Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Water Quality and Forestry (II)

 1992 - SEPTEMBER 1995
 81 citations from AGRICOLA
 Diane Doyle
 Water Quality Information Center
 This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide
 awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic and
 is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion or
 omission of a particular publication or citation should not be
 construed as endorsement or disapproval. 
 Send suggestions for electronic bibliographies related to water
 resources and agriculture to wqic@nalusda.gov
 To locate a publication cited in this bibliography, please
 contact your local, state, or university library.  If you are
 unable to locate a particular publication, your library can
 contact the National Agricultural Library (please see "Document
 Delivery Services" at http://www.nal.usda.gov/ddsb).
 1. Aluminium speciation variations in an acidic upland stream
 draining the Hafren spruce forest, Plynlimon, Mid-Wales.
 Neal, C. 
 J-hydrol v.164, p.39-51. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: aluminum-; chemical-speciation; drainage-water; ph-;
 acidification-; upland-areas; simulation-models;
 Abstract: The speciation of aluminium in an acidic stream,
 draining a spruce plantation-forest in Mid-Wales is examined
 using an established model based on an equilibrium thermodynamic
 approach. Trivalent aluminium and aluminium complexes with
 fluoride, with dissolved organic matter and with silica were
 abundant: aluminium hydroxy-fluorides and sulphates were much
 less so. There is a large scatter in the results, primarily due
 to variations in stream water chemistry at a given pH, rather
 than to an effect of temperature. It is concluded that aluminium
 silica complexes can be an important part of the total dissolved
 aluminium concentration: at pHs > 5, they comprise typically 20%
 of the total dissolved aluminium in the stream water.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 2. Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain
 tundra and forest: implications for aquatic systems.
 Baron, J. S.; Ojima, D. S.; Holland, E. A.; Parton, W. J. 
 Biogeochemistry v.27, p.61-82. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: air-pollution; nitrogen-; deposition-;
 nitrogen-cycle; nitrogen-metabolism; soil-flora;
 biological-activity-in-soil; forest-soils; tundra-soils;
 mountain-soils; subalpine-forests; leaching-; watersheds-;
 lakes-; streams-; water-quality; simulation-models; colorado-
 NAL Call No.: QH345.B564
 3. Application of the MAGIC model to the Glacier Lakes
 Reuss, J. O. 
 Res-pap-RM. [Fort Collins, Colo.] : Rocky Mountain Forest and
 Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of
 Agriculture, 1978-. June 1994. (315) 19 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: acid-rain; watersheds-; catchment-hydrology;
 streams-; water-quality; simulation-models; national-forests;
 wyoming-; medicine-bow-national-forest
 NAL Call No.: A99.9-F7632U
 4. Artificial watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental
 Forest, USA.
 Adams, M. B.; Edwards, P. J.; Wood, F.; Kochenderfer, J. N. 
 J-hydrol v.150, p.505-519. (1993).
 In the special issue: Water Issues in Forests Today / edited by
 E.M. O'Loughlin and F.X. Dunin. Hydrology, November 22-26, 1992,
 Canberra, Australia.
 Descriptors: acid-deposition; watersheds-; forests-; streams-;
 acidification-; nitrogen-; sulfur-; calcium-sulfate;
 nitrate-nitrogen; ph-; electrical-conductivity; water-pollution;
 Abstract: A whole-watershed manipulation project was begun on the
 Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, USA, in 1987, with
 the objective of increasing understanding of the effects of
 acidic deposition on forest ecosystems. Two treatment watersheds
 (WS9 and WS3) and one control watershed (WS4) were included.
 Treatments were twice-ambient N and S deposition, applied via
 NH4SO4 fertilizer, with three applications per year. Three years
 of pretreatment data were collected and used for calibration.
 Stream water chemistry data collected during 3 years of treatment
 were evaluated. Stream water pH and electrical conductivity were
 not significantly affected by the elevated N and S inputs on
 either treatment watershed. On WS9, there were no statistically
 significant treatment effects on stream water export of Ca, SO4,
 or NO3 On WS3, however, stream export of both NO3 and Ca have
 increased as a result of acidification treatments. The
 implications of these results are discussed. Research is
 continuing so that the processes involved may be elucidated. In
 addition, effects on vegetation, aquatic invertebrates and
 amphibians also are being evaluated.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 5. Best management practices for forest road construction and
 harvesting operations in Oklahoma.
 Turton, D.; Anderson, S.; Miller, R. 
 For-Ext-Rep-Coop-Ext-Serv-Div-Agric-Okla-State-Univ. Stillwater,
 Okla. : The Service. Dec 1992. (5) 32 p. 
 Descriptors: water-quality; water-conservation; streams-;
 stream-erosion; forests-; roads-; road-construction; logging-;
 NAL Call No.: SD12.O5F67
 6. Best management practices for forested wetlands in the
 Southern Appalachian Region.
 Aust, W. M. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.77, p.457-468. (1994).
 In the special issue: Wetlands of the interior southeastern
 United States / edited by C.C. Trettin, W.M. Aust, and J.
 Wisniewski. Conference on "Wetland Ecology, Management, and
 Conservation," held September 28-30, 1993, Knoxville, Tennessee.
 Descriptors: wetlands-; riparian-forests; bottomland-forests;
 forest-management; environmental-degradation;
 protection-of-forests; forestry-practices; environmental-impact;
 logging-effects; southeastern-states-of-usa;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 7. Biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating tropical
 Oudot, J.; Dupont, J.; Haloui, S.; Roquebert, M. F. 
 Soil-biol-biochem v.25, p.1167-1173. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-fungi; aquatic-fungi; strains-; forest-soils;
 polluted-soils; sediment-; rivers-; petroleum-; contamination-;
 microbial-degradation; strain-differences; tropics-; indonesia-
 Abstract: Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading fungi were isolated
 from tropical polluted environments in Indonesia: a forest soil
 and the sediments of a river which had been contaminated by
 petroleum spills. The biodegradation potential of these isolates
 was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total
 petroleum, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins
 and asphaltenes. Members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium,
 Gliocladium, Emericella, Graphium, Acremonium, Eupenicillium and
 Talaromyces were identified. The most active strains in the
 assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Emericella nidulans,
 Graphium putredinis, Eupenicillium javanicum and Aspergillus
 flavipes. Some isolates degraded significantly the resins and
 asphaltenes. Monospecific cultures were as efficient as mixed
 cultures. The degradative capacities were not constant within a
 species and this metabolic activity cannot be used in taxonomic
 NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
 8. Biogeochemistry of an old-growth forested watershed, Olympic
 National Park, Washington.
 Edmonds, R. L.; Thomas, T. B.; Blew, R. D. 
 Water-resour-bull v.31, p.409-419. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; veteran-or-remarkable-trees;
 rain-forests; national-parks; coastal-areas; temperate-climate;
 throughfall-; stemflow-; river-water; precipitation-;
 soil-solution; water-quality; biogeochemistry-; washington-;
 Abstract: The biogeochemistry of a coastal old-growth forested
 watershed in Olympic National Park, Washington, was examined.
 Objectives were to determine: (1) concentrations of major cations
 and anions and dissolved organic C (DOC) in precipitation,
 throughfall, stemflow, soil solution and the stream; (2) nutrient
 input/output budgets; and (3) nutrient retention mechanisms in
 the watershed. Stemflow was more acidic (pH 4.04.5) than
 throughfall (pH 5.1) and precipitation (pH 5.3). Organic acids
 were important contributors to acidity in throughfall and
 stemflow and tree species influenced pH. Soil solution pH
 averaged 6.2 at 40 cm depth. Stream pH was higher (7.6). Sodium
 (54.0 microequivalent L-1) and Cl (57.6 microequivalent L-1) were
 the dominant ions in precipitation, reflecting the close
 proximity to the ocean. Throughfall and stemflow were generally
 enriched in cations, especially K. Cation concentrations in soil
 solutions were generally less than those in stemflow. Ion
 concentrations increased in the stream. Dominant ions were Ca
 (759.7 microequivalent L-1), Na (174.4 microequivalent L-1), HCO3
 (592.0 microequivalent L-1 ), and SO4 (331.5 microequivalent L-1)
 with seasonal peaks in the fall. Bedrock weathering strongly
 influenced stream chemistry. Highest average NO3 concentrations
 were in the stream (5.2 microequivalent L-1) with seasonal peaks
 in the fall and lowest concentrations in the growing season.
 Nitrogen losses were similar to inputs; annual inputs were 4.8
 kg/ha (not including fixation) and stream losses were 7.1 kg/ha.
 Despite the age and successional status of the forest, plant
 uptake is an important N retention mechanism in this watershed.
 NAL Call No.: 292.9-Am34
 9. Buffer strip design for protecting water quality and fish
 Belt, G. H.; O'Laughlin, J. 
 West-j-appl-for v.9, p.41-45. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: forestry-; streams-; lakes-; riparian-vegetation;
 design-; requirements-; habitats-; fishes-; water-quality;
 sediment-; biological-filtration; water-temperature;
 NAL Call No.: SD388.W6
 10. Chemical time bombs related to forestry practice:
 distribution and behaviour of pollutants in forest soils.
 Mayer, R. 
 Land-degrad-rehabil v.4, p.275-279. (1993).
 Special Issue on the June 1992 Conference of the Society for
 Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) / edited by G.P.
 Hekstra, E. Ivanova and J.H. Weverling.
 Descriptors: forest-soils; forestry-practices; acidification-;
 air-pollutants; deposition-; groundwater-pollution;
 soil-pollution; contaminants-; climatic-change
 NAL Call No.: S622.L26
 11. Concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in
 streams in relation to catchment soil properties.
 Nelson, P. N.; Baldock, J. A.; Oades, J. M. 
 Biogeochemistry v.19, p.27-50. (1992-1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: forest-litter; leachates-; soil-properties;
 water-quality; watersheds-; carbon-cycle; victoria-
 NAL Call No.: QH345.B564
 12. A conceptual model for ecological risk assessment of
 bottomland hardwood forests.
 Vellidis, G.; Lowrance, R. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-2574) 23 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14-17, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: hardwoods-; bottomland-forests; forest-ecology;
 risk-; assessment-; water-quality; models-; georgia-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 13. Coniferous forests of the Colorado front range. A. Mixed
 species in unmanaged old-growth stands. B. Ponderosa pine
 second-growth stands.
 Graybill, D. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Arbaugh, M. J. 
 Ecol-stud. New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag. 1992. v. 97 p.
 In the series analytic: The response of western forests to air
 pollution / edited by R.K. Olson, D. Binkley and M. Bohm.
 Descriptors: pinus-ponderosa; coniferous-forests; forest-trees;
 conifers-; mixed-forests; air-pollution; pollutants-; ozone-;
 growth-rings; increment-; temporal-variation; spatial-variation;
 growth-; colorado-; radial-growth
 NAL Call No.: QH540.E288
 14. Controls on soil solution chemistry in a subalpine forest in
 north-central Colorado.
 Arthur, M. A.; Fahey, T. J. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. July/Aug 1993. v. 57 (4) p. 1122-1130. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: picea-engelmannii; abies-lasiocarpa;
 subalpine-forests; forest-soils; disturbed-soils; comparisons-;
 soil-solution; soil-chemistry; meltwater-; surface-water;
 solutes-; chemical-composition; acid-deposition; weathering-;
 soil-ph; soil-depth; geochemistry-; hydrology-; disturbed-land;
 colorado-; forest-disturbance
 Abstract: High-elevation ecosystems in the western USA are
 potentially susceptible to increased inputs of strong acids. A
 long-term research project was established to identify the
 processes controlling surface water chemistry and to evaluate the
 sensitivity of Loch Vale Watershed in Rocky Mountain National
 Park, Colorado, to acid precipitation. Using lysimeters, we
 estimated the concentration and flux of major solutes in the Oie
 and B horizons in an old-grown Engelmann spruce (Picea
 engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) and subalpine fir [Abies lasiocarpa
 (Hook.) Nutt.] forest, and in an adjacent site disturbed by a
 snow avalanche. In the forested site, most solutes were highly
 concentrated in soil solutions during the initial stages of
 snowmelt, and concentrations declined rapidly to low levels in
 the first 4 to 6 wk of snowmelt. Surface water chemistry in Loch
 Vale Watershed is controlled principally by mineral weathering.
 During the early stages of snowmelt, however, the flushing of
 solutes, especially N, S, and C, from forest soils (which
 comprise only 6% of the study area) exerts an important
 influence. Rates of cationic denudation per unit area were 3.5
 times higher in the forest (131 micromoles(c) m-2 yr-1) than in
 the whole watershed (38 micromoles(c) m-2 yr-1) probably because
 of H+ exudation from roots during nutrient uptake and the
 generation of organic acids in the forest soils. Rates of N
 mineralization and nitrification as well as concentrations of NO3
 in the soil solution were higher in the second year after forest
 disturbance from a snow avalanche than immediately following the
 disturbance, indicating a delayed nitrification response.
 Significant amounts of NH4 and NO3 were temporarily stored in
 extractable forms in the soil during the first year after.
 mineral weathering can explain the total annual solute flux from
 Loch Vale Watershed, the effects of forest soil solutes may be
 important during the initial stages of snowmelt and following
 large-scale disturbance.
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 15. Cooperative ecosystem management in the ACE basin.
 Muckenfuss, E. 
 J-for v.92, p.35-36. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: forest-management; resource-management;
 land-management; ecosystems-; wetlands-; estuaries-;
 multiple-use; sustainability-; water-quality; habitats-;
 wildlife-; projects-; south-carolina; ace-basin-porject;
 ashepoor-river; combahee-river; edisto-river;
 public-private-coalition; integrated-resource-management
 NAL Call No.: 99.8-F768
 16. Denitrification in riparian wetlands receiving high and low
 groundwater nitrate inputs.
 Hanson, G. C.; Groffman, P. M.; Gold, A. J. 
 J-environ-qual v.23, p.917-922. (1994).
 Paper presented at the symposium, "Wetland Processes and Water
 Quality," November 3-4, 1992, Minneapolis, MN.
 Descriptors: nitrate-nitrogen; pollutants-;
 denitrification-; riparian-forests; land-use; upland-areas
 Abstract: Wetlands potentially remove a high percentage of the
 groundwater-borne nitrate (NO3-) that moves from upland
 environments before it reaches streams. It is important to
 determine how much of the NO3(-) that enters wetlands is actually
 removed from the ecosystem by denitrification (conversion of
 NO3(-) into N2 gas) rather than cycled between plants and soil.
 We measured denitrification in riparian forests with upland to
 wetland transition zones (moderately well drained and somewhat
 poorly drained soils) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) swamps
 (poorly and very poorly drained soils) on two sides of a stream.
 Soils on the two sides were similar, but the upland land use on
 one side was a high density, unsewered residential development
 (enriched site), while the upland on the other side was
 undeveloped (control site). Denitrification was measured using an
 acetylene-based intact core (0-15 cm) technique under unamended,
 water amended, and water plus nitrate-amended conditions.
 Denitrification (both unamended and amended rates) and soil and
 groundwater NO3(-) levels were consistently higher in soils on
 the enriched site. Estimates of annual denitrification ranged
 from < 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 on the moderately well drained control
 site soil to nearly 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1 on the very poorly drained
 enriched site soil. Stimulation of surface soil denitrification
 by subsurface NO3- enrichment requires a complex interaction
 between hydrology, plant uptake of NO3, and movement of plant N
 into soil NO3(-) pools through litterfall, mineralization, and
 nitrification. Comparison of measured denitrification rates with
 estimates of groundwater NO3- loading suggested that
 denitrification may have removed up to 50% of the.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 17. Design of forest riparian buffer strips for the protection of
 water quality : analysis of scientific literature.  Analysis of
 scientific literature.
 Belt, G. H.;  O'Laughlin, J.;  Merrill, T.; Idaho Forest, W. a.
 R. P. A. G. 
 Moscow, ID : Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Policy Analysis
 Group, [1992] iv, 35 p..
 "June 1992.".
 Descriptors: Riparian-ecology-Idaho; Riparian-forests-Idaho;
 NAL Call No.: QH541.5.R52B44--1992
 18. Development of a riparian forest zone model: a conceptual
 Inamdar, S.; Dillaha, T. A. I. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-2120/94-2155) 31 p. 
 Paper presented at the 1994 International Summer Meeting,
 sponsored by the ASAE, June 19-22, 1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 Descriptors: riparian-forests; streams-; fields-; sediment-;
 nitrogen-; phosphorus-; pollutants-; riparian-vegetation;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 19. Dissolved inorganic and organic carbon in moorland and forest
 Neal, C.; Hill, S. 
 J-hydrol v.153, p.231-243. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: moorland-; nardus-; agrostis-; coniferous-forests;
 picea-sitchensis; streams-; stream-flow; carbon-;
 organic-compounds; inorganic-compounds; acid-deposition;
 deforestation-; wales-
 Abstract: Information on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and
 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations  and fluxes is
 presented for streams draining a matrix of acid moorland, conifer
 forested and   harvested areas of Plynlimon, Mid-Wales. The
 results show six features. (1) pCO2 levels average   2.25 times
 the atmospheric value at 10(-3.15) for all the streams; excluding
 outlier points, 95%   of the data lie in the range 0.2-5.4 times
 the atmospheric value. Although data scatter is high,  the pCO2
 levels tend to increase with decreasing pH. The flow-weighted
 pCO2 levels average 2.5   times the atmospheric value at
 10(-3.1). (2) Flow weighted average DIC and DOC concentrations
 are  similar for all the main streams, at about 55.1 micromolar
 DIC 1(-1) (range 46.9-60.8) and at   about 143 micromolar DOC
 1(-1) (range 121-159), respectively. (3) The DIC and DOC fluxes
 are   similar for the main streams, at about 12.4 kg DIC ha(-1)
 year(-1) (range 11.5-15.6) and at about   32.7 kg DOC ha(-1)
 year(-1) (range 25.8-37.2), respectively. (4) DOC makes up about
 72% of the   total dissolved carbon concentration/flux in the
 main streams, and undissociated carbonic acid   contributes more
 than 87% to the total DIC. (5) Deforestation leads to an increase
 in the DOC  concentration and flux of about 29%; this increase
 persists for several years after felling. (6)   There is a
 statistically insignificant change in the concentration and flux
 for DIC, and pCO2,   with deforestation. However, the main
 streams contain lower bicarbonate concentrations under. felling.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 20. Dry deposition of nitrogen and sulfur to ponderosa and
 Jeffrey pine in the San Bernardino National Forest in southern
 Fenn, M. E.; Bytnerowicz, A. 
 Environ-Pollut v.81, p.277-285. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: pinus-ponderosa; pinus-jeffreyi; air-pollution;
 acid-deposition; pollutants-; nitrate-; ammonium-; sulfur-;
 ozone-; pine-needles; gradients-; california-;
 NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E52
 21. Effect of management on water quality in North American
 Brown, T. C. T. C. 1.;  Binkley, D.; Rocky Mountain Forest and
 Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, C. 
 Fort Collins, Colo. : The Station, 1994. 27 p. : ill..
 "June 1994.".
 Descriptors: Water-quality-management-North-America;
 Watershed-management-North-America; Water-pollution-North-America
 NAL Call No.: aSD11.A42--no.248
 22. The effects of a pelletised limestone treatment on drainage
 water acidity within a forest catchment in mid-Wales.
 Nisbet, T. R. 
 J-hydrol v.150, p.521-539. (1993).
 In the special issue: Water Issues in Forests Today / edited by
 E.M. O'Loughlin and F.X. Dunin. Hydrology, November 22-26, 1992,
 Canberra, Australia.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; forests-; acid-deposition;
 drainage-water; acidity-; limestone-; aerial-application; ph-;
 calcium-; aluminum-; soil-water; streams-; runoff-;
 water-pollution; wales-
 Abstract: Three headwater source areas were identified within a
 strongly acidified forest catchment in the Llyn Brianne area of
 central Wales. Each received an aerial application of between 10
 and 16 t ha-1 of limestone pellets (composed of powdered chalk,
 starch and bentonite) in November 1988. The pH, calcium and
 aluminium levels within soil water and stream water were assessed
 at fortnightly intervals over a 3 year period to determine the
 impact of the treatment on drainage water acidity. The results
 demonstrated the importance of identifying the effective source
 areas within a catchment and treating these with a readily
 available form of powdered limestone. Treatment with a pelletised
 form was unsuccessful in eliminating periods of low pH and high
 aluminium concentrations within the headwaters of the forested
 catchment. This was attributed to the slow breakdown and
 dissolution of the limestone pellets under the forest canopy and
 the reduced importance of the surface runoff pathways owing to
 pre-afforestation cultivation and drainage, and soil drying by
 the forest crop.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 23. Effects of forest age on surface drainage water and soil
 solution aluminium chemistry in stagnopodzols in Wales.
 Hughes, S.; Norris, D. A.; Stevens, P. A.; Reynolds, B.;
 Williams, T. G.; Woods, C. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.77, p.115-139. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: stagnopodzols-; aluminum-; soil-solution;
 b-horizons; surface-drainage; surface-water; picea-sitchensis;
 forest-plantations; age-; acidification-; forest-soils; wales-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 24. Effects of forest decline on uptake and leaching of deposited
 nitrate determined from 15N and 18O measurements.
 Durka, W.; Schultze, E. D.; Gebauer, G.; Voerkellus, S. 
 Nature v.372, p.765-767. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: picea-abies; coniferous-forests; forest-decline;
 air-pollution; deposition-; nitrate-; nutrient-uptake; leaching-;
 stable-isotopes; oxygen-; nitrogen-; rain-; springs-water;
 forest-plantations; liming-; bavaria-
 Abstract: Attempts to understand how atmospheric nitrogen
 deposition affects forest ecosystems have been hampered by the
 lack of a direct method to trace the fate of the deposited
 nitrogen. Nitrate originating in the atmosphere has natural
 abundances of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes that differ measurably
 from those of soil nitrate. Here we present an analysis of the
 isotope ratios of nitrate in spring waters from eight forested
 watersheds, ranging from apparently healthy spruce plantations to
 those in decline owing to acidification. We find that for the
 healthy, slightly declining and limed sites, only 16-30% of the
 nitrate in spring water originates directly from the atmosphere
 without being processed in the soil, whereas for more severely
 damaged sites almost all of the atmospheric nitrate finds its way
 directly into the spring water. This suggests that acid-induced
 forest decline significantly inhibits nitrate consumption by soil
 microorganisms and trees, and that liming to ameliorate soil
 acidification restores the consumption of atmospheric nitrate.
 Nevertheless, in limed ecosystems total nitrate output remains
 high because of internal nitrate production by the ecosystem.
 NAL Call No.: 472-N21
 25. Environmental concerns with the development of
 herbicide-tolerant plants.
 Goldburg, R. J. 
 Weed-Technol-J-Weed-Sci-Soc-Am v.6, p.647-652. (1992).
 Paper presented at the Symposium, "Development of
 Herbicide-Resistant Crop Cultivars", Weed Science Society of
 America, February 6, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky.
 Descriptors: transgenic-plants; crops-; forest-trees;
 herbicide-resistance; herbicides-; weed-control;
 environmental-impact; groundwater-pollution; public-health;
 food-safety; nontarget-effects; private-sector; public-sector;
 NAL Call No.: SB610.W39
 26. Erosion, sediment, and turbidity in New England forests.
 Martin, C. W.; Hornbeck, J. W. 
 Technical workshop on Sediments, February 3-7, 1992, Corvallis,
 Oregon  proceedings / Technical Workshop on Sediments.
 Washington, D.C. : Terrene Institute, [1993]. p. 75-80. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: streams-; water-quality; erosion-;
 geological-sedimentation; turbidity-; logging-; logging-effects;
 new-hampshire; hubbard-brook-experimental-forest; forest-streams
 NAL Call No.: QE571.T42-1992
 27. Establishment of field experiments: experiments.
 Stuanes, A. O.; Abrahamsen, G.; Tveite, B.; Bjor, K. 
 Ecol-stud. New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag. 1994. v. 104 p.
 In the series analytic: Long-term experiments with acid rain in
 Norwegian forest ecosystems / edited by G. Abrahamsen, A.O.
 Stuanes and B. Tveite.
 Descriptors: acid-rain; forest-plantations; irrigation-;
 irrigation-equipment; irrigation-water; sulfuric-acid;
 groundwater-; lysimetry-; lysimeters-; long-term-experiments;
 field-experimentation; experimental-plots; norway-;
 NAL Call No.: QH540.E288
 28. Evaluating the effectiveness of forestry best management
 practices in meeting water quality goals or standards.
 Dissmeyer, G. E.; United States. Forest Service. Southern Region. 
 Atlanta, Ga. : USDA, Forest Service, Southern Region, [1994]
 viii, 166 p. : ill..
 "July 1994.".
 Descriptors: Water-quality-United-States;
 NAL Call No.: 1--Ag84M-no.1520
 29. Field and laboratory quality assurance/quality control
 protocols and accomplishments for the Fernow Experimental Forest
 watershed acidification study.
 Edwards, P. J.;  Wood, F.; Northeastern Forest Experiment Station
 (Radnor, Pa. 
 Radnor, Pa. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service,
 Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, [1993] 15 p. : ill..
 Cover title.
 Descriptors: Water-quality-United-States-Measurement
 NAL Call No.: aSD11.U56-no.177
 30. Foliar nutrients in sugar maple forests along a regional
 pollution--climate gradient.
 Burton, A. J.; Pregitzer, K. S.; MacDonald, N. W. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Nov/Dec 1993. v. 57 (6) p. 1619-1628. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: acer-saccharum; plant-nutrition;
 nutrient-deficiencies; leaves-; litter-plant; nutrient-content;
 cycling-; soil-pollution; acid-deposition; soil-toxicity;
 climatic-factors; forest-decline; lake-states-of-usa
 Abstract: Stressing agents such as defoliation, adverse climatic
 conditions, and pollutant deposition have   the potential to
 alter forest nutrition. Several recent instances of sugar maple
 (Acer saccharum  Marsh.) decline and dieback have been associated
 with foliar nutrients deficiencies. This study   assessed foliar
 nutrient status and cycling in five sugar maple dominated
 northern hardwood   forests along a Great Lakes
 pollution-climatic gradient. Concentrations and contents in
 mid-July  foliage and litterfall were determined at each site for
 N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, and   Cu. Where
 differences existed among sites in foliar nutrient
 concentrations, they could be  predicted primarily from soil
 properties. Two notable exceptions were foliar S, which was
 strongly   related to S04 deposition, and foliar Al, which could
 be predicted by a combination of soil   nutrient cation
 availability and SO4 deposition. Nutrient content of mid-July
 foliage and   litterfall increased from northwest to southeast
 along the gradient for N, S, Mg, Al, Fe, B, and   Cu. This was
 the result of an increase in foliage and litterfall biomass,
 combined in some cases   (S, Al, Fe, and B) with increasing
 foliar nutrient concentrations. Reproductive effort  
 significantly affected total litter return of all nutrients and
 43 to 62% of mid-July foliar N, P,   K, and S were conserved
 through retranslocation prior to litterfall. Sugar maple foliar
 nutrient   concentrations for the five sites revealed no obvious
 nutrient deficiencies or toxicities, and  provide a regional
 baseline against which the effects of long-term pollutant
 deposition and other  stresses can be assessed in the future.
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 31. Forest management and wildlife in forested wetlands of the
 southern Appalachians.
 Wigley, T. B.; Roberts, T. H. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.77, p.445-456. (1994).
 In the special issue: Wetlands of the interior southeastern
 United States / edited by C.C. Trettin, W.M. Aust, and J.
 Wisniewski. Conference on "Wetland Ecology, Management, and
 Conservation," held September 28-30, 1993, Knoxville, Tennessee.
 Descriptors: wetlands-; riparian-forests; bottomland-forests;
 forest-management; silviculture-; forestry-practices;
 habitat-destruction; wildlife-; community-ecology;
 logging-effects; clearcutting-; appalachian-states-of-usa;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 32. Forest practices as nonpoint sources of pollution in North
 Binkley, D.; Brown, T. C. 
 Water-resour-bull v.29, p.729-740. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; streams-; water-quality;
 forest-influences; forest-management; usa-; canada-
 Abstract: Forest management activities may substantially alter
 the quality of water draining forests, and are   regulated as
 nonpoint sources of pollution. Important impacts have been
 documented, in some cases,   for undesirable changes in stream
 temperature and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrate-N, 
 and suspended sediments. We present a comprehensive summary of
 North American studies that have examined the impacts of forest
 practices on each of these parameters of water quality. In most 
 cases, retention of forested buffer strips along streams prevents
 unacceptable increases in stream  temperatures. Current practices
 do not typically involve addition of large quantities of fine 
 organic material to streams, and depletion of streamwater oxygen
 is not a problem; however,  sedimentation of gravel streambeds
 may reduce oxygen diffusion into spawning beds in some cases. 
 Concentrations of nitrate-N typically increase substantially
 after forest harvesting and  fertilization, but only a few cases
 have resulted in concentrations approaching the drinking-water 
 standard of 10 mg of nitrate- N/L. Road construction and
 harvesting increase suspended sediment  concentrations in
 streamwater, with highly variable results among regions in North
 America. The  use of best management practices usually prevents
 unacceptable increases in sediment concentrations, but
 exceptionally large responses (especially in relation to intense
 storms) are  not unusual.
 NAL Call No.: 292.9-Am34
 33. Forest water quality protection: a comparison of regulatory
 and voluntary programs.
 Hawks, L. J.; Cubbage, F. W.; Haney, H. L. Jr.; Shaffer, R. M.;
 Newman, D. H. 
 J-For v.91, p.48-54. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: forests-; water-quality; legislation-;
 resource-conservation; maryland-; virginia-; nonpoint-pollution;
 NAL Call No.: 99.8-F768
 34. Functions and values of forested wetlands in the southern
 United States.
 Walbridge, M. R. 
 J-For v.91, p.15-19. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: wetlands-; forests-; resource-management;
 water-quality; natural-resources; resource-conservation;
 NAL Call No.: 99.8-F768
 35. Groundwater nitrate dynamics in grass and poplar vegetated
 riparian buffer strips during the winter.
 Haycock, N. E.; Pinay, G. 
 J-environ-qual v.22, p.273-278. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; riparian-grasslands; riparian-forests;
 nitrate-nitrogen; retention-; buffering-capacity; winter-;
 groundwater-flow; hydrological-factors; catchment-hydrology;
 water-pollution; england-
 Abstract: Nitate retention in riparian buffer strips is well
 documented in summer periods, but the potential of winter
 retention within these zones is poorly documented. Two sites,
 grass (Lolium perenne L.), and poplar (Populus italica)-vegetated
 riparian strips, were investigated in southern England (River
 Leach). Groundwater flow was via subsurface pathways within the
 sites, NO3- concentration gradients and loading rates were
 calculated over the winter period. Nitrate retention was found to
 be linearly dependent on load rate. Nitrate retention occurred at
 the edge of the riparian zone. This was most obvious in the
 poplar site where all hillslope-derived NO3 was absorbed within
 the first 5 m of flow within the riparian strip. When loading
 rates into the sites increased, NO3 absorption migrated upslope
 from the riparian site. The poplar-vegetated riparian zone was
 found to be more resilient (99% retention of NO3-) than the
 grass-vegetated riparian zone (84% retention of NO3-) in the
 winter months. It is postulated that although vegetation has no
 active role in retaining NO3- in the winter, above-ground
 vegetative biomass does contribute C to the soil microbacterial
 biomass that is engaged in NO3- reduction in the winter months,
 this accounted for the greater efficiency of the poplar vegetated
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 36. History of forest hydrology.
 McCulloch, J. S. G.; Robinson, M. 
 J-hydrol v.150, p.189-216. (1993).
 In the special issue: Water Issues in Forests Today / edited by
 E.M. O'Loughlin and F.X. Dunin. Hydrology, November 22-26, 1992,
 Canberra, Australia.
 Descriptors: forests-; hydrology-; history-; catchment-hydrology;
 water-quality; literature-reviews; europe-; usa-; east-africa
 Abstract: Hydrology as a science and a technology is examined, as
 are some of the myths on the role of forests in hydrology and
 water resources. The history of catchment area research is
 traced, in Europe, in the USA and in East Africa, with particular
 reference to forest hydrology and, in the earlier years, to water
 quantity rather than water quality. The importance of associating
 physical process studies with hydrological systems'
 investigations, to enhance understanding of why particular
 catchments behave as they do, is stressed. Recent advances in
 hydrochemistry have been exploited to elucidate water flow paths
 within experimental catchments. Stimulated by requirements for
 research into acidification of surface waters, research
 catchments have proved to be valuable outdoor laboratories from
 which a much improved understanding of the flow processes has
 been achieved. Conflicting claims about the impacts of forestry
 are described and discussed.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 37. Hydrologic processes controlling sulfate mobility in a small
 forested watershed.
 Huntington, T. G.; Hooper, R. P.; Aulenbach, B. T. 
 Water-resour-res v.30, p.283-295. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; sulfates-; pollution-control;
 groundwater-pollution; temporal-variation; georgia-;
 Abstract: Hydrologic controls on sulfate mobility were
 investigated in a forested catchment in the Georgia Piedmont
 using a watershed mass balance approach. Variations in annual
 sulfate export were governed primarily by differences in runoff
 rather than by differences in sulfate deposition or in total
 annual precipitation. However, 2 years with similar total runoff
 had substantially different sulfate export. A residual analysis
 indicated that a shift in the concentration-discharge
 relationship accounted for 72% of the difference in sulfate
 export and that a change in the pattern of discharge accounted
 for the remainder of the difference. Stream water sulfate
 concentrations reflected past hydrologic conditions.
 Concentrations at the same discharge were higher following an
 extended dry period than following average periods. The elevation
 in stream water sulfate concentrations following dry periods
 persisted for several months. The influence of rainfall patterns
 on sulfate export underscores the need for long-term records to
 adequately characterize the acidification status of the watershed
 and to understand trends in water quality.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-W295
 38. Hydrology of a forested wetland.
 Chescheir, G. M.; Amatya, D. M.; Giraud, F. M.; Skaggs, R. W.;
 Gilliam, J. W. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-2531/93-2550) 11 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 12-17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: wetlands-; forests-; hydrology-; water-quality;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 39. The impacts of atmospheric N inputs on throughfall, soil and
 stream water interactions for different aged forest and moorland
 catchments in Wales.
 Stevens, P. A.; Norris, D. A.; Sparks, T. H.; Hodgson, A. L. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.73, p.297-317. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: air-pollution; air-pollutants; nitrogen-; nitrate-;
 deposition-; throughfall-; rain-; soil-water; streams-;
 soil-pollution; water-pollution; moorland-; forest-soils;
 watersheds-; polluted-soils; stand-characteristics;
 forest-plantations; acidification-; nitrification-; leaching-;
 wales-; inorganic-nitrogen; stand-age
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 40. Impacts of coal pile leachate on a forested wetland in South
 Carlson, C. L.; Carlson, C. A. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.72, p.89-109. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: wetlands-; water-pollution; coal-; leachates-;
 vegetation-; pinus-taeda; phytotoxicity-; soil-water; acid-soils;
 soil-salinity; soil-acidity; dieback-; understory-; forest-trees;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 41. Influence of fertilized short-rotation forest plantations on
 nitrogen concentrations in groundwater.
 Bergstrom, L.; Johansson, R. 
 Soil-Use-Manage v.8, p.36-40. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: forest-plantations; ammonium-nitrate;
 application-rates; groundwater-pollution; ammonium-nitrogen;
 nitrate-nitrogen; sweden-
 Abstract: The influence of intensively fertilized short-rotation
 forest plantations on nitrogen concentrations in groundwater was
 studied by piezometer readings and water sampling over a two-year
 period in a sandy field growing willow (Salix spp.) and other
 species. The mineral-N content of the unsaturated zone was
 measured in soil samples collected to 0.9 m depth. Although
 piezometer readings suggested that deep groundwater could be
 affected, the concentrations of nitrate-N and ammonium-N were
 usually less than 1 mg per litre. There was also little mineral-N
 in the unsaturated zone, except for occasional peaks in the
 topsoil (0-30 cm) after application of fertilizer. We conclude
 that there is little risk of nitrogen contamination of
 groundwater in intensively cultured tree stands receiving up to
 150 kg N/ha/yr as fertilizer. This is probably because willow can
 take up water and nitrogen from deep parts of the soil profile.
 NAL Call No.: S590.S68
 42. Influence of soil hydrological pathways on stream aluminium
 chemistry at Llyn Brianne, mid-Wales.
 Soulsby, C.; Reynolds, B. 
 Environ-Pollut v.81, p.51-60. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; forests-; acid-deposition; rain-;
 soil-water-regimes; gley-soils; runoff-; storms-; stream-flow;
 aluminum-; acidification-; upland-areas; catchment-hydrology;
 NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E52
 43. Long-term sulfate dynamics at Lange Bramke (Harz) used for
 testing two acidification models.
 Lange, H.; Hauhs, M.; Schmidt, S. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.79, p.339-351. (1995).
 In the special issue: Biogeochemical monitoring in small
 catchments / edited by J. Cerny, M. Novak, T. Paces and R.K.
 Weider. Evaluation of Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments,"
 held September 18-20, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic.
 Descriptors: sulfate-; nitrate-; hydrogen-ions; soil-solution;
 runoff-; acidification-; elements-; anions-; cations-;
 mountains-; watersheds-; forest-soils; coniferous-forests;
 picea-abies; lower-saxony; magic-model; bem-model
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 44. Management impacts on water quality of forests and
 Binkley, D.;  Brown, T. C. T. C. 1.; Rocky Mountain Forest and
 Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, C. 
 Fort Collins, Colo. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service,
 Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1993. 114 p.
 : ill., maps.
 "November 1993.".
 Descriptors: Forest-influences-United-States;
 NAL Call No.: aSD11.A42--no.239
 45. Measurements and modelling of ozone deposition to wet
 Fuentes, J. D.; Hartog, G. d.; Neumann, H. H.; Gillespie, T. J. 
 NATO-ASI-ser,-Ser-G:-Ecol-sci. Berlin, [East Germany] ; New York,
 [N.Y.] : Springer-Verlag, 1983-. 1994. v. 36 p. 239-253. 
 In the series analytic: Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle /
 edited by K.E. Percy, J.N. Cape, R. Jagels and C.J. Simpson.
 Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop held October
 4-8, 1993, Fredericton, Canada.
 Descriptors: leaves-; foliage-; ozone-; deposition-; water-;
 rain-; dew-; canopy-; forest-trees;
 broadleaved-deciduous-forests; wetlands-; vitis-vinifera;
 vineyards-; ontario-; california-; leaf-wettness
 NAL Call No.: QH540.N3
 46. Methods to assess the water quality impact of a restored
 riparian wetland.
 Vellidis, G.; Lowrance, R.; Smith, M. C.; Hubbard, R. K. 
 J-Soil-Water-Conserv v.48, p.223-230. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; animal-wastes; bioremediation-;
 water-quality; runoff-; riparian-forests; wetlands-;
 reclamation-; pollution-control; georgia-; wetland-restoration;
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-J822
 47. Mixed conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains,
 Miller, P. R. 
 Ecol-stud. New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag. 1992. v. 97 p.
 In the series analytic: The response of western forests to air
 pollution / edited by R.K. Olson, D. Binkley and M. Bohm.
 Descriptors: coniferous-forests; mixed-forests; conifers-;
 air-pollution; ozone-; pollutants-; acid-deposition;
 phytotoxicity-; pinus-ponderosa; pinus-jeffreyi; growth-rings;
 increment-; growth-; spatial-variation; temporal-variation;
 mountain-areas; california-; radial-growth
 NAL Call No.: QH540.E288
 48. Mixed conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada.
 Peterson, D. L.; Arbaugh, M. J. 
 Ecol-stud. New York, N.Y. : Springer-Verlag. 1992. v. 97 p.
 In the series analytic: The response of western forests to air
 pollution / edited by R.K. Olson, D. Binkley and M. Bohm.
 Descriptors: coniferous-forests; conifers-; mixed-forests;
 air-pollution; pollutants-; ozone-; phytotoxicity-;
 mountain-forests; pinus-ponderosa; pinus-jeffreyi; growth-rings;
 increment-; growth-; spatial-variation; temporal-variation;
 california-; radial-growth
 NAL Call No.: QH540.E288
 49. Modeling perspective of the deforestation impact in stream
 water quality of small preserved forested areas in the Amazonian
 Forti, M. C.; Neal, C.; Jenkins, A. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.79, p.325-337. (1995).
 In the special issue: Biogeochemical monitoring in small
 catchments / edited by J. Cerny, M. Novak, T. Paces and R.K.
 Weider. Evaluation of Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments,"
 held September 18-20, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic.
 Descriptors: tropical-rain-forests; logging-effects;
 deforestation-; simulation-models; water-quality; streams-;
 sulfate-; anions-; cations-; acidification-; soil-organic-matter;
 organic-matter; reserved-forests; amazonas-; magic-model;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 50. Modelling the long-term impacts of atmospheric pollution
 deposition and repeated forestry cycles on stream water chemistry
 for a holm oak forest in northeastern Spain.
 Neal, C.; Avila, A.; Roda, F. 
 J-hydrol v.168, p.51-71. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: quercus-ilex; forests-; watersheds-; streams-;
 forestry-practices; air-pollutants; deposition-; surface-water;
 water-quality; cations-; anions-; acidification-;
 simulation-models; spain-
 Abstract: Estimates based on the MAGIC model of the long-term
 effects on stream water quality of forest management cycles as
 well as of atmospheric pollutant inputs for a holm oak catchment
 in northeastern Spain, show that despite high pollutant sulphur
 inputs as well as substantial base cation loss from the catchment
 owing to forest harvesting, stream water has not deteriorated in
 any major way. Acidification of the catchment will continue, to a
 limited degree, unless either sulphur deposition is reduced by
 more than 60% or forest harvesting schemes are terminated. The
 detrimental changes in water quality owing to acid deposition and
 forestry harvesting practice in other parts of Europe are not
 observed in this regions because of high base inputs from the
 atmosphere and high base cation weathering rates within the
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 51. Movement of nitrogen though and agricultural riparian zone.
 1. Field studies.
 Clausen, J. C.; Wayland, K. G.; Saldi, K. A.; Guillard, K. 
 Water-sci-technol v.28, p.605-612. (1993).
 Paper presented at the IAWQ First International Conference on
 "Diffuse (Nonpoint).
 Descriptors: riparian-forests; pollutants-; sources-;
 water-quality; afforestation-; zea-mays; crops-;
 groundwater-pollution; nitrogen-; surface-water; water-pollution;
 pollution-control; connecticut-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 52. Movement of nitrogen through and agricultural riparian zone.
 2. Distributed modeling.
 Nikolaidis, N. P.; Shen, H.; Heng, H.; Hu, H. L.; Clausen, J. C. 
 Water-sci-technol v.28, p.613-623. (1993).
 Paper presented at the IAWQ First International Conference on
 "Diffuse (Nonpoint).
 Descriptors: riparian-forests; pollutants-; sources-; nitrogen-;
 groundwater-pollution; surface-water; water-pollution;
 movement-in-soil; mathematical-models; connecticut-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 53. Nitrate dynamics in riparian forests: groundwater studies.
 Simmons, R. C.; Gold, A. J.; Groffman, P. M. 
 J-Environ-Qual v.21, p.659-665. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: riparian-forests; nitrates-; groundwater-;
 subsurface-drainage; seasonal-variation; water-table; soil-depth;
 ph-; soil-organic-matter; temperature-; spatial-variation;
 groundwater-pollution; wetlands-; upland-areas; rhode-island
 Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the removal of
 groundwater nitrate (NO3-) in different soil drainage classes
 within three riparian forests located in Rhode Island. A solution
 of NO3- and a conservative tracer [either bromide (Br-) or
 chloride (Cl-)] was applied in the growing and the dormant
 seasons to trenches upgradient of wetland locations with hydric
 soils (poorly and very poorly drained soils) and transition zone
 locations with somewhat poorly and moderately well-drained soils
 located immediately upslope of the wetlands. To assess removal,
 the change in groundwater concentrations of NO3- relative to the
 concentration of the conservative tracer was observed in
 monitoring wells located in each soil drainage class from June
 1989 through April 1990. Removal of groundwater NO3- was
 consistently high in the wetland locations, generally in excess
 of 80% in both growing and dormant seasons. In the transition
 zones, attenuation was less than 36% during the growing season,
 and ranged from 50 to 78% in the dormant season. Attenuation in
 the transition zones was positively correlated with water table
 elevations. Transition zone attenuation was high in the dormant
 season relative to the growing season likely because high water
 tables during the dormant season caused the contaminant plume to
 be exposed to soil with higher organic matter. The results
 suggest that both wetlands and transition zones between wetlands
 and uplands can be important sinks for groundwater NO3.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 54. Non-target impacts of management practices on the soil
 arthropod community of ponderosa pine plantations.
 Moldenke, A. R. 
 Proc-For-Veg-Manage-Conf p.78-103. (1992).
 Meeting held on January 14-16, 1992, Eureka, California.
 Descriptors: soil-arthropods; arthropod-communities;
 insect-communities; community-ecology; nontarget-organisms;
 nontarget-effects; glyphosate-; fertilizers-; acephate-;
 species-diversity; herbicide-residues; insecticide-residues;
 forest-soils; forest-plantations; pinus-ponderosa; california-;
 NAL Call No.: QH541.5.F6F67
 55. Nutrient interception by a riparian forest receiving inputs
 from adjacent cropland.
 Jordan, T. E.; Correll, D. L.; Weller, D. E. 
 J-environ-qual v.22, p.467-473. (1993).
 Paper presented at the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research
 Center Symposium XVII, "Agricultural Water Quality Priorities, A
 Team Approach to Conserving Natural Resources," May 4-8, 1992,
 Beltsville, MD.
 Descriptors: groundwater-flow; riparian-forests;
 nitrogen-; ammonium-; carbon-; sulfate-; chloride-; ph-;
 nutrient-retention; spatial-variation; seasonal-variation;
 zea-mays; no-tillage-; maryland-; dissolved-organic-nitrogen;
 Abstract: To investigate the ability of riparian forest to
 intercept nutrients leaving adjacent cropland, we examined
 changes in the chemistry of groundwater flowing from a corn (Zea
 mays L.) field through a riparian forest. This study provided a
 comparison to previous studies of a different forest. We sampled
 groundwater from a transect of wells, and used a Br- tracer to
 confirm that groundwater moved laterally along the transect
 through the forest. As groundwater flowed through the forest,
 concentrations decreased from about 8 mg/L at the edge of the
 corn field to <0.4 mg/L halfway through the forest. Dissolved
 organic N and NH4+ increased by less than 0.1 mg/L, and dissolved
 organic C did not change with distance. Sulfate remained constant
 with distance until midway through the forest, where it began to
 increase. Chloride concentration rose until midway through the
 forest, then fell. Values of pH increased from under 5 at the
 edge of the corn field to over 7 at the stream bank, perhaps as a
 result of the NO3- consumption. Most of the change in NO3-
 occurred abruptly at the edge of a floodplain within the forest.
 There the water table was closest to the surface and soil Eh
 below the water table was less than -90 mV. Such strongly
 reducing conditions may have promoted denitrification in the
 floodplain. In contrast, soil Eh on the adjacent hill slope was
 above 500 mV, too high to support denitrification. There were
 only slight seasonal changes in groundwater chemistry. We also
 studied the net annual accretion of sediment in the riparian
 forest by measuring changes in the elevation of the soil surface.
 There was little or no accretion in the forest, but along a path
 of overland storm flow there was net erosion. Thus, nutrient
 retention by this forest, in contrast with the forest we
 previously studied,  was entirely a below ground process.
 Functional differences within sections of this forest and among
 different riparian forests suggest a need for research on the
 factors that control nutrient retention.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 56. Of endangered mollusks and forests: Managing stream habitats
 for aquatic species.
 Neves, R. J. 
 Proc-Soc-Am-For-Natl-Conv p.144-147. (1992).
 Paper presented at a meeting on "American Forestry -- An Evolving
 Tradition," October 25-27, 1992, Richmond, Virginia.
 Descriptors: mussels-; endangered-species; water-pollution;
 NAL Call No.: SD143.S64
 57. Persistence of diflubenzuron on Appalachian forest leaves in
 stream water.
 Harrahy, E. A.; Wimmer, M. J.; Perry, S. A.; Faber, D. C.;
 Miracle, J. E.; Perry, W. B. 
 J-agric-food-chem v.41, p.2191-2196. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: diflubenzuron-; insecticide-residues; persistence-;
 leaves-; forest-trees; streams-; nontarget-effects;
 nontarget-organisms; aquatic-organisms; water-pollution;
 Abstract: The persistence of diflubenzuron on Appalachian forest
 leaves placed in stream water was examined using a new gas
 chromatographic/mass spectrometric method for analyzing the
 pesticide. Leaves came from trees aerially sprayed with Dimilin
 in the spring and left to weather during the growing season. The
 rain exposure minimizes loss of pesticide when the treated leaves
 are first immersed. After diflubenzuron coverage was measured,
 leaf samples were placed in a headwater stream and residual
 diflubenzuron was monitored as a function of time. During July
 and August, the amount of diflubenzuron on white oak decreased
 significantly (by 36% and 23%, respectively) within the first 48
 h of stream incubation, reaching less than 10% of the original
 concentration within 3 weeks. In the December studies with yellow
 poplar, red maple, and white oak leaves, the rate of loss of
 diflubenzuron was slow. After 54 days in the stream, yellow
 poplar and red maple leaves retained 45% and 40%, respectively,
 of the original diflubenzuron and white oak showed no significant
 loss. In laboratory experiments mimicking the December field
 conditions, no significant loss of diflubenzuron was seen from
 yellow poplar leaves. In view of the persistence of diflubenzuron
 on hardwood leaves observed throughout the growing season to leaf
 fall, at low stream temperatures, nontarget aquatic organisms
 that consume these fallen leaves may be exposed to the pesticide
 for a significant period of time.
 NAL Call No.: 381-J8223
 58. Preserving the Deadwood Creek, Oregon, watershed.
 Kinney, R. 
 J-pestic-reform v.14, p.11-13. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; water-quality; water-pollution;
 environmental-degradation; logging-effects; forest-management;
 herbicides-; oregon-
 NAL Call No.: SB950.2.A1J58
 59. Procedural guidelines for developing soil and water
 conservation practices in pinon-juniper ecosystems.
 Spann, C. L. 
 Gen-tech-rep-RM. Fort Collins, Colo. : Rocky Mountain Forest and
 Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of
 Agriculture. Oct 1993. (236) p. 159-161. 
 In the series analytic: Managing Pinon-Juniper Ecosystems for
 Sustainability and Social Needs. Proceedings of a symposium held
 April 26-30, 1993, Sante Fe, New Mexico.
 Descriptors: pinyon-juniper-; ecosystems-; soil-conservation;
 water-quality; water-conservation; national-forests
 NAL Call No.: aSD11.A42
 60. The response of soil physical and chemical properties and
 water quality to timber harvest and soil disturbance: preliminary
 Perison, D. M.; Lea, R.; Kellison, R. 
 Gen-tech-rep-SO p.143-146. (1993).
 Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Southern Silvicultural
 Research Conference, held November 17-19, 1992, Mobile, Alabama.
 Descriptors: logging-; harvesting-; soil-physical-properties;
 soil-chemistry; water-quality; bottomland-forests; wetlands-
 NAL Call No.: aSD11.U57
 61. Riparian forest buffer system research at the Coastal Plain
 Experiment Station, Tifton, GA.
 Hubbard, R. K.; Lowrance, R. R. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.77, p.407-432. (1994).
 In the special issue: Wetlands of the interior southeastern
 United States / edited by C.C. Trettin, W.M. Aust, and J.
 Wisniewski. Conference on "Wetland Ecology, Management, and
 Conservation," held September 28-30, 1993, Knoxville, Tennessee.
 Descriptors: riparian-forests; riparian-vegetation; grasses-;
 vegetation-management; clearcutting-; selective-felling;
 wetlands-; biological-treatment; waste-water-treatment;
 dairy-wastes; pig-slurry; aldicarb-; insecticide-residues;
 nutrients-; removal-; nutrient-uptake; simulation-models;
 nitrate-; denitrification-; water-quality; runoff-; groundwater-;
 groundwater-pollution; water-pollution; georgia-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 62. Riparian nitrogen dynamics in two geomorphologically distinct
 tropical rain forest
 McDowell, W. H.; Bowden, W. B.; Asbury, C. E. 
 Biogeochemistry v.18, p.53-75. maps. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: groundwater-; hydrology-; ammonium-; nitrates-;
 nitrogen-cycle; leaching-; soil-texture; water-quality;
 watersheds-; tropical-rain-forests; puerto-rico
 NAL Call No.: QH345.B564
 63. Sediment rating curves for a clearcut ponderosa pine
 watershed in northern Arizona.
 Lopes, V. L.; Ffolliott, P. F. 
 Water-resour-bull v.29, p.369-382. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: pinus-ponderosa; watersheds-; clearcutting-;
 sediment-; stream-flow; discharge-; water-quality; erosion-;
 runoff-; measurement-; catchment-hydrology; arizona-;
 Abstract: Data from a 455-acre clearcut ponderosa pine forest
 watershed in northern Arizona were used to identify relationships
 between suspended sediment concentration and streamflow
 discharge. Sediment rating curves were derived by geometric
 least-squares regression using 515 paired suspended sediment
 concentration and streamflow discharge measurements obtained from
 1974 through 1982. Scatter about the straight line relationship
 was found when all available pairs of
 suspended-sediment-concentration and streamflow measurements were
 used together. The effect of some of the variation was offset by
 subdividing the data set on the basis of streamflow generation
 mechanisms. Improved descriptive power also was achieved when
 separate rising- and falling-stage data sets were considered in
 deriving the sediment rating curves. Most noticeable was the
 improvements within low-intensity, frontal rainfall events. There
 was no significant improvement in descriptive power when separate
 rising- and falling-stage data sets were considered in deriving
 the sediment rating curves for snowmelt-runoff events. Higher
 suspended sediment concentrations were observed during the rising
 stage of hydrographs than for similar flows on the falling stage,
 mainly for winter-rainfall with insignificant snow accumulation
 on the ground and rain-on-snow events.
 NAL Call No.: 292.9-Am34
 64. Selected water-quality and biological characteristics of
 streams in some forested basins of North Carolina, 1985-88. 
 Selected water quality and biological characteristics of streams
 in some forested basins of North Carolina, 1985-88.
 Caldwell, W. S.; North Carolina. Dept. of Environment, H. a. N.
 Raleigh, N.C. : U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological
 Survey ; Denver, CO : U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Open-File
 Reports Section [distributor], 1992 [i.e. 1993] viii, 114 p. :
 ill., maps.
 Shipping list no.: 93-0172-P.
 Descriptors: Rivers-North-Carolina;
 NAL Call No.: GB701.W375-no.92-4129
 65. A simple model of stream nitrate concentrations in forested
 and deforested catchments in Mid-Wales.
 Sloan, W. T.; Jenkins, A.; Eatherall, A. 
 J-hydrol v.158, p.61-78. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: nitrate-nitrogen; streams-; watersheds-;
 upland-areas; coniferous-forests; moorland-; temperature-;
 temporal-variation; seasonal-fluctuations; nitrogen-;
 deposition-; wales-
 Abstract: Abstract: A model is developed specifically for
 simulating the nitrate concentrations in a stream at
 approximately weekly intervals in an upland forested and a
 moorland catchment. It is constructed on the basis of observed
 nitrate concentrations in rain water and in two streams, the
 Hafren and the Hore, at Plynlimon, Mid-Wales, where long data
 records exist. The Hore catchmen has recently undergone extensive
 deforestation. A simple regression model relating temperature to
 stream nitrate concentrations was capable of simulating the
 seasonal fluctuations in nitrate concentration observed in the
 Hafren. However, this ignores the influx of nitrate through wet
 deposition and is incapable of simulating land-use change. The
 regression model was developed into a simple dynamic model which
 includes a deposition term and a biomass indicator. The extended
 Kalman filter algorithm was used to estimate the optimum values
 of the parameters and to assess the model structure. The model
 was applied to both catchments, and the fit between observed and
 simulated nitrate concentrations at the Hafren was good. At the
 Hore, the model was able to capture the major changes in nitrate
 concentration and through the deforestation and replanting phases
 although detailed short-term dynamics were not well represented.
 Finally, the model is related, speculatively, to processes which
 are known to occur in most catchments. This simple model is
 intended as a step towards the development of similar but more
 comprehensive catchment models of stream nitrogen dynamics.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 66. Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian
 pine-hardwood stands: nitrogen responses in soil, soil water, and
 Knoepp, J. D.; Swank, W. T. 
 Can-j-for-res. Ottawa, National Research Council of Canada. Oct
 1993. v. 23 (10) p. 2263-2270. 
 Paper presented at the "International Conference on Forest
 Vegetation Management: Ecology, Practice and Policy", held Apr
 27-May 1, 1992, Auburn, Alabama.
 Descriptors: site-preparation; prescribed-burning; mixed-forests;
 pinus-; hardwoods-; soil-fertility; nitrification-;
 mineralization-; nitrates-; ammonium-; nitrate-nitrogen;
 soil-water; streams-; water-quality; nutrient-availability;
 nitrogen-; national-forests; north-carolina;
 Abstract: Three paired watersheds treated with a fell and burn
 prescription were studied to determine the effects on soil, soil
 water, and strewn water. Soil nitrification and mineralization
 were measured by in situ closed-core incubation. Soil water was
 collected with porous cup lysimeters placed at 30 and 60 cm
 depths, and water samples were collected from streams draining
 control and burned areas on one of the three sites. All data were
 collected for 6 months prior to and 12 months after treatment.
 Soil ammonium (NH4(+)) content increased significantly in all
 three sites after burning, but the magnitude differed greatly
 among sites. However, there was no change in soil nitrate NO3(-)
 content. In situ measurements of net mineralization showed
 increased rates with increasing bum severity. Net nitrification
 displayed no treatment response. Slight and nonsignificant
 increases in soil water NO3(-) concentration occurred after
 burning in two of the three sites. Stream water NO3(-)
 concentrations increased in the one stream sampled. Thus, while
 prescribed burning increased available soil N, there was little
 change in N transformation rates or movement of dissolved
 inorganic N off site during the first year after burning.
 NAL Call No.: SD13.C35
 67. Solute fluxes and sulfur cycling in forested catchments in SW
 Germany as influenced by experimental (NH4)2SO4 treatments.
 Feger, K. H. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.79, p.109-130. (1995).
 In the special issue: Biogeochemical monitoring in small
 catchments / edited by J. Cerny, M. Novak, T. Paces and R.K.
 Weider. Evaluation of Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments,"
 held September 18-20, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; biogeochemistry-; ammonium-sulfate;
 cycling-; sulfur-; coniferous-forests; picea-abies;
 nitrogen-cycle; nitrogen-; sulfate-; biological-activity-in-soil;
 nutrient-uptake; nutrient-content; acid-deposition; simulation-;
 streams-; water-quality; baden-wurttemberg-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 68. Solution chemistry profiles of mixed-conifer forests before
 and after fire.
 Chorover, J.; Vitousek, P. M.; Everson, D. A.; Esperanza, A. M.;
 Turner, D. 
 Biogeochemistry v.26, p.115-144. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: forest-soils; soil-solution; cations-; anions-;
 canopy-; leaching-; leachates-; forest-fires; prescribed-burning;
 forest-litter; understory-; water-quality; streams-;
 surface-water; coniferous-forests; throughfall-; california-
 NAL Call No.: QH345.B564
 69. Status of and attitudes toward aquatic macroinvertebrate
 monitoring on national forests and districts of the Bureau of
 Land Management.
 Angradi, T. R.;  Vinson, M. R.; Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station (Radnor, Pa. 
 Radnor, PA : USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station, [1995] 14 p..
 Cover title.
 Descriptors: Water-Microbiology-United-Stares;
 NAL Call No.: aSD11.U56--no.200
 70. Stream chemistry impacts of conifer harvesting in Welsh
 Reynolds, B.; Stevens, P. A.; Hughes, S.; Parkinson, J. A.;
 Weatherley, N. S. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.79, p.147-170. (1995).
 In the special issue: Biogeochemical monitoring in small
 catchments / edited by J. Cerny, M. Novak, T. Paces and R.K.
 Weider. Evaluation of Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments,"
 held September 18-20, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; clearcutting-; picea-sitchensis;
 forest-plantations; logging-effects; environmental-impact;
 water-quality; nitrate-; potassium-; streams-; aluminum-;
 chloride-; sodium-; sulfate-; acidification-; wales-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 71. Streamside forests and the physical, chemical, and trophic
 characteristics of Piedmont streams in eastern North America.
 Sweeney, B. W. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.26,
 p.2653-2673. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Water Quality International '92. Part 6 /
 edited by M. Suzuki, et.al. Proceedings of the Sixteeth Biennial
 Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution
 Research and Control, held May 24-30, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptors: river-water; water-quality; habitats-; quality-;
 riparian-forests; forest-influences; aquatic-communities;
 deforestation-; pennsylvania-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 72. Sustainability of sewage sludge land application to northern
 hardwood forests.
 Crohn, D. M. 
 Ecol-appl v.5, p.53-62. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: sewage-sludge; organic-amendments;
 application-to-land; broadleaved-deciduous-forests; forest-soils;
 simulation-models; monte-carlo-method; application-rates;
 nitrogen-; nitrate-; leaching-; groundwater-pollution;
 soil-fertility; humus-; growth-; biomass-production;
 nutrient-uptake; new-hampshire; fortnite-; forsento-
 NAL Call No.: QH540.E23
 73. Symptoms of nitrogen saturation in a riparian wetland.
 Hanson, G. C.; Groffman, P. M.; Gold, A. J. 
 Ecol-appl v.4, p.750-756. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: groundwater-pollution; nitrate-; wetland-soils;
 wetlands-; riparian-forests; nitrogen-; mineralization-;
 nitrification-; denitrification-; nitrogen-content; carbon-;
 soil-flora; litter-plant; nitrogen-cycle; rhode-island;
 NAL Call No.: QH540.E23
 74. Three-component model of runoff generation, Lysina catchment,
 Czech Republic.
 Buzek, F.; Hruska, J.; Kram, P. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.79, p.391-408. (1995).
 In the special issue: Biogeochemical monitoring in small
 catchments / edited by J. Cerny, M. Novak, T. Paces and R.K.
 Weider. Evaluation of Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments,"
 held September 18-20, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; aluminum-; metal-ions; hydrogen-ions;
 acid-deposition; runoff-; subsurface-runoff; simulation-models;
 streams-; discharge-; soil-water; stream-flow;
 seasonal-variation; forests-; oxygen-; stable-isotopes;
 czechoslovakia-; surface-runoff
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 75. Toxicity to aquatic organisms of pond water contaminated by
 fenitrothion during forest spraying.
 Ernst, W.; Wade, S.; Hennigar, P.; Julien, G. 
 Bull-environ-contam-toxicol v.52, p.612-618. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: fenitrothion-; spraying-; aquatic-organisms;
 rainbow-trout; daphnia-magna; nontarget-organisms; toxicity-;
 mortality-; ponds-; new-brunswick
 NAL Call No.: RA1270.P35A1; LNSU RA1270.P35A1
 76. Underestimation of dry deposition by throughfall in mixed
 northern hardwood forests.
 Rustad, L. E.; Kahl, J. S.; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J. 
 J-hydrol v.162, p.319-336. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: mixed-forests; deposition-; air-pollutants;
 sulfate-; chloride-; throughfall-; stemflow-;
 catchment-hydrology; methodology-; maine-;
 canopy-mass-balance-method; catchment-mass-balance-method
 Abstract: Throughfall and catchment mass balance approaches were
 used to estimate dry deposition inputs of SO4 and Cl to the Bear
 Brook in Maine for the period November 1988-November 1992. For
 throughfall, dry deposition of SO4 and Cl averaged 320 and 261 eq
 ha-1 year-1, respectively, or 0.9 and 1.5 times the input in
 precipitation, respectively. The equivalent values for the
 catchment gave dry deposition of SO4 and Cl as 616 and 380 eq
 ha-1 year-1, respectively, or 1.7 and 2.2 times the input in
 precipitation, respectively. The lower estimates obtained by the
 canopy mass balance method are primarily attributed to an
 underestimation of the importance of conifers in intercepting dry
 and occult deposition, particularly in mixed hardwood-softwood
 canopies such as the Bear Brook. Although net throughfall is
 commonly used to estimate dry and occult deposition in forested
 catchments, dry deposition may be underestimated, particularly in
 uneven-aged, mixed hardwood-softwood forests characterized by
 occasional superdominant conifers. The uneven canopy architecture
 of such forests increases its aerodynamic roughness and thus its
 efficacy in capturing dry deposition. Mixed-species forests,
 resulting from both natural and anthropogenic disturbance, are a
 common component of the landscape throughout much of New England.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 77. Use of the gleams model to estimate pesticide overland and
 subsurface transport in USDA Forest Service nursery applications.
 Craig, J. P.; Weiss, R. C. 
 Water-sci-technol v.28, p.425-429. (1993).
 Paper presented at the IAWQ First International Conference on
 "Diffuse (Nonpoint).
 Descriptors: surface-water; water-systems; water-pollution;
 pesticides-; concentration-; usda-; forest-nurseries;
 drainage-water; models-; mississippi-; idaho-; michigan-;
 california-; ID:
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 78. Water quality and forestry--January 1990-June 1993.
 Emmert, B.; Makuch, J. 
 Quick-bibliogr-ser. Beltsville, Md., National Agricultural
 Library. Sept 1993. (93-65) 46 p. 
 Descriptors: water-quality; forestry-; bibliographies-
 NAL Call No.: aZ5071.N3
 79. Water quality effects and nonpoint source control for
 forestry : an annotated bibliography.
 Craig, J.; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office
 of Wetlands, O. a. W. N. S. C. B. 
 Washington, DC : Nonpoint Source Control Branch, Office of
 Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency, [1993] ii, 241 p..
 "Prepared by John Craig ..."--P. i.
 Descriptors: Water-quality-Bibliography;
 NAL Call No.: Z5862.2.W3W38--1993
 80. Water quality in mountain ash forests--separating the impacts
 of roads from those of logging operations.
 Grayson, R. B.; Haydon, S. R.; Jayasuriya, M. D. A.; Finlayson,
 B. L. 
 J-hydrol v.150, p.459-480. (1993).
 In the special issue: Water Issues in Forests Today / edited by
 E.M. O'Loughlin and F.X. Dunin. Hydrology, November 22-26, 1992,
 Canberra, Australia.
 Descriptors: eucalyptus-regnans; mountain-forests; water-quality;
 flow-; clearcutting-; logging-effects; regeneration-; roads-;
 usage-; maintenance-; runoff-water; sediment-yield;
 catchment-hydrology; australia-; base-flow; storm-flow
 Abstract: The purpose of the two catchment studies reported here
 was to allow the effects on water quality of road use and
 maintenance to be separated from the effects of a logging
 operation. In the first project, known as the Myrtle experiment,
 two small catchments in an old-growth mountain ash (Eucalyptus
 regnans) forest were chosen for a paired catchment study of the
 effects on physical and chemical water quality (baseflow and
 stormflow) of logging under a strict code of practice and with no
 roads crossing runoff producing areas. In the second project,
 known as the Road 11 experiment, the effect on sediment
 production from unsealed forest roads of vehicle use and level of
 road maintenance was assessed. The Myrtle experiment showed that
 the harvesting and regeneration operation did not have a major
 impact on the stream physical or chemical water quality.
 Increases were detected in turbidity, iron and suspended solids
 at baseflows, but these were small in absolute terms and of
 similar magnitude to the measurement error. The stormflow data
 revealed no significant influence of the logging operation. The
 suspension of logging during wet weather, the protection of the
 runoff producing areas with buffer strips and the management of
 runoff from roads, snig tracks and log landing areas eliminated
 intrusion of contaminated runoff into the streams, thereby
 avoiding the adverse effects of logging. The Road 11 study
 determined that annual sediment production from forest roads was
 in the range of 50-90 t of sediment per hectare of road surface
 per year, with approximately two-thirds being suspended sediment
 and one-third coarse material. The use of gravel reduced sediment
 production, provided a sufficient depth of material was used.
 Increasing the level of road maintenance with increasing traffic
 load controlled  sediment production rates, but when maintenance
 was not increased, sediment production increased by approximately
 40%. The results indicate that by identifying the areas that
 produce runoff it is possible to prevent contamnated runoff
 reaching the streams. Roads, on the other hand, produce large
 quantities of sediment, even when well maintained, so careful
 consideration of their placement and management is paramount.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 81. Water-quality variations in a forested Piedmont catchment,
 Georgia, USA.
 Peters, N. E. 
 J-hydrol v.156, p.73-90. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; forests-; runoff-water; streams-;
 water-quality; storms-; diurnal-variation; chemical-composition;
 potassium-; nitrate-nitrogen; sulfate-; solutes-;
 transport-processes; acidification-; georgia-
 Abstract: Variations in runoff water quality were investigated at
 the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), a 41 ha forested
 catchment in the Georgia Piedmont, from October 1985 to September
 1988, to evaluate processes controlling solute transport. Routine
 weekly manual sampling was augmented by sampling during storms
 using a computer-controlled automatic water-quality sampler.
 Runoff from a 3 ha bedrock outcrop in the headwaters typically
 had high solute concentrations at the onset of a rainstorm. The
 SO4(-2) and H(+) concentrations were higher in runoff from this
 outcrop than in the corresponding rain. These high concentrations
 were attributed to the wash-off of acidic-SO4(2-) dry deposition
 that had accumulated on the outcrop during the preceding dry
 period. In contrast, both NH4(+) and NO3(-1) were depleted in the
 runoff, probably because they were removed by the lichens and
 mosses covering the outcrop. Storm sampling of streamwater at the
 basin outlet indicated that NO3(-1) was mobilized during some
 summer storms, particularly in late July of each year. Also,
 SO4(2-) and alkalinity varied markedly during storms. As
 determined from the routine weekly sampling, the streamwater was
 sufficiently neutral to indicate that streamwater acidification
 by acidic atmospheric deposition was relatively unimportant: only
 26% of the decrease in alkalinity was associated with SO4(2-)
 concentration increases. The storm data, however, indicated that
 streamwater acidification did not occur during the storms
 sampled, but that the median alkalinity was much lower and
 SO4(2-) concentrations were much higher than values determined
 from the weekly (base flow) sampling. The storm-sampling results.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82

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