Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Dairy Farm Manure Management (II)

80 citations from the Agricola Database
January 1995 - September 1997

Mary Stevanus
Water Quality Information Center

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1. Agricultural composting in the United States .
Kashmanian,-R.M.; Rynk,-R.F.
Compost-sci-util. Emmaus, PA : JG Press, 1993-. Summer 1995. v. 3 (3) p. 84-88.
NAL Call Number: TD796.5.C58

Descriptors: composting-. on-farm-processing. surveys-. cattle-manure. poultry-. pigs-. carcasses-. poultry-manure. pig-manure. crop-residues. usa-.


2. Ammmonia losses from Zimbabwean cattle manure before and after incorporation into soil
Murwira,-H.K.
Trop-agric. St. Augustine, Trinidad : The University of the West Indies Press. Oct 1995. v. 72 (4) p. 269-273.
NAL Call Number: 26-T754

Descriptors: cattle-manure. ammonia-. losses-from-soil. storage-. handling-. feedlot-wastes. placement-. soil-management. moisture-content. volatilization-. decomposition-. soil-water. zimbabwe-.


3. Anaerobic digester survey of California dairy producers.
Morse,-D.; Guthrie,-J.C.; Mutters,-R.
Journal of Dairy Science. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association. Jan 1996. v. 79 (1) p. 149-153.
NAL Call Number: 44.8-J822

Descriptors: methane-production. anaerobic-digesters. dairy-farms. cattle-manure. waste-utilization. pollution-control. volatile-compounds. electricity-generators. biogas. electricity. prices. california.

Abstract: We conducted a survey to identify for the US Environmental Protection Agency examples of and reasons for the failure of many previously installed methane recovery systems. Six dairy producers participated in this survey. Installation costs of systems ranged from $100,000 to $950,000. Three producers have continued their dairy operations but no longer use methane recovery technology. Two producers were favorable to the technology but no longer operate a dairy. Of those surveyed, only one producer continues to use methane recovery technology. Identified problems associated with unsuccessful operations included poor design, collection of manure in a wet form, and incomplete cooperation from electric companies. Producers found that the technology required intense management and was economically risky. Increased cooperation between electric companies and small producers of electricity and greater prices paid for electricity might provide positive economic incentives that would encourage methane recovery and electricity generation.


4. Anaerobic digestion of liquefied cow manure pretreated by catalytic liquefaction.
Jungersen,-G.; Ahring,-B.K.
Water science and technology; v. 30 no. 12.
Anaerobic digestion VII selected proceedings of the IAWQ 7th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, held in Cape Town, South Africa, 23-28 January 1994 / International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion. 1st ed. Oxford, U.K. : Tarrytown, N.Y. : Pergamon : Elsevier Science, 1995. p. 385-394.
NAL Call Number: TD420.A1P7-v.30-no.12

Descriptors: anaerobic-digestion. cattle-manure. liquid-manures. pretreatment-. processing-. heat-treatment. pressure-. bioreactors-.


5. Best management practices for reducing nitrate contamination of the groundwater on dairy farms.
Holloway,-M.P.; Bottcher,-A.B.; Nordstedt,-R.A.; Campbell,-K.L.
Applied Engineering in Agirculture. St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985-. Mar 1996. v. 12 (2) p. 197-202.
NAL Call Number: S671.A66

Descriptors: groundwater-pollution. nitrate-. contamination-. leaching-. dairy-farms. pollution-control. farm-management. simulation-models. computer-simulation. nitrogen-cycle. farm-inputs. nitrogen-. economic-evaluation. water-quality. florida-.

Abstract: Groundwater studies conducted in north Florida indicate that improperly managed waste from dairy farms can create groundwater nitrate pollution. A study was conducted using suction lysimeters and the CREAMS computer model to evaluate recommended best management practices (BMPs) at several dairy farms in north Florida. The BMPs were determined from a nitrogen balance to reduce the amount of nitrate leaching from the dairies while maintaining economic vitality. A complete list of BMPs is given within the article.


6. Biological phosphorus removal by pure culture of Lampropedia spp.
Stante,-L.; Cellamare,-C.M.; Malaspina,-F.; Bortone,-G.; Tilche,-A.
Water Resources. Oxford, U.K. : Elsevier Science Ltd. June 1997. v. 31 (6) p. 1317-1324.
NAL Call Number: TD420.W3

Descriptors: piggery-effluent. dairy-effluent. waste-water. waste-water-treatment. biological-treatment. gram-negative-bacteria. phosphorus. phosphates.


7. Carbon mineralization in soils of different textures as affected by water-soluble organic carbon extracted from composted dairy manure.
Liang,-B.C.; Gregorich,-E.G.; Schnitzer,-M.; Voroney,-R.P.
Biol-fertil-soils. Berlin ; a Secaucus, N.J. : Springer International, 1985-. 1996. v. 21 (1/2) p. 10-16.
NAL Call Number: QH84.8.B46

Descriptors: clay-soils. sandy-soils. loam-soils. carbon-. mineralization-. soil-flora. biological-activity-in-soil. composts-. cattle-manure. soil-organic-matter. solubility-.

Abstract: The water-soluble organic C in composted manure contains a portion of labile C which can stimulate soil microbial activity. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble organic C extracted from composted dairy manure on C mineralization in soil with different textures. Three soils with textures varying from 3 to 54% clay were amended with 0 to 80 mg water-soluble organic C kg-1 soil extracted from a composted dairy manure and incubated for 16 weeks at 23 degrees C. The total amount of C mineralized was greater than the amount of C added in the three soils. Differences in mineralizable C with and without added water-soluble organic C were approximately 13-16 times, 4.8-8 times, and 7.5-8 times greater than the amount of C added to clay, loam, and sand soils, respectively. The results of this experiment suggest that immediately following composted manure applications, C mineralization rates increase, and that most of the C mineralized comes mainly from the indigenous soil organic C pool.


8. Changes in functional abilities of the microbial community during composting of manure .
Insam,-H.; Amor,-K.; Renner,-M.; Crepaz,-C.
Microb-ecol. New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1996. v. 31 (1) p. 77-87.
NAL Call Number: QR100.M5

Descriptors: cattle-manure. composting-. turning-. frequency-. microbial-flora. biomass-production. respiration-. maturity-.

Abstract: The objective of this study was (a) to detect changes of the functional abilities of the microflora during composting of manure as a result of windrow turning frequency and (b) to detect differences between distinct zones within the windrows. Biolog GN microtiter plates containing 95 different carbon sources were inoculated with diluted suspensions of compost material containing 15,000 microorganisms per well (120 microliter). We found a dramatic shift in functional microbial community structure during the 8-week composting process. The shift was more rapid when the compost windrows were turned. The substrate use pattern in the outer, well-aerated zone of the unturned windrow was similar to that of the turned windrows. Microbial biomass and respiration decreased more rapidly in the turned than in the unturned windrows, indicating a different pace of compost maturation. The data suggest that the Biolog assay may be a suitable approach to determine compost maturity.


9. Characterization of water extracts of two manures and their adsorption on soils.
Liang,-B.C.; Gregorich,-E.G.; Schnitzer,-M.; Schulten,-H.R.
Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of America. Nov/Dec 1996. v. 60 (6) p. 1758-1763.
NAL Call Number: 56.9-So3

Descriptors: cattle-manure. composts-. comparisons-. extracts-. characterization-. chemical-composition. organic-matter. adsorption-. soil-types-textural. soil-texture. clay-.

Abstract: To uncover possible chemical differences between stockpiled and composted dairy manures, water extracts of these manures were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). Judging from the 13C NMR, which took into consideration all of the organic C present, aliphatic and aromatic C in the composted and stockpiled manure extracts were similar but the composted manure extract appeared to be richer in protein C, phenolic C, and carboxylic C and poorer in carbohydrate C than the stockpiled manure extract. Major components of the extract of the stockpiled manure extract determined by Py-FIMS, which measured only volatile organics, were N compounds > phenols + monolignins > carbohydrates > alkylaromatics > peptides = lipids > lignin dimers > sterols > fatty acids > suberins. On the other hand, the quantitative order of organic components of the composted manure extract was phenols + monolignins > N compounds > carbohydrates > peptides > alkylaromatics > lipids > fatty acids > sterols = lignin dimers > suberins. The relatively low total ion intensity of the water extract of the composted manure and its greater aromaticity suggested that composting increased polymerizathin and cross-linking and so led to the formation of larger molecules. Water-soluble organic C (DOC) extracted from the manures was used to study adsorption isotherms on soils varying in clay content from 3 to 54%. The adsorption of the DOC by the soils increased as the clay and organic matter contents and the surface areas of the soils increased. Increased adsorption of the DOC extracted from the composted manure appeared to be due to increased molecular weights. of the major DOC components.


10. A comparative study of anaerobic digestion of acid cheese whey and dairy manure in a two-stage reactor.
Ghaly,-A.E.
Bioresour-technol. Oxford, U.K. : Elsevier Science Limited. Oct 1, 1996. v. 58 (1) p. 61-72.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A32

Abstract: The performance of a two-stage, two-phase, unmixed anaerobic digester of 1551 working volume operating on acid cheese whey and dairy manure at various temperatures and hydraulic retention times was investigated. The effect of controlling the pH of the methanogonic stage of cheese whey digestion on the biogas production rate and pollution potential reduction was also investigated. The digester was designed to act as a liquid-solid separator, in order to maximize the microbial mass in the reactor, and was operated at three hydraulic retention times (10, 15 and 20 days) and two temperatures (25 and 35 degrees C). It operated as a single-phase reactor under both the cheese whey and dairy manure feeding conditions when the pH was not controlled (similar pH values in the inlet and outlet chambers) and as a two-stage, two-phase reactor when the pH of the whey was controlled in the methanogenic stage (different pH values in the inlet and outlet chambers). The results indicated that production of biogas from cheese whey without pH control is not feasible as the digester experienced acid-phase digestion in both stages. However, controlling the pH of the methanogenic stage increased the biogas production rate and methane yield, as well as the reductions in COD and solids concentrations of the cheese whey by a factor of 2.7-3.0. Although the pH was maintained at 5.7-6.0, the results are comparable to those obtained with dairy manure of a similar solids concentration and a pH of 7 +/- 0.2. A further increase in the pH (to 7.0 +/- 0.2) would, therefore, increase the biogas production rate and methane yield from cheese whey.


11. Constructed wetland treatment of animal waste in Indiana: management implications.
Reaves,-R.P.; DuBowy,-P.J.; Jones,-D.D.; Sutton,-A.L.
Clean water, clean environment, 21st century team agriculture, working to protect water resources conference proceedings, March 5-8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE, c1995. v. 2 p. 179-182.
NAL Call Number: TD365.C54-1995

Descriptors: wetlands. aquatic-plants. waste-water-treatment. waste-treatment. dairy-effluent. piggery-effluent. lagoons. indiana.


12. DAFOSYM for Windows. Version 1.2 (17-Jun-96).
U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center.
[United States] : U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, [1996]-
NAL Call Number: aSF240.D34--1996

Descriptors: Dairy-farming-United-States-Computer-simulation. Dairy-farming-Economic-aspects-United-States-Computer-programs. Cattle-Manure-Handling-United-States-Computer-simulation. Crops-and-climate-United-States-Computer-simulation.

Abstract: The Dairy Forage System Model, DAFOSYM, is a simulation model that simulates the production, harvest and feeding of crops, the production and handling of manure, and the costs and returns of representative dairy farms. It is useful for evaluating long term performance and costs of alternative technologies and management strategies for the dairy farm.


13. Dairy industry's next environmental challenge lies with facility updating.
Chandler,-P.
Feedstuffs. Carol Stream, Ill. : Miller Publishing Company. June 12, 1995. v. 67 (24) p. 11-12, 17.
NAL Call Number: 286.81-F322

Descriptors: dairy-industry. dairy-farming. environmental-protection. water-pollution. dairy-wastes.


14. Dairy lagoon effluent irrigation: effects on runoff quality, soil chemistry, and forage yield.
Sweeten,-J.M.; Wolfe,-M.L.; Chasteen,-E.S.; Sanderson,-M.; Auvermann,-B.A.; Alston,-G.D.
Animal waste and the land-water interface /. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 99-106.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: dairy-effluent. application-to-land. irrigation. runoff. water-quality. sandy-loam-soils. soil-properties. soil-depth. cynodon-dactylon. triticum-aestivum. crop-yield. waste-utilization. texas.


15. Dairy loafing lot rotational management system for non-point source pollution control.
Younos,-T.M.; Collins,-E.R.; Ross,-B.B.; Swisher,-J.M.; Shank,-R.F.; Wooden,-K.G.
Animal waste and the land-water interface /. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 377-382.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: dairy-farming. paddocks-. rotations-. dairy-cows. stocking-density. runoff-. erosion-. water-pollution. pollution-control. virginia-.


16. Dairy manure incorporation stimulates rapid atrazine mineralization in an agricultural soil.
Topp,-E.; Tessier,-L.; Gregorich,-E.G.
Can-j-soil-sci. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada, 1957-. Aug 1996. v. 76 (3) p. 403-409.
NAL Call Number: 56.8-C162
Language: English; Summary in: French

Descriptors: agricultural-soils. atrazine-. mineralization-. persistence-. soil-flora. microbial-degradation. cattle-manure. incorporation-. biological-activity-in-soil. stimulation-. ontario-.


17. Design of constructed wetlands for dairy waste water treatment in Louisiana.
Chen,-S.; Cothren,-G.M.; DeRamus,-H.A.; Langlinais,-S.; Huner,-J.V.; Malone,-R.F.
Animal waste and the land-water interface. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 197-204.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: dairy-wastes. waste-water-treatment. water-flow. wetlands. water-systems. design. pollution-control. louisiana.


18. Determining optimal nutrient management strategies for dairy farms.
Henry,-G.M.; DeLorenzo,-M.A.; Beede,-D.K.; Van-Horn,-H.H.; Moss,-C.B.; Boggess,-W.G.
J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association. Mar 1995. v. 78 (3) p. 693-703.
NAL Call Number: 44.8-J822

Descriptors: dairy-farms. cattle-manure. nutrient-balance. nutrient-uptake. equations-. linear-models. linear-programming. maize-. sorghum-. hay-. oats-. forage-. cycling-. milk-yield. cattle-feeding. feed-intake. dry-matter. milk-production-costs. florida-.


20. Dietary protein effects on nitrogen excretion and manure characteristics of lactating cows.
Tomlinson,-A.P.; Powers,-W.J.; Van-Horn,-H.H.; Nordstedt,-R.A.; Wilcox,-C.J.
Trans-ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers. July/Aug 1996. v. 39 (4) p. 1441-1448.
NAL Call Number: 290.9-Am32T

Descriptors: dairy-cows. lactating-females. dietary-protein. protein-sources. cattle-manure. urine-. nutrients-. nitrogen-. excretion-. digestibility-. losses-from-soil. dry-matter. feed-intake. feces-composition. prediction-. equations-. milk-yield. water-pollution.

Abstract: In the primary experiment, 12 diets were fed to 34 lactating cows with the objective to determine effects of level and source of dietary protein on N excretion, the first estimate needed to budget manure N flow and utilization on dairy farms. Complete collection of urine and feces separately allowed for determination of digestibilities and urine and fecal excretion of N. Equations to predict N excretion in urine and feces were developed using DM intake and N intake as the primary predictors. Including milk yield or body weight in the model did not account for appreciable additional variation. Fecal plus urine N excretions estimated from these equations agreed closely with NRC equations and estimates made assuming that N consumed was either secreted in milk or excreted in urine and feces (diet N minus milk N). Predicted N excretion for 635 kg Holstein cows consuming 17.8 kg/d dry matter (15.3% CP), which is the estimated amount required for 22.7 kg milk/d, was 325 g (150 g urine N and 175 g feces N). Fecal DM excretion averaged 34.3% of DM intake (6.1 kg for typical cow) and was 88.2% volatile solids; daily urine dry matter averaged 0.9 kg/d (20 kg urine/d averaging 0.045% dry matter) and was 47.8% volatile solids. Additionally, compositions and total daily excretions were determined for feces (ADF, NDF, crude fat, Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Mo) and urine (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P). As with N, amounts of various fractions excreted daily were closely associated with DM intake (which varies with milk production) and were much less variable than percentage compositions. Abbreviation key: BM = blood meal, Ca-LCFA = Ca soaps of long-chain fatty acids, CP =. crude protein = N X 6.25, DM = dry matter, DMI = DM intake, FtM = feather meal, RUP = ruminally undegraded protein, SBM = soybean meal.


21. Dirty water or dilute waste.
Frost,-J.P.
Agricultural Engineer. Silsoe : Institution of Agricultural Engineers. Winter 1995. v. 50 (4) p. 2-4.
NAL Call Number: 58.9-In7

Descriptors: grasslands. silage-effluent. feedlot-effluent. dairy-effluent. waste-water. water-harvesting. loam-soils. sprinkler-irrigation. nutrient-content. potassium. nitrogen. phosphorus. magnesium. scorch. northern-ireland.


22. Economics of widespread manure application to irrigated crops: raw and composted feedlot manure in eastern Colorado.
Wang,-E.; Sparling,-E.
Am-J-altern-agric. Greenbelt, MD : Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture. Fall 1995. v. 10 (4) p. 167-172.
NAL Call Number: S605.5.A43

Descriptors: irrigated-farming. agricultural-land. cattle-manure. composts-. application-to-land. waste-utilization. organic-fertilizers. economic-viability. environmental-protection. linear-programming. colorado-.

Abstract: We used linear programming to simulate adoption of manure disposal technologies in eastern Colorado. Manure, either raw or composted, is assumed to be applied to irrigated cropland within 20 miles of feedlots in five subregions of eastern Colorado. We constrained the application so that total N application is no more than the amount used by the crop. N, P and K contents are taken into account, but no benefits are assigned to organic matter or trace minerals and no costs are assigned to soil compaction, weed seed propagation, or inconvenience. Irrigated land within 10 miles of feedlots can easily absorb all manure generated under this scenario. Manure is found to be an economical substitute for chemical fertilizers, assuming N content to be at least 50% that of fresh manure. Composted manure is either more or less profitable than raw manure, depending on its N content. Hauling costs are lower for compost but composting costs are between $1 and $2 per finished ton. The model does not allow for mixed application of compost and chemical fertilizers, which would increase the value of compost significantly. A feedlot waste sector that composted all feedlot manure in eastern Colorado is predicted to create between 80 and 200 additional jobs.


22. The effect of animal manure applications on the forms of soil phosphorus.
Robinson,-J.S.; Sharpley,-A.N.; Smith,-S.J.
Animal waste and the land-water interface /. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 43-48.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: cattle-manure. poultry-manure. pig-slurry. application-to-land. phosphorus-. availability-. soil-ph. spatial-distribution. soil-fertility. texas-. oklahoma-.


23. Effect of pH, temperature, amount of litter and storage density on ammonia emissions from stable manure.
Dewes,-T.
J-agric-sci. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Dec 1996. v. 127 (pt.4) p. 501-509.
NAL Call Number: 10-J822

Descriptors: cattle-manure. proteolysis-. bacteria-. microbial-degradation. degradation-. ph-. temperature-. emission-. ammonia-. quantitative-analysis. nitrogen-content. litter-plant.


24. Electromagnetic conductivity surveys of dairies for groundwater nitrate.
Drommerhausen,-D.J.; Radcliffe,-D.E.; Brune,-D.E.; Gunter,-H.D.
J-environ-qual. Madison : American Society Of Agronomy,. Nov/Dec 1995. v. 24 (6) p. 1083-1091.
NAL Call Number: QH540.J6

Abstract: A recent study of dairies in a five-county area in north Georgia found a high incidence of NO3 contaminated well water. We used a ground electromagnetic conductivity meter to survey eight dairies in the region to determine the source of contamination. Ground conductivities were highest in the loafing areas on most dairies. These are the corrals or small fields near the barn where the milking herd is kept when it is not in the barn or on pasture and other areas near the barn where there is high animal traffic. Conductivities were typically 15 to 20 mS m-1 in these areas, compared with <10 mS m-1 in the pastures away from barns. Water samples from groundwater monitoring wells installed in the loafing areas on three dairies to depths of 7 to 10 m had NO3-N concentrations between 47 and 135 mg L-1. Shallow ground conductivities in the vicinity of these wells were 10 to 24 mS m-1. There was evidence of seepage at three of the six lagoons we surveyed, but the loafing areas appeared to be a greater threat to drinking water supplies because they were closer to the milking barn where the supply well was located. Stocking rates were probably high enough in the loafing areas to result in excessive N deposition from manure, but not high enough to cause anaerobic conditions that would inhibit mineralization or promote denitrification. Best management practices need to be developed that address NO3 leaching from loafing areas.


25. Energy accounting on farms.
Bergen,-J.A.M.-van
Studies in Environmental Sciences. Amsterdam ; New York, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. 1995. (65B) p. 1123-1126.
NAL Call Number: QH540.S8

Descriptors: dairy-farms. farms. pigs. energy-consumption. emission. carbon-dioxide. methane. nitrous-oxide. methane-production. peat-soils. mineralization. decomposition. rumen-fermentation. cattle-slurry. pig-slurry.


26. The environmental impact of intensive systems of animal production in the lowlands.
Atkinson,-D.; Watson,-C.A.
Animal Science. Penicuik, [Scotland] : British Society of Animal Science. Dec 1996. v. 63 (pt.3) p. 353-361.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A56

Descriptors: animal-production. poultry-farming. pig-farming. dairy-farming. intensive-livestock-farming. animal-husbandry. environmental-impact. lowland-areas. choice-of-species. animal-wastes. waste-utilization. recycling. nitrogen-cycle. farming-systems. integration. biodiversity.


27. Estimating probabilities of nitrogen and phosphorus loss from animal waste application.
Johnson,-A.F.; Vietor,-D.M.; Rouquette,-F.M.-Jr.; Haby,-V.A.; Wolfe,-M.L.
Animal waste and the land-water interface. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 411-418.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: dairy-effluent. application-to-land. application-rates. losses-from-soil. nitrogen. phosphorus. leaching. irrigation. dairy-farming. cynodon-dactylon. lolium-multiflorum. water-pollution. risk. texas.


28. Excess dairy manure management: impacts on groundwater quality.
Daliparthy,-J.; Herbert,-S.J.; Veneman,-P.L.M.
Animal waste and the land-water interface /. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 355-362.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: cattle-manure. application-rates. application-to-land. medicago-sativa. zea-mays. rotations-. nitrate-nitrogen. leaching-. water-pollution. pollution-control. massachusetts-.


29. Experiences with two constructed wetlands for treating milking center waste water in a cold climate.
Holmes,-B.J.; Doll,-B.J.; Rock,-C.A.; Bubenzer,-G.D.; Kostinec,-R.; Massie,-L.R.
Animal waste and the land-water interface. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 223-230.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: dairy-wastes. wetlands. waste-water-treatment. water-quality. typha-latifolia. survival. water-pollution. pollution-control. temperate-climate. maine. wisconsin.


30. Forage, biomass, and biogas integrated systems for animal waste management.
Sanderson,-M.A.
Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects Southern Region. 1995. 19 p.
NAL Call Number: S441.S8557

Descriptors: dairy-wastes. waste-utilization. energy-sources. application-to-land. panicum-virgatum. forage. crop-production. texas.


31. Greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy-cattle manure slurry.
Patni,-N.; Jackson,-H.; Masse,-D.; Wolynetz,-M.; Kinsman,-R.
Dairy Research Report. Homer, LA : Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Center for Agricultural Science and Rural Development, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station. 1995. (0395) p. 70-75.
NAL Call Number: SF241.L8N6

Descriptors: dairy-cattle. cattle-manure. cattle-slurry. methane. hydrogen-sulfide. nitrogen. biogas. carbon-dioxide. emission. farm-storage. tanks. seasonal-fluctuations. air-temperature. climatic-factors. ontario.


32. Gridded ammonia emission fluxes in Japan.
Murano,-K.; Hatakeyama,-S.; Mizoguchi,-T.; Kuba,-N.
Water,air and soil pollution. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dec 1995. v. 85 (4) p. 1915-1920.
NAL Call Number: TD172.W36

Descriptors: emission. ammonia. air-pollution. geographical-variation. mapping. agriculture. animal-manures. animal-wastes. livestock-farming. nitrogen-fertilizers. pigs. dairy-cows. beef-cattle. japan.


33. Herbage production, weed occurrence, and economic risk from dairy manure applications to alfalfa.
Daliparthy,-J.; Herbert,-S.J.; Moffitt,-L.J.; Veneman,-P.L.M.
J-prod-agric. [Madison, WI] : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-. Oct/Dec 1995. v. 8 (4) p. 495-501.
NAL Call Number: S539.5.J68

Descriptors: medicago-sativa. nitrogen-fertilizers. ammonium-nitrate. cattle-manure. liquid-manures. application-rates. comparisons-. herbage-. crop-yield. weeds-. incidence-. adverse-effects. economic-evaluation. risk-. massachusetts-.

Abstract: The spreading of dairy manure on forage legumes requires more information about the impact of manuring on yield, stand persistence, and weed incidence. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of dairy manure applications on herbage yield and weed infestation of established alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and to assess the economic risks of this management. Field experiments were initiated in 1990 on an Occum fine sandy loam variant soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Fluventic Dystrochrept) at Deerfield and on an Agawam fine sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) at Sunderland in western Massachusetts. Treatments consisted of no N, low and high manure-N (100 and 300 lb N/acre from approximately 5000 and 15 000 gal liquid manure/acre per year, respectively), and low and high N fertilizer (100 and 300 lb N/acre per year from ammonium nitrate, respectively). Liquid dairy manure or ammonium nitrate was spread on the surface immediately after the first cutting in June 1990 and again in June 1991. Application of manure or ammonium nitrate at low or high rates to alfalfa increased total herbage yield compared with no N treatment at the Sunderland site but no response was observed at the Deerfield site over the 2 yr of study. Application of manure or ammonium nitrate to alfalfa at both the sites had no significant effect on overall weed incidence compared with unfertilized alfalfa. Manure applications to alfalfa followed by a dry period can influence weed growth more than in a normal year as it was noticed in the August 1991 cutting. The differences in alfalfa yield due to manuring and no N application were not of economic significance. This alternative practice of manure application to alfalfa does not involve a significant economic risk for dairy farmer. The results show that dairy manure can be applied to alfalfa without any adverse effects on herbage yield or weed incidence and with no economic risk on productivity. This alternative management strategy for surplus dairy manure can effectively reduce overapplications of manure on corn (Zea mays L.) fields and increase the total land area available for spreading.


34. Impact of environmental regulations on cattle production.
Morse,-D.
J-anim-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science. Dec 1996. v. 74 (12) p. 3103-3111.
NAL Call Number: 49-J82

Descriptors: livestock-farming. water-quality. environmental-legislation. regulations-. endangered-species. riparian-vegetation. environmental-protection. economic-impact. animal-manures. application-to-land. pollution-control. dairy-farms. poultry-manure. usa-. florida-.

Abstract: A greater focus of legislative mandates is directed toward nonpoint sources of pollution. This article focuses on environmental regulations and their impact on cattle production. Key legislation will be reviewed to stress how variations in the type of law, degree of impact, enforcement mechanism, and time line for compliance affect the ability for research to be designed and accomplished in a desired time frame and to yield data on which imposed management practices should be based. Science-based regulations are desired to maximize beneficial impacts of management practices; however, many regulations are developed and management practices are imposed prior to research to minimize liability of the regulatory agency in case natural resources are degraded in the absence of management practices. The technology adoption process will be reviewed. Documented impact of imposed management practices (technology adoption) will be presented. Of particular interest is the importance of documenting the economic and resource impacts of regulations on livestock operators. Types of research needed prior to implementing management practices will be reviewed. Local involvement can increase the adoption rate of practices and technologies.


35. The impact of nutrient loading restrictions on dairy farm profitability.
Schmit,-T.M.; Knoblauch,-W.A.
J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association. June 1995. v. 78 (6) p. 1267-1281.
NAL Call Number: 44.8-J822

Descriptors: dairy-farms. livestock-numbers. losses-from-soil. cattle-manure. application-rates. nitrogen-. phosphorus-. profitability-. runoff-. farm-area. forage-. farm-income. crop-production. water-quality. water-pollution. new-york.

Abstract A linear programming model was utilized to determine the economically optimal dairy herd intensities, manure application rates, and crop mix for unrestricted and restricted scenarios of N loss on New York dairy farms. Two representative farms were developed for dairies with 60 or 250 cows that utilized manure handling systems: no storage and daily spreading versus 6 mo of storage and biannual spreading, respectively. Both farms were substantially affected by the imposition of restrictions on N loss, although profitability decreases were relatively smaller on the larger farm, partially because of better conservation and more efficient utilization of manure nutrients. Optimal cow numbers per hectare decreased by nearly 35% on the smaller farm as restrictions on N loss intensified. When initial hectares were retained, rates of return to equity capital decreased > 150 and 100% on the farms with 60 and 250 cows, respectively, compared with 47 and 42% when hectare adjustments were optimal. Whether dairy farmers are able to make hectare adjustments under restrictions on N loss may well determine future sustainability and survival of the farming operations. If additional hectares are not available or feasible to acquire, herd reductions may be necessary to meet restrictions on N loss, dropping profitability even further.


36. Improving nutrient management on a 100-cow free-stall dairy farm.
Thomas,-E.D.
Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects Northeast Region. 1995. 15 p.
NAL Call Number: S441.S8556

Descriptors: cattle-manure. nutrients. cycling. nitrogen. phosphorus. potassium. flow. sidedressing. nitrate-nitrogen. waste-utilization. management. dairy-farming. new-york. pennsylvania. virginia. mississippi.


37. Influence of ammonia concentration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.
Borja,-R.; Sanchez,-E.; Weiland,-P.
Process-biochem. Oxford, England : Elsevier Science Limited. June 1996. v. 31 (5) p. 477-483.
NAL Call Number: TP1.P7

Descriptors: cattle-manure. anaerobic-digestion. ammonia-. concentration-. methane-production. microbial-flora. microbial-activities. biogas-.


38. The influence of dairy manure on atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralization in pasture soils.
Entry,-J.A.; Emmingham,-W.H.
Can-j-soil-sci. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada, 1957-. Aug 1995. v. 75 (3) p. 379-383.
NAL Call Number: 56.8-C162

Descriptors: pastures-. grassland-soils. soil-flora. biomass-. biological-activity-in-soil. atrazine-. 2,4-d-. microbial-degradation. mineralization-. seasonal-fluctuations. cattle-manure. dairy-cattle. application-to-land. long-term-experiments. oregon-.


39. Influence of rates and timing on incorporation of dairy manure compost on sweet corn yield, composition and soil fertility.
Warman,-P.R.
Compost-sci-util. Emmaus, PA : JG Press, 1993-. Summer 1995. v. 3 (3) p. 66-71.
NAL Call Number: TD796.5.C58

Descriptors: zea-mays. composts-. cattle-manure. application-rates. timing-. incorporation-. surface-treatment. crop-yield. macronutrients-. nutrient-content. nutrient-uptake. soil-fertility. nutrient-availability. soil-depth. nitrogen-. potassium-. phosphorus-. magnesium-. soil-water-content. quebec-.


40. Managing nitrogen on dairy farms: an integrated approach. I. Model description.
Dou,-Z.; Kohn,-R.A.; Ferguson,-J.D.; Boston,-R.C.; Newbold,-J.D.
J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association. Nov 1996. v. 79 (11) p. 2071-2080.
NAL Call Number: 44.8-J822

Descriptors: dairy-farms. cattle-manure. computer-software. integrated-systems. nitrogen-cycle. feed-formulation. nitrogen-balance. dairy-herds. nutrient-requirements. soil-chemistry. crops-. crop-management. application-rates. nitrogen-fertilizers. nitrogen-content. ammonium-nitrogen. losses-. application-to-land. forage-. dry-matter. crude-protein. prediction-. pennsylvania-.

Abstract: Nitrogen management on dairy farms can be enhanced with integrated and quantified information about N flow through various components of the system. A computer worksheet was developed to integrate several aspects of farm management, including ration formulation, crop selection, and manure application. Nutritional requirements of cows were determined from milk production, growth, and maintenance, and diets were formulated to meet these requirements based on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Annual manure production and fractionation of feces and urine were calculated based on the N balance in the herd and external sources (i.e., bedding and wash water). The availability of manure N and the field history of soil and crop management assisted in the determination of crop N fertilization. Manipulating dietary formulations to meet herd nutritional requirements with less dietary N can be helpful to optimize feed selection and reduce manure N excretion simultaneously. Aggregated annual feed requirements of the herd foster the development of cropping and feeding strategies. The worksheet largely was empirically based, simple to use, and adaptable to any size dairy farm. The model was used to compare efficiencies of N utilization and balances of inputs and outputs with different management strategies and was demonstrated to be a useful planning tool for N management to minimize potential N losses to the environment.


41. Mineral nitrogen accumulation in soils as affected by water-soluble organic carbon extracted from composted dairy manure.
Liang,-B.C.; Gregorich,-E.D.; Schnitzer,-M.
Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal. Monticello, N.Y. : Marcel Dekker Inc. 1995. v. 26 (15/16) p. 2711-2723.
NAL Call Number: S590.C63

Descriptors: soil-types-textural. nitrogen-. mineralization-. biological-activity-in-soil. nitrogen-cycle. composts-. cattle-manure. extracts-. carbon-. organic-compounds. solubility-. clay-. soil-texture

Abstract: The soluble organic matter in composted manure contains labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) that may stimulate microbial activity. Evaluating the effects of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) on N mineralization will improve our understanding of the short-term N turnover in soil. Three soils with textures varying from 3 to 54% clay were amended with water extracts from composted dairy manure (0-80 mg C/kg soil) and incubated for 11 weeks at 23 degrees C. Water-soluble organic C additions enhanced net N mineralization only in the soil containing the largest amount of clay; the increased net N mineralization was similar to the amounts of organic N added in the water extract. The WSOC in the composted manure had little effect on net N mineralization, particularly in coarse textured soils. The short-term effect of WSOC inputs on the net N mineralization in soils may depend on the mineral N concentration of the water extract.


42. Mineralization of composted manure and microbial dynamics in soil as affected by long-term nitrogen management .
Hadas,-A.; Kautsky,-L.; Portnoy,-R.
Soil-biol-biochem. Exeter : Elsevier Science Ltd. June 1996. v. 28 (6) p. 733-738.
NAL Call Number: S592.7.A1S6

Descriptors: xerosols-. carbon-. nitrogen-. mineralization-. cattle-manure. composts-. application-rates. nutrients-. soil-management. history-. soil-flora. microbial-activities. soil-enzymes. proteinases-. oxidoreductases-. enzyme-activity. biological-activity-in-soil. nitrate-nitrogen. ammonium-nitrogen. recovery-. carbon-dioxide. soil-organic-matter. decomposition-. nutrient-availability. carbon-cycle. nitrogen-cycle.

Abstract: Evaluation of the mineralization dynamics of composted manures is essential for their efficient use as a major source of available nitrogen in crop production. The objective was to determine the effect of long-term management on the rate of mineralization of compost, in relation to soil biological activity. A compost was added at a rate of 5 or 15% (wt/wt) to soil samples obtained from two treatments of a 30 year old N-management experiment: M0--without any N input, and M2--with 10 applications of 90 t cattle manure ha-1. Inorganic N accumulation and weekly rates of CO2 evolution were determined periodically during an incubation of 33 weeks. Microbial counts and dehydrogenase and protease activity were determined during 42 days. Net N mineralization was higher in M2 than in M0 soil, and was proportional to the amount of compost added. The recovery of compost-N as inorganic N was independent of soil management history and of compost application rate. The amount of N released was estimated (by difference) to be 26% of compost N added. Initially 7-10% was inorganic N and 8% soluble organic N, therefore only 8-11% was released from insoluble N in the compost. CO2 evolution was greater from M2 than from M0 soil only during the first week, but it was significantly affected by compost application throughout the experiment. The percentage recovery of compost-C as CO2 was smaller at the high application rate. Microbial counts and enzyme activities exhibited a periodical behavior. They were significantly affected by soil management history, and by compost, but the effect of compost was greater. The difference in biological activity between soils seemed to be related to the difference in their initial readily-available C and it did not significantly affect the rate of compost decomposition.


43. Modeling for optimal management of agricultural and domestic wastewater loading to streams.
Ejaz,-M.S.; Peralta,-R.C.
Water Resources Research. Washington : American Geophysical Union. Apr 1995. v. 31 (4) p. 1087-1096.
NAL Call Number: 292.8-W295

Descriptors: streams. water-pollution. water-quality. waste-water. dairy-wastes. sewage. waste-water-treatment. overland-flow. simulation-models. optimization.

Abstract: A simulation/optimization (S/O) model to aid managing multiobjective wastewater loading to streams while maintaining adequate downstream water quality is presented. The conflicting objectives are to maximize the human and dairy cattle populations from which treated wastewater can be discharged to the river system. Nonindustrial municipal (domestic) wastewater undergoes primary and secondary treatment by a sewage treatment plant (STP) before entering as a steady point source. Dairy wastewater is treated by overland flow (OLF) land treatment before entering the stream as a controlled steady diffuse source. Maximum dual-source loading strategies which do not degrade downstream water quality beyond specified limits are developed. For each computed loading strategy, an optimal OLF system design is also determined. The E constraint method is used to obtain sets of noninferior solutions. Sets of noninferior solutions are represented graphically to show the trade-off between human and bovine populations that can be maintained. Each set is computed for a different upstream flow rate to illustrate sensitivity to nondeterministic upstream flow rates. The nonlinear constraints utilized restrict downstream concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen (organic, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), organic and dissolved phosphorus, and chlorophyll a. Concentrations are described via regression equations. The new regression expressions, surrogates for the complex advective-dispersive equation, permit rapid and feasible solutions by this unique S/O model.


44. Nitrate leaching under alfalfa-corn rotation from dairy manuring .
Daliparthy,-J.; Herbert,-S.J.; Veneman,-P.L.M.; Moffitt,-L.J.
Clean water, clean environment, 21st century team agriculture, working to protect water resources conference proceedings, March 5-8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, Mich. : ASAE, c1995. v. 2 p. 39-42.
NAL Call Number: TD365.C54-1995

Descriptors: zea-mays. medicago-sativa. liquid-manures. cattle-manure. application-to-land. application-rates. nitrate-. leaching-. rotations-. soil-water. crop-yield. soil-fertility. massachusetts-.


45. Nitrogen and phosphorus forms in soils receiving manure.
Sharpley,-A.N.; Smith,-S.J.
Soil-sci. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins Co., 1916-. Apr 1995. v. 159 (4) p. 253-258.
NAL Call Number: 56.8-So3

Descriptors: agricultural-soils. pig-slurry. poultry-manure. cattle-manure. application-to-land. application-rates. nitrogen-. phosphorus-. nutrient-availability. inorganic-compounds. organic-compounds. movement-in-soil. losses-from-soil. land-productivity. long-term-experiments. oklahoma-. texas-.


46. Nitrogen uptake and leaching in a no-till forage rotation irrigated with liquid dairy manure.
Davis,-J.G.; Vellidis,-G.; Hubbard,-R.K.; Johnson,-J.C.; Newton,-G.L.; Lowrance,-R.R.
Animal waste and the land-water interface /. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995.. p. 405-410.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: application-to-land. losses-from-soil. nitrogen-.


47. Nitrous oxide fluxes from manure-amended soil under maize.
Lessard,-R.; Rochette,-P.; Gregorich,-E.G.; Pattey,-E.; Desjardins,-R.L.
J-environ-qual. Madison : American Society Of Agronomy,. Nov/Dec 1996. v. 25 (6) p. 1371-1377.
NAL Call Number: QH540.J6

Descriptors: cattle-manure. application-rates. emission-. air-pollutants. global-warming.

Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by agricultural soils are influenced by farming practices. The application of manure to cultivated land modifies soil microbial activity by supplying additional quantities of C and N and changing soil physical and chemical properties. Nitrous oxide fluxes at the surface of a soil under maize (Zea mays L.) amended with dairy cattle manure were measured from April to October 1993 using closed chambers. The manure application rates were 0, 56, and 112 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 0, 170, and 339 kg ha-1 of total N, respectively. Nitrate and NH4+ were measured in soil samples obtained at the same time that gas flux measurements were made. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the soil profile were quantified by sampling soil air at depths of 5 and 15 cm using stationary air probes. On the manured plots 67% of the total N2O emitted during the growing season occurred during the first 7 wk following manure application. Fluxes of N2O occurred in episodes with maxima that ranged from 0.070 mg m-2 h-1 on the soil without manure amendment to 0.171 and 0.494 mg m-2 h-1 on soils that had received the low and high rates of manure, respectively. These high fluxes coincided with periods when NO3--N levels and soil water contents were relatively high. Fluxes were highest the first day after manure application and returned to near preapplication levels 7 d later. This episode was followed by short-lived peaks of N2O flux that usually followed periods of rain. The absence of a strong correlation between N2O concentration in the soil profile and N2O flux at the soil surface suggested that high soil water content restricted gaseous diffusion in the soil and/or that a variable.


48. Nutrient concentrations in the soil solution and shallow groundwater of a liquid dairy manure land application site.
Vellidis,-G.; Hubbard,-R.K.; Davis,-J.G.; Lowrance,-R.; Williams,-R.G.; Johnson,-J.C.-Jr.; Newton,-G.L.
Trans-ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers 1958-. July/Aug 1996. v. 39 (4) p. 1357-1365.
NAL Call Number: 290.9-Am32T

Descriptors: dairy-cattle. cattle-manure. liquid-manures. application-to-land. pastures-. application-rates. soil-solution. groundwater-. nitrogen-. nitrate-nitrogen. phosphorus-. soil-depth. nutrient-content. soil-testing. techniques-. sustainability-. groundwater-pollution. sampling-.

Abstract: Land application of liquid animal manures offers the potential for recycling large volumes of slurries by using the nutrients available in the manure for plant growth in place of conventional inorganic fertilizers. A study was initiated to determine environmentally and economically sustainable liquid dairy manure application rates on a year-round forage production system. Treatments based on nitrogen application rates of 200, 400, 600, and 800 kg N ha-1 yr-1 were established. This work reports on nutrient concentrations in the soil solution of the vadose zone and in shallow groundwater after three years of land application. A 96-instrument network of high tension soil solution samplers was installed at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m depths and used to collect biweekly samples from June 1991 through September 1994. A network of 72 shallow groundwater monitoring wells was installed at 3 and 6 m depths and used to collect biweekly samples from May 1991 through September 1994. Statistically significant NO3(-1)N treatment effects were observed at the 05, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m depths. NO3(-1)N treatment effect were not observed at the 3.0 or 6.0 m depths or at any depth for NH4-N, TKN, TN, PO4-P, and TP. Mean annual NO3(-1)N soil solution. Concentrations ranged from a low of 1.45 mgL-1 to a high of 22.70 mgL-1. Concentrations of NH4-N and TKN were low for all depths while PO4-P and TP concentrations were nearly always below detection limits. After three years of study, treatment effects were clearly observed in the vadose zone. If not for very low subsoil permeability, it is likely that treatment effects would have been observed below 2.0 m.


49. Nutrient content of dairy manure from three handling systems.
Rieck-Hinz,-A.M.; Miller,-G.A.; Schafer,-J.W.
J-prod-agric. [Madison, WI] : American Society of Agronomy, c1987-. Jan/Mar 1996. v. 9 (1) p. 82-86.
NAL Call Number: S539.5.J68

Descriptors: cattle-manure. nutrient-content. determination-. seasonal-variation. composition-. correlation-. handling-. systems-. nitrogen-content. ammonium-nitrogen. phosphorus-pentoxide. potassium-. iowa-.

Abstract: Animal manure is often used as a source of crop nutrients. Unfortunately the nutrient content of manure is quite variable. The objectives of this study were to: (i) evaluate the nutrient content of dairy manure from different handling systems and determine if published nutrient credits are outdated, (ii) determine if the nutrient content could be estimated from the solid content of the manure, and (iii) determine the seasonal variation of the nutrient content of manure. Three dairy-manure handling systems, dairy feedlots, dairy barn cleaners, and dairy bedded packs, were sampled sequentially from June 1990 to April 1992. Manure was sampled by handling system at 13 farms located in northeastern Iowa Samples were analyzed for total Kjeldahl N (TKN), ammonium-N, P2O5, K2O, and solid content. The nutrient values found in this study were higher than values previously reported in Iowa and other midwest states. For dairy feedlot manure, solid content of the manure was correlated with the nutrient content of the manure. A correlation between solid content and nutrient content was not evident for dairy barn cleaner manure or dairy bedded pack manure. Dairy feedlot manure nutrient values were higher in summer and fall than in spring and winter. Seasonal variation was not evident for the dairy bedded pack manure or the dairy barn cleaner manure. The use of manure in a nutrient management program is dependent on accurate nutrient recommendations based on thorough and timely manure sampling.


50. Nutrient fate in forage systems used for dairy waste management.
Sanderson,-M.A.
Proceedings of the South Pasture Forage Crop Improvment Conference. New 0rleans : Agricultural Research Service (Southern Region), U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1996. (52nd) p. 73-80.
NAL Call Number: 60.19-So83

Descriptors: fodder-crops. crop-production. cattle-manure. application-to-land. nutrients. losses-from-soil. nutrient-uptake.


51. Nutrient values of dairying manure and poultry litter as affected by storage and handling.
Collins,-E.R.-Jr.; Jordan,-J.D.; Dillaha,-T.A.
Animal waste and the land-water interface. Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 343-353.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: cattle-manure. dairy-wastes. poultry-manure. nutrient-content. moisture-content. storage. handling.


52. O2 uptake, C metabolism and denitrification associated with manure hot-spots.
Petersen,-S.O.; Nielsen,-T.H.; Frostegard,-A.; Olesen,-T.
Soil-biol-biochem. Exeter : Elsevier Science Ltd. Mar 1996. v. 28 (3) p. 341-349.
NAL Call Number: S592.7.A1S6

Descriptors: soil-flora. biological-activity-in-soil. oxygen-. uptake-. diffusion-. carbon-. mineralization-. nutrient-availability. respiration-. nitrification-. denitrification-. soil-. liquid-manures. cattle-manure. comparisons-. anaerobic-digestion. interface-. nitrate-. ammonium-. profiles-. aerobiosis-. anaerobiosis-.

Abstract: O2, C and N metabolism in organic hot-spots (sites where the intensity of microbial respiration creates a high O2 demand) was studied with fresh or anaerobically digested liquid cattle manure as substrates. A gel-stabilized mixture of soil and manure, 16 mm thick, was sandwiched between layers of soil with a water content adjusted to field capacity, and incubated at 15 degrees C for up to 3 wk. When fresh manure was used, O2 microprofiles demonstrated an O2 penetration into the hot-spot of <1 mm after 1-3 d, increasing to ca. 2 mm after 3 wk. During this time, O2 uptake rates decreased from 100-150 to ca. 50 nmol O2 cm(-2) h(-1). With digested manure, the lower C availability in this substrate resulted in O2 penetration depths of 3-4 mm and O2 uptake rates of <30 nmol O2 cm(-2) h(-1) throughout the 3 wk. Maximum denitrification rates were also consistently lower with digested manure (4 nmol N cm(-2) h(-1)) than with fresh manure (18 nmol N cm(-2) h(-1)). A numerical model of NO3(-) transport indicated that denitrification was limited by the availability of NO3(-) during the first week in the fresh manure treatment, and that the soil was the only significant source of NO3(-) during at least 3 d; after this time nitrification at the soil-manure interface became increasingly important. After the first week with fresh manure, and throughout the experiment with digested manure, C availability apparently regulated denitrification.


53. Performance evaluation of Janata and Deenbandhu biogas plants.
Kalia,-A.K.; Kanwar,-S.S.
Energy Sources. Washington, DC : Taylor & Francis. Apr/May 1996. v. 18 (3) p. 283-289.
NAL Call Number: QC73.6.E5

Descriptors: dairy-wastes. cattle-manure. anaerobic-digestion. biogas. gas-production. anaerobic-digesters. costs. performance. india.


54. Performance of a facultative waste stabilization pond treating dairy shed wastewater.
Mason,-I.G.
Transactions of the ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Jan/Feb 1997. v. 40 (1) p. 211-218.
NAL Call Number: 290.9-Am32T

Descriptors: effluents. milking-parlors. waste-water-treatment. lagoons. anaerobic-treatment. pretreatment. biochemical-oxygen-demand. chemical-oxygen-demand. water-quality. algae. phosphorus. ammonium-nitrogen. meteorological-factors. new-zealand.

Abstract: A facultative waste stabilization pond treating anaerobically pre-treated dairy shed (milking parlor) wastewater was studied in order to investigate the oxygen demand transformation ability of the pond, the oxygen demand distribution between total and soluble components and to assess nutrient removal performance. Total BOD5 levels entering the pond averaged 159 g/m3 and effluent soluble BOD5 levels averaged 18 g/m3, representing an 89% removal of the total incoming BOD5. On a soluble BOD5 only basis the removal through the pond averaged 81%. These data represent a reasonably good level of oxygen demand transformation performance for a facultative pond system. The proportions of soluble BOD5 to total BOD5 averaged 0.61 for influent to the pond and 0.25 for effluent from the pond. Total COD concentrations entering and leaving the pond were relatively high, averaging 884 g/m3 and 618 g/m3 respectively, yielding COD:BOD5 ratios of 5.6:1 and 8.5:1. Suspended solids were associated with 41% and 75% of the total effluent COD and BOD5, respectively. Ratios of insoluble BOD5:SS averaged 0.20 and 0.27 for influent and effluent, respectively, whilst biodegradable fractions were estimated at 0.21 g-BSS/g-SS and 0.28 g-BSS/g-SS. Nitrogen removals were relatively low, at 25% for total kjeldhal nitrogen, giving an average effluent concentration of 129 g/m3, while for ammonia the figures were 30% and 100 g/m3, respectively. Nitrogenous oxygen demand was not typically exerted in the pond. A low degree of total and dissolved reactive phosphorus removal occurred, with effluent concentrations averaging 23.9 g/m3 and 12.7 g/m3, respectively. Future research into the reduction of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved reactive phosphorus in dairy shed wastewaters is recommended.


55. Phosphorus reduction in dairy wastes by conservation of burst rinses.
Wendorff,-W.L.; Westphal,-S.J.; Yau,-J.C.Y.
Dairy, Food, and Environmental sanitation. Des Moines, IA : International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc. Feb 1997. v. 17 (2) p. 72-75.
NAL Call Number: SF221.D342

Descriptors: waste-water. milk-tanks. pipelines.


56. Phytotoxicity of fatty acids present in dairy and hog manure.
Edney,-N.A.; Rizvi,-M.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B - Pesticides, Food Contamination and Agricultural Wastes. New York, Marcel Dekker. 1996. v. B31 (2) p. 269-281.
NAL Call Number: TD172.J61

Descriptors: dairy-wastes. pig-manure. fatty-acids. phytotoxicity. sorghum. seed-germination. inhibition. alpha-amylase. enzyme-activity. application-to-land. waste-disposal.


57. Phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in humic substances from animal wastes .
Garcia,-C.; Ceccanti,-B.; Masciandaro,-G.; Hernandez,-T.
Bioresour-technol. Oxford, U.K. : Elsevier Science Limited. 1995. v. 53 (1) p. 79-87.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A32

Descriptors: vermicomposting-. composts-. cattle-manure. sheep-manure. phosphoric-monoester-hydrolases. beta-glucosidase-. enzyme-activity. humic-acids. worm-casts. isoelectric-focusing.

Abstract: Phosphatase and beta-glucosidase, which are hydrolases bound to humic substances, were determined in the extracts of humic substances and in their fractions (F) of varying molecular weight (F1<10(3) low, F2<10(3)-10(4) intermediate and F3>10(4) high) obtained from cow and sheep manure and their corresponding vermicomposted products (casting). In both of these products F2 was the fraction with the highest C and N content, while the F1 fraction lost the greatest proportion of C during vermicomposting. Phosphatase and beta-glucosidase could be detected in all the fractions studied, whether these were from the extracts of the manure or from the casting. However, the enzymatic activity found in the extracts was less than the total activity of all the fractions summed, which demonstrated that an increase in activity was obtained as a consequence of the ultrafiltration. IEF spectra pointed to bands of humic substances with higher isoelectric points (Ip) in the castings than in the corresponding manures. Most of the beta-glucosidase in cow manure (as determined in humic bands appearing in the polyacrylamide gel after IEF) corresponded to humic bands which focused at Ip between 4.1 and 4.7, while in cow manure casting most of the activity was in bands with Ip between 5.1 and 6. In sheep manure and casting the bands which showed beta-glucosidase activity also showed phosphatase activity. Both in the extract and in its different fractions beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activity increased with IEF. IEF spectra showed that humic substances of the casting had higher enzymatic activity than those of the corresponding manures.


58. A preliminary comparative study of three manure composting systems and their influence on process parameters and methane emissions .
Lopez-Real,-J.; Baptista,-M.
Compost-sci-util. Emmaus, PA : JG Press, 1993-. Summer 1996. v. 4 (3) p. 71-82.
NAL Call Number: TD796.5.C58

Descriptors: composting-. systems-. cattle-manure. windrowing-. aeration-. piles-. comparisons-. dry-matter. moisture-. mass-. losses-. volume-. bulk-density. change-. temporal-variation. methane-production. emission-. environmental-impact. air-pollution. pollution-control. methane-.


59. Probabilistic tools for assessing and minimizing risks to water quality.
Vietor,-D.M.; Johnson,-A.F.; Harris,-B.L.; Wolfe,-M.L.; Thompson,-P.B.
Clean water, clean environment, 21st century team agriculture, working to protect water resources conference proceedings, March 5-8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri/. St. Joseph, Mich. : ASAE, c1995. v. 3 p. 299-302.
NAL Call Number: TD365.C54-1995

Descriptors: probability. analysis. probability. computer-analysis. computer-software. water-pollution. groundwater-pollution. risk. dairy-effluent. application-to-land. waste-water-treatment. dairy-wastes. lagoons. computer-simulation. permanent-grasslands. nutrient-uptake. runoff. texas.


60. Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry of the four phases of cow manure composting.
Van-Bochove,-E.; Couillard,-D.; Schnitzer,-M.; Schulten,-H.R.
Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of America. Nov/Dec 1996. v. 60 (6) p. 1781-1786.
NAL Call Number: 56.9-So3

Descriptors: composting-. cattle-manure. organic-matter. formation-. chemical-degradation. chemical-analysis. mass-spectrometry. temporal-variation. chemical-composition. organic-compounds.

Abstract: Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) was used to analyze organic matter formed by the composting of cow manure. Analyses were done on samples withdrawn during the four characteristic phases (mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturation) of the composting process. The organic components that were identified included carbohydrates, phenols, monomeric and dimeric lignins, n-C38 to n-C-51 n-alkyl monoesters, n-C15 to n-C34 fatty acids, sterols, and heterocyclic N. Sterols of animal and plant origins were detected in relatively large amounts. Among the heterocyclic N forms, indole predominated. During the thermophilic phase, carbohydrates and n-fatty acids increased. During the cooling phase, concentrations of carbohydrates increased, while dimeric lignins degraded to monomeric lignins and complex plant waxes to n-fatty acids. The maturation phase was characterized by decreases in concentrations of all identifiable components, indicating the formation of chemically more complex structures.


61. Response of silage corn and wheat to dairy manure and fertilizers in long-term fertilized and manured trials.
N'Dayegamiye,-A.
Can-j-soil-sci. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada, 1957-. Aug 1996. v. 76 (3) p. 357-363.
NAL Call Number: 56.8-C162
English; Summary in: French

Descriptors: zea-mays. triticum-aestivum. fodder-crops. cattle-manure. fertilizers-. nutrient-sources. nitrogen-. phosphorus-. potassium-. magnesium-. application-rates. nutrient-uptake. crop-yield. nutrient-nutrient-interactions. species-differences. long-term-experiments. quebec-.


62. Results of a program to control phosphorus discharges from dairy operations in south-central Florida, USA.
Havens,-K.E.; Flaig,-E.G.; James,-R.T.; Lostal,-S.; Muszick,-D.
Environmental Management. New York, Springer-Verlag. July/Aug 1996. v. 20 (4) p. 585-593.
NAL Call Number: HC79.E5E5

Descriptors: dairy-farms. dairy-effluent. phosphorus. waste-treatment. runoff. biological-treatment. pollution-control. water-pollution. florida.


63. A review on environmental impacts of nutritional strategies in ruminants.
Tamminga,-S.
J-anim-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science. Dec 1996. v. 74 (12) p. 3112-3124.
NAL Call Number: 49-J82

Descriptors: ruminant-feeding. nutrient-balance. energy-sources. net-energy. energy-content. feeds-. carbon-. nitrogen-. phosphorus-. potassium-. ratios-. excretion-. losses-. nitrogen-fertilizers. dairy-cows. milk-yield. cattle-manure. urine-. literature-reviews. netherlands-.

Abstract: Primary (plant), secondary (animal), and tertiary (human) biological systems are driven by energy, either fossil or renewable energy in biomass. Their ratio shifts from about 10:90 in primary, via 25:75 in secondary, to 90:10 in tertiary systems. Energy input in ruminant production is mainly as plants and plant parts from primary production, and the amount needed per unit product (milk, meat) primarily depends on its digestibility. This is high in young, leafy, whole plants, in roots and tubers, and in reproductive organs (whole seeds) or organ parts (by-products) of mature plants. Use of fossil energy per kilogram of DM for primary production ranges from 1 to 3 MJ in forage to over 8 MJ in concentrate feeds, whereas input per kilogram of milk is 1 to 10 MJ. Biomass energy used in ruminant production contains nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), but in a ratio rarely balanced to the animals requirements. In secondary systems, energy is partitioned between foods of animal origin and waste. The latter contains OM, N, P, K, and gases (CO2, CH4), which may cause environmental problems. Losses per kilograms of milk vary and are 10 to 45 g for N, 0 to 3 g for P, and 2 to 20 g for K. Environmental impacts of animal production can be reduced by varying the use of inorganic fertilizer and changing the forage to concentrate ratio. Digestibilities can be improved by proper harvest management. Level and ratio of dietary N, P, and K can be adjusted to requirements by selecting proper ingredients, reducing their loss in waste. Limited scope exists to reduce losses in respiration and fermentation gases.


64. Riparian forest restoration to control agricultural water pollution.
Lowrance,-R.; Hubbard,-R.K.; Vellidis,-G.
Clean water, clean environment, 21st century team agriculture, working to protect water resources conference proceedings, March 5-8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri. St. Joseph, Mich. : ASAE, c1995. v. 3 p. 179-182.
NAL Call Number: TD365.C54-1995

Descriptors: riparian-forests. wetlands. dairy-effluent. lagoons. waste-water-treatment. application-to-land. pollution-control. removal. sediment. nitrogen. phosphorus. nitrates. denitrification. water-quality. groundwater-pollution. georgia.


65. Ruminant nutrition from an environmental perspective: factors affecting whole-farm nutrient balance.
Van-Horn,-H.H.; Newton,-G.L.; Kunkle,-W.E.
J-anim-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Society of Animal Science. Dec 1996. v. 74 (12) p. 3082-3102.
NAL Call Number: 49-J82

Descriptors: animal-manures. phosphorus-. nitrogen-. excretion-. nutrient-intake. protein-excess. mineral-excess. efficiency-. application-to-land. irrigation-. dairy-farms. water-pollution. crop-yield. forage-. feedlots-. losses-from-soil. denitrification-. multiple-cropping. application-rates. feed-intake. dry-matter. potassium-. nutrient-balance.

Abstract: Nutrient budgeting strategies focus primarily on recycling manure to land as fertilizer for crop production. Critical elements for determining environmental balance and accountability require knowledge of nutrients excreted, potential nutrient removal by plants, acceptable losses of nutrients within the manure management and crop production systems, and alternatives that permit export of nutrients off-farm, if necessary. Nutrient excretions are closely related to nutrient intake and can be predicted by subtracting predicted nutrients in food animal products exported from the farm from total nutrients consumed. Intensifying crop production with double- or triple-cropping often is necessary for high-density food animal production units to use manure without being forced to export manure or fertilizer coproducts to other farms. Most manures are P-rich relative to N largely because of 1) relatively large losses of volatilized NH3, most of it converted from urea in urine, 2) denitrification losses in soil under wet, anaerobic conditions, and 3) ability of many crops to luxury-consume much more N than P. Most soils bind P effectively and P usually is permitted to accumulate, allowing for budgets to be based on N. However, P budgeting may be required in regions where surface runoff of P contributes to algae growth and eutrophication of surface waters or where soil P increases to levels of concern. Research is needed to determine whether dietary P allowances can be lowered without detriment to animal production or health in order to lower P intake and improve N:P ratios in manure relative to fertilization needs.


66. Runoff and leaching of crop nutrients from soil in tilted beds as influenced by three rates of dairy lagoon effluent.
Davis,-J.G.; Burgoa,-B.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part-B, Pesticides, food contamination and agricultural wastes. New York, Marcel Dekker. 1995. v. B30 (2) p. 243-264.
NAL Call Number: TD172.J61

Descriptors: dairy-effluent. application-rates. application-to-land. nutrient-content. magnesium. nitrogen. potassium. phosphorus. calcium. losses-from-soil. nitrate-nitrogen. leaching. phosphates. ammonium-nitrogen. runoff.


67. Ryegrass utilization of nutrients released from composted biosolids and cow manure .
Chen,-L.; Dick,-W.A.; Streeter,-J.G.; Hoitink,-H.A.J.
Compost-sci-util. Emmaus, PA : JG Press, 1993-. Winter 1996. v. 4 (1) p. 73-83.
NAL Call Number: TD796.5.C58

Descriptors: lolium-perenne. composts-. sewage-sludge. cattle-manure. fertilizers-. application-rates. nutrient-sources. nutrients-. release-. nutrient-availability. nitrogen-. nutrient-uptake. dry-matter-accumulation. phosphorus-. potassium-. plant-composition. nutrient-content.


68. Separation of manure solids from simulated flushed manures by screening or sedimentation.
Powers,-W.J.; Montoya,-R.E.; Van-Horn,-H.H.; Nordstedt,-R.A.; Bucklin,-R.A.
Appl-eng-agric. St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985-. May 1995.
v. 11 (3) p. 431-436.
NAL Call Number: S671.A66

Descriptors: cows-. cattle-manure. solid-wastes. cattle-slurry. separation-. sieving-. sedimentation-. nitrogen-. phosphorus-. simulation-. literature-reviews. usa-.

Abstract: Feces and urine were collected separately from individual cows fed corn silage-based (50% of dry matter) diets which were supplemented with distillers dried grains plus solubles or soybean meal to be 14 or 18% crude protein (CP). Fecal samples from 30 cows were screened using wet sieving and vibrating screens (nested in series); sizes were 3.35, 2.00, 1.40, 1.00, and 0.50 mm. Effluent passing the screens contained 60.2% of total solids (TS), 86.3% of nitrogen (N), and 94.3% of phosphorus (P). Solids caught on the five screens (largest to smallest) accounted for the following percentages of materials: 14.6, 9.4, 2.8, 4.3, 8.6% of TS; 5.7, 3.1, 0.8, 1.3, 2.8% of N; 2.2, 1.2, 0.3, 0.6, 1.5% of P. In another study, a 100 g composite sample of urine and feces from each of 44 cows, mixed in proportion to the amount excreted, was diluted to 1 L with water and allowed to settle for 1 h in a graduated cylinder. Supernatant and sediment were separated by decanting. Supernatants were analyzed for N content, sediments for TS content, and these amounts were subtracted from analyzed contents of samples to obtain reciprocal fractions. Overall, the sediment contained 66% of TS and 45% of N. Estimates of sediment amount made at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 min by recording best-defined line between supernatant and sediment suggested sedimentation was 89% completed by 5 min. In a second sedimentation study, simulated manure flushwaters (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% TS) were treated with additives as follows: (1) 0.75 g of CaCO3 plus 0.50 mL Fe2(SO4)3 solution/L, (2) 0.75 g of CaO plus 0.50 mL Fe2(SO4)3 solution/L, (3) 0.50 mL Fe2(SO4)3 solution/L plus five drops of a commercial polymer, and (4) control (no additives). Precipitates with CaCO3 and CaO treatments contained 92% of the TS, 69% of the N, and 31% of the total potassium (K); the CaO treatment precipitated appreciably more P (93% of total) than other treatments; and treatment with Fe2(SO4)3 plus polymer precipitated the least TS and N. These data indicated a potential to remove more manure solids and N from flushed manure by sedimentation than by screening.


69. Short-term effects on earthworm populations of sidedressing corn with solid dairy cattle manure in a boreal climate. Estevez,-B.; Cote,-D.; Page,-F.; Coderre,-D.
Am-J-altern-agric. Greenbelt, MD : Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture. Spring 1995. v. 10 (2) p. 74-81.
NAL Call Number: S605.5.A43

Descriptors: aporrectodea-. lumbricus-. earthworms-. populations-. population-dynamics. temperate-soils. agricultural-soils. cattle-manure. sidedressing-. application-rates. population-density. biomass-. seasonal-variation. community-ecology. quebec-.

Abstract: We evaluated the short-term effects on earthworms of sidedressing solid dairy cattle manure on corn. The manure rates were 40, 46 and 53 t/ha applied in 1991, and a control (no manure). From 1988 to 1990, the manure plots received solid dairy cattle manure sidedressed at an annual rate of 40 to 50 t/ha, the equivalent of 100 kg N/ha, while the control received a standard mineral fertilization. The experiment took place at the MAPAQ experimental station in St. Lambert, Quebec, Canada. Sampling occurred in autumn 1991 and spring 1992. Sidedressing solid dairy cattle manure in spring increased earthworm populations compared with the control in fall 1991, but no significant population differences were observed among the three different manure treatments, which were then pooled for further statistical analysis. In spring 1992, the populations declined, at which time the manure treatment and the control did not differ significantly in abundance, but total earthworm biomass and Lumbricus biomass were significantly higher in the manure treatment. Cocoon production showed significant differences between treatments, which provides evidence for the potential effect of manure sidedressing on earthworm population dynamics. Although the genus Aporrectodea (endogeic) was dominant among the treatments, sidedressing of solid dairy cattle manure also stimulated Lumbricus populations, especially juveniles and adult L. terrestris (epianecic).


70. Simulation of dairy manure management and cropping systems.
Harrigan,-T.M.; Bickert,-W.G.; Rozt,-C.A. Appl-eng-agric. St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985-. Sept 1996. v. 12 (5) p. 563-574. NAL Call Number: S671.A66

Descriptors: dairy-farming. farming-systems. cropping-systems. milk-production. tillage-. cattle-manure. handling-. storage-. application-to-land. economic-analysis. production-costs. returns-. simulation-models. computer-simulation. michigan-.

Abstract: The dairy forage system model (DAFOSYM) was expanded to include submodels for the prediction of suitable days under a range of soil and crop residue conditions, draft of a wide range of tillage and seeding implements, and scheduling of manure handling, tillage and planting operations. Through simulation, the long-term performance, costs and net return for three tillage and four manure handling systems were compared on 150 and 400-cow representative dairy farms in Michigan. The analysis included all factors of milk production including manure production, storage and application, tillage, planting, crop growth, harvest, feed storage, and feeding. Mulch-tillage was the most economical tillage system, returning $15 to $26/cow-yr over conventional tillage with a 30% reduction in machinery, fuel, and labor costs. The highest net return among manure handling systems was associated with short-term storage and daily hauling, but the economic advantage of this system diminished if credit was not given for the value of all manure nutrients when spread daily. Long-term manure storage concentrated labor for spreading in the spring and fall. This delayed tillage and planting and increased feed costs as much as $24/cow-yr when manure hauling, tillage, and planting occurred in series. When labor and machinery were available for parallel field operations, manure handling method had little effect on the timeliness of tillage and planting.


71. Simulation to evaluate dairy manure systems.
Borton,-L.R.; Rotz,-C.A.; Person,-H.L.; Harrigan,-T.M.; Bickert,-W.G.
Appl-eng-agric. St. Joseph, MI : American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985-. Mar 1995. v. 11 (2) p. 301-310.
NAL Call Number: S671.A66

Descriptors: cattle-manure. dairy-farms. forage-. handling-. storage-. application-. farm-machinery. labor-requirements. environmental-protection. costs-. returns-. simulation-models.

Abstract: An existing dairy forage system model (DAFOSYM) was expanded to include submodels for manure production, collection, storage, and application to crop land. The original DAFOSYM simulated the growth, harvest, storage, and utilization of alfalfa and corn on a dairy farm over 25 years of weather. The revision allowed simulation of the quantity and nutrient content of manure produced as a function of feed composition and consumption, milk production, and animal growth. Nutrient losses in manure handling, storage, and application were subtracted to determine nutrients available for crop growth. The facilities, machinery, labor, and fuel required were modeled to determine the costs of manure handling. The integrated model provided a tool for evaluating and comparing the long term performance and economics of alternative manure systems for dairy farms and their interaction with feed production. Manure systems using long-term storage with spreading, injection, or irrigation have greater direct costs to the farmer than the daily haul system commonly used in the upper midwest. If long-term storage systems are required to protect the environment, the annual net cost of manure handling will increase up to $65/cow for small (60 cow) and $45/cow for large (250 cow) dairy farms.


72. Soil microbial biomass C, N mineralization, and N uptake by corn in dairy cattle slurry- and urea-amended soils.
Paul,-J.W.; Beauchamp,-E.G.
Canadian Journal of Soil Sciences. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada. Nov 1996. v. 76 (4) p. 469-472.
NAL Call Number: 56.8-C162
Language: English; Summary in: French

Descriptors: soil-flora. biological-activity-in-soil. biomass. carbon. nitrogen. mineralization. zea-mays. nutrient-uptake. soil-fertility. cattle-slurry. application-to-land. urea. nitrate-nitrogen. ammonium-nitrogen. nutrient-availability. crop-yield.


73. Storing & handling sand-laden dairy manure.
Stowell,-R.R.; Bickert,-W.G.
Extension Bulletin of the Cooperative Extension Service - Michigan State Univ. East Lansing : Michigan State University, Cooperative Extension Service, Apr 1995. (E-2561) 16 p.
NAL Call Number: 275.29-M58B

Descriptors: sand. dairy-wastes. dairy-farms. stalls. costs. cattle-manure. waste-disposal. waste-treatment. storage. handling. handling-machinery. michigan. wisconsin. illinois.


74. Urban and agricultural wastes for use as mulches on avocado and citrus and for delivery of microbial biocontrol agents.
Casale,-W.L.; Minassian,-V.; Menge,-J.A.; Lovatt,-C.J.; Pond,-E.; Johnson,-E.; Guillement,-F.
J-hortic-sci. Ashford : Headley Brothers Ltd. Mar 1995. v. 70 (2) p. 315-332.
NAL Call Number: 80-J825

Descriptors: mangifera-indica. citrus-. crop-production. mulches-. agricultural-wastes. wood-chips. grass-clippings. leaves-. rice-husks. alfalfa-hay. cattle-manure. hay-. poultry-manure. almonds-. hulls-. peanut-husks. orange-peel. composts-. sewage-sludge. mushroom-compost. refuse-compost. orchards-. substrates-. biological-control-agents. trichoderma-harzianum. gliocladium-virens. pseudomonas-fluorescens. growth-. phytotoxicity-. ammonia-. chemical-composition. cellulose-. carbohydrates-. nitrogen-content. california-.


75. Utilization of dairy manure in low-input, conservation tillage, animal feed production systems
Mullen,-M.D.
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE research projects Southern Region. 1995. 25 p.
NAL Call Number: S441.S8552

Descriptors: zea-mays. liquid-manures. dairy-wastes. ammonium-nitrate. application-rates. application. timing. split-dressings. crop-yield. maize-silage. yields. soil-fertility. nitrogen. phosphorus. no-tillage. mineralization. silt-loam-soils. nitrate-nitrogen. leaching. runoff. losses-from-soil. water-quality. low-input-agriculture. tennessee.


76. Volatile fatty acids as indicators of process imbalance in anaerobic digestors.
Ahring,-B.K.; Sandberg,-M.; Angelidaki,-I
.
Appl-microbiol-biotechnol. Berlin, Germany : Springer Verlag. July 1995. v. 43 (3) p. 559-565.
NAL Call Number: QR1.E9

Descriptors: cattle-manure. pig-manure. mixtures-. anaerobic-digestion. anaerobic-digesters. volatile-fatty-acids. methane-production. temperature-. indicators-. waste-treatment.

Abstract: In continuously stirred tank reactor experiments, with manure as substrate at thermophilic temperatures, the use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators was investigated. Changes in VFA level were shown to be a good parameter for indicating process instability. The VFA were evaluated according to their relative changes caused by changes in hydraulic loading, organic loading or temperature. Butyrate and isobutyrate together were found to be particularly good indicators. Butyrate and isobutyrate concentrations increased significantly 1 or 2 days after the imposed perturbation, which makes these acids suitable for process monitoring and important for process control of the anaerobic biological system. In addition it was shown in a batch experiment that VFA at concentrations up to 50 mM did not reduce the overall methane production rate. This showed that VFA accumulation in anaerobic reactors was the result of process imbalance, not the cause of inhibition, thus justifying the use of VFA as process indicators.


77. Waste handling facilities and manure management on U.S. dairy operations.
United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. APHIS Veterinary Services info sheet. Fort Collins, CO : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Serivice, [1997] 1 sheet.
NAL Call Number: aSF208.W37--1997

Descriptors: Dairy-cattle-Manure-Handling-United-States.


78. Waste management regulations and their impact on regional comparative advantage and dairy industry structure.
Schwart,-R.B.-Jr.; Holt,-J.; Outlaw,-J.L.
Animal waste and the land-water interface . Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, c1995. p. 553-560.
NAL Call Number: TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors: dairy-wastes. management. dairy-farming. farm-size. farm-structure. economics. pollution. regulations. trends.


79. Waste management systems for loafing areas in dairies.
Brune,-D.E.; Radcliffe,-D.E.
Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects Southern Region. 1995. 8 p.
NAL Call Number: S441.S8557

Descriptors: groundwater-pollution. point-sources. monitoring. electromagnetic-radiation. runoff. subsurface-drainage. pollution-control. water-quality. surveys. dairy-farms. georgia.


80. Watershed-scale response to agricultural diffuse pollution control programs in Vermont, USA.
Meals,-D.W.
Water science and technology. v. 33, no. 4/5.
Diffuse pollution '95 selected proceedings of the 2nd IAWQ International Specialized Conference and Symposia on Diffuse Pollution, held in Brno and Prague, Czech Republic, 13-18 August 1995. 1st ed. Oxford ; New York : Pergamon Press, 1996. p. 197-204.
NAL Call Number: TD420.A1P7-v.33-no.4/5

Descriptors: water-pollution. pollution-control. runoff. animal-wastes. phosphorus. nitrogen. fields. zea-mays. animal-manures. application-to-land. grass-strips. sediment. dairy-effluent. pastures. streams. surface-water. watersheds. streptococcus. vermont.


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