Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Manure Storage

 January 1992 - September 1995
 52 citations from AGRICOLA
 by
 Joe Makuch
 Water Quality Information Center
 
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 MANURE STORAGE
 
 1.  NAL Call No.:  S671.I84--nr.59
 Lagring og handtering av husdyrgjodsel = Storage and handling of
 farmyard manure.
 Berg, K. As [Norway] : Norges landbrukshogskole, Institutt for
 tekniske fag, 1994. 59 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 58-59).
 
 2.  NAL Call No.: SF481.J68
 Fate of selected bacterial pathogens and indicators in
 fractionated poultry litter during storage.
 Kelley, T. R.; Pancorbo, O. C.; Merka, W. C.; Thompson, S. A.;
 Cabrera, M. L.; Barnhart, H. M. 
 J-appl-poult-res v.3, p.279-288. (1994).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: poultry-manure; litter-; coliform-bacteria;
 heterotrophic-microorganisms; broilers-; yeasts-; molds-;
 survival-; storage-life; viruses-; temperature-;
 moisture-content; fractionation-; georgia-
 
 3.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 A multi-media based educational program for safe manure pit
 entry.
 Shutske, J. M.; Lausted, C. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-4014/94-4041) 4 p. 
 Paper presented at the 1994 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, June
 19-22,  1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 
 Descriptor: manures-; storage-; safety-; educational-programs;
 accident-prevention
 
 4.  NAL Call No.: S671.A66
 Simulation to evaluate dairy manure systems.
 Borton, L. R.; Rotz, C. A.; Person, H. L.; Harrigan, T. M.;
 Bickert, W. G. 
 Appl-eng-agric v.11, p.301-310. (1995).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: cattle-manure; dairy-farms; forage-; handling-;
 storage-; application-; farm-machinery; labor-requirements;
 environmental-protection; costs- ; returns-; simulation-models
 
 Abstract: An existing dairy forage system model (DAFOSYM) was
 expanded to include submodels for manure production, collection,
 storage, and  application to crop land. The original DAFOSYM
 simulated the growth, harvest, storage, and utilization of
 alfalfa and corn on a dairy farm over  25 years of weather. The
 revision allowed simulation of the quantity and nutrient content
 of manure produced as a function of feed composition  and
 consumption, milk production, and animal growth. Nutrient losses
 in manure handling, storage, and application were subtracted to 
 determine nutrients available for crop growth. The facilities,
 machinery, labor, and fuel required were modeled to determine the
 costs of manure  handling. The integrated model provided a tool
 for evaluating and comparing the long term performance and
 economics of alternative manure  systems for dairy farms and
 their interaction with feed production. Manure systems using
 long-term storage with spreading, injection, or  irrigation have
 greater direct costs to the farmer than the daily haul system
 commonly used in the upper midwest. If long-term storage systems 
 are required to protect the environment, the annual net cost of
 manure handling will increase up to $65/cow for small (60 cow)
 and $45/cow for  large (250 cow) dairy farms.
 
 5.  NAL Call No.: S544.3.N9C46
 Assessing your livestock and dairy operation.
 Weston, D. 
 NDSU-Ext-Serv. Fargo, N.D. : The University. Apr 1994. (AE-1079)
 4 p. 
 
 Descriptor: farms-; livestock-; dairying-; water-pollution;
 wells-; animal-manures; storage-; runoff-; silage-;
 carcass-disposal; waste-water
 
 6.  NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 Methane emissions from typical manure management systems.
 Steed, J. Jr.; Hashimoto, A. G. 
 Bioresour-technol v.50, p.123-130. (1994).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: methane-; emission-; methane-production;
 cattle-manure; application-to-land; storage-; slurries-;
 cattle-slurry; environmental-temperature; manure-storage;
 slurry-storage; dairy-manure; methane-conversion-factor
 
 7.  NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 Biotreatment of swine manure by intensive lagooning during
 winter.
 La Noue, J. d.; Sevrin Reyssac, J.; Mariojouls, C.; Marcel, J.;
 Sylvestre, S. 
 Bioresour-technol v.50, p.213-219. (1994).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-treatment; biological-treatment;
 lagoons-; winter-; food-chains; aquatic-organisms
 
 8.  NAL Call No.: S631.F422
 Methane production/emission in storages for animal manure.
 Zeeman, G. 
 Fertil-res v.37, p.207-211. (1994).
 In the special section: Methane and nitrous oxide: the other
 greenhouse gases / edited by A.R. van Amstel and A.R. Mosier.
 
 Descriptor: animal-manures; storage-; anaerobic-digestion;
 methane-production; emission-; kinetics-; mathematical-models;
 time-; temperature-
 
 Abstract: Results of extended research on laboratory scale have
 shown that relatively high gas productions can occur at digestion
 of animal manure  in fed-batch (=Storage)- systems at ambient
 temperatures. High gas productions are also reported at on-farm
 storage of animal manure. In order  to predict the gas production
 during the storage of animal manure at different conditions, a
 model is developed based on first order kinetics for  the
 hydrolysis and on Monod kinetics for methanogenesis. Results of
 anaerobic digestion of manure in both CSTR- and fed-batch systems
 have  been used for the estimation of constants. The model
 predicts that, when continuously 15% of the storage is filled, no
 gas production is  produced, at a temperature of 15 degrees C and
 a storage capacity less than or equal to 100 days and at a
 temperature of 10 degrees C and a  storage capacity less than or
 equal to 150 days. At higher temperatures and longer storage
 capacities methane gas is always produced.
 
 9.  NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 Mineralization of carbon and nitrogen from fresh and
 anaerobically stored sheep manure in soils of different texture.
 Sorensen, P.; Jensen, E. S. 
 Biol-fertil-soils v.19, p.29-35. (1995).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: mineralization-; nitrogen-; carbon-; soil-flora;
 biological-activity-in-soil; sheep-manure; storage-;
 anaerobic-conditions; ammonium-sulfate; immobilization-;
 sandy-loam-soils; sand-; mixtures-; clay-fraction;
 soil-fertility; carbon-dioxide; gas-production;
 fresh-sheep-manure; anaerobic-storage; inorganic-nitrogen
 
 10.  NAL Call No.:  S635.P44--1994
 Concrete manure storages handbook. 1st ed.
 Pedersen, J. H.;  Runestad, J. A.; Midwest Plan Service. Ames, IA
 : Midwest Plan Service, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
 Dept., Iowa State University, 1994. 70 p. : ill..
 "Most of this book updates and compiles information previously
 published by the Midwest Plan Service"--Pref.
 Descriptors: Farm-manure-Storage-Handbooks,-manuals,-etc;
 Concrete-tanks-Design-and-construction-Handbooks,-manuals,-etc
 
 
 11.  NAL Call No.:  S671.I84--nr.51
 Uisolert tallehus for kjottfe med sma utekveer og gjodseldam =
 Straw-bedded confinement for beef cattle with small feedlots and
 lined  manure storage pond.  Straw-bedded confinement for beef
 cattle with small feedlots and lined manure storagae pond.
 Skjelhaugen, O. J. As [Norway] : Norges landbrukshogskole,
 Institutt for tekniske fag, 1994. 20 p. : ill..
 In Norwegian, with English abstract and summary.
 
 12.  NAL Call No.: 275.29-M68Ext
 Managing animal waste nutrients.
 Bonner, J.; Thomas, J.; Crenshaw, M.; McKinley, B.; Burcham, T.
 N. 
 Publ-Miss-State-Univ,-Coop-Ext-Serv. State College, Miss. :
 Cooperative Extension Service, Mississippi State University. Mar
 1994.  (1937) 9 p. 
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; animal-manures; farms-; management-;
 storage-; regulations-; nutrient-content; irrigation-; handling-;
 lagoons-; sampling-; odors-; mississippi-
 
 13.  NAL Call No.: 275.29-In2Id
 Animal manure as a plant nutrient resource.
 Sutton, A. L.; Jones, D. D.; Joern, B. C.; Huber, D. M. 
 ID-Purdue-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue
 University, Agricultural Extension Service : Agricultural
 Experiment  Station. May 1994. (101) 13 p. 
 
 Descriptor: animal-manures; livestock-; feed-rations;
 liquid-manures; nutrient-content; storage-losses;
 nitrogen-content; phosphorus-; potassium-; fertilizers-;
 application-to-land; application-rates; application-methods;
 denitrification-; nutrient-availability; nitrification-inhibitors
 
 14.  NAL Call No.: 275.29-IO9PA
 Manure storage poses invisible risks.
 Lorimor, J.; Schwab, C. V.; Miller, L. 
 PM-Iowa-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Ames, Iowa : Iowa State
 University, Cooperative Extension Service. Nov 1993. (1518K) 2 p. 
 
 Descriptor: manures-; storage-; gases-; air-pollution; safety-;
 iowa-
 
 15.  NAL Call No.: S561.6.A82E96
 Lagoon management.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Fulhage, C. D.; Huhnke, R. L.; Jones, D. D. 
 Ext-tech-bull. [Fayetteville, Ark.?] : UA Cooperative Extension
 Service, [1988-. Apr 1994. (E-1341) 8 p. 
 In subseries: manure management.
 
 Descriptor: pig-manure; lagoons-; waste-disposal; management-;
 terminology-
 
 16.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Costs and issues associated with implementing the confined space
 standard in waste storage facilities.
 Shutske, J. M.; Puschwitz, M. A.; Jacobson, L. D.; Janni, K. A. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-4545/93-4579) 14 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: accident-prevention; farms-; safety-devices;
 equipment-; costs-; animal-wastes; storage-
 
 
 17.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Chemical treatments for struvite control.
 Buchanan, J. R.; Mote, C. R.; Robinson, R. B. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-4545/93-4579) 26 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; management-; lagoons-; recycling-;
 systems-; components-; minerals-; chemical-precipitation; scale-;
 prevention-
 
 18.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Manure storage pH adjustment to control gas release.
 Veenhuizen, M. A.; Qi, R. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-4545/93-4579) 13 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: animal-manures; storage-; odor-abatement; ammonia-;
 release-; ph-; air-quality
 
 19.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Manure storage criteria and policy development in Minnesota.
 Brach, J. C.; Ellingboe, R. L.; Nelson, D. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (92-4501/92-4519) 11 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 
 Descriptor: animal-manures; storage-; guidelines-; water-quality;
 minnesota-
 
 20.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Swine-lagoon seepage in sandy soil.
 Westerman, P. W.; Huffman, R. L.; Feng, J. S. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-2531/93-2550) 34 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 12- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; pigs-; waste-disposal; lagoons-;
 sandy-soils; seepage-; groundwater-; water-quality;
 environmental-impact
 
 21.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 Struvite control by chemical treatment.
 Buchanan, J. R.; Mote, C. R.; Robinson, R. B. 
 Trans-ASAE v.37, p.1301-1308. (1994).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: magnesium-ammonium-phosphate; chemical-precipitation;
 control-; inhibitors-; water-systems; waste-treatment;
 animal-wastes; lagoons-; water-; precipitation-inhibitors;
 antiprecipitants-; recycle-water
 
 Abstract: Struvite is a phosphate mineral which can form
 hard-scale deposits in the recycle components of livestock waste
 management systems that  utilize recycled lagoon effluent to
 transport waste. Previous research of struvite formation has been
 directed toward acid-cleaning the recycling  system after
 struvite has been deposited. Such systems incorporate a separate
 acid injection network that circulates acid through the
 components  and dissolves the scale. The major limitations to
 this approach are that the operation of the waste management
 system must be suspended while  cleansing takes place and that
 acids are hazardous to handle and difficult to administer. The
 research reported in this article explores the  possibility of
 keeping the recycled components free of struvite by continuously
 injecting scale control agents into the system. Twenty products 
 commonly used for water stabilization were tested in a bench-top
 study to determine if struvite formation could be inhibited.
 Described herein  are the products, procedures, and results of
 this research. Of the 20 products originally identified, 7
 products are recommended for further  study.
 
 22.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Use of riparian zones for animal waste treatment.
 Hubbard, R. K.; Vellidis, G.; Lowrance, R.; Newton, G. L.; Davis,
 J.; Dove, R. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-2575) 15 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; waste-treatment; riparian-vegetation;
 waste-disposal; groundwater-; water-quality; lagoons-; georgia-
 
 23.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Tracking seepage with terrain conductivity survey and wells.
 Huffman, R. L.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (934016) 13 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," and
 The  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; lagoons-; seepage-; groundwater-;
 water-quality; monitoring-
 
 24.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Mapping contaminant plumes using geophysical methods.
 Brune, D. E.; Zheng, M. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (934015) 28 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," and
 The  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; waste-disposal-sites; lagoons-;
 groundwater-; water-quality; soil-; conductivity-; pollution-;
 expert-systems
 
 25.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 The Pennsylvania Manure Storage Study.
 Thompson, R. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1991. (912540) 59 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 17- 20, 1991, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: agricultural-wastes; storage-; pennsylvania-
 
 26.  NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 Water content effect on denitrification and ammonia
 volatilization in poultry litter.
 Cabrera, M. L.; Chiang, S. C. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. May/June 1994. v. 58 (3) p. 811-816. 
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: poultry-manure; moisture-content; storage-;
 denitrification-; ammonia-; volatilization-; nitrogen-; losses-
 
 Abstract: Poultry litter is a mixture of excreta, bedding
 material, waste feed, and some soil that is removed from poultry
 houses and applied to soil as  fertilizer.  Because litter is
 commonly stockpiled outdoors before land application, losses of
 inorganic N may occur through denitrification and  NH3
 volatilization.  This work was conducted to evaluate the effect
 of litter water content on denitrification and NH3 volatilization
 during  storage.  Litter samples from two broiler houses in
 northern Georgia were incubated (25 degrees C) at four water
 contents for 13 d. Water  contents used were 230 g H2O kg(-1) in
 Litter A, 160 g H2O kg(-1) in Litter B, and 800, 1200, and 2400 g
 H2O kg(-1) in both litters. These  water contents were equivalent
 to 8, 26, 40, and 79% water-holding capacity (WHC) in Litter A
 and to 7, 33, 49, and 99% WHC in Litter B,  respectively. 
 Denitrification was evaluated by measuring emission from samples
 incubated with 10 kPa C2H2 with and without additional  NO3(-)
 (15 mg N g(-1)).  Ammonia volatilization was evaluated by
 measuring NH3 evolved from samples incubated without C2H2. 
 Denitrification was significant at the highest water content and
 increased with the addition of NO3(-).  Measured denitrification
 losses varied  between 41 and 79% of the initial NO3(-), although
 final NO3(-) levels suggested that denitrification losses were
 larger (92-100%) and that part  of the N2O produced remained
 entrapped in the litter.  Ammonia volatilization losses ranged
 from 32 to 139% of the initial NH4(+)  and were  increased by
 increasing water content.  These results suggest that poultry
 litter should be stored under dry conditions to reduce N losses.
 
 27.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Safety components at manure storages.
 Bowers, W. J. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (924012) 8 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24,  1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 
 Descriptor: manures-; safety-; storage-
 
 28.  NAL Call No.: S590.C63
 Ammonia volatilization and carbon dioxide emission from poultry
 litter: effects of fractionation and storage time.
 Cabrera, M. L.; Kelley, T. R.; Pancorbo, O. C.; Merka, W. C.;
 Thompson, S. A. 
 Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal v.25, p.2341-2353. (1994).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: organic-fertilizers; storage-; duration-;
 fractionation-; poultry-manure; ammonia-; volatilization-;
 carbon-dioxide; emission-; nitrate- nitrogen; ammonium-nitrogen;
 nitrogen-content; moisture-content
 
 29.  NAL Call No.:  S655.A55--1989
 Animal waste storage.
 Springman, R.; Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District.
 [Milwaukee : Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, 1989?] 1
 folded sheet (4 p.) : ill..
 Caption title. Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection"--P. [4].
 Descriptors: Manures-Wisconsin-Storage;
 Animal-waste-Wisconsin-Storage
 
 30.  NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 Nitrogen mineralization and ammonia volatilization from
 fractionated poultry litter.
 Cabrera, M. L.; Tyson, S. C.; Kelley, T. R.; Pancorbo, O. C.;
 Merka, W. C.; Thompson, S. A. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Mar/Apr 1994. v. 58 (2) p. 367-372. 
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: sandy-soils; poultry-manure; fractionation-;
 application-to-land; surface-treatment; incorporation-;
 nitrogen-; mineralization-; ammonia-; volatilization-;
 losses-from-soil; respiration-; storage-; water-content
 
 Abstract: Passing poultry litter through a 0.83-mm sieve
 generates a fine fraction higher in N concentration and cheaper
 to transport per unit of N  than the whole litter. One objective
 of this work was to determine if the organic N in the fine
 fraction undergoes faster mineralization than that  in the whole
 litter. Whole litter or fine fraction from three poultry houses
 was either mixed with samples of Dothan loamy sand (fine-loamy, 
 siliceous, thermic Plinthic Kandiudult) or applied on the soil
 surface at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1. The treatments were incubated
 at water field  capacity and 25 degrees C, with samples extracted
 at 3, 7, and 14 d. Differences in N mineralization were
 relatively small between materials; by  Day 14, the organic N had
 undergone a slightly higher mineralization in the fine fraction
 (51.5%) than in the whole litter (44.5%). A second  objective was
 to compare the potentials for net N mineralization, NH3
 volatilization, and respiration of whole poultry litter and fine
 fraction  stored for 7 d at 25 degrees C and at two water
 contents (unamended [0.12-0.26 kg H2O kg-1] and 0.5 kg H2O kg-1).
 On an equal-mass basis,  net N mineralization and NH3
 volatilization were larger in the fine fraction than in the whole
 litter, whereas respiration was similar in both  materials. All
 processes increased with an increase in water content. These
 results suggest that the fine fraction should be managed
 similarly to  the whole litter when applied to soil and that it
 may lose more NH3 than does the whole litter during storage,
 particularly at relatively high  water contents.
 
 31.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 Reducing noxious gas emissions & odors from manure storages.
 Veenhuizen, M. A.; Qi, R. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (92-4073) 11 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24,  1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 
 Descriptor: manures-; environment-; toxic-gases
 
 32.  NAL Call No.: S671.A66
 Ice effects on model manure tank walls.
 Godbout, S.; Marquis, A.; Masse, D. 
 Appl-eng-agric v.10, p.95-99. (1994).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: pig-manure; cold-storage; tanks-; stresses-; ice-;
 models-
 
 Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the pressure
 exerted by frozen manure caps on the walls   of concrete manure
 tanks.  The  research is aimed at improving design criteria for
 concrete manure   tanks for cold climates. Scale models were used
 to determine the pressures  exerted by ice caps   resulting from
 2% and 4% solids swine manures and to compare them to that
 exerted by a fresh water   ice cap. For typical  Quebec
 conditions, the highest mean ice pressure measured in laboratory
 tests   was equivalent to 72 +/- 13 kPa from liquid manure.  The 
 circumferential stress was influenced by   the liquid type but
 not by the filling methods and was significantly lower for the
 manure ice caps    than for water ice.  However, no significant
 differences in stresses were attributable to the two   levels of
 solids content of the manures.  This  implies that the stress
 differences observed   between water and manure ice are mainly
 due to the presence of urea which would have an effect  on   the
 thermal expansion.
 
 33.  NAL Call No.:  TD811.W58--1970
 A study of farm waste : farm animal waste : characterization,
 handling, utilization : 6/1/64--5/31/68 extended to 12/31/69.
 Witzel, S. A.; Attoe, O. J. Madison : University of Wisconsin,
 [1970?] viii, 141 leaves : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references.
 Descriptors: Animal-waste; Water-Pollution; Sewage-lagoons
 
 34.  NAL Call No.: SF481.2.F56
 Farm structures for manure storage and composting mortality.
 Ouart, M. D.; Bucklin, R. A.; Douglas, C. R. 
 Proc-Fla-Poult-Inst p.18-24. (1992).
 Meeting held Oct 13-14, 1992, Gainesville, Florida.
 
 Descriptor: farm-storage; farm-buildings; poultry-manure;
 carcasses-; composting-; carcass-disposal; broilers-
 
 35.  NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 Lagoon management.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Fulhage, C. D.; Huhnke, R. L.; Jones, D. D. 
 Pork industry handbook. West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative
 Extension Service, Purdue University, [1978?-1990].. 8 p. 
 In subseries: Manure Management (PIH-62), revised June 1993.
 
 Descriptor: lagoons-; pig-manure; waste-treatment; design-;
 construction-; sludges-; application-to-land
 
 36.  NAL Call No.: 4-AM34P
 The effect of different methods of storing chicken manure on the
 viability of certain weed seeds.
 Stoker, G. L.; Tingey, D. C.; Evans, R. J. 
 J-Am-Soc-Agron v.26, p.600-609. (1934).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: convolvulus-arvensis; cardaria-draba;
 centaurea-picris; weeds-; seeds-; seed-germination; viability-;
 poultry-manure; storage-; water-; litter- ; weed-control
 
 Abstract: Seeds of morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis L.),
 whitetop (Lepidium draba L.) and Russian knapweed (Centaurea
 picris Poll) were put in  wire containers and placed in chicken
 manure, stored in different ways for various periods of time, and
 then germinated in soil and on blotter  paper. Seeds were removed
 from the various piles and germinated at different intervals, the
 shortest being 10 days and the longest 4 months. In  no case was
 the viability of morning glory seed destroyed. The viability of
 whitetop and Russian knapweed seeds was destroyed after being in 
 the moist, loose manure for 20 days or after being in the moist
 compacted manure for 1 month. In the unmoistened piles the
 viability of  whitetop and Russian knapweed seeds was not
 completely destroyed at the end of 4 months.
 
 37.  NAL Call No.: 4-AM34P
 Effect of bovine digestion and of manure storage on the viability
 of weed seeds.
 Atkeson, F. W.; Hulbert, H. W.; Warren, T. R. 
 J-Am-Soc-Agron v.26, p.390-397. (1934).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: weeds-; seeds-; viability-; manures-; storage-;
 bovidae-; digestion-; seed-germination; weed-control; idaho-
 
 Abstract: The results of this experiment indicate that the
 digestion processes of cattle greatly reduce the percentage
 viability of most weed seeds  under Idaho conditions, thereby
 tending to minimize manure as a source of weed infestation.
 However, the number of viable seeds, especially of  some plants,
 after passing through the digestive tract makes manure a possible
 weed manace if feeds containing large numbers of weed seeds  are
 fed. Storage of manure caused an additional reduction in
 percentage of viable seeds. Manure which has been stored 3 months
 could be  scattered over fields with little chance of weed
 infestation so far as weed seeds consumed in feeds are concerned.
 
 38.  NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 Use of mineral amendements to reduce ammonia losses from
 dairy-cattle and chicken-manure slurries.
 Termeer, W. C.; Warman, P. R. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.44, p.217-222. (1993).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: dairy-cattle; poultry-manure; slurries-; minerals-;
 amendments-; ammonia-; losses-; volatilization-; manures-;
 storage-; application-
 
 39.  NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 The origin and identification of macropores in an earthen-lined
 dairy manure storage basin.
 McCurdy, M.; McSweeney, K. 
 J-Environ-Qual v.22, p.148-154. (1993).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: dairy-wastes; animal-manures; storage-;
 waste-disposal; groundwater-pollution; macropores-; leaching-;
 contaminants-; liners-; physicochemical-properties;
 macropore-flow; wisconsin-
 
 Abstract: Earthen-lined basins have been used to store dairy
 manure in Wisconsin since the early 1970s. Monitoring data
 indicate that many of these  basins are leaking, but little
 effort has been directed toward explaining the mechanisms
 responsible for leakage. Morphological and  micromorphological
 techniques were used to identify macropores in the sidewall of an
 earthen-lined manure storage basin. Laboratory and field  dye
 studies provided evidence of contaminant movement via macropores.
 Results indicate that physicochemical and biological mechanisms 
 were responsible for creating macropores capable of providing
 pathways for preferential flow. These mechanisms, and the
 resulting  macropores, can significantly affect the long-term
 viability of earthen-lined manure storage basins.
 
 40.  NAL Call No.:  TD746.5.H37-1991
 Anaerobic lagoons for livestock and poultry wastes.
 Harmon, J. D.;  Privette, C. V. C. V.; Clemson University.
 Cooperative Extension Service. Clemson, S.C. : Cooperative
 Extension Service, Clemson University, [1991] 7 p. : ill..
 Caption title.
 Descriptors: Sewage-lagoons; Farm-manure
 
 41.  NAL Call No.: S544.3.V8V52
 Storing and handling broiler and turkey litter.
 Collins, E. R. Jr. 
 Publ-Va-Coop-Ext-Serv. Blacksburg, Va. : Extension Division,
 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 1990.
 (442-054,rev.) 4  p. 
 
 Descriptor: poultry-manure; farm-storage; handling-
 
 42.  NAL Call No.: 275.29-W27P
 Managing livestock manure to protect groundwater.
 Hermanson, R. E.; Thomason, E. L. 
 Ext-Bull-Wash-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Pullman, Wash. : The
 Service. Aug 1992. (1717) 6 p. 
 In subseries: Clean water for Washington.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; groundwater-pollution; leaching-;
 runoff-; contaminants-; dispersion-; nutrients-; nitrogen-;
 nitrification-; storage-; ponding-; lagoons-
 
 43.  NAL Call No.: S671.A38
 Estimating lagoon size for swine waste management.
 Nordstedt, R. A.; Baldwin, L. B. 
 Agric-Eng-Fact-Sheet-Fla-Coop-Ext-Serv. Gainesville, Fla. : The
 Service. 1990. (75) 2 p. 
 
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-disposal; lagoons-; size-; volume-;
 estimation-; florida-
 
 44.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32P
 Advantages of multi-cell animal waste lagoons.
 Schneider, J. H. 
 PAP-AMER-SOC-AGRIC-ENG. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society. Winter
 1990. (90-4521) 12 p. 
 Presented at the "1990 International Winter Meeting sponsored by
 The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December 18-21, 
 1990, Chicago, Illinois.
 
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; lagoons-
 
 
 45.  NAL Call No.: S494.5.E547
 Electric energy management on dairy farms.
 Brooks, L. A. 
 Energy-World-Agric. Amsterdam : Elsevier. 1989. v. 3 p. 93-120. 
 In the series analytic: Energy in World Agriculture / edited by
 K.L. McFate.
 
 Descriptor: dairy-farming; dairy-equipment; electricity-;
 electrical-energy; milking-; milking-machines; milk-production;
 farm-buildings; ventilation-; fans-; fodder-crops; storage-;
 equipment-; silage-; electric-heaters; heat-exchangers; manures-;
 dairy-effluent; handling-; pumps-
 
 46.  NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 Performance of a dairy manure anaerobic lagoon.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.42, p.43-52. (1992).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: dairy-cattle; cattle-manure; anaerobic-treatment;
 lagoons-; performance-; methane-production; north-carolina
 
 47.  NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 Performance of a low temperature lagoon digester.
 Satley, L. M. Jr.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.41, p.167-175. (1992).
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: dairy-cattle; cattle-manure; liquid-wastes; lagoons-;
 digesters-; performance-; biogas-; methane-production;
 anaerobic-digestion
 
 48.  NAL Call No.: 275.29-W27P
 Livestock manure lagoons protect water quality.
 Hermanson, R. E. 
 Ext-Bull-Wash-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Pullman, Wash. : The
 Service. Dec 1991. (1642) 8 p. 
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: animal-manures; lagoons-; aerobic-treatment;
 anaerobic-treatment; design-; management-; water-quality;
 groundwater-; pollution-; waste- treatment; washington-
 
 49.  NAL Call No.: TD171.U5
 Wisconsin's "bad actors" programs.
 Odgers, E. 
 EPA-J. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
 Nov/Dec 1991. v. 17 (5) p. 51-52. 
 
 Descriptor: water-pollution; legislation-; manures-; storage-;
 wisconsin-
 
 
 50.  NAL Call No.: TD224.I6W37
 Animal agriculture's effect on water quality--waste storage.
 Sutton, A. L. 
 Water-Qual. West Lafayette, Ind. : School of Agriculture. July
 1990. (8) 4 p. 
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: water-pollution; animal-wastes; feedlot-wastes;
 storage-; indiana-
 
 51.  NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32P
 Nitrogen seepage from earthen-built manure storage tanks.
 Gangbazo, G.; Cluis, D.; Vallieres, M. 
 PAP-AMER-SOC-AGRIC-ENG p.1-13. (1989).
 Paper presented at the "1989 International Summer Meeting"
 jointly sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers and the  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering,
 June 25-28, 1989, Quebec, Canada.
 
 Descriptor: tanks-; cattle-manure; pig-slurry; soil-pollution;
 seepage-
 
 52.  NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 A study on the use of biogas from cowdung for storage insect
 control.
 Mohan, S.; Gopalan, M. 
 Bioresource-Technol. Essex : Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
 1992 (pub. 1991). v. 39 (3) p. 229-232. 
 Includes references.
 
 Descriptor: pigeon-peas; stored-products-pests;
 callosobruchus-chinensis; insect-control; cows-; farmyard-manure;
 biogas-; fumigation-; airtight- storage; seed-quality;
 cooking-quality
 


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