of profits, expected environmental impacts, and stability of environmental impacts. Most economic studies of crop production focus exclusively on profitability, and incorporate neither environmental criteria nor the dynamic characteristics inherent in alternative systems. We identify promising new approaches that take account of specific environmental characteristics and attempt to balance the objectives of profitability and environmental risk management. Balanced environmental-economic analysis is most likely to be achieved by integrating biophysical simulation models with economic optimization methods to model the trade-offs among profitability, environmental impact, and system stability (both financial and environmental).

  79. NAL Call #: HD101.S6
    Economic Returns From Reducing Poultry Litter Phosphorus With Microbial Phytase.
    Bosch, D. J., Zhu, M., and Kornegay, E. T.
    J Agric Appl Econ. v. 29 (2): pp. 255-266. (Dec 1997).

    Abstract: Requiring that crop applications of manure be based on phosphorus content (P-standard) could increase poultry litter disposal costs. Microbial phytase reduces litter P content and could reduce litter disposal costs under a P-standard. For a representative Virginia turkey farm, phytase costs $2,500 and could increase value of litter used for fertilizer on the turkey farm by $390 and reduce supplemental P feed costs by $1,431. Based on assumed litter demand and supply, estimated litter export prices with phytase could exceed export prices without phytase by $3.81 per ton. Phytase net returns to the farm are an estimated $1,435.

  80. NAL Call #: HC75.E5J6
    Economically Efficient Watershed Management With Environmental Impact and Income Distribution Goals.
    Onal, H., Algozin, K. A., Isik, M., and Hornbaker, R. H.
    J Environ Manage. v. 53 (3): pp. 241-253. (July 1998).

  81. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    The Economics of a Public Fund for Environmental Amenities: A Study of CRP Contracts.
    Babcock, B. A., Lakshminarayan, P. G., Wu, J. J., and Zilberman, D.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (4): pp. 961-971. (Nov 1996).

    Abstract: The problem of targeting CRP purchases to buy environmental amenities under productivity and environmental heterogeneity is considered. Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves are used to measure the effectiveness of spending under alternative targeting criteria. The environmental benefits considered are water erosion, wind erosion, surface water quality, and wildlife habitat. The three alternative targeting criteria examined include purchasing land according to (i) the benefit-to-cost ratio, (ii) the level of benefits, and (iii) the level of cost. Results indicate that the degree of variability and correlation determine the extent to which suboptimal targeting achieves a significant portion of available environmental benefits.

  82. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Economics of Conservation Tillage Systems for CRP Land in Southern Illinois.
    Phillips, S. R., Olson, K. R., Siemens, J. C., and Ebelhar, S. A.
    J Prod Agric. v. 10 (3): pp. 483-489. (July/Sept 1997).

    Abstract: A tillage project was initiated in 1989 at the University of Illinois Dixon Springs Agricultural Research Center in southern Illinois to evaluate conservation tillage systems for land being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). No-till (NT), chisel plow (CP), and moldboard plow (MP) tillage systems on a Grantsburg silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudall) soil were studied. The soil has a fragipan at approximately 26 in. below the surface on a 6.5% east facing slope. The tillage treatments were replicated eight times on 30 by 40 ft plots. The area had been in tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.] sod. For the project, corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were grown on a 6-yr rotation. Economic data were estimated for the three tillage systems using a simulation model to select equipment and estimate costs. The objective was to determine crop yields and to compare returns of the tillage treatments applied to CRP sod. Based on 6-yr of crop yield measurements (3 yr corn and 3 yr soybean), NT and CP systems appear to result in improved long-term productivity of sloping soil compared with MP. Machinery requirements and costs were lower with NT than with the two other tillage systems. MP had the greatest machinery requirements and highest costs and highest corn yield only in 1989. Crop yields with the NT system improved compared with the yields with MP and CP systems each year with NT resulting in the highest crop yield in the fourth, fifth, and sixth years with the differences statistically significant the last two crop years. The NT system provided the highest net income and the MP system the lowest over the 6 yr study. Net income with NT system. adjustment) and $40/acre per yr higher than with the MP system. The NT system reduced soil loss from erosion to below the current and future soil loss standard.

  83. NAL Call #: 280.8 J822
    The Economics of Livestock Waste and Its Regulation.
    Innes, R.
    American Journal of Agricultural Economics. v. 82 (1): pp. 97-117. (Feb 2000).

    Abstract: This article develops a spatial model of regional livestock productionand three attendant environmental effects: spills from animal waste stores; nutrient runoff due to the application of manure to croplands; and direct ambient pollution, including odors, pests, and gases. Assuming that neither environmental outcomes nor operators' manure-spreading practices can be monitored and regulated, constrained efficient production arrangements and waste-handling practices are described. The efficiency effects of several regulatory policies are then explored, including (a) scale regulations that limit animal inventories, (b) chemical fertilizer taxes, and (c) waste storage and handling standards that affect storm protections and manure transport.

  84. NAL Call #: HD30.255.E36-1999
    Economics of Policy Options for Nutrient Management and Pfiesteria: Proceedings of the Conference, November 16, 1998, Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, Maryland.
    Gardner, B. L. and Koch, L.
    College Park, MD: Center for Agricultural and Natural Resource Policy, 1999. ix, 85 p.

  85. NAL Call #: A281.9 Ag8A no. 782
    Economics of Water Quality Protection From Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice.
    Ribaudo, M. O., Horan, R. D., and Smith, M. E.
    Agricultural Economic Report Number 782.: (Nov 1999).

  86. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    The Effect of Rental Rates on the Extension of Conservation Reserve Program Contracts.
    Cooper, J. C. and Osborn, C. T.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 80 (1): pp. 184-194. (Feb 1998).

    Abstract: Given that the majority of conservation reserve program (CRP) contracts on approximately 36 million acres of enrolled land expire concurrently, re-enrollment decisions by farmers and the federal government have high budgetary implications. Using a survey of over 8,000 CRP contract holders, we apply an ordered response discrete choice model to explicitly model the range in rental rates over which the representative farmer may be ambivalent to renewing the CRP contract. Given the empirical results from the ordered response model, we estimate acreage re-enrollment as a function of the rental rate and compare them to results of a binomial choice model.

  87. NAL Call #: TD201.U61
    Effect of USDA Commodity Programs of Annual Pumpage From the Edwards Aquifer.
    Chowdhury, M. E., Lacewell, R. D., and McCarl, B. A.
    Water Resour Update. (106): pp. 72-79. (Winter 1997).

  88. NAL Call #: TC801.I66
    Effects of Alternative Water Distribution Rules on Irrigation System Performance: A Simulation Analysis.
    Small, L. E. and Rimal, A.
    Irrig Drain Syst. v. 10 (1): pp. 25-45. (Feb 1996).

  89. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    The Effects of Water Rights and Irrigation Technology on Streamflow Augmentation Cost in the Snake River Basin.
    Willis, D. B., Caldas, J., Frasier, M., Whittlesey, N. K., and Hamilton, J. R.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (1): pp. 225-243. (July 1998).

  90. NAL Call #: HD1751.A36-no.97-3
    Effects on Representative Feed Grain Farms From Elimination of the Excise Tax Exemption for Fuel Ethanol.
    Smith, E. G. Edward Gail and Agricultural and Food Policy Center (Tex.).
    College Station, Tex.: Agricultural and Food Policy Center, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, 1997. 1 v. (unpaged).

  91. NAL Call #: HC75.E5J6
    Efficacy of Standards vs. Incentives for Managing the Environmental Impacts of Agriculture.
    Weaver, R. D., Harper, J. K., and Gillmeister, W. J.
    J Environ Manage. v. 46 (2): pp. 173-188. (Feb 1996).

  92. NAL Call #: HD1401.A47
    Environmental and Economic Consequences of Technology Adoption: IPM in Viticulture.
    Fernandez Cornejo, J.
    Agric Econ. v. 18 (2): pp. 145-155. (Mar 1998).

    Abstract: The impact of integrated pest management (IPM) on pesticide use, toxicity and other environmental characteristics, yields, and farm profits is examined for grape growers. The method is generally applicable for technology adoption and accounts for self-selectivity, simultaneity, and theoretical consistency. IPM adopters apply significantly less insecticides and fungicides than nonadopters among grape producers in six states, accounting for most of the U.S. production. Both the average toxicity and the Environmental Impact Quotient decrease slightly with adoption of insect IPM, but remain about the same for adopters and nonadopters of IPM for diseases. The effect of IPM adoption on yields and variable profits is positive but only significant for the case of IPM for diseases, i.e., the adoption of IPM for diseases increases yields and profits significantly.

  93. NAL Call #: TD365.C54-1995
    Environmental and Farm Profitability Objectives in Water Quality Sensitive Areas: Evaluating the Tradeoffs.
    Bischoff, J. H., Dobbs, T. L., Pflueger, B. W., and Henning, L. D.
    Clean Water, Clean Environment, 21st Century Team Agriculture, Working to Protect Water Resources Conference Proceedings, March 5 8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, Mich. v. 3: pp. 25-28. (1995).

  94. NAL Call #: TD172.W36
    The Environmental Consequences of the Conservation Tillage Adoption Decision in Agriculture in the United States.
    Uri, N. D.
    Water Air Soil Pollut. v. 103 (1/4): pp. 9-33. (Apr 1998).

  95. NAL Call #: HD1.A3
    An Environmental-Economic Model at Farm Level to Analyse Institutional and Technical Change in Dairy Farming.
    Berentsen, P. B. M. and Giesen, G. W. J.
    Agric Syst. v. 49 (2): pp. 153-175. (1995).

    Abstract: A deterministic static linear programming (LP) model of a dairy farm is presented and tested. The objective function of the model maximizes labour income. The model will be used for determining the effects of institutional, technical and price changes on the farm plan, economic results and nutrient losses to the environment. In this paper attention has been paid to the way in which animal production, feed production and environmental aspects were incorporated in the model. Optimizations were made for a typical dairy farm facing a levy on N losses and an increase in milk and plant production. Results are consistent and can be explained from the assumptions made. They show that negative economic effects of environmental legislation can be compensated by positive effects of technical improvement.

  96. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    Environmental Enhancement in Agriculture: The Case for a National Trust.
    Lovejoy, S. B.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 51 (3): pp. 202-203. (May/June 1996).

  97. NAL Call #: aTD171.E58-1997
    Environmental Quality Incentives Program As Part of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act (The 1996 Farm Bill): Environmental Risk Assessment Final.
    United States. Dept. of Agriculture.
    Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1997. v, 151, A-W p.

  98. NAL Call #: HD1401 A56
    An Environmental Scanning Indicator Proposed for Strategic Agribusiness Management.
    Lanyon, L. E. and Abdalla, C. W
    Agribusiness: An International Journal. v. 13 (6): pp. 613-622. (Nov/Dec 1997).

  99. NAL Call #: 292.8-W295
    Estimating a Percent Reduction in Load.
    Millard, S. P.
    Water Resour Res. v. 32 (6): pp. 1761-1766. (June 1996).

    Abstract: This article extends the work of Cohn et al. [1989] on estimating constituent loads to the problem of estimating a percent reduction in load. Three estimators are considered: the maximum likelihood (MLE), a "bias-corrected" maximum likelihood (BCMLE), and the minimum variance unbiased (MVUE). In terms of root-mean-square error, both the MVUE and BCMLE are superior to the MLE, and for the cases considered here there is no appreciable difference between the MVUE and the BCMLE. The BCMLE is constructed from quantities computed by most regression packages and is therefore simpler to compute than the MVUE (which involves approximating an infinite series). All three estimators are applied to a case study in which an agricultural tax in the Everglades agricultural area is tied to an observed percent reduction in phosphorus load. For typical hydrological data, very large sample sizes (of the order of 100 observations each in the baseline period and after) are required to estimate a percent reduction in load with reasonable precision.

  100. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Evaluating the Profitability of Site-Specific Farming.
    Swinton, S. M. and Lowenberg DeBoer, J.
    J Prod Agric. v. 11 (4): pp. 439-446. (Oct/Dec 1998).

    Abstract: Site-specific farming (SSF) practices are being adopted at an accelerating rate, but evidence of their profitability has been mixed or missing. This contribution evaluates the profitability of SSF practices by synthesizing quantitative and qualitative research results within the context of the economics of information technology. The profitability results from nine published field research studies on variable rate (VR) fertilizer application are reviewed using partial budgets adjusted to include minimum costs and grid cell areas for each study. Profitability results correlated closely with the gross revenue earning potential of the crop, so VR fertilizer application was unprofitable on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), sometimes profitable on corn (Zea mays L.), and profitable on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris subsp. L. vulgaris). Although the formal published literature has ignored the profitability of yield mapping, production economics and farmer interviews suggest that yield mapping is profitable when it reveals yield patterns that can be managed at acceptable cost and when the information has compensating off-field value. Manageable yield variability includes not only VR input management, but also whole-field improvements such as field drainage, land leveling, windbreaks, and fencing. Off-field value can come from cheaper on-farm experimentation and greater negotiating power with landlords. Farmers and agribusinesses committed to field crop production for the long term should develop SSF capabilities. But because SSF practices are site-specific, their profitability potential too is site-specific. This site specificity extends beyond the farm field to the crop rotation, and the capabilities and opportunities available to the farm or agribusiness manager.

  101. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    Evaluating the Sustainability of Alternative Farming Systems: A Case Study.
    Ikerd, J., Devino, G., and Traiyongwanich, S.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 11 (1): pp. 25-29 (1996).

    Abstract: The sustainability of farming systems must be assessed by their potential environmental, economic, and social performance. We present a case study to illustrate an assessment of relative sustainability that uses all three performance criteria. We developed two scenarios for farmland currently enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in Putnam County, Missouri: a conventional scenario reflecting farming practices typical of northern Missouri, and an alternative that we hypothesize to be more environmentally sound. We used selected economic and social indicators to assess whether the latter would be at least as economically viable and socially responsible as the conventional system. Estimated direct farm income was $3.4 million for the alternative and $2.4 million for the conventional scenario. The alternative system applies more labor and management to a given land resource and may support more farming families. Estimated total community economic impacts were 25% greater for the alternative than the conventional farming scenario. CRP land, therefore, could be resumed to production in a way that could significantly enhance local economic and social benefits while retaining many of the CRP's environmental benefits.

  102. NAL Call #: TD365.C54-1995
    Evaluation of Alternative Cropping Practices Under Herbicide Use/Soil Loss Restrictions.
    Pfeifer, R. A., Rudstrom, M., Mitchell, S. N., and Doering, O. C. III.
    Clean Water, Clean Environment, 21st Century Team Agriculture, Working to Protect Water Resources Conference Proceedings, March 5 8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, Mich. v. 1: pp. 145-148. (1995).

  103. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Ex Ante Estimation of Substitutes Resulting From a Pesticide Cancellation.
    Liu, S. and Carlson, G. A.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 18 (4): pp. 537-546. (Oct 1996).

    Abstract: Cost-benefit analysis is important in herbicide cancellation decisions. Estimation of substitute herbicides and their shares after a cancellation is essential in cost-benefit analysis. Three methods commonly used for this purpose include: expert opinion; historic market share; and the best substitute. In addition to individual problems of each method, they all depend on expert opinions. Problems with expert opinions are: variations among experts in potential substitutes and their shares; court challenges over expert opinions; and availability of "true" experts. Therefore, a new methodology that depends on survey data of actual farmer choices is needed. Based on a simple economic model, farmers' herbicide selection procedures and the historical market share method, this study develops an index method that estimates potential substitute herbicides and their shares for herbicide cancellations. By combining substitute herbicides estimated by the index method and the share distribution calculation used in the historical market share method, an amended historical market share method is developed. Both methods are used to estimate substitute products and final use levels for 10 hypothetical herbicide cancellations for the Southeastern Coastal Plain in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. Statistical tests show that the index method is better than the amended historical market share procedure in terms of weighted efficacy and costs of substitute herbicides. Expert opinions were assessed for the herbicide use pattern following 10 herbicide cancellations. Responses differed from those obtained by using analytical models. Environmental and economic consequences of 10. amended historical market share methods. The estimated environmental and economic impacts of herbicide cancellations are sensitive to herbicide use patterns.

  104. NAL Call #: S482.S87-1997
    "Exogenous" Interest Rates, Technology, and Farm Prices Versus "Endogenous" Conservation Incentives and Policies.
    Lipton, M.
    Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation a Policy and Agroecological Perspective: pp. 146-153. (1997).

  105. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Factor-Input Demand Subject to Economic and Environmental Risk: Nitrogen Fertilizer in Kansas Dryland Corn Production.
    Carriker, G. L.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (1): pp. 77-89. (Jan 1995).

    Abstract: Factor-input demand should be affected when a producer considers environmental risks in the decision-making process; this is a straight forward application of the LeChatelier Principle. The two-fold purpose of this study is to develop a model to estimate environmental costs arising from excess factor inputs and to examine how firm-level factor-input demand is affected by economic and environmental risk. Nitrogen fertilizer use in northeast Kansas dryland corn production is used as an example. Weather and corn growth simulation models were used to generate 50-year distributions of dryland corn yields and potential environmental damage (surplus nitrogen). A model for approximating external environmental costs of surplus factor inputs was developed. Private (environmental costs not included) and social (environmental costs included) net returns distributions were generated for 1991 Farm Bill program participation and non-participation. Stochastic dominance analysis with respect to a function was used to identify the risk-efficient fertilizer strategies from among the 24 private and 24 social net returns distributions. Constrained (private) and unconstrained (social) nitrogen fertilizer demand schedules were then approximated on a per-pound of fertilizer basis as measures of the incremental value of nitrogen fertilizer. As expected, the results suggest that: (1) in the absence of environmental risk, nitrogen demand is more elastic as a producer becomes more risk averse; and (2) when environmental risk is introduced into the decision-making process, nitrogen demand is more elastic than when environmental risk is excluded. The findings support the hypothesis that producerswhen provided with information regarding the potential environmental effects of production strategies, may choose those that are more environmentally benign.

  106. NAL Call #: ViBlbV LD5655.V851-1996.L694
    Factors Influencing Best Management Practice Implementation in Virginia's Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin. (Thesis)
    Lowery, J. B.
    Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1996. 210 p.

  107. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    A Farm-Level Case Study of Sustainable Agricultural Production.
    Xu, F., Prato, T., and Ma, J. C.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 50 (1): pp. 39-44. (Jan/Feb 1995).

  108. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Farm-Level Economic Analysis Incorporating Stochastic Environmental Risk Assessment.
    Teague, M. L., Bernardo, D. J., and Mapp, H. P.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 77 (1): pp. 8-19. (Feb 1995).

    Abstract: A farm-level risk programming framework is presented which evaluates income/environmental risk tradeoffs. This framework uses a time-series of environmental risk indices to incorporate the stochastics, multiattribute characteristics of environmental outcomes associated with agricultural production practice. The model is applied to a representative farm in the Oklahoma Panhandle region of the Central High Plains. Results indicate that expected income is sensitive to nitrate loading restrictions, and relatively less sensitive to pesticide loading restrictions. Results also indicate that prescriptions derived using deterministic environmental risk measures may ignore significant probabilities of exceeding an environmental standard.

  109. NAL Call #: GB651.W315
    Farm-Level Management of Deep Percolation Emissions in Irrigated Agriculture.
    Posnikoff, J. F. and Knapp, K. C.
    J Am Water Resour Assoc. v. 33 (2): pp. 375-386. (Apr 1997).

    Abstract: Source control costs for deep percolation emissions from irrigated agriculture are analyzed using a farm-level model. Crop area, irrigation system and applied water are chosen to maximize the net benefits of agricultural production while accounting for the environmental damages and disposal costs of those emissions. Deep percolation is progressively reduced as environmental and disposal costs are increased. This occurs primarily through the adoption of more efficient irrigation technology and reductions in applied water for a given technology. Higher surface water prices, such as through irrigation reform and constrained surface supplies, are additionally considered in light of the drainage problem, as are the effects, both short- and long-term, on ground water.

  110. NAL Call #: In process
    Farm Management and Nutrient Concentration in Animal Agriculture
    Lanyon, L. E.
    Proceedings Managing Nutrients and Pathogens From Animal Agriculture; Natural Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service Publication No. NRAES-130.: pp. 37-43. (2000).

  111. NAL Call #: S494.5.S86S8
    Farm Programs and the Environment: The Case for a Limited Land Payment.
    Peterson, W.
    J Sustain Agric. v. 6 (2/3): pp. 123-134. (1995).

  112. NAL Call #: HD1761.A1M5--no.95-5
    Farm Programs and the Environment: The Case for a Limited Land Payment.
    Peterson, Willis L.
    St. Paul, Minn.: Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics, College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences, University of Minnesota, 1995. 19 p.

  113. NAL Call #: S604.F28--1995
    Farming for a Better Environment: A White Paper.
    Soil and Water Conservation Society (U.S.).
    Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1995. vii, 67 p.

  114. NAL Call #: S589.75.A84--1996
    Farming to Sustain the Environment.
    Avery, D. T., Avery, A., and Hudson Institute.
    Indianapolis, Ind.: Hudson Institute, Herman Kahn Center, 1996. 20 p.

  115. NAL Call #: S441.I56
    Farms & Families: Defining Profitability.
    Innov Sustain Agric.: pp. 6-9. (Winter 1998/1999).

  116. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    The Feasibility of Poultry Litter Transportation From Environmentally Sensitive Areas to Delta Row Crop Production.
    Govindasamy, R. and Cochran, M. J.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 24 (1): pp. 101-110. (Apr 1995).

  117. NAL Call #: SF85.A1R32
    Financial Returns and Range Condition on Southern New Mexico Ranches.
    Holechek, J. L.
    Rangelands. v. 18 (2): pp. 52-56. (Apr 1996).

  118. NAL Call #: HD1751.C45
    Forest Carbon Sinks: Costs and Effects of Expanding the Conservation Reserve Program.
    Parks, P. J. and Hardie, I. W.
    Choices. v. 11 (2): pp. 37-39. (Second Quarter 1996).

  119. NAL Call #: 99.9-F7662J
    Forestry BMP Implementation Costs for Virginia.
    Shaffer, R. M., Haney, H. L. Jr., Worrell, E. G., and Aust, W. M.
    For Prod j. v. 48 (9): pp. 27-29. (Sept 1998).

  120. NAL Call #: HD9235.T6B34--1995
    Free Trade, Farmers, and the Killer Tomato: An Analysis of the "Hidden" Environmental and Social Costs of Modern Agribusiness, and the Ways in Which These Costs Are Amplified by Free Trade Agreements.
    Balthasar, C. W.
    Santa Monica, Calif.: C.W. Balthasar, 1995. iii, 34 p.

  121. NAL Call #: HD9482.U62F86--1995
    Funding Safer Farming: Taxing Pesticides and Fertilizers.
    Center for Science in the Public Interest.
    Washington, D.C.: The Center, 1995. iv, 33 p.

  122. NAL Call #: S601.A34
    Global Change and Multi-Species Agroecosystems: Concepts and Issues.
    Vandermeer, J., Noordwijk, M. van., Anderson, J., Ong, C., and Perfecto, I.
    Agric Ecosyst Environ. v. 67 (1): pp. 1-22. (Jan 1998).

    Abstract: Complex (multi-species) agroecosystems change rapidly as a result of farmers' decisions based on their perception of opportunities and constraints. Overall, the major trend is still one of reducing complexity. This review addresses the driving forces as well as consequences of this change and discusses the hypothesis that complex agricultural systems are more dependable in production and more sustainable in terms of resource conservation than simple ones. Farmer decisions regarding planned diversity on the farm have consequences not only for the harvested produce, but also for associated diversity and non-harvested components which may contribute to ecological sustainability. Functional attributes of plants which can lead to complementarity in resource capture include root architecture and phenology. Three hypotheses on biodiversity and ecosystem function are formulated (ranging from weak negative to strong positive interactions) and discussed. Evidence is not yet conclusive.

  123. NAL Call #: S631.F422
    Global Estimates of Potential Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emission by Agriculture.
    Cole, C. V., Duxbury, I., Freney, J., Heinemeyer, O., Minami, K., Mosier, A., Paustian, K., Rosenberg, N., Sampson, N., and Sauerbeck, D.
    Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst. v. 49 (1/3): pp. 221-228. (1997).

    Abstract: Technologies to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide within the agriculture sector were reviewed to estimate the global potential for mitigation of these radiatively active greenhouse gases. Our estimates of the potential reduction of radiative forcing by the agricultural sector range from 1.15-3.3 Gt C equivalents per year. Of the total potential reduction, approximately 32% could result from reduction in CO2 emissions, 42% of carbon offsets by biofuel production on 15% of existing croplands, 16% from reduced CH4 emissions and 10% from reduced emissions of N2O. Agriculture encompasses large regional differences in management practices and rates of potential adoption of mitigation practices. Acceptability of mitigation options will depend on the extent to which sustainable production will be achieved or maintained and benefits will accrue to farmers. Technologies such as no-till farming and strategic fertilizer placement and timing are now being adopted for reasons other than concern for climate change issues.

  124. NAL Call #: 290.9-Am32T
    A Grazing Simulation Model: GRASIM A: Model Development.
    Mohtar, R. H., Buckmaster, D. R., and Fales, S. L.
    Trans ASAE. v. 40 (5): pp. 1483-1493. (Sept/Oct 1997).

    Abstract: A comprehensive grazing simulation model, GRASIM, that links components of the pasture system was developed. The grass component of the model contains two main carbon compartments: storage and structure. It accounts for root growth and maintenance, shoot growth, shoot respiration, senescence, and recycling. Shoot growth is partitioned into leaf and stem. The soil profile is partitioned into two zones. The top zone is where water and nitrogen additions and uptake, water evaporation, and nitrogen transformations take place. Nitrogen transformations include nitrification, mineralization, uptake, volatilization, denitrification, and leaching. The lower zone activities include plant uptake of water and nitrogen. Soil water is budgeted using a simplified water balance that considers runoff after a heavy rainfall, evapotranspiration, water movement between layers, and leaching. Effects of nitrogen and water stresses on growth are included. GRASIM predicts daily growth rate, biomass accumulation, protein and fiber content, water and nutrient levels. The simulation model can be used to obtain a better understanding of the pasture system and determine management strategies which yield more efficient use of pastures both economically and environmentally. It generates information suitable for estimating the financial and environmental consequences of alternative dairy management strategies including partial mechanical harvest in the context of the year round feeding needs of the dairy herd. GRASIM can be used to evaluate stocking rate effect on supplementation and amount of harvested feed, and storage/harvest needs, and year to year variability.

  125. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Groundwater Quality and Farm Income: What Have We Learned? [Erratum: Fall/Winter 1998, V. 20 (2), P. 674-675.].
    Lee, L. K.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 20 (1): pp. 168-185. (Spring/Summer 1998).

  126. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Hog Operations, Environmental Effects, and Residential Property Values.
    Palmquist, R. B., Roka, F. M., and Vukina, T.
    Land Econ. v. 73 (1): pp. 114-124. (Feb 1997).

  127. NAL Call #: 49-J82
    Impact of Environmental Regulations on Cattle Production.
    Morse, D.
    J Anim Sci. v. 74 (12): pp. 3103-3111. (Dec 1996).

    Abstract: A greater focus of legislative mandates is directed toward nonpoint sources of pollution. This article focuses on environmental regulations and their impact on cattle production. Key legislation will be reviewed to stress how variations in the type of law, degree of impact, enforcement mechanism, and time line for compliance affect the ability for research to be designed and accomplished in a desired time frame and to yield data on which imposed management practices should be based. Science-based regulations are desired to maximize beneficial impacts of management practices; however, many regulations are developed and management practices are imposed prior to research to minimize liability of the regulatory agency in case natural resources are degraded in the absence of management practices. The technology adoption process will be reviewed. Documented impact of imposed management practices (technology adoption) will be presented. Of particular interest is the importance of documenting the economic and resource impacts of regulations on livestock operators. Types of research needed prior to implementing management practices will be reviewed. Local involvement can increase the adoption rate of practices and technologies.

  128. NAL Call #: 44.8-J822
    The Impact of Nutrient Loading Restrictions on Dairy Farm Profitability.
    Schmit, T. M. and Knoblauch, W. A.
    J Dairy Sci. v. 78 (6): pp. 1267-1281. (June 1995).

    Abstract: A linear programming model was utilized to determine the economically optimal dairy herd intensities, manure application rates, and crop mix for unrestricted and restricted scenarios of N loss on New York dairy farms. Two representative farms were developed for dairies with 60 or 250 cows that utilized manure handling systems: no storage and daily spreading versus 6 mo of storage and biannual spreading, respectively. Both farms were substantially affected by the imposition of restrictions on N loss, although profitability decreases were relatively smaller on the larger farm, partially because of better conservation and more efficient utilization of manure nutrients. Optimal cow numbers per hectare decreased by nearly 35% on the smaller farm as restrictions on N loss intensified. When initial hectares were retained, rates of return to equity capital decreased > 150 and 100% on the farms with 60 and 250 cows, respectively, compared with 47 and 42% when hectare adjustments were optimal. Whether dairy farmers are able to make hectare adjustments under restrictions on N loss may well determine future sustainability and survival of the farming operations. If additional hectares are not available or feasible to acquire, herd reductions may be necessary to meet restrictions on N loss, dropping profitability even further.

  129. NAL Call #: S441.S8555
    Impacts of Agricultural Management Systems on Economic, Environmental, and Wildlife Values of Altered and Unaltered Wetland Areas.
    Rickerl, D. H.
    Agriculture in Concert With the Environment ACE Research Projects North Central Region. (SARE Project Number: ACE92-11): 144 p. (1995).

  130. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Impacts of Nitrogen Control Policies on Crop and Livestock Farms at Two Ohio Farm Sites.
    Hopkins, J.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 18 (3): pp. 311-324. (Sept 1996).

    Abstract: This study examines nitrogen control policies on farms at differing sites that produce crops exclusively or that produce crops and livestock. Differences across farm sites and types are examined by solving a bio-economic model. This model finds profit-maximizing production plans and their attendant effluent emissions under four policies: no nitrogen control policies; a tax on commercial nitrogen purchases; a tax on effluent emissions; and an emission standard. Model results imply that input and emission taxation rates must be relatively high before nitrate emissions are lowered. Taxes must range a great deal across farm sites and farm types to obtain similar emission levels. For a given emission level, empirical results indicate that reductions in net farm returns are twice as much under tax schemes as under an emission standard. Input taxes have several problems: they may not reduce nitrate emission; they may affect relative polluters less than relative non-polluters; and they may increase emissions of other effluents. Policies encouraging adoption of conservation practices should be continued. Efforts targeting research on cultural practices that reduce nutrient emissions may have high benefits. Research similar to that presented here should be conducted on a wider range of farm sites and types. Conducting this research would generalize these results.

  131. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    The Implications of Alternative Beliefs About Soil-Erosion-Productivity Relationships and Conservation Treatments for the Economic Dynamics of Soil Erosion on the Southern Texas High Plains.
    Bunn, J. A.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 52 (5): pp. 368-375. (Sept/Oct 1997).

  132. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Implications of Alternative Policies on Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater.
    Chowdhury, M. E. and Lacewell, R. D.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 21 (1): pp. 82-95. (July 1996).

  133. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Improving Dairy Farm Sustainability. I. An Approach to Animal and Crop Nutrient Management Planning.
    Klausner, S. D., Fox, D. G., Rasmussen, C. N., Pitt, R. E., Tylutki, T. P., Wright, P. E., Chase, L. E., and Stone, W. C.
    J Prod Agric. v. 11 (2): pp. 225-233. (Apr/June 1998).

    Abstract: This two-part article reports on a process for integrating knowledge to develop and evaluate nutrient management plans for dairy farms. The focus is on accounting for and managing N, P, and K on a commercial farm. The case study farm was a well managed, progressive dairy farm located in central New York with 320 lactating cows (Bos taurus), 290 heifers, and 600 acres of crop land. This farm had the resources and management skills that are a model for dairy farming in the future. However, mass nutrient balances indicated that 60 to 72% of imported N, P, and K were in excess of nutrient exports from the farm; 60 to 80% of the imported nutrients were from purchased feeds. Evaluation and refinement of animal diets resulted in a reduction in crude protein content of the rations by 2 percentage points while supporting a 13% increase in milk production and a 34% decrease in total N excretion. Partial budgets projected that ration reformulation increased net farm income by $40 200. Implementation of a crop nutrient management plan was expected to decrease fertilizer purchases and application expenses by about $1350, but construction of a remote manure storage pond and custom spreading of manure resulted in a decrease of net farm income of $4000. The vast quantity of data required and the complexity of the analysis indicate that developing computerized decision aid tools will be necessary to apply the process to a large number of farms.

  134. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Incentive Compatible Referenda and Valuation of Environmental Goods.
    Taylor, L. O.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 27 (2): pp. 132-139. (Oct 1998).

  135. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Incentive Payments to Encourage Farmer Adoption of Water Quality Protection Practices.
    Cooper, J. C. and Keim, R. W.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (1): pp. 54-64. (Feb 1996).

    Abstract: Farmers can be encouraged to voluntarily adopt environmentally sound management practices through the use of incentive payments. This paper uses both a bivariate probit with sample selection model and a double hurdle model on data from a survey of farmers to predict farmer adoption of the practices as a function of the pay merit offer. The five management practices addressed here are integrated pest management, legume crediting, manure testing, split applications of nitrogen, and soil moisture testing. Also estimated are models that predict the acreage on which these practices would be applied given the decision to accept the incentive payments estimated.

  136. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Input Demand Under Yield and Revenue Insurance.
    Babcock, B. A. and Hennessy, D. A.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (2): pp. 416-427. (May 1996).

    Abstract: Previous studies disagree on the effects of insurance on fertilizer application rates. The effect of increased fertilizer on the probability of low yields primarily determines whether fertilizer and insurance are substitutes or complements. We estimate conditional distributions of corn yields to determine if the technical relationship between yields and fertilizer supports the hypothesis that insurance increases optimal application rates. Our results indicate no support for this hypothesis. At all nitrogen fertilizer rates and reasonable levels of risk aversion, nitrogen fertilizer and insurance are substitutes, suggesting that those who purchase insurance are likely to decrease nitrogen fertilizer applications.

  137. NAL Call #: TX341.C6
    Institute Advocates "Green Payments" for Farmers.
    Nutr Week. v. 25 (14): pp. 4-5. (Apr 7, 1995).

  138. NAL Call #: 100-C12Cag
    Labor Costs May Offset Water Savings of Sprinkler Systems.
    Wichelns, D., Houston, L., Cone, D., Zhu, Q., and Wilen, J.
    Calif Agric. v. 50 (1): pp. 11-18. (Jan/Feb 1996).

  139. NAL Call #: HD1751.C45
    Livestock and Poultry Waste-Control Costs.
    Westenbarger, D. A. and Letson, D.
    Choices. v. 10 (2): pp. 27-30. (Second Quarter 1995).

  140. NAL Call #: ViBlbV LD5655.V855-1996.W677
    Loggers' Perceptions of the Costs of Best Management Practices on Timber Harvesting Operations in Virginia. (Thesis)
    Worrell, E. G. 1969
    Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1996. 99 p.

  141. NAL Call #: S590.S68
    Management of Farm Manures: Economic and Environmental Considerations.
    Chambers, B. J. and Smith, K. A.
    Soil Use Manage. v. 11 (3): pp. 150-151. (Sept 1995).

  142. NAL Call #: HD1.A3
    Management Unit Size and Efficiency Gains From Nitrogen Fertilizer Application.
    Thrikawala, S., Weersink, A., and Kachanoski, G.
    Agric Syst. v. 56 (4): pp. 513-531. (Apr 1998).

    Abstract: Efficiency gains of breaking a simulated field into management units sizes from the largest possible (whole field) to the smallest possible were calculated for the application of nitrogen fertilizer to corn. Twenty-seven alternative field fertility distributions were generated by varying the mean, coefficient of variation and correlation coefficient for a lognormal distribution that follows an AR (1) process. Average application rate and yield gain increase with decreases in management unit size for high fertility fields as areas in the field requiring more fertilizer can be identified. The opposite occurs in low average fertility fields since less fertilizer can be applied to those more fertile areas rather than apply a high rate based on the low average for a larger region. Efficiency gains increase with decreases in management unit size and are enhanced with spatial variability.

  143. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Manure Application Planner (MAP): Software for Environmental and Economical Nutrient Planning.
    Schmitt, M. A., Levins, R. A., and Richardson, D. W.
    J Prod Agric. v. 10 (3): pp. 441-446. (July/Sept 1997).

    Abstract: Manure management recommendations and practices should be preceded by a whole-farm, comprehensive manure management plan, but manure planning aids have shortcomings that limit their widespread use. The Manure Application Planner (MAP), version 3.0, is a computer software tool used for developing or assessing manure application plans that meet environmental standards and achieve economic feasibility. Manure source quantity and analyses, field nutrient needs and nutrient sensitivity, and nutrient pricing and application cost information form the main categories of program input. Manure and fertilizer application rates are calculated using a linear programming optimization procedure or entered from a predetermined plan. The linear programming algorithm uses environmental, economic, and logistical constraints in its operation to develop an optimized plan. Or, with a producer's predetermined or existing plan, economic factors (fertilizer replacement value, application costs, and hauling costs) are presented and environmental concerns (excess nutrients) are shown. Output information includes manure and fertilizer application rates, total nutrient quantities of each source needed, excess nutrients applied from the manure, residual N availability for the following year, leftover stored manure (if any), and nutrient costs for each field and the farm with and without the use of manure. The combination of individualized input for each farm and/or field and access to the program's dataset coefficients allows for customized, farm-specific manure management plans.

  144. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Marginal Abatement Costs of Reducing Groundwater-N Pollution With Intensive and Extensive Farm Management Choices.
    Yiridoe, E. K. and Weersink, A.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 27 (2): pp. 169-185. (Oct 1998).

  145. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Measures of Economic and Environmental Performance for Alternative Agricultural Production Systems.
    Batte, M. T., Bacon, K. J., and Hopkins, J. W.
    J Prod Agric. v. 11 (4): pp. 428-438. (Oct/Dec 1998).

    Abstract: The primary purpose of the reported research was to evaluate the economic and environmental performance of three production systems under study in the Ohio Buried Valley Aquifer Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project. The three systems studied included a monoculture system--continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (chisel plow) with routine fertilizer and pesticide treatments; the typical system--a corn/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation (chisel plow and no-till) with routine applications of pesticides and fertilizers; and an alternative system--a corn/soybean/wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa) rotation (ridge-tilled) with fertilization based on soil tests and strategic applications of pesticides. Enterprise and whole farm budgets were constructed for each system. All sources of receipts and costs arising from production were recognized in the profitability analysis. The typical system was found to have the highest return to management and the monoculture system the lowest return. The alternative system produced net returns of about 50% of those of the typical system. The wheat phase of the alternative system was the primary source of reduced returns. A linear programming analysis was conducted to compare profitability for the three systems with farm size variable (machinery complement capacity was the determinant of farm size). The LP results suggested a widening of the profit differential between typical and alternative systems due to a greater acreage capacity for the typical system. However, results suggested that if wheat yields were increased through spring application of N fertilizer for wheat, the alternative. assessment, evaluated through use of the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), suggested lesser environmental consequences resulting from the alternative system than from either of the other studied systems. Adjustments in the alternative system to improve profitability brought little environmental downside.

  146. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Measuring the Marginal Cost of Nonuniform Environmental Regulations.
    Sunding, D. L.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (4): pp. 1098-1107. (Nov 1996).

    Abstract: A method is presented for measuring the marginal welfare cost of environmental regulations affecting agriculture. The method incorporates output market effects and recognizes diversity in production conditions among crops, regions, and seasons. An important advantage of the method is that only regional outputs and changes in regional production costs are needed to calculate deadweight loss, thus simplifying the measurement of welfare changes. This feature of the model is significant since the complexity and substantial data requirements of most existing impact models cause many environmental regulations to be enacted with inadequate analysis of their economic impacts. The method also disaggregates welfare impacts by crop, place, and time, thus encouraging the implementation of nonuniform interventions that achieve a given level of environmental quality more efficiently than uniform policies.

  147. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Meeting Environmental Goals Efficiently on a Farm-Level Basis.
    Teague, M. L., Bernardo, D. J., and Mapp, H. P.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (1): pp. 37-50. (Jan 1995).

    Abstract: Policy makers have several groundwater protection strategies at their disposal, including moral suasion, design standards, performance standards, economic incentives, and research and development. The objective of this research is to determine if management-based means of protecting environmental quality on a representative farm in the Southern High Plains region are more efficient than regulation, and if an efficiency gain exists, to quantify it in dollar terms. A per-acre nitrogen application restriction and a pesticide ban are used in this study as the design standards to compare with management-based water quality protection strategies. A farm-level risk programming framework is developed to incorporate the effect of environmental risk on decision making. This framework is used to identify farm plans that maximize net returns, but maintain environmental risk below a critical level, or target. Environmental risk is measured using environmental risk indices, which aggregate several sources and types of chemical loadings into a single value. Twenty-year distributions for the environmental indices are calculated based on chemical loading estimates from the crop growth/chemical rate model EPIC-PST. This approach places weight on the accuracy of the environmental indices. The results indicate that management-based means, which allow producers maximum discretion in reaching farm-level environmental goals, can be much more efficient than regulatory approaches. A cost-benefit analysis indicates that on a per-farm basis, up to $23,929 for nitrate environmental risk reduction, and $7,083 for pesticide environmental risk reduction can be spent to encourage the adoption of management-based plans, and still maintain an efficiency gain over regulatory policies. This analysis is done for a representative farm, however, and the results should not be taken as a comprehensive evaluation of policy options across a region.

  148. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    The Microeconomic Impact of IPM Adoption: Theory and Application.
    Fernandez Cornejo, J.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 25 (2): pp. 149-160. (Oct 1996).

  149. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Moving From Uniform to Variable Fertilizer Rates on Iowa Corn: Effects on Rates and Returns.
    Babcock, B. A. and Pautsch, G. R.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (2): pp. 385-400. (Dec 1998).

  150. NAL Call #: HC13.I544-1996
    A Multicriteria Framework to Identify Land Uses Which Maximize Farm Profitability and Minimize Net Recharge.
    Prathapar, S. A., Meyer, W. S., Alocilja, E., and Madden, J. C.
    Multiple Objective Decision Making for Land, Water, and Environmental Management Proceedings of the First International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems MODSS for Land, Water and Environmental Management: Concepts, Approaches, and Applications / International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems for Land, Water and Environmental Management: Concepts, Approaches, and Applications.: pp. 447-454. (1998).

  151. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Multiple Agents, and Agricultural Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution Control Policies.
    Smith, R. B. W. and Tomasi, T. D.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 28 (1): pp. 37-43. (Apr 1999).

  152. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Multiple-Objective Decision Making for Agroecosystem Management.
    Prato, T., Fulcher, C., Wu, S. X., and Ma, J.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 25 (2): pp. 200-212. (Oct 1996).

  153. NAL Call #: TD930.A55-1995
    Multiple Policy Instruments: An Evolutionary Approach to Animal Waste Management.
    Boggess, W. G. and Cochran, M. J.
    Animal Waste and the Land Water Interface.: pp. 503-514. (1995).

  154. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    New NLEAP for Shallow and Deep Rooted Rotations. Irrigated Agriculture in the San Luis Valley of South Central Colorado.
    Delgado, J. A., Shaffer, M., and Brodahl, M. K.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 53 (4): pp. 338-340. (1998).

  155. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    No-Tillage Increases Profit in a Limited Irrigation-Dryland System.
    Wiese, A. F., Marek, T., and Harman, W. L.
    J Prod Agric. v. 11 (2): pp. 247-252. (Apr/June 1998).

    Abstract: Furrow irrigation is used on about 50% of the 22 million irrigated acres in the Great Plains. Irrigation water is pumped from the Ogallala aquifer and is in limited supply in relation to available land. Research has greatly improved irrigation water use efficiency since the mid 50s. The most recent and efficient system of furrow irrigation is Limited Irrigation-Dryland (LID) in which tailwater and rainfall runoff are almost eliminated using a combination of furrow dikes and irrigating only the top two-thirds of a field. Our objective was to compare effectiveness of conventional tillage, furrow diking, and notillage in fallow periods and crops in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]-fallow crop rotation using a LID system of irrigation. No-tillage increased soil water storage during fallow periods compared with conventional tillage and furrow diking. This in turn increased sorghum yield 400 lb/acre as well as irrigation water use efficiency for sorghum. Wheat yield was not improved with no-tillage because of poor stands. Short-term variable costs with no-tillage were less than for furrow diking or conventional tillage. Annual profits for conventional tillage, furrow diking, and no-tillage were $66, 63, and 75/acre. This research showed that using no-tillage is better than furrow diking in a winter wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation using a LID irrigation system.

  156. NAL Call #: In process
    Nutrient Management Plans: The Professional Assistance Needed and the Cost
    Wildman, R. F.
    Proceedings Managing Nutrients and Pathogens From Animal Agriculture; Natural Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service Publication No. NRAES-130: pp. 456-458. (2000).

  157. NAL Call #: 286.81-F322
    Nutrition and Crop Selection May Have Big Impact on Reducing Nutrient Losses.
    Kohn, R. A.
    Feedstuffs. v. 68 (35): pp. 12-14. (Aug 19, 1996).

  158. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    On-Farm Costs of Reducing Residual Nitrogen on Cropland Vulnerable to Nitrate Leaching.
    Huang, W. Y., Shank, D., and Hewitt, T. I.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 18 (3): pp. 325-339. (Sept 1996).

    Abstract: This article studies the costs imposed on profit-maximizing farmers to comply with a restriction of nitrogen fertilizer use on the cropland vulnerable to nitrate leaching. Will the restriction impose a higher cost on those farmers growing crops on high-leaching cropland than on those farmers growing crops on low-leaching cropland? This information is particularly useful for policy makers interested in providing equitable financial incentives to farmers that encourage them to mitigate nitrate leaching. A farm-level dynamic fertilizer-use decision model incorporating nitrogen carry-over effects is employed to evaluate the farmer's compliance costs. Theoretical results indicate that it is indeterminate whether cropland with a high leaching potential will have a smaller (or higher) compliance cost than cropland with a moderate leaching potential. Policy makers interested in determining an equitable level of financial incentive to compensate a farmer to reduce nitrogen fertilizer use in mitigating nitrate leaching problems should not use the level of leaching-vulnerability of cropland as a criterion. Rather, they should rely on empirical results. Empirical results from an Iowa case study, however, show that a fertilizer-use restriction on cropland highly vulnerable to leaching will have a smaller compliance cost (i.e., a lower cost to the farmer) per acre as well as per pound reduction in nitrogen fertilizer application rate relative to cropland with a moderate leaching potential. The per-acre cost difference between these two types of cropland is relatively insignificant, but the cost per-pound reduction of residual nitrogen between these two types of cropland can be quite significant. Furthermore, for the farmer in. production strategy to reduce the amount of residual nitrogen available for leaching, irrespective of the price of nitrogen fertilizer or cropland vulnerability to leaching.

  159. NAL Call #: S623.M435-1998
    The On-Farm Economic Costs of Soil Erosion.
    Crosson, P.
    Methods for Assessment of Soil Degradation: pp. 495-511. (1998).

  160. NAL Call #: S441.S8553
    On-Farm Research and Demonstration of Ridge Tillage for Sustainable Agriculture.
    Exner, D. N.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, North Central Region (SARE Project Report: LNC92-44).: 41 p. (1996).

  161. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Optimal Adoption Strategies for No-Till Technology in Michigan.
    Krause, M. A. and Black, J. R.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (3): pp. 299-310. (Sept 1995).

    Abstract: Adjustment costs and risk aversion are hypothesized to delay adoption of no-till technology on representative corn and soybean farms in Michigan. The relevant adjustment costs include: (1) the cost of replacing the conventional planter already in use; and (2) the cost of learning how to obtain high crop yields with no till technology. Previous economic analyses of no-till adoption have not considered adjustment costs and risk aversion together. This analysis uses dynamic programming models to evaluate the effects of machinery replacement, risk aversion, a learning curve, and crop yield expectations on adoption strategies by representative profit-maximizing and risk-averse, expected utility-maximizing farmers in Michigan. Mean net revenues for the no-till technology are higher than net revenues for conventional tillage when mean crop yields are assumed to be equal for the two technologies. The estimated mean corn and soybean yields are higher for the no-till system than for conventional tillage, but the differences are not statistically significant. The representative risk-averse farmer waits until both the conventional planter and the current tractor have aged many years before adopting the no-till technology when equal mean yields and a learning curve are assumed. The representative profit-maximizing farmer replaces this machinery and adopts the no-till technology more quickly, especially when no learning curve is considered. Both representative farmers adopt the no-till technology much more quickly when the estimated mean crop yields are assumed than when equal mean crop yields are assumed. Crop price expectations also exert a large influence on the optimal adoption strategy for the risk-averse farmer. The results support efforts to promote no-till technology by demonstrating superior to yields and lowering learning costs.

  162. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Optimal Design of a Voluntary Green Payment Program Under Asymmetric Information.
    Wu, J. and Babcock, B. A.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 20 (2): pp. 316-327. (Dec 1995).

  163. NAL Call #: TD930.A55-1995
    Optimal Farm-Level Use and Value of Broiler Litter.
    Xu, F. and Prato, T.
    Animal Waste and the Land Water Interface.: pp. 283-291. (1995).

  164. NAL Call #: S441.S855
    Optimizing Use of Grass on Dairy Farms for Environmental/Economic Sustainability.
    Cherney, J. H.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, Northeast Region (SARE Project Report: LNE94-42).: 49 p. (1997).

  165. NAL Call #: 80-Ac82
    An Organic Versus a Conventional Farming System in Kiwifruit.
    Hasey, J. K., Johnson, R. S., Meyer, R. D., and Klonsky, K.
    Acta Hortic. (444): pp. 223-228. (1997).

  166. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    Organic Versus Conventional Grain Production in the Mid-Atlantic: An Economic and Farming System Overview.
    Hanson, J. C., Lichtenberg, E., and Peters, S. E.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 12 (1): pp. 2-9. (1997).

    Abstract: A farming systems trial has been conducted at the Rodale Institute Research Center in Kutztown, Pennsylvania since 1981. Over time, the organic rotation has changed to reflect improved knowledge and experience. The current, three-year rotation (hairy vetch/corn, rye/soybeans, and wheat) focuses on mechanical tillage for weed control and year-round live plant cover for pest control and nutrient supply. We constructed long-term enterprise budgets for the organic and conventional cash grain rotations and compared returns earned during the first years of the study, which for the organic rotation involved investment in soil capital, with returns during two later 5-year periods. The organic rotations during these two later periods produced corn and soybean yields comparable with the conventional rotation, but grew higher-value crops less frequently and required more family labor and management. The differences in the profitability of the conventional and organic farming systems depend on whether the analysis includes the initial investment in building up the soil and the value of family labor.

  167. NAL Call #: In process
    Overview of Federal Cost Sharing
    Esser, A. J.
    Proceedings Managing Nutrients and Pathogens From Animal Agriculture; Natural Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service Publication No. NRAES-130.: pp. 416-418. (2000).

  168. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    Performance, Economics, and Adoption of Cover Crops in Wisconsin Cash Grain Rotations: On-Farm Trials.
    Mallory, E. B., Posner, J. L., and Baldock, J. O.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 13 (1): pp. 2-11. (1998).

    Abstract: Cover crop performance depends largely on management factors that must be customized to particular farm situations and, therefore, is suited for on-farm research, with farmers involved in both management and evaluation. Cover crop sequences that were successful in a research station study were tested over a variety of soils and management strategies in collaboration with farmers. The two-year cover crop sequences consisted of a short-season crop followed by a cover crop in year one and corn in year two. The cover crops themselves were evaluated by their agronomic and economic performance and their acceptance by farmers. Four cover crop systems (companion-seeded red clover, sequentially seeded hairy vetch, sequentially seeded oat, and fallow) were compared for ground cover, above-ground biomass and above-ground nitrogen yield, subsequent corn grain yield, and N fertilizer replacement value (N-FRV). Cover crops were essential for erosion control following vegetable crops and tillage, but were not necessary following small grains. Companion-seeded red clover produced the most ground cover, yielded up to 133 kg N/ha, and had a higher average N-FRV than sequentially seeded hairy vetch on sandy loam soils, but was not preferred by farmers who harvested small grain straw as well as grain. Sequentially seeded hairy vetch gave excellent cover when no-till seeded, produced more than 125 kg N/ha in half the site-years, and had a higher average N-FRV than companion-seeded red clover on silt loam soils. First-year N-FRV for the legume cover crops averaged 67 kg N/ha over both soil types. The participating farmers indicated that their decisions to adopt cover crops would be based primarily on their need for ground. when valued solely as an N source for the next year's crop (and not for any potential long-term benefits), cover crops were not an economical alternative to N fertilizer. We suggest focusing future cover crop research and extension efforts on outreach to farmers growing crops that do not provide sufficient ground cover, such as short-season vegetable crops, and optimizing the cover crop system to maximize its erosion control benefits and increase its profitability over N fertilizer.

  169. NAL Call #: HC13.I544-1996
    Pesticide Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs: Developer's Perspective.
    Nofziger, D. L., Hornsby, A. G., and Hoag, D. L.
    Multiple Objective Decision Making for Land, Water, and Environmental Management Proceedings of the First International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems MODSS for Land, Water and Environmental Management: Concepts, Approaches, and Applications / International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems for Land, Water and Environmental Management: Concepts, Approaches, and Applications. pp. 83-92. (1998).

  170. NAL Call #: S494.5.P73E97-1997
    Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Under Precision Farming: A Simulation of Economic and Environmental Implications.
    Weiss, M. D.
    Precision Agriculture '97 Papers Presented at the First European Conference on Precision Agriculture, Warwick University Conference Centre, UK, 7-10 September 1997: pp. 967-974. (1997).

  171. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    Point Counter Point: Regulating Large Hog Lots.
    Nowlin, M. and Boyd, G. W.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 52 (5): pp. 314-319. (Sept/Oct 1997).

  172. NAL Call #: HD101 S6
    Politics and Markets in the Articulation of Preferences for Attributes of the Rapidly Changing Food and Agricultural Sectors: Framing the Issues.
    Abdalla, C. W. and Shaffer, J. D.
    Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. v. 29 (1): pp. 57-75. (Jul 1997).

    Abstract: Industrialization of the food and agricultural sectors changes the pattern of external effects. Participants helped or harmed in the process attempt to influence outcomes through markets and politics. Decisions about property rights and boundaries determine benefits and burdens and the relative cost of animal agriculture in different jurisdictions. Prescriptions to redefine property rights are influenced by selective perception of rights to share in the benefits and be protected from costs. Political choices about the appropriate jurisdiction (state versus local) for addressing environmental and nuisance effects of animal agriculture affect whose preferences count and will influence the development of these sectors.

  173. NAL Call #: QH1.J62
    Potential Carbon Benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program in the United States.
    Barker, J. R., Baumgardner, G. A., Turner, D. P., and Lee, J. J.
    J Biogeogr. v. 22 ( (4/5)): pp. 743-751. (July/Sept 1995).

  174. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Precision Farming and Spatial Economic Analysis: Research Challenges and Opportunities.
    Weiss, M. D.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (5): pp. 1275-1284. (Dec 1996).

  175. NAL Call #: S494.5.S86S8
    Productivity and Profitability of Conventional and Alternative Farming Systems: A Long-Term On-Farm Paired Comparison.
    Dobbs, T. L. and Smolik, J. D.
    J Sustain Agric. v. 9 (1): pp. 63-79. (1996).

  176. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    The Profitability of Sustainable Agriculture on a Representative Grain Farm in the Mid-Atlantic Region, 1981-89: Comment.
    Roberts, W. S. and Swinton, S. M.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 24 (1): pp. 136-138. (Apr 1995).

  177. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Property Tax Distortions and Participation in Federal Easement Programs: An Exploratory Analysis of the Wetlands Reserve Program.
    Poe, G. L.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 27 (1): pp. 117-124. (Apr 1998).

  178. NAL Call #: SF85.A1R32
    Proposed CRP Policy: On Track or a Source of Concern.
    Jones, R. D., Ohlenbusch, P. D., and Tranel, J.
    Rangelands. v. 19 (4): pp. 13-15. (Aug 1997).

  179. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Prosocial Behavior: Private Contributions to Agriculture's Impact on the Environment.
    Weaver, R. D.
    Land Econ. v. 72 (2): pp. 231-247. (May 1996).

  180. NAL Call #: HC75.E5J6
    Publicly-Provided Information in Environmental Management: Incorporating Groundwater Quality Goals into Herbicide Treatment Recommendations.
    Liu, W., Moffitt, L. J., Lee, L. K., and Bhowmik, P. C.
    J Environ Manage. v. 55 (4): pp. 239-248. (Apr 1999).

  181. NAL Call #: HD101.S6
    A Qualitative Choice Analysis of Factors Influencing Post-CRP Land Use Decisions.
    Johnson, P. N., Misra, S. K., and Ervin, R. T.
    J Agric Appl Econ. v. 29 (1): pp. 163-173. (July 1997).

    Abstract: The future use of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands is an important agricultural policy issue. To examine the effects of factors that influence landowners' post-contract use of CRP lands, a survey of Texas High Plains CRP contract holders was conducted in 1992. This study analyzes the results of the survey using a qualitative choice model. It was found that the presence of a livestock enterprise in the current contract holder's operation increases the probability of these acres remaining in the established cover. Contract holders who value the commodity base have an increased probability of returning their acres to crop production.

  182. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    Reduced Chemical Input Cropping Systems in the Southeastern United States. III. Economic Analysis.
    King, L. D. and Hoag, D. L.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 13 ((1)): pp. 12-27. (1998).

    Abstract: This study evaluated the profitability of several cropping systems during a 10-year period of an experiment comparing rotations and levels of purchased inputs. Continuous corn or sorghum, corn/wheat-soybean (2-year), and corn/wheat-soybean/corn/clover hay (4-year) were managed with recommended fertilizer and pesticide rates and no-till planting (C) or with N from legumes, conventional tillage, and cultivation for weed control (L). Medium input management (M: medium rate of N and banded herbicides) was included during years 5 through 10. Generally, corn was the least profitable crop, regardless of input level or type of rotation. Rotating crops improved profit more than did adding inputs to continuous corn. With L, average annual profit was: continuous corn, -$64/ha; 2-year rotation, $135/ha; and 4-year rotation, $158/ha. With C, the 2-year rotation increased profit to $165/ha from -$119/ha with continuous corn. The increased profit with rotations was due to greater profits from wheat, soybean, and hay offsetting low or negative profit from corn. Sorghum (grown only in monoculture) was more profitable with L ($34/ha) than with C (-$20/ha). During the 6 years when all input levels were compared, the order of average profit was M>L>C with continuous corn. Generally, profit was not increased by M compared with L in the 2-and 4-year rotations. With L, the cost of weed control was 20% of that for C with corn and 44% with soybean. Cost of N from fertilizer was $0.66/kg, but cost of N from crimson clover (seed and planting costs) averaged $0.92/kg when clover was drilled, $1.27/kg when aerially seeded, and $0.16/kg when naturally reseeded.

  183. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Regulation of Nitrogen Pollution: Taxes Versus Quotas.
    Choi, E. K. and Feinerman, E.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 20 (1): pp. 122-134. (July 1995).

  184. NAL Call #: HD1775.S8E262--no.97-2
    Relative Profitability and Production Costs of Post-CRP Alternative Land Uses in South Dakota.
    Janssen, L. and South Dakota State University. Economics Dept.
    Brookings, S.D.: Economics Dept., South Dakota State University, 1997. 24 p.

  185. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    The Relative Sustainability of Alternative, Conventional, and Reduced-Till Farming Systems.
    Smolik, J. D., Dobbs, T. L., and Rickerl, D. H.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 10 ((1)): pp. 25-35. (Winter 1995).

  186. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Resource or Waste? The Economics of Swine Manure Storage and Management.
    Fleming, R. A., Babcock, B. A., and Wang, E.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 20 (1): pp. 96-113. (Spring/Summer 1998).

  187. NAL Call #: HD101.S6
    Restricting Pesticide Use: The Impact on Profitability by Farm Size.
    Whittaker, G., Lin, B. H., and Vasavada, U.
    J Agric Appl Econ. v. 27 (2): pp. 352-362. (Dec 1995).

    Abstract: A sample of 226 cash grain farms in the Lake States-Corn Belt region are analyzed to estimate the impact of restricting pesticide use on profits. These 226 farms are classified into small, medium, and large farms according to their sale revenues. The results suggest the existence of pest management practices that could substantially reduce pesticide use without incurring economic losses. The reductions in profits associated with gradual reductions in pesticide expenditure appear to increase with farm size.

  188. NAL Call #: HD1401.A56
    Restructuring Agribusiness for the 21st Century.
    Boehlje, M., Akridge, J., and Downey, D.
    Agribusiness. v. 11 (6): pp. 493-500. (Nov/Dec 1995).

    Abstract: Significant changes are occurring in the agribusiness sector; these changes will dramatically impact the management of agribusiness firms from sourcing of inputs through operations, finance, sales and marketing, to final customer contact. Awareness of these changes is critical for strategic positioning and planning. We discuss 10 changes that we feel will have profound implications for the future structure and performance of the agribusiness industries.

  189. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Risk Indices for Economic and Water Quality Tradeoffs: An Application to Great Plains Agriculture.
    Teague, M. L., Mapp, H. P., and Bernardo, D. J.
    J Prod Agric. v. 8 (3): pp. 405-415. (July/Sept 1995).

    Abstract: Agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a multidimensional problem encompassing several forms of contaminants and several environments (e.g., surface water and groundwater). Environmental risk indices can account for differences in chemical attributes and aggregate environmental outcomes across several forms of contaminants and environments. The objective of this analysis is to develop three environmental risk indices and use the indices to compare the environmental risk and economic returns associated with alternative production systems in the Oklahoma Panhandle region of the Central High Plains. Three environmental risk indices are developed that incorporate different information concerning the environmental effects of pesticide use. The first index--the environmental impact quotient (EIQ)--incorporates only chemical properties into the environmental risk assessment, while the two other indices--chemical environmental index (CINDEX) and chemical concentration index (CONC) also factor in estimates of expected annual runoff and percolation loadings and concentrations, respectively. Both statistical and graphical comparisons indicate that the three indices provide similar rankings of alternative production systems based upon their potential environmental consequences. The CONC index is characterized by greater volatility than the other indices, and its rankings of the production activities are least correlated with those derived from the two other indices. Results suggest some potential for reduction in environmental risk without large reductions in net returns. Application of the EIQ index, which does not explicitly incorporate chemical loading or concentration estimates, provides the highest estimate of income. income losses when CONC is used as the risk measurement. Therefore, although the three indices generate similar rankings of alternative production activities, their application can provide very different estimates of the economic consequences of attaining environmental objectives.

  190. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Risk/Return Analysis of Double-Cropping and Alternative Crop Rotations With and Without Government Programs.
    Burton, R. O. Jr., Crisostomo, M. F., Berends, P. T., Kelley, K. W., and Buller, O. H.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 18 (4): pp. 681-692. (Oct 1996).

    Abstract: If growing season length and other factors necessary for crop production are adequate, double-cropping could enhance and stabilize net farm returns. These potential advantages could outweigh potential disadvantages, such as inadequate soil moisture, limited time available for harvesting and planting, and greater yield variability with double-cropping. This study examines the level and riskiness of real gross margins associated with crop rotations involving wheat-soybean double-cropping and single-cropping of wheat, soybeans, and grain sorghum. Optimal crop rotations on a representative farm in Southeast Kansas are determined with and without government commodity programs. The risk/return framework is modeled using Target MOTAD. The Target MOTAD risk measure has desirable characteristics such as measurement of risk relative to a fixed point that is meaningful to decision makers; and consistent with producers' views of risk, only incomes below an acceptable level are undesirable. Research limitations include: field-time and labor constraints that may not be representative; research center yields and aggregate prices that may be less variable than farm-level yields and prices; and limitations on the number of crops and rotations considered. However, static equilibrium models based on historical data provide input into the decision-making process. Results indicate double-cropping is favored over single-cropping. If commodity programs are eliminated, in the short-run more risk-averse farmers who participate will face lower incomes and higher risk. Less risk-averse decision makers may obtain higher incomes by double-cropping and not participating in commodity programs.

  191. NAL Call #: S494.5.S86S8
    The Role of Planting Flexibility and the Acreage Reduction Program in Encouraging Sustainable Agriculture Practices.
    Huang, W. Y. and Daberkow, S. G.
    J Sustain Agric. v. 7 (1): pp. 63-79. (1995).

  192. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    The Role of Soil Test Information in Reducing Groundwater Pollution.
    Fleming, R. A., Adams, R. M., and Ervin, D. E.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 23 (1): pp. 20-38. (July 1998).

  193. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Second-Best Tax Policies to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution.
    Larson, D. M., Helfand, G. E., and House, B. W.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (4): pp. 1109-1117. (Nov 1996).

    Abstract: Control of nonpoint source pollution often requires regulation of inputs, but first-best solutions are unattainable. Because inputs are monitored by different agencies and regulatory coordination can be costly, it may be more practical to regulate single inputs. A cost-effectiveness approach to determining the best single-input tax policy is developed and applied to the question of reducing nitrate leaching from lettuce production in California. Water is the best single input to regulate, and efficiency losses from this second-best approach appear not to be great. Conditions for the welfare ranking of policies to be invariant to heterogeneity in production or leaching are identified.

  194. NAL Call #: HB1.A2N3-no.6739
    The Simple Analytics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.
    Andreoni, J. and Levinson, A.
    Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1998. 20 p.

  195. NAL Call #: S671.A66
    Simulation of Dairy Manure Management and Cropping Systems.
    Harrigan, T. M., Bickert, W. G., and Rozt, C. A.
    Appl Eng Agric. v. 12 (5): pp. 563-574. (Sept 1996).

    Abstract: The dairy forage system model (DAFOSYM) was expanded to include submodels for the prediction of suitable days under a range of soil and crop residue conditions, draft of a wide range of tillage and seeding implements, and scheduling of manure handling, tillage and planting operations. Through simulation, the long-term performance, costs and net return for three tillage and four manure handling systems were compared on 150 and 400-cow representative dairy farms in Michigan. The analysis included all factors of milk production including manure production, storage and application, tillage, planting, crop growth, harvest, feed storage, and feeding. Mulch-tillage was the most economical tillage system, returning $15 to $26/cow-yr over conventional tillage with a 30% reduction in machinery, fuel, and labor costs. The highest net return among manure handling systems was associated with short-term storage and daily hauling, but the economic advantage of this system diminished if credit was not given for the value of all manure nutrients when spread daily. Long-term manure storage concentrated labor for spreading in the spring and fall. This delayed tillage and planting and increased feed costs as much as $24/cow-yr when manure hauling, tillage, and planting occurred in series. When labor and machinery were available for parallel field operations, manure handling method had little effect on the timeliness of tillage and planting.

  196. NAL Call #: S441.S8553
    Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Sustainable Farming Systems and the Barriers to Adoption.
    Salamon, S.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, North Central Region (SARE Project Report: LNC92-50).: 8 p. (1995).

  197. NAL Call #: S675 N72 no.96
    The Social Costs of Agricultural Pollution to the Watershed Community
    Poe, G. L.
    Proceedings Animal Agriculture and the Environment: Nutrients, Pathogens and Community Relations, North American Conference; Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service Publication No. NRAES-96.: pp. 287-298. (1996).

  198. NAL Call #: HT401.S68
    A Social Exchange Explanation of Participation in the U.S. Farm Program.
    Thomas, J. K. and Thigpen, J.
    South Rural Sociol. v. 12 (1): pp. 1-23. (1996).

    Abstract: Passage of the 1990 Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act resulted from the political influence of many environmental interest groups and, consequently, included many conservation provisions. As agricultural policy has increasingly reflected the environmental concerns of the public, farmers who participate in the Farm Program have adjusted their production practices to conserve land and water resources, minimize use of agrichemicals, and control animal wastes. Social exchange theory was used to examine personal and farm characteristics that could affect agroenvironmental attitudes, Farm Program participation, and conservation practices of Texas farmers (n = 1,063 farmers) in 1991. One in four farmers did not participate in a federal commodity/conservation program. Less than 8 percent of the variation in regulatory and environmental attitudes was explained by personal and farm characteristics, compared to 30 percent of the variation in Farm Program participation and 14 percent in use of conservation practices. Agroenvironmental attitudes and most background characteristics were poor predictors of farm-related behaviors. Level of gross farm income was the best predictor of farmers' attitudes and behaviors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  199. NAL Call #: HD1401.J68
    Socioeconomic Profiles of Early Adopters of Precision Agriculture Technologies.
    Daberkow, S. G. and McBride, W. D.
    J Agribusiness. v. 16 (2): pp. 151-168. (Fall 1998).

  200. NAL Call #: aSD387.W6S74-1999
    Stewardship Incentive Program: From Inception of Program Through 1998 Fiscal Year. FY 1998 Stewardship Incentive Program.
    United States. Farm Service Agency.
    Washington, D.C.: United States Farm Service Agency, 1999. 32 p.

  201. NAL Call #: S441.S8553
    Sustaining Row Crop and Fine Hardwood Productivity Through Alley Cropping: On-Farm Demonstration, Research, and Economic Evaluation of an Integrated Low-Input System.
    Gillespie, A. R.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, North Central Region (SARE Project Report: LNC94-72).: 37 p. (1996).

  202. NAL Call #: S441.S855
    Systems Analysis of Organic and Transitional Dairy Production.
    Wonnacott, E.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, SARE Research Projects, Northeast Region (SARE Project Report: LNE93-39).: 14 p. (1996).

  203. NAL Call #: S589.755.T37--1995
    Targeting Environmental Priorities in Agriculture: Reforming Program Strategies.
    United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
    Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment, United States Congress, 1995. 72 p.

  204. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Targeting Tools for the Purchase of Environmental Amenities.
    Babcock, B. A., Lakshminarayan, P. G., Wu, J. J., and Zilberman, D.
    Land Econ. v. 73 (3): pp. 325-339. (Aug 1997).

  205. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Teaching Old Dogs Survival Tricks: A Case Study in Promoting Integrated Crop Management.
    Petrzelka, P., Padgitt, S., and Connelly, K.
    J Prod Agric. v. 10 (4): pp. 596-602. (Oct/Dec 1997).

    Abstract: New technology in crop production is emerging that can provide site-specific field and crop detail information to some operators. Satellite positioning, commonly referred to as global positioning systems, mapping software, and yield-monitoring equipment are all high-tech methods of providing this precision agriculture. But precision agriculture, or at least long strides in that direction, is possible short of these methods and capital investments. Integrated Crop Management (ICM) is one alternative to providing information-intensive management and precision farming, without the need for hard technology. Major elements of an ICM program include thorough crop production and protection planning, crop rotations, tillage management, and nutrient testing, as well as varying fertility rates based on manure and legume credits, scouting for weeds/insects/diseases, and keeping and analyzing field based records. Inherent in ICM is the involvement of the producer in increasing management tools and the knowledge base to make a decision. This knowledge base is generated to a significant degree from on-farm or site-specific observations. The Iowa Model Farms Demonstration Project (IMFDP) was an extension service program established to encourage farmers to adopt ICM practices. Evaluation of the program reveals that opportunities existed for refined practices among the sample of cooperators, although this was not recognized by all, as nearly half of the original participants did not complete the 3-yr project. Among those who remained in the project, several practices were refined and resulted in increased profitability. Among participants who discontinued the program, many perceived. acknowledged they did a poor job of stressing the successes and noting cost savings made by these producers. Lack of detailed records did not allow a clear analysis of the cost-benefit ratio of the program. While documented success of ICM is necessary, a relationship of trust between the consultant and producer is also essential, for successful implementation of ICM practices.

  206. NAL Call #: S494.5.A45T4625-1997
    Temperate Agroforestry: Synthesis and Future Directions.
    Newman, S. M. and Gordon, A. M.
    Temperate Agroforestry Systems: pp. 251-266. (1997).

  207. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Testing Willingness-to-Pay Models of Discrete Choice Contingent Valuation Survey Data.
    Alberini, A.
    Land Econ. v. 71 (1): pp. 83-95. (Feb 1995).

  208. NAL Call #: S539.5.J68
    Tillage Systems and Profitability: An Economic Analysis of the Iowa MAX Program.
    Liu, S. and Duffy, M. D.
    J Prod Agric. v. 9 (4): pp. 522-527. (Oct/Dec 1996).

    Abstract: Using the Iowa MAX program participant's survey data set, this study found that conventional tillage (plowing, PL) resulted in lower profits per acre than most conservation tillage systems (no-tail [NT], reduced-till [RE], ridge-till [RT], and mulch-till [MT]). The primary reason for higher profits with conservation tillage systems is the difference in operating costs. This study also found that it is not always true that conservation tillage uses more chemical than PL. Ridge-till is very attractive in terms of profit and the expenditures on chemicals per acre. This indicates that, other than conservation compliance, economic benefits may be another major reason that farmers are adopting conservation tillage systems.

  209. NAL Call #: HT401.J68
    Towards an Alternative Logic of Technological Change: Insights From Corn Belt Agriculture.
    Lighthall, D. R. and Roberts, R. S.
    J Rural Stud. v. 11 (3): pp. 319-334. (July 1995).

    Abstract: Empirical evidence drawn from a Corn Belt case study is used to connect the environmental and socioeconomic contradictions of agricultural production in the region. The paper rests on several key arguments: First, a preliminary case is made for a more explicit recognition of the theoretical and empirical links between the socioeconomic problems of agricultural regions stemming from chronically low levels of producer surplus retention and similar problems of social welfare associated with reduced levels of remunerated labor in the industrial sector. Second, there is a parallel need for connecting the negative social and environmental costs of capitalist agriculture. The case study uses the evolving production process on individual farms as a means of exploring the causal relationship between the movement towards capitalist social relations and environmental degradation resulting from intensive patterns of synthetic chemical use. And third, the role of agency among family farmers faced with a regional economic crisis emerges from the case study analysis. In the 1980s, a small minority of Iowa farmers would adopt, perfect and disseminate a low-chemical input system of production attuned to the logic of family farm social relations. The contribution of the state-sponsored research institutions was notably absent. The case example highlights the process of technological change as a socially-constructed phenomenon subject to alternative forms of rationality that emerge from different syntheses of ecological conditions and social relations.

  210. NAL Call #: HD1401.A56
    Trade Agreements and Incentives for Environmental Quality: A Western Hemisphere Example.
    Ballenger, N., Krissoff, B., and Beattie, R.
    Agribusiness. v. 11 (2): pp. 131-138. (Mar/Apr 1995).

  211. NAL Call #: TD365.C54-1995
    Tradeoffs Between Economics and Water Quality.
    Supalla, R. J., Selley, R. A., and Ahmad, S.
    Clean Water, Clean Environment, 21st Century Team Agriculture, Working to Protect Water Resources Conference Proceedings, March 5-8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri. v. 3: pp. 275-278. (1995).

  212. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Transaction Costs and Agricultural Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution Control Policies.
    Smith, R. B. W. and Tomasi, T. D.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 20 (2): pp. 277-290. (Dec 1995).

  213. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Uncoordinated Agricultural and Environmental Policy Making: An Application to Irrigated Agriculture in the West.
    Weinberg, M. and Kling, C. L.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 78 (1): pp. 65-78. (Feb 1996).

    Abstract: Agriculture and the environment are linked by a mutual reliance on scarce resources and prevalent market distortions. In this paper we examine the efficiency costs of policies that correct distortions in one sector while ignoring those in another. The dual distortions of an environmental externality and water subsidies are studied in the context of irrigated agriculture in California. The welfare costs associated with independent action by either a water agency or an environmental authority when that policy maker attempts to correct the respective market distortion without consideration of the distortion in the other market are estimated. Policies to correct the two distortions are found to be complementary. Under these conditions, the independent correction of either distortion improves welfare by at least $118 per acre. In most cases, the simultaneous adoption of various second-best policies further reduces welfare losses associated with these distortions.

  214. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Using Spatial Information to Reduce Costs of Controlling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution.
    Carpentier, C. L., Bosch, D. J., and Batie, S. S.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 27 (1): pp. 72-84. (Apr 1998).

  215. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Utility-Consistent Discrete-Continuous Choices in Soil Conservation.
    Lohr, L. and Park, T. A.
    Land Econ. v. 71 (4): pp. 474-490. (Nov 1995).

  216. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Valuing Water Quality Monitoring: A Contingent Valuation Experiment Involving Hypothetical and Real Payments.
    Spencer, M. A., Swallow, S. K., and Miller, C. J.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 27 (1): pp. 28-42. (Apr 1998).

  217. NAL Call #: HD1773.A2N6
    Voluntary Economic and Environmental Risk Tradeoffs in Crop Protection Decisions.
    Lohr, L., Park, T., and Wetzstein, M.
    Agric Resour Econ Rev. v. 27 (1): pp. 108-116. (Apr 1998).

  218. NAL Call #: HD1773.A3N6
    Voluntary Versus Mandatory Agricultural Policies to Protect Water Quality: Adoption of Nitrogen Testing in Nebraska.
    Bosch, D. J., Cook, Z. L., and Fuglie, K. O.
    Rev Agric Econ. v. 17 (1): pp. 13-24. (Jan 1995).

    Abstract: Agriculture is an important source of nonpoint source pollution and potential damage to water quality. Voluntary incentives and regulatory policies are followed by both the states and the federal government to reduce water quality damage from agricultural practices. Policy makers are concerned about the relative effectiveness of each approach for protecting water quality. The effectiveness of regulation versus a combination of voluntary incentive approaches are evaluated for an area in central Nebraska. Policy effectiveness is measured in two parts: (1) whether farmers receiving incentives are more likely to conduct soil or tissue nitrogen (N) tests; and (2) whether farmers use the test results as the most important factor in N management decisions. Personal interview surveys of Nebraska farmers were analyzed to determine farmers' use of soil and/or tissue testing to help make N fertilizer decisions on fields planted to corn. The effects of regulation and voluntary programs on the use of N testing were evaluated. The effects on adoption of farmers' education and experience; type, size, and tenure status of the farm; irrigation; and soil characteristics of the sample field were also considered. The results show that while regulation leads to higher levels of N test adoption, it does not have an "educational" effect on adopters. Voluntary incentive policies appear to be more effective in encouraging farmers to use information from N tests. Regulation to enforce adoption of practices to protect water quality may not induce the desired behavioral changes. Educational programs may be needed to complement regulations to insure that farmers change their behavior to achieve the goals of water quality protection.

  219. NAL Call #: 282.8-J82
    Water and Land As Quantity-Rationed Inputs in California Agriculture: Empirical Tests and Water Policy Implications.
    Moore, M. R. and Dinar, A.
    Land Econ. v. 71 (4): pp. 445-461. (Nov 1995).

  220. NAL Call #: 280.8-J822
    Water Conservation Policy Analysis: An Interregional, Multi-Output, Primal-Dual Optimization Approach.
    Schaible, G. D.
    Am J Agric Econ. v. 79 (1): pp. 163-177. (Feb 1997).

  221. NAL Call #: HD1750.W4
    Wheat Yield Response to Changes in Production Practices Induced by Program Provisions.
    Epplin, F. M.
    J Agric Resour Econ. v. 22 (2): pp. 333-344. (Dec 1997).

  222. NAL Call #: 99.8-F768
    Will Consumers Pay More for Certified Wood Products.
    Forsyth, K., Haley, D., and Kozak, R.
    J For. v. 97 (2): pp. 18-22. (Feb 1999).

  223. NAL Call #: S605.5.A43
    The Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial: Combining Agroecology With Production Agronomy.
    Posner, J. L., Casler, M. D., and Baldock, J. O.
    Am J Altern Agric. v. 10 ((3)): pp. 98-107. (Summer 1995).

    Abstract: Two large-scale (25 ha) trials were initiated in 1989 in Wisconsin to compare six alternative production systems regarding productivity, profitability, and environmental impact. The project was designed and is managed by a coalition of farmers, extension agents and research personnel. Deliberations between production-oriented and ecologically oriented team members resulted in of factorial design, with two enterprise types (cash grain and forage-livestock) and three levels of biological complexity. Statistical methods have been used to identify the most efficient plot size, plot shape, and block shape, and the optimal procedures for sampling soil characteristics. A uniformity year was allowed before initiation of the trial and the start was staggered. We defined treatments as production strategies rather than a specific set of inputs, which led to a more flexible plot management program.

  224. NAL Call #: S530.J6
    WMCE: An Animal Waste Management Cost Estimation Computer Model.
    Bullock, D. K., Poe, S. E., Farrell Poe, K. L., and Miller, B. E.
    J Nat Resour Life Sci Educ. v. 24 (2): pp. 161-163. (Fall 1995).

  225. NAL Call #: 56.8-J822
    WQIP: An Assessment of Its Chances for Acceptance by Farmers.
    Kraft, S. E., Lant, C., and Gillman, K.
    J Soil Water Conserv. v. 51 (6): pp. 494-498. (Nov/Dec 1996).

World Wide Web Sites


U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

1996 Farm Bill Conservation Provisions
This Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) site focuses on the conservation provisions of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996. Includes overview and digest of these conservation practices as well as fact sheets and Q&A files about individual provisions, some of which are listed below.

The Benefits of Protecting Rural Water Quality: An Empirical Analysis by Stephen R. Crutchfield, Peter M. Feather and Daniel R. Hellerstein (Natural Resources and Environment Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Economic Report No. 701)
This report explores the use of nonmarket valuation methods to estimate the benefits of protecting or improving rural water quality from agricultural sources of pollution. Two case studies show how these valuation methods can be used to include water-quality benefits estimates in economic analyses of specific policies to prevent or reduce water pollution.

Conservation Reserve Program
Find the latest news, publications, specifications, and data about the program on this Farm Service Agency (FSA) site.

Economic Valuation of Environmental Benefits and the Targeting of Conservation Programs: The Case of the CRP by Peter Feather, Daniel Hellerstein, and LeRoy Hansen (Resource Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Agricultural Economic Report No. 778)
The range of environmental problems confronting agriculture has expanded in recent years. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has broadened its initial focus on reductions in soil erosion to consider other landscape factors that may also be beneficial. For example, preserving habitats can help protect wildlife, thus leading to more nature-viewing opportunities. This report demonstrates how non-market valuation models can be used in targeting conservation programs such as the CRP.

Economic Research Service Domestic Conservation and Environmental Policies Briefing Room
This Economic Research Service (ERS) program conducts economic research on the efficiency, effectiveness and equity of policies and programs directed toward improving the environmental performance of the agricultural sector.

Economics of Water Quality Protection from Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice by Marc O. Ribaudo, Richard D. Horan, and Mark E. Smith (Resource Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Agricultural Economic Report No. 782.)
This report outlines the economic characteristics of five instruments that can be used to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution (economic incentives, standards, education, liability, and research) and discusses empirical research related to the use of these instruments.

ERS Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators
These reports examine the economic factors that affect resource use and, when data permit, estimates the costs and benefits (to farmers, consumers, and the government) of meeting conservation and environmental goals.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Community-Based Environmental Protection (CBEP)
Community-Based Environmental Protection (CBEP) integrates environmental management with human needs, considers long-term ecosystem health and highlights the positive correlations between economic prosperity and environmental well-being. Tells where you can find publications, information, pointers for technical assistance and resources, case studies, tools, and links to other sites and a powerful and unique search engine.

Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters; Chapter 2: Management Measures for Agricultural Sources
This book chapter addresses six categories of sources of agricultural nonpoint pollution that affect coastal waters (erosion from cropland, confined animal facilities, the application of nutrients to cropland, the application of pesticides to cropland, grazing management and irrigation of cropland), and provides, in addition to other pertinent data, information on costs of the measure and/or practices to achieve the measure.

Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force
The Task Force was established to study the causes and effects of excessive nutrient runoff to the Mississippi River Basin and to coordinate and implement nutrient reduction activities to alleviate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. This site provides background information about the program (charter, draft strategies listed below) and summaries of meeting of the group.

PESP Agricultural Conservation Innovation Center (ACIC)
ACIC, a part of EPA's Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP), offers technical resources and insurance policies in the areas of Integrated Pest Management and Conservation Innovation Risk.

Win-Win Strategy for Addressing Excessive Nutrient Enrichment of Waters within the Mississippi River Basin and on the Texas-Louisiana Inner Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force).
This document presents a strategy for reducing excessive nutrient enrichment in waters of the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River (MAR) Basin and in waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico on the Texas-Louisiana inner continental shelf (sometimes referred to as the "dead zone"). This strategy seeks to take advantage of water quality improvement efforts underway or planned nationally, and therefore in the Basin. Water resources within the Basin--rivers, wetlands, lakes, and streams--and the Gulf of Mexico are expected to benefit from these efforts.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Evaluation of Economic Costs and Benefits of Methods for Reducing Nutrient Loads to the Gulf of Mexico
This report analyzes recommendations for reducing nitrogen losses to the Gulf of Mexico and indicates the relative costs and cost effectiveness of different control measures, as well as estimates of possible intra-Mississippi River Basin benefits. For major nonpoint sources like agriculture, national as well as basin costs and benefits are examined.


AgEcon Search: Research in Agriculture and Applied Economics
AgEcon Search is designed to index and electronically distribute full text reports of scholarly research in the field of agricultural and applied economics. [Search: environment* or use your own search strategy to access on-line publications.]

Conservation Title of the Federal Agricultural Improvement & Reform Act of 1996
(Agriculture & Business Management Economists, Agriculture and Resource Economics Department, Colorado State University)
This is a summary of the conservation title of the 1996 farm bill. It includes descriptions of such programs as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the new Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), Farmland Protection Program (FPP), and others.

How Do Economists Value the Environmental Effects of Livestock Production? by Carl V. Phillips (Minnesota Agricultural Economist, No. 697)
This article outlines some of the factors to consider when placing an economic value on the environmental effects of animal agriculture. While the authors did find a number of economic studies that partially addressed this issue, they found none that did a complete job. In their view, any study of animal agriculture must examine both on-farm and off-farm economic systems. The full study did so, but the authors focus this paper only on some of the off-farm costs and benefits that are not typically considered by livestock producers.

Incentive Programs For Improving Environmental Quality by Jon Rausch and Brent Sohngen (Agricultural Economics, Ohio State University Extension)
This fact sheet describes several incentive programs available in Ohio which target nonpoint sources of pollution.

Integrated Resource Management System (Center for Agricultural, Resource and Environmental System (CARES), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) and the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC))
Integrated Resource Management System (IRMS) is a user friendly Internet-based decision support system. The system addresses total resource management and conservation practices by integrating ecological and economic models with a geographic information system (GIS).

Toward an Economics of Sustainability by John E. Ikerd (University of Missouri)
Economists tend to treat sustainability as a resource economics issue, a public policy issue, or an economic development issue. New theory, rather than new public policy based on old theory, will be needed to guide humanity toward sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to outline a case for developing such a theory--an "economics of sustainability."


Agricultural Conservation Innovation Center (ACIC)

ACIC (Web site)
The Agricultural Conservation Innovation Center develops economically practical solutions to agricultural-environmental problems and makes these rapidly available to farmers and ranchers.

American Farm Bureau

Environment, Farm Bureau Working for You
Farmers are part of the environment and want to play positive roles in addressing environmental issues. Farm Bureau is leading the fight for common sense in environmental regulations. The purpose of Farm Bureau is to make the business of farming more profitable, and the community a better place to live.
[2000 edition is referenced.]

American Farmland Trust (AFT)

American Farmland Trust (Web site)
The American Farmland Trust is a private, nonprofit organization founded in 1980 to protect our nation's farmland. AFT works to stop the loss of productive farmland and to promote farming practices that lead to a healthy environment. Of particular interest is the AFT Farmland Information Library, including farmland protection fact sheets, full-text literature, laws, maps, statistics and more resources.

Committee for the National Institute for the Environment (CNIE)

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues by Jeffrey Zinn (Congressional Research Service)
In this Congressional Research Service (CRS) Issue Brief for Congress, the author addresses the background and legislative history of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), as well as some issues that remain over increasing the overall size of the CRP, offering shorter-term contracts as a new option, and changing environmental targets. These issues are being monitored by agricultural and environmental interests and both agriculture committees. This report will be updated as events warrant.

Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP): Status and Issues by Jeffrey Zinn (Congressional Research Service)
In this Congressional Research Service (CRS) Issue Brief for Congress, the author addresses the background and legislative history of the EQIP program, as well as some issues that were raised during the implementation process, including determining priority areas, funding, and the definition of large confined livestock operations.

Soil and Water Conservation Issues by Jeffrey Zinn (Congressional Research Service)
In this Congressional Research Service (CRS) Issue Brief for Congress, the author addresses the background and legislative history of core programmatic activities, including 1) implementing the Conservation Reserve Program to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive land; 2) implementing Conservation Compliance and Swampbuster Programs which remove incentives to cultivate highly erodible lands and wetlands; 3) implementing the Wetland Reserve Program to set aside agricultural wetlands; and 4) implementing EQIP.

Fox-Wolf Basin 2000

Watershed-Based Trading & The Law: Wisconsin's Experience
In recent years, there has been growing interest in developing watershed-based trading as a regulatory tool to meet water quality goals. The incentives driving that interest are generally twofold. On one level, wastewater treatment operations are increasingly looking for cost-effective alternatives to expensive capital investments in their plants in order to meet treatment demands. On a second level, society is seeking ways to correct ongoing water quality degradation that cannot be exclusively addressed by treatment plants. Trading is widely viewed as a win-win option to cooperatively meet both demands.

Heritage Foundation

Navigating the American Heritage Rivers Initiative: Wasting Resources on Bureaucracy by Alexander F. Annett (Heritage Foundation background paper, No. 1231)
A view from the Heritage Foundation. Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institute--a think tank--whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.

National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (NASDA)

Innovative Approaches to Natural Resource Protection: A Resource Management Planning Process Guide/Model for State Agencies and Others
The purpose of this document is to provide a step-by-step "how-to" guide for use by agricultural organizations; agricultural consultants and service providers; local, state, and federal agencies; or others who are interested in starting a voluntary, site-specific, comprehensive resource management planning (RMP) program for individual farmers and ranchers in a local community, watershed, or other geographic area.

Northeast Midwest Institute

Nonpoint Finance Project Summary of Findings and Recommendations
The Nonpoint Finance Project seeks to develop innovative ideas to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and integration of federal funding programs for NPS pollution remediation. The Project aims to ensure that every dollar spent on NPS pollution purchases the maximum NPS abatement possible. The Project explores NPS finance through forums involving key stakeholders, including the regulated community, regulators, funding program managers, environmental and agricultural organizations, finance experts, and academics.

Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS)

Soil and Water Conservation Society Position Paper: Sustainable Agriculture
In this position paper, the Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) addresses the question, "What can SWCS do to speed development and adoption of sustainable systems?" Among the answers: "Develop a realistic approach to providing relative costs and benefits to adoption of sustainable practices. These costs and benefits should include economic, environmental, rural development, and social well-being."

Related Sites

Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
ARS is the principal internal research agency of the USDA and conducts much research related to agriculture and the environment.

AGROS Agricultural Research Data Directory
AGROS, is a system for the management and application of USDA research data sets and related information. The directory module is a searchable inventory which contains a collection of data descriptions of USDA's research, including soil, crop and plant, forest, rangeland, and animal sciences, as well as nutrition, economics, population and other agricultural and natural resources.

Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES)
In cooperation with its partners and customers, CSREES provides the focus to advance a global system of research, extension and higher education in the food and agricultural sciences and related environmental and human sciences to benefit people, communities, and the Nation.

EPA Compliance and Enforcement
This site is designed to provide a base for "first-stop shopping" for the agriculture community--one place for the development of comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about approaches to compliance that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

Farm Service Agency (FSA)
Through administration of conservation programs, FSA assists agricultural producers and landowners in achieving a high level of stewardship of soil, water, air, and wildlife resources on America's farmland and ranches.

National Agricultural Library (NAL) Information Centers
The work done by these resource centers emphasizes NAL's unique ability to help meet people's information needs on specialized topics.

Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN)
SAN is the communications and outreach arm of the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program--a USDA/CSREES-funded initiative that works to increase knowledge about--and help farmers and ranchers adopt--practices that are economically viable, environmentally sound and socially responsible.

University of Nebraska/Agricultural Network Information Center (AgNIC) Water Quality Node
The purpose of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Excellence in Water Quality Program is to provide high quality web-based information through AgNIC.

U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources Division
USGS has the principal responsibility within the federal government to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed by others to achieve the best use and management of the Nation's water resources.

U.S. Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS)
GCDIS is the set of individual agency data and information systems. The GCDIS user community extends from global change researchers to other researchers, policymakers, educators, private industry, and private citizens. Through the GCDIS, all communities will be able to learn what data and information are available, have the key holdings available in useful forms with ready access, and be assured of their quality and continued availability.

U.S. Global Change Research Information Office(GCRIO)
The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on global environmental change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change related educational resources on behalf of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and its participating Federal Agencies and Organizations. GCRIO distributed more than 40,000 copies of publications to people in the United States and 110 other countries, and responded to thousands of questions about global change through "ASK Dr. Global Change" which is accessible at the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) (See URL above). GCRIO is implemented by The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University.


Agri-Environmental Policy at the Crossroads: Guideposts on a Changing Landscape By Roger Claassen, LeRoy Hansen, Mark Peters, Vince Breneman, Marca Weinberg, Andrea Cattaneo, Peter Feather, Dwight Gadsby, Daniel Hellerstein, Jeff Hopkins, Paul Johnston, Mitch Morehart, Mark Smith (Natural Resources and Environment Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Economic Report No. 794)
''This report identifies the types of policy tools available and the design features that have improved the effectiveness of current agri-environmental programs. It provides an in-depth analysis of one policy tool that may be an important component of a future policy package-agri-environmental payments. The analysis focuses on issues and tradeoffs that policymakers would face in designing a program of agri-environmental payments.''

Maintenance of Productive Capacity of Forest Ecosystems; Criterion 5: First Approximation Report (Oregon Department of Forestry)
Report outlines criteria for the conservation and sustainable management of forests and includes sustainable forest values represented by economic, environmental and social values. A forest's ability to store carbon is seen as one of these values. Carbon sequestration details are considered under Criterion 5, Maintenance of Productive Capacity of Forest Ecosystems.

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Last update: December 29, 2004
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U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research ServiceNational Agricultural Library