Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Swine Manure Management

 214 citations from AGRICOLA
 Joe Makuch
 Water Quality Information Center
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 1.   Abstractions and runoff from fescue plots receiving poultry
 litter and swine manure.
 Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.36, p.405-411. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: festuca-arundinacea; pig-manure; poultry-manure;
 application-rates; hydrology-; infiltration-; rain-; runoff-;
 Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effects of
 animal manure application rate (218 vs. 435 kg nitrogen/ha),
 rainfall intensity (50 vs. 100 mm/h), and interactions on initial
 abstraction, runoff, total abstraction, and curve number for a
 simulated storm occurring one day after  application to plots
 covered with "tall" fescue. Manure application rate had no
 significant effects on the hydrologic parameters. The data were 
 then averaged across manure application rates and incorporated
 with control plot data to determine the effects of manure
 treatment (control,  poultry litter, and swine manure), rainfall
 intensity, and interaction on the four hydrologic parameters. No
 differences in mean hydrologic  parameter values between the
 control and litter-treated plots were detected initial and total
 abstractions for the swine manure-treated plots were  only
 approximately 50% of those observed from the control and poultry
 litter-treated plots. Runoff from the swine manure-treated plots
 was  three times that observed for the control and poultry
 litter-treated plots at the 50 mm/h rainfall intensity. Curve
 number for the plots receiving  swine manure was 15% greater than
 that for the control and poultry litter-treated plots. The
 short-term differences in hydrologic characteristics  of the
 swine manure-treated plots may be attributed to the addition of
 water via the liquid manure and to soil surface sealing by fine
 manure  particles. Additional work was performed to determine
 whether the application of the manures affected the hydrologic
 parameters for longer (4  to 14 days) drying intervals between
 application and first simulated storm. The results indicated that
 when the manures were applied at 218 kg  nitrogen/ha, hydrologic
 parameters for the manure-treated plots were no different from
 those for untreated plots for drying intervals of four days  or
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 2.   Aerated swine-wastewater treatment with
 K-carrageenan-immobilized Spirulina maxima.
 Canizares, R. O.; Rivas, L.; Montes, C.; Dominguez, A. R.;
 Travieso, L.; Benitez, F. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (1) p. 89-91. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; waste-water-treatment; aeration-;
 spirulina-; immobilization-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 3.   Aeration experiments for swine waste composting.
 Lau, A. K.; Lo, K. V.; Liao, P. H.; Yu, J. C. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.41, p.145-152. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-treatment; composting-; aeration-;
 temperature-; composts-; physicochemical-properties
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 4.   Agronomically efficient and environmentally careful slurry
 application to arable crops.
 Lorenz, F.; Steffens, G. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.109-116. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E.  Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptor: beta-vulgaris-var; -saccharifera; zea-mays;
 solanum-tuberosum; secale-cereale; triticum-aestivum; pig-slurry;
 ammonium-sulfate; ammonium-nitrate; application-rates;
 crop-yield; soil-fertility; nitrogen-; leaching-; lower-saxony
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 5.   Ammonia volatilization during storage of cattle and pig
 slurry: effect of surface cover.
 Sommer, S. G.; Christensen, B. T.; Nielsen, N. E.; Schjorring, J.
 J-Agric-Sci v.121, p.63-71. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: cattle-slurry; pig-slurry; storage-; volatilization-;
 wind-tunnels; air-pollution; ammonia-; denmark-
 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
 6.   Ammonia volatilization from cattle and pig slurry during
 storage and after application in the field.  Ammoniakfordampning
 fra kvaeg- og svinegylle under lagring og efter udbringning pa
 Sommer, S. G. 
 [Kobenhavn?] : Landbrugsministeriet, Statens planteavlsforsog,
 1992. 417 p. : ill..
 Cover title: Ammoniakfordampning fra kvaeg- og svinegylle under
 lagring og efter udbringning pa jorden.
 7.   Ammonia volatilization from liquid hog manure: influence of
 aeration and trapping systems.
 O'Halloran, I. P. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Sept/Oct 1993. v. 57 (5) p. 1300-1303. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: ammonia-; volatilization-; measurement-; pig-manure;
 liquid-manures; laboratory-methods; sulfuric-acid; boric-acid;
 efficacy-; aerobic- treatment
 Abstract: Measurements of N loss from manures may reflect
 differences in the types of manures and   methodologies used.
 This study's objective  was to test the suitability of 0.32 M
 H3BO3 and 0.9 M  H2SO4 for trapping NH3 volatilized from liquid
 hog manure (LHM) under various  experimental   conditions.
 Samples of LHM were incubated for 15 d in containers with
 aeration outlets positioned   above, at the middle, or at  the
 bottom of the LHM. Lowering the position of the aeration outlet  
 increased both the pH of the LHM and the amount of NH3
 volatilized.  More NH3 was trapped in H2SO4   than H3BO3, and the
 difference in trapping efficiency of the two acids increased with
 their NH3    concentrations. Neither the amount of NH3 trapped
 nor the exponential relationship between the   NH4+
 concentrations of two H3BO3 traps in  series was influenced by
 changing the bubble path   length through the acid. Regression
 analysis indicated that > 95% trapping efficiency was  obtained  
 only when the NH3 concentration of H3BO3 was below 0.42 mg N
 mL-1, much lower than the 0.9 mg N  mL-1 reported to be the 
 limit for using H3BO3 in the Kjeldahl method. Even when using two
 traps in   series, H3BO3 appeared to trap less NH3 than H2SO4. 
 Amending LHM with sucrose lowered the pH of   H3BO3 used to trap
 volatilized NH3, thereby interfering with NH3 determination and 
 rendering H3BO3   unsuitable for determining NH3 volatilization.
 Investigators who use H3BO3 to measure NH3,  volatilization in
 other  systems must ensure that similar interferences do not
 occur and that NH3.
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 8.   Ammoniakfordampning fra svinegylle og opkoncentreret
 biogasgylle : bestemt med en ny mikrometeorologisk
 massebalance-metode =  Ammonia volatilization from pig slurry and
 concentrated anaerobic fermented slurry ; measured by a new
 micrometerological mass-balance  technique.  Ammonia
 volatilization from pig slurry and concentrated anaerobic
 fermented slurry ; measured by a new micrometeorological mass-
 balance technique.
 Sommer, S. G. 
 [Kobenhavn?] : Landbrugsministeriet, Statens Planteavlsforsog,
 1993. 27 p. : ill..
 Summary in Danish and English.
 9.   Anaeobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of swine wastes
 at 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 35 degrees C.
 Schmit, C. G.; Dague, R. R. 
 Proc-Ind-Waste-Conf. Chelsea, Mich. : Lewis Publishers. 1994. v.
 48 p. 541-549. 
 Meeting held on May 10-12, 1993, West Lafayette, Indiana.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; anaerobic-digestion; anaerobic-digesters;
 bioreactors-; temperature-; methane-production; biogas-
 NAL Call No.: TP995.A1I5
 10.  Anaerobic digestion of pig manure mixed with sewage sludge.
 Wong, M. H. 
 Biol-Wastes v.31, p.223-230. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; pollutants-; water-pollution; mixtures-;
 sewage-sludge; waste-treatment; anaerobic-digestion;
 fermentation-; methane- production; biogas-; hong-kong;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 11.  Anaerobic digestion of piggery wastes.
 Andreadakis, A. D. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.25,
 p.9-16. (1992).
 Paper presented at the "International Specialized Conference,"
 November 20-22, 1990, Nicosia, Cyprus.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; anaerobic-digestion; biogas-;
 methane-; production-; utilization-; anaerobic-digesters;
 design-; performance-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 12.  Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of swine
 Dague, R. R.; Pidaparti, S. R. 
 Proc-Ind-Waste-Conf p.751-760. (1992).
 Meeting held May 14-16, 1991, West Lafayette, Indiana.
 Descriptor: feedlot-wastes; pigs-; pig-slurry;
 anaerobic-treatment; biological-treatment; bioreactors-; biogas-;
 NAL Call No.: TP995.A1I5
 13.  Anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater using hybrid UASB
 Lo, K. V.; Liao, P. H.; Gao, Y. C. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (2) p. 153-157. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; anaerobic-treatment; bioreactors-;
 performance-; methane-production; upflow-anaerobic-sludge-blanket
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 14.  Anaerobic versus aerobic treatment of pig slurry for odor
 Williams, D. W.; Cumby, T. R.; Phillips, R.; Burton, C. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1991. (916005) 6 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 23-26,  1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; anaerobic-treatment; aerobic-treatment;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 15.  Animal manure data sheet.
 Hermanson, R. E.; Kalita, P. K. 
 Ext-bull-Wash-State-Univ,-Coop-Ext. Pullman, Wash. : The
 Extension,. May 1994. (1719,rev.) 4 p. 
 In subseries: Clean Water for Washington.
 Descriptor: cattle-manure; pig-manure; poultry-manure;
 sheep-manure; physical-properties; fertilizer-analysis
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-W27P
 16.  Application of bacterial product for zero-liquid-discharge
 pig waste management under tropical conditions.
 Ong, H. K.; Choo, P. Y.; Soo, S. P. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.133-140. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Appropriate waste management technologies
 / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew. Proceedings of the International 
 Conference, held November 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.
 Descriptor: pig-housing; litter-; sawdust-; waste-treatment;
 aerobic-treatment; bacterial-products; carcass-quality; malaysia-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 17.  Application of natural zeolites for the reduction of ammonia
 emissions during the composting of organic wastes in a laboratory
 composting  simulator.
 Bernal, M. P.; Lopez Real, J. M.; Scott, K. M. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.43, p.35-39. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: composting-; straw-; pig-slurry; mixtures-; ammonia-;
 emission-; nitrogen-; losses-; zeolites-; adsorbents-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 18.  Bacteria additives to the changes in gaseous mass transfer
 from stored swine manure.
 Liao, C. M.; Bundy, D. S. 
 New York, Marcel Dekker. 1994. v. B29 (6) p. 1219-1249. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; bacteria-; waste-treatment; ammonia-;
 methane-; hydrogen-sulfide; carbon-dioxide; emission-;
 volatile-compounds; pollutants-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J61
 19.  Barn manure. 2., uberarbeitete und erw. Aufl.  Stallmist :
 fest und flussig : Entmisten, Lagern, Ausbringen.
 Boxberger, J.;  Eichhorn, H.;  Seufert, H. 1.; Amon, T. 
 Dusseldorf : Beton-Verlag, 1994. 197 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 190-197).
 Descriptors: Farm-manure; Cattle-Manure-Handling;
 NAL Call No.: S655.B6--1994
 20.  The benefit of a catch crop in minimising nitrate leaching
 from autumn and winter applied slurry and manure.
 Gladwin, A.; Beckwith, C. P. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.149-152. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E.  Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptor: secale-cereale; catch-crops; nutrient-uptake;
 nitrate-; leaching-; prevention-; farmyard-manure; pig-slurry;
 cattle-slurry; application-date; autumn-; winter-;
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 21.  Bio-retentive properties of synthetic media for anaerobic
 digestion of animal waste.
 Hill, D. T.; Bolte, J. P. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.35, p.711-715. ill. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; slaughterhouse-waste;
 anaerobic-treatment; biogas-; bioreactors-; methane-production;
 Abstract: The results from a three-year study involving three
 types of synthetic media for process intensification of anaerobic
 digestion of swine  waste are reported. The three media types
 were a polyurethane foam, a woven nylon mesh and a polypropylene
 felt. The physical durability of  the different media for the
 three six-month runs and the ability of each media type to retain
 bacterial growth within the reactors are reported.  Evaluation of
 the three media types showed that the polyurethane foam material
 was effective in retaining bacterial culture, but was subject to 
 physical degradation in a mixed reactor environment, and
 approximately 98% of the original media was lost during the
 study. The woven nylon  mesh was extremely durable but its
 bio-retentive characteristics were the lowest of the three types.
 The polypropylene felt proved to be the best  media material,
 showing good physical durability (i.e., no breakdown or loss) and
 excellent bio-retentive properties.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 22.  Biomass production in the treatment of swine waste and
 further utilization in carp husbandry.  Biomassengewinnung bei
 der Schweinegullebehandlung und Weiterverwertung in der
 Kirchhof, W. 
 Aachen : Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
 an der RWTH Aachen, 1992. xv, 173 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references.
 23.  Biotreatment of swine manure by intensive lagooning during
 La Noue, J. d.; Sevrin Reyssac, J.; Mariojouls, C.; Marcel, J.;
 Sylvestre, S. 
 Bioresour-technol v.50, p.213-219. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-treatment; biological-treatment;
 lagoons-; winter-; food-chains; aquatic-organisms
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 24.  Bringing home the bacon.
 Pruyne, R. 
 PennState-agric p.26-33. (1994).
 Descriptor: pigs-; pig-farming; swine-diseases; pigmeat-;
 meat-production; pig-housing; pig-manure; waste-disposal;
 viral-diseases; quarantine-; somatotropin-; escherichia-coli;
 pig-feeding; pig-fat; pennsylvania-
 NAL Call No.: S451.P4P45
 25.  Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and ammonia
 volatilization from fresh, aerobically and anaerobically treated
 pig manure during  incubation with soil.
 Bernal, M. P.; Kirchmann, H. 
 Biol-Fertil-Soils v.13, p.135-141. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; aerobic-treatment; anaerobic-treatment;
 ammonia-; carbon-; decomposition-; mineralization-; soil-biology;
 volatilization-; calcareous-soils
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 ************************************************************     26.  Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in
 aggregates of organic waste-amended soils.
 Mbagwu, J. S. C.; Piccolo, A. 
 Biol-Wastes v.31, p.97-111. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; cattle-slurry; sewage-sludge;
 aerobic-treatment; application-to-land; long-term-experiments;
 soil-; aggregates-; size-; distribution-; soil-chemistry;
 carbon-; nitrogen-; phosphorus-; concentration-; italy-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 27.  Characterization of particles, ammonia and endotoxin in
 swine confinement operations.
 Pickrell, J. A.; Heber, A. J.; Murphy, J. P.; Henry, S. C.; May,
 M. M.; Nolan, D.; Oehme, F. W.; Gillespie, J. R.; Schoneweis, D. 
 Vet-hum-toxicol v.35, p.421-428. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-housing; intensive-farming; intensive-husbandry;
 dust-; pig-manure; ammonia-; endotoxins-; particle-size;
 spatial-variation; ventilation-; spring-; summer-; winter-
 NAL Call No.: SF601.A47
 28.  Chemical composition of cyanobacteria grown in diluted,
 aerated swine wastewater.
 Canizares Villanueva, R. O.; Dominguez, A. R.; Cruz, M. S.; Rios
 Leal, E. 
 Bioresour-technol v.51, p.111-116. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: phormidium-; spirulina-; cell-culture; waste-water;
 pig-manure; waste-water-treatment; biological-treatment;
 aerobic-treatment; algal- protein; biomass-;
 chemical-composition; spirulina-maxima
 Abstract: The chemical composition of Spirulina maxima and
 Phormidium sp. biomasses grown on pretreated and diluted swine
 wastewater was  determined Analyses were carried out on
 lyophilized samples and compared with data from mineral media
 (controls). Analyses of Phormidium  grown on aeration-stabilized
 wastewater (ASSW) were: protein (Nx 625) 62%, lipids 11%,
 carbohydrates (calculated by difference) 16%. For  Spirulina in
 the same effluent, data were: protein 36%, lipids 6% and
 carbohydrates 44%. No crude fiber was found in any of the
 samples. The  fatty acid profiles of both biomasses showed
 important differences when compared to controls. The biomasses
 contained all the essential amino  acids. The Spirulina biomass
 had a significantly higher content of pyridoxine, riboflavin and
 pantothenic and nicotinic acids than Phormidium  when grown on
 ASSW, but in general the vitamin content of both biomasses was
 practically the same as their respective controls. The results 
 suggest that Phormidium and Spirulina biomasses could be used as
 dietary supplements in animal feed, but further studies are
 needed to  determine the nutritional value of the product.
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 29.  Chemical treatment of swine wastewater.
 Gao, Y. C.; Liao, P. H.; Lo, K. V. 
 J-Environ-Sci-Health-Part-A-Environ-Sci-Eng v.A28, p.795-807.
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; pig-slurry; waste-water-treatment;
 chemical-treatment; chemicals-; biochemical-oxygen-demand;
 chemical-oxygen-demand; phosphates-; dosage-; british-columbia;
 suspended-solids; total-solids
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
 30.  Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures
 fertilized with swine manure.
 Kerr, L. A.; McGavin, H. D. 
 J-Am-Vet-Med-Assoc v.198, p.99-101. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: ewes-; copper-; poisoning-; pig-manure; fertilizers-;
 grazing-; molybdenum-; symptoms-; histopathology-; mortality-;
 pregnancy-; case- reports
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Am3
 31.  A combined anaerobic--aerobic process for the co-treatment
 of effluents from a piggery and a cheese factory.
 Montuelle, B.; Coillard, J.; Le Hy, J. B. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.51, p.91-100. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; cheesemaking-; effluents-;
 anaerobic-treatment; aerobic-treatment; biogas-; production-;
 Abstract: Food processing industries can cause serious
 environmental problems. In particular, piggeries and milk/cheese
 factories need improved  treatment of their wastewater,
 especially if land-spreading of wastes is not possible, limited
 or forbidden. This paper reports on a study of a  treatment plant
 whose originality lies in the combination of two treatment
 stages, the first anaerobic, the second aerobic. The technical
 problems  encountered during the installation of the digester and
 the optimization of the working of the whole treatment plant
 during 2 years are analysed  and discussed. Besides a daily
 monitoring of the anaerobic stage, complete measurements were
 carried out on the treatment process in order to  control the
 steady state performance of the plant. The biogas produced is
 used in a cheese factory and allows propane consumption to be 
 reduced by 26%. The anaerobic digestion of the slurry, followed
 by a settling process, leads to changes in the nature of the
 effluent entering the  aerobic stage. In particular, the C/N
 ratio would be unfavourable for the denitrification process,
 without the cheese factory washing-water,  which brings the
 necessary organic carbon. The reduction in organic load achieved
 by the digester (94% reduction of BOD and 74% of soluble  COD)
 allows sufficient concentrations to maintain a good aerobic
 oxidation and a good nitrification process in the oxidation
 ditch. Overall the  whole treatment process achieves 98% COD
 reduction, more than 99% BOD reduction and 93% N reduction.
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 32.  Combining swine housing units into a system of buildings.
 Muehling, A. J.; Collins, E. R. Jr.; Mohling, S.; Mohling, K. 
 Pork industry handbook. West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative
 Extension Service, Purdue University, [1978?-1990].. 4 p. 
 In the subseries: Housing. (PIH-22), revised December 1991.
 Descriptor: pigs-; pig-housing; site-selection; drainage-;
 pig-manure; farrowing-houses; fire-prevention;
 building-construction; landscaping-; usa-
 NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 33.  A comparison of models for predicting slurry production on a
 pig farm.
 Williams, A. G.; Streader, W. V. 
 Biol-Wastes v.31, p.187-197. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; pig-slurry; production-; prediction-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 34.  A comparison of runoff quality effects of organic and
 inorganic fertilizers applied to fescuegrass plots.
 Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C. 
 Water-resour-bull v.30, p.35-41. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: poultry-manure; pig-manure; npk-fertilizers; runoff-;
 water-quality; festuca-arundinacea; pastures-; pollution-;
 arkansas-; nonpoint-source-pollution
 Abstract: Application of fertilizer can degrade quality of
 runoff, particularly during the first post-application,
 runoff-producing storm. This  experiment assessed and compared
 runoff quality impacts of organic and inorganic fertilizer
 application for a single simulated storm occurring  seven days
 following application. The organic fertilizers used were poultry
 (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, poultry manure, and swine (Sus 
 scrofa domesticus) manure. All fertilizers were applied at an
 application rate of 217.6 kg N/ha. Simulated rainfall was applied
 at 50 mm/h for an  average duration of 0.8 h. Runoff samples were
 collected, composited, and analyzed for nitrate N (NO3-N),
 ammonia N (NH3-N), total  Kjeldahl N (TKN), ortho-P (PO4-P),
 total P (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended
 solids (TSS), fecal coliforms (FC), and  fecal streptococci (FS).
 Application of the fertilizers did not alter the hydrologic
 characteristics of the receiving plots relative to the control 
 plots. Concentrations of fertilizer constituents were almost
 always greater from treated than from control plots and were
 usually much greater.  Flow-weighted mean concentrations of
 NH3-N, PO4-P, and TP were highest for the inorganic fertilizer
 treatment (42.0, 26.6, and 27.9 mg/L  respectively). Runoff COD
 and TSS concentrations were greatest for the poultry litter
 treatment. Concentrations of FC and FS were greater for 
 fertilized than for control plots with no differences among
 fertilized plots, but FC concentrations for all treatments were
 in excess of Arkansas'  primary and secondary contact standards.
 Mass losses of fertilizer constituents were low (< 3 kg/ha) and
 were small proportions (< 3.
 NAL Call No.: 292.9-Am34
 35.  Comparisons of biological and chemical methods to predict
 nitrogen mineralization in animal wastes.
 Serna, M. D.; Pomares, F. 
 Biol-Fertil-Soils v.12, p.89-94. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: zea-mays; pig-manure; poultry-manure; nitrogen-;
 mineralization-; nutrient-availability; nutrient-uptake;
 prediction-; waste-disposal; spain-
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 36.  Composition and digestibility of untreated and chemically
 treated animal excreta for ruminants: a review.
 Flachowsky, G.; Hennig, A. 
 Biol-Wastes v.31, p.17-36. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; poultry-manure; cattle-dung;
 chemical-treatment; feeds-; production-; sheep-feeding;
 nutrient-content; mineral-content; digestibility-; reviews-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 37.  Composition of fresh, aerobic and anaerobic farm animal
 Kirchmann, H.; Witter, E. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.40, p.137-142. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: cattle-dung; pig-manure; poultry-droppings;
 anaerobic-treatment; aerobic-treatment; chemical-analysis
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 38.  Composting of separated solid swine manure.
 Liao, P. H.; Vizcarra, A. T.; Chen, A.; Lo, K. V. 
 J-environ-sci-health,-Part-A,-Environ-sci-eng. New York, Marcel
 Dekker. 1993. v. 28 (9) p. 1889-1901. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; composting-; efficiency-;
 moisture-content; temperature-; volatile-fatty-acids;
 volatility-; odor-emission; waste-treatment
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
 39.  Composting of separated solid swine wastes.
 Lo, K. V.; Lau, A. K.; Liao, P. H. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.54, p.307-317. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; solid-wastes; separation-; composting-;
 waste-treatment; bulking-agents; composts-; quality-
 Abstract: The effects of various bulking agents were examined on
 the efficiency of composting the fibrous solids obtained from
 swine manure after  a liquid/solids separation process. The
 effects on the quality of the resulting composts were also
 examined. The separated solids were either  composted without
 bulking agents, or mixed with different portions of peat moss
 and/or sawdust. Aeration rates were also varied in different 
 experimental sets. A self-heating mode of operation was adopted.
 The results indicated that the fibrous solids from a
 liquid/solids separation  process could be composted in small
 reactors with or without the addition of bulking agents. The
 composting masses reached thermophilic  temperatures (45-70
 degrees C) and met regulatory requirements with or without
 aeration. Aeration rates of 0.04 to 0.08 1/min per kg volatile 
 matter and an intermittent mode of aeration are recommended for
 the composting of separated swine manure. Based on measured
 compost  characteristics and composition, the finished composts
 made from a manure/peat moss mixture had the best quality in
 terms of moisture content,  nitrogen content, carbon-to-nitrogen
 ratio and colour of the product.
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 40.  Composting sweetens smell of swine manure.
 McCaskey, T.; Little, J. 
 Highlights-agr-res v.41, p.13-14. (1994).
 Descriptor: pigs-; pig-manure; fertilizers-; odors-; composting-;
 waste-disposal; economic-analysis
 NAL Call No.: 100-Al1H
 ************************************************************     41.  A computer model for predicting ammonia release
 rates from swine manure pits.
 Zhang, R.; Day, D. L.; Christianson, L. L. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (92-4501/92-4519) 15 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 Descriptor: animal-manures; ammonia-; degradation-; velocity-;
 temperature-; manure-temperature
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 42.  A computer model for predicting ammonia release rates from
 swine manure pits.
 Zhang, R. H.; Day, D. L.; Christianson, L. L.; Jepson, W. P. 
 J-agric-eng-res v.58, p.223-229. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; ammonia-; emission-; air-; velocity-;
 aeration-; temperature-; simulation-models; prediction-
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 43.  Concentrations of malodorous compounds in swine wastes
 during storage.
 Lo, K. V.; Chen, A.; Liao, P. H. 
 J-environ-sci-health,-Part-A,-Environ-sci-eng v.29, p.83-98.
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; odors-; storage-; temperature-;
 chemical-analysis; chemical-composition; volatile-fatty-acids;
 phenols-; indoles-; gas- chromatography
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
 44.  Constructed wetland for treating swine lagoon effluent.
 Payne, V. W. E.; McCaskey, T. A.; Eason, J. T. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (92-4526) 6 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 Descriptor: pigs-; lagoons-; effluents-; waste-water-treatment;
 wetlands-; construction-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 45.  Constructed wetland treatment of swine wastewater.
 Hunt, P. G.; Humenik, F. J.; Szogi, A. A.; Rice, J. M.; Stone, K.
 C.; Cutts, T. T.; Edwards, J. P. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-2601/93-3510) 12 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptor: wetlands-; waste-water-treatment; animal-wastes;
 glycine-max; oryza-sativa; nitrogen-; redox-potential;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 ************************************************************     46.  Constructed wetlands successfully treat swine
 McCaskey, T. A.; Eason, J. T.; Hammer, D. A.; Pullin, B. P.;
 Payne, V. W. E.; Bransby, D. I. 
 Highlights-Agric-Res-Ala-Agric-Exp-Stn v.39, p.13. (1992).
 Descriptor: pigs-; waste-water; waste-water-treatment; wetlands-;
 aquatic-plants; ammonia-; nitrogen-content; alabama-
 NAL Call No.: 100-AL1H
 47.  Continuous aerobic treatment of piggery slurry for odour
 control scaled up to a farm-size unit.
 Sneath, R. W.; Burton, C. H.; Williams, A. G. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.53, p.81-92. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-housing; pig-slurry; aerobic-treatment;
 odor-emission; odor-abatement; technology-; performance-;
 prediction-; installations-; design-; nitrogen-; losses-; uk-;
 Abstract: Effective aerobic treatment of piggery slurry was
 achieved in a continuous farm scale process sited at a small
 piggery (2000 pigs). The  plant design and the operating
 conditions were based on data obtained from pilot-scale studies
 with the aim of preventing or reducing odours  from pig slurry at
 a minimum cost. Raw slurry was separated before passing into the
 main treatment vessel. Aeration was achieved by  recirculating of
 slurry (achieving jet mixing of the tank contents) through a
 venturi where air was entrained. Aeration was controlled to
 maintain  redox potential between 100 and 200 mV E(h). Slurry was
 added and withdrawn at hourly intervals, to provide nominal
 residence times of 1, 2  and 4 days. The performance of the
 aerobic treatment process in terms of COD reduction could be
 predicted using data from laboratory and  pilot-scale
 experiments. Some allowance could be made for minor feed
 fluctuations but a more comprehensive model will be necessary for 
 predictions where larger variations occur in operating
 conditions. Assessments were made of odour quality using dynamic
 dilution  olfactometers for odour strength, and volatile fatty
 acids (VFA) concentration as an indicator of odour offensiveness.
 Results indicate that pilot- scale experiments may overestimate
 by 10-20% what can be achieved with the farm-scale plant.
 Nitrogen losses were greatest in the 4-day  residence time trial
 with 56% lost in the form of N2 gas following a
 nitrification/denitrification process. Conversely, in the short
 residence time  trials, virtually all of the nitrogen was
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 48.  Continuous solid-substrates fermentation of swine waste
 recovered solids for pig feed.
 Iniguez Covarrubias, G.; Robles Cabrera, A.; Franco Gomez, M. J.
 Bioresour-technol v.50, p.139-147. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; fermentation-; sludges-; pig-feeding;
 feed-supplements; nutritive-value; trials-; refeeding-;
 feeding-trials; pig-manure-solids; fermented-wastes;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 ************************************************************     49.  Copper fractions extracted by Mehlich-3 from soils
 amended with either CuSO4 or copper rich pig manure.
 Reed, S. T.; Allen, M. G.; Martens, D. C.; McKenna, J. R. 
 Commun-Soil-Sci-Plant-Anal v.24, p.827-839. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: zea-mays; soil-testing; extraction-; copper-;
 soil-test-values; nutrient-availability; mineral-deficiencies;
 soil-toxicity; analytical-methods; comparisons-; copper-sulfate;
 pig-manure; nutrient-uptake; nutrient-content; crop-yield;
 grain-; virginia-; rhodudults-
 NAL Call No.: S590.C63
 50.  Decolourisation of a pigment plant effluent by Pycnoporus
 cinnabarinus in a packed-bed bioreactor.
 Schliephake, K.; Lonergan, G. T.; Jones, C. L.; Mainwaring, D. E. 
 Biotechnol-lett v.15, p.1185-1188. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pycnoporus-; pigments-; factory-effluents;
 biological-treatment; decolorization-; white-rot-fungi
 Abstract: The decolourisation of wastewater from a pigment plant
 by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus   cinnabarinus was studied in
 a packed-bed  bioreactor. Decolourisation was first observed 48
 to 72 h   after inoculation and was followed using UV/VIS
 spectrophotometry. An assessment  of the inhibitory   properties
 of the effluent on the growth of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus showed
 that this fungus can   tolerate high levels of  potentially toxic
 NAL Call No.: QR53.B56
 51.  Degradation of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed human and
 swine wastes.
 Deng, M. Y.; Cliver, D. O. 
 Appl-Environ-Microbiol v.58, p.2368-2374. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: septic-tank-effluent; animal-manures; slurries-;
 giardia-lamblia; cysts-; persistence-; degradation-; viability-
 Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the persistence
 of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed septic tank effluent and swine
 manure slurry and  to correlate fluorescein diacetate-propidium
 iodide staining of G. lamblia cysts with their morphology under
 low-voltage scanning electron  microscopy. Under field
 conditions, G. lamblia cysts were degraded more rapidly in the
 mixed waste than in the control Dulbecco's phosphate- buffered
 saline (PBS). For total and viable cysts, the mixed waste had D
 values (time for a 90% reduction in number of cysts) of 18.3 and
 15.5  days, and the Dulbecco's PBS control had D values of 41.6
 and 26.8 days. The rates of cyst degradation in septic tank
 effluent and in  Dulbecco's PBS were similar. Increasing the
 proportion of swine manure slurry in the mixed waste favored
 degradation of the parasite. These  results indicate that the
 mixed waste treatment was the predominant factor affecting the
 cyst persistence and that it was swine manure slurry that  played
 the role of degrading the parasite. Visualization of viable and
 nonviable Giardia cysts with low-voltage scanning electron
 microscopy  revealed an excellent correlation between the
 viability of the cysts determined by fluorescein
 diacetate-propidium iodide staining and their  electron
 microscopic morphology.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
 52.  Detection of hepatitis A virus in environmental samples by
 antigen-capture PCR.
 Deng, M. Y.; Day, S. P.; Cliver, D. O. 
 Appl-environ-microbiol v.60, p.1927-1933. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: hepatitis-a-virus; polymerase-chain-reaction;
 immunological-techniques; detection-; oysters-; clams-;
 ostreidae-; pig-slurry; cattle-slurry; food-contamination;
 Abstract: The efficacy of the antigen-capture PCR (AC-PCR) method
 for the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in environmental
 samples was  demonstrated. HAV was captured from a seeded liquid
 waste or a shellfish sample with homologous antibody and then
 heat denatured and  subjected to reverse transcription and the
 PCR, all in the same tube. Subsequently, the AC-PCR products were
 analyzed by oligonucleotide  probe hybridization in solution,
 agarose gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography. The AC-PCR
 detected as little as 0.053 PFU of cell culture- adapted HAV
 strain HM175/18f. The results of cDNA-RNA hybridization indicated
 that the particle/ PFU ratio of this virus strain is 
 approximately 79:1. Therefore, the detection limit of the AC-PCR
 was estimated to be four virus particles. No amplified products
 were  observed when poliovirus 1, coxsackievirus A9,
 coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 6, reovirus 1, adenovirus type 40,
 human rotavirus type 1, and  bovine enterovirus type 2 were
 tested, confirming the specificity of the assay. There were no
 differences between the nucleotide sequences of  AC-PCR products
 of HAV strain HM175/18f and the sequences of wild-type HAV strain
 HM175 derived from molecularly cloned cDNA. Of  121 waste and
 shellfish samples tested by both plaque assays (PA) in cell
 cultures and the AC-PCR, 81 (67%) were positive and 31 (26%) were 
 negative as determined by both methods, whereas 9 (7%) were
 positive as determined by the AC-PCR and negative as determined
 by the PA,  and none were positive as determined by the PA and
 negative as determined by the AC-PCR.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
 53.  Development of a composting recipe for swine manure.
 Collins, E. R. Jr.; Parson, S. C. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (934033) 29 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," and
 The  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; composting-; recipes-; performance-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 54.  Development of a computer program (UTILIS) for correct pig
 slurry management.
 Balsari, P.; Calvo, A.; Airoldi, G. 
 Computers in agricultural extension programs  proceedings of the
 4th international conference, 28-31 January 1992, Orlando,
 Florida /  sponspored by the Florida Cooperative Extension
 Service, University of Florida. St. Joseph, Mich. : American
 Society of Agricultural  Engineers, c1992.. p. 559-564. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; waste-disposal; computer-software
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C68-1992
 ************************************************************     55.  Development of an on-site moderate and limited
 small farm wastewater treatment plant.
 Yang, P. Y.; Chen, H.; Kongricharoern, N.; Polprasert, C. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.115-121. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Appropriate waste management technologies
 / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew. Proceedings of the International 
 Conference, held November 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.
 Descriptor: waste-water-treatment; small-farms; bioreactors-;
 pig-slurry; hawaii-; on-farm-treatment
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 56.  Dietary manipulation of nitrogen excretion and slurry volume
 from pigs.
 Fullarton, P. J.; Cullin, A. W. R.; Broecke, J. v. d. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.145-148. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E.  Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptor: pigs-; pig-slurry; excretion-; nitrogen-; excreta-;
 nitrogen-metabolism; experimental-diets; feeds-; protein-content
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 57.  A direct incorporation of N-15 labelled ammonium sulphate
 into a pig slurry: a laboratory experiment on NH3 volatilization.
 Moal, J. F.; Martinez, J.; Marol, C.; Guirand, G. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 48 (1) p. 87-89. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; isotope-labeling; nitrogen-;
 ammonium-sulfate; incorporation-; ammonia-; volatilization-;
 laboratory-methods; nitrogen-; losses-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 58.  Drying interval effects on runoff from fescue plots
 receiving swine manure.
 Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C. 
 Trans-ASAE v.36, p.1673-1678. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; drying-; runoff-; nitrate-nitrogen;
 ammonium-nitrogen; nitrogen-; phosphorus-; runoff-water;
 water-pollution; festuca- arundinacea; fields-; water-quality
 Abstract: Application of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure can
 lead to elevated runoff concentrations of organic matter and
 nutrients. This  experiment was conducted to assess the
 influences of swine manure treatment (0 and 220 kg/ha nitrogen
 applied) and drying interval (4, 7, and  14 days) between manure
 application and first runoff event on quality of runoff from
 fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plots. Runoff was  generated
 from simulated rainfall (50 mm/h) and sampled at 0.08 h intervals
 during runoff. Flow-weighted composite runoff samples from each 
 treatment and replication were analyzed for nitrate nitrogen
 (NO3(-)N), ammonia nitrogen (NH3(-)N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen
 (TKN), total  phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and
 total suspended solids (TSS). One set per treatment of the
 noncomposited runoff  samples was also analyzed. Runoff
 concentrations of all manure constituents investigated were
 higher for the manure-treated plots than for the  untreated
 plots. Runoff NO3(-)N increased with drying interval due to
 nitrification, but concentrations of other manure constituents
 were  unaffected by drying interval. Amounts of constituents lost
 from the plots in runoff were higher for the manure-treated plots
 than for the  untreated plots, but all (including NO3(-)N) losses
 were found independent of drying interval. Analyses of the
 noncomposited runoff samples  revealed high variability in the
 response of runoff quality to time after the beginning of runoff
 for all parameters investigated. Data from the  non-composited
 samples did not lend itself to generalized descriptions of
 changes with respect to time of runoff concentrations of manure 
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 59.  Economic impact of a swine complex in Southside Virginia.
 Thornsbury, S.; Kambhampaty, S. M.; Kenyon, D. 
 Publication collection, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service.
 1993. (448-215) 14 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; econometric-models;
 agroindustrial-complexes; economic-impact; environmental-impact;
 regional-planning; animal-wastes; virginia-;
 NAL Call No.: S544.3.V8V52
 60.  Economic impact of varying swine manure application rates on
 continuous corn.
 Chase, C.; Duffy, M.; Lotz, W. 
 J-Soil-Water-Conserv v.46, p.460-464. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: zea-mays; pig-manure; fertilizers-;
 application-rates; economic-impact; crop-yield;
 soil-conditioners; production-costs; returns-; iowa-;
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-J822
 61.  Effect of form and rate of pig manure on the growth,
 nutrient uptake, and yield of barley (cv. Galleon).
 Brechin, J.; McDonald, G. K. 
 Aust-j-exp-agric v.34, p.505-510. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: hordeum-vulgare; piggery-effluent; application-rates;
 superphosphate-; urea-; pesticide-mixtures; growth-rate;
 nutrient-uptake; crop-yield; nitrogen-content; phosphorus-;
 sodium-; biomass-production; maize-ears; kernels-; weight-;
 NAL Call No.: 23-Au792
 62.  Effect of manuring practices and increased copper
 concentrations on soil microbial populations.
 Huysman, F.; Verstraete, W.; Brookes, P. C. 
 Soil-biol-biochem v.26, p.103-110. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: soil-bacteria; soil-fungi; populations-;
 metal-tolerance; copper-; bioavailability-; pig-manure;
 application-to-land; heavy-metals; contamination-;
 soil-pollution; polluted-soils
 Abstract: Addition of piggery manure to soils over 5 yr (manured
 soils) increased the amount of Cu extracted by EDTA and 
 diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) compared to selected
 reference soils. DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from about 3 to 10 p
 g Cu g-1  soil in the manured soils and from about 1 to 2
 micrograms Cu g soil in the reference soils. Although the soil Cu
 concentrations in the manured  soils were many times smaller than
 currently permitted, the increase in DTPA- or EDTA-extractable Cu
 was correlated with a 10- to a 1000- fold increase in the number
 of aerobic Cu-resistant bacteria. Although the Cu was mainly
 concentrated in the plough layer (15 cm) of the  manured soils,
 Cu-resistant bacteria were also detected down to 110 cm soil
 depth. In contrast, no such differences were found between the
 total  number of colony forming units, total microbial biomass or
 the degree of Cu-resistance of fungi and anaerobic bacteria
 between manured and  reference soils. It is suggested that the
 degree of Cu-resistance of the aerobic soil bacteria may provide
 a sensitive measure of Cu bioavailability  in soil. In general,
 bacteria were more sensitive to Cu than fungi. All of the 42
 Cu-resistant bacterial strains investigated were oxidase-positive 
 and 50% of the strains were pigmented. In contrast, only 20% of
 the 37 Cu-sensitive bacterial strains investigated were
 oxidase-positive and  none were pigmented. Cu-resistant bacteria
 exhibited more resistance to several antibiotics and heavy metals
 than Cu-sensitive bacteria.
 NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
 63.  Effect of natural substances on plants: biological control
 of telluric phytopathogenic fungi by an antifungal compost.
 Reisinger, O.; Durecu, S.; Toutain, F. 
 Dev-Agric-Manage-For-Ecol p.145-153. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Humus its structure and role in
 agriculture and environment / edited by J. Kubat. Proceedings of
 the 10th  Symposium Humus et Planta, August 19-23, 1991, Prague,
 Descriptor: cucumis-sativus; linum-usitatissimum;
 fusarium-oxysporum-f; sp; -lini; phomopsis-sclerotioides;
 biological-control; composts-; pig-slurry; plant-nutrition;
 Abstract: Antipathogenic activity of a compost prepared of the
 solid phase of anaerobically fermented pig slurry has been tested
 in laboratory and  glasshouse experiments. It was shown that this
 compost sensibly limited the severity of pathogenic effect of
 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini and  diminished incidence of
 Phomopsis sclerotioides with cucumber cultivated in naturally
 infected soil. Laboratory experiments have shown that  there is
 at least one bacterial biological element responsible for
 induction and acceleration of autolysis of pathogenic fungi.
 NAL Call No.: S601.D4
 64.  Effect of organic manure on organic phosphorus fractions in
 two paddy soils.
 Zhang, Y. S.; Werner, W.; Scherer, H. W.; Sun, X. 
 Biol-fertil-soils v.17, p.64-68. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: paddy-soils; ultisols-; entisols-; pig-manure;
 cattle-manure; cellulose-; soil-organic-matter; phosphorus-;
 inorganic-phosphorus; anaerobic- conditions; organic-phosphorus
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 65.  Effect of pH on the behaviour of volatile compounds in
 organic manures during dry-matter determination.
 Derikx, P. J. L.; Willers, H. C.; Have, P. J. W. t. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 49 (1) p. 41-45. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; cattle-manure; poultry-manure; drying-;
 dry-matter; ammonia-; volatile-compounds; volatile-fatty-acids;
 ph-; methodology-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 66.  The effect of pig slurry on exchangeable potassium in
 calcareous soils.
 Bernal, M. P.; Lax, A.; Roig, A. 
 Biol-fertil-soils v.16, p.169-172. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: calcareous-soils; cation-exchange;
 exchangeable-cations; potassium-; pig-slurry; waste-disposal;
 illite-; interstratified-minerals; montmorillonite-; spain-
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 67.  The effect of spring applied animal slurries on cereal grain
 yield and quality.
 Hayward, C. F.; Froment, M. A.; Harrison, R. 
 Asp-appl-biol. Wellesbourne, Warwick : The Association of Applied
 Biologists. 1993. v. 36 p. 311-316. 
 In the series analytic: Cereal quality III / edited by P.S.
 Kettlewell, J.R. Gorstang, C.M. Duffus, N. Magan, W.T.B. Thomas
 and N.D.  Paveley.
 Descriptor: triticum-aestivum; cattle-slurry; pig-slurry;
 application-date; spring-; crop-yield; crop-quality; nitrogen-;
 lodging-; nitrogen-content
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 68.  Effect of sugarcane molasses on fermentation of pig faeces
 and wheat straw inoculated with lactic-acid-producing bacteria.
 Kamra, D. N.; Srivastava, S. K. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (1) p. 87-88. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: sugarcane-byproducts; molasses-; pigs-; wheat-straw;
 fermentation-wastes; lactic-acid-bacteria; india-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 69.  Effect of temperature on the performance of an SBR treating
 liquid swine-manure.
 Fernandes, L. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (3) p. 219-227. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: liquid-wastes; pig-manure; bioreactors-;
 performance-; temperature-; kinetics-; models-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 70.  Effect of the organic volumetric loading rate on soluble COD
 removal in down-flow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors.
 Sanchez, E. P.; Weiland, P.; Travieso, L. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (2) p. 173-176. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; beef-cattle; cattle-manure;
 dairy-cattle; torula-; yeasts-; wastes-; anaerobic-digesters;
 chemical-oxygen-demand; models-; settled-wastes
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 71.  Effect of Zn-enriched organic manures on Zn nutrition of
 wheat and residual effect on soyabean.
 Gupta, V. K.; SIngh, C. P.; Relan, P. S. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.42, p.155-157. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; poultry-manure; zinc-; enrichment-;
 triticum-aestivum; glycine-max; nutrient-uptake; crop-yield;
 pot-experimentation; zinc-uptake
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 72.  Effectiveness of vegetative filter strips in retaining
 surface-applied swine manure constituents.
 Chaubey, I.; Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C.; Moore, P. A. Jr.;
 Nichols, D. J. 
 Trans-ASAE v.37, p.845-850. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: festuca-arundinacea; pig-manure; liquid-manures;
 runoff-; grass-strips; filterability-; water-quality
 Abstract: Simulated rainfall was used to evaluate the
 effectiveness of vegetative filter strips (VFS) of varying
 lengths (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 m) in  reducing sediment and
 nutrient losses from plots treated with liquid swine manure at
 200 kg N/ha. Mass transport of ammonia nitrogen (NH3- N), total
 Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ortho-phosphorus (PO4-P), total
 phosphorus (TP), and total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced 
 significantly (p < 0.05) by fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)
 VFS. The 3 and 21 m VFS removed 65 and 87% of incoming TKN, 71
 and  99% of incoming NH3-N, 65 and 94% of incoming PO4-P, and 67
 and 92% of the incoming TP, respectively. Effectiveness of VFS,
 however,  did not increase significantly beyond 3 m for TSS and
 chemical oxygen demand and averaged 61 and 50%, respectively.
 Mass transport of  TKN, NH3-N, PO4-P, and TP was minimized at the
 9 m VFS length. The VFS did not significantly reduce nitrate
 nitrogen and fecal coliform  from the incoming runoff.
 First-order kinetics described the removal of manure
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 73.  Effects of the application of pig slurry on some
 physico-chemical and physical properties of calcareous soils.
 Bernal, M. P.; Roig, A.; Lax, A.; Navarro, A. F. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.42, p.233-239. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; application-; calcareous-soils;
 physicochemical-properties; application-rates; soil-ph;
 soil-analysis; slurries-; analysis-; techniques-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 74.  Eichhornia crassipes systems on three ammonium-containing
 industrial effluents (pectin, carcass-treatment wastes and
 manure): production  and purification.
 Casabianca Chassany, M. L. d.; Boonne, C.; Basseres, A. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.42, p.95-101. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: eichhornia-crassipes; industrial-wastes; ammonium-;
 nitrogen-; pectins-; pig-manure; carcass-waste; treatment-;
 biomass-production; purification-; biotechnology-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 75.  Emissions of nitrogen oxide gases during aerobic treatment
 of animal slurries.
 Burton, C. H.; Sneath, R. W.; Farrent, J. W. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1993.  v. 45 (3) p. 233-235. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; aerobic-treatment; emission-;
 Abstract: Quantities of nitrous oxide, N2O, an important
 greenhouse gas, were found in the effluent gases from controlled
 continuous aerobic  treatment of pig slurry. Where
 nitrifying-denitrifying conditions were encouraged (4-day
 treatment time and aeration to a redox potential of -50  mV
 Ecal), concentrations of this gas at times exceeded 1500 ppm and
 accounted for 19% of the nitrogen lost from the slurry. Smaller 
 concentrations of the gas (170 ppm) were found during short
 treatments (1.5 days) where nitrifying activity would not be
 expected; partial  nitrification is a possible explanation.
 Quantities of nitric oxide (NO) (up to 100 ppm), and even small
 amounts of NO2, were also found,  suggesting these previously
 unquantified nitrogen transformation routes in the traditional
 nitrogen cycle exist in aerobic treatment processes.
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 76.  Enterobacterial and viral decay experimental models for
 anaerobic digestion of piggery waste.
 Mateu, A.; Mata Alvarez, J.; Pares, R. 
 Appl-Microbiol-Biotech v.38, p.291-296. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; piggery-effluent; anaerobic-digestion;
 fecal-coliforms; bacteriophages-; survival-; ammonia-;
 volatile-fatty-acids; inactivation-; models-; comparisons-;
 coliphages-; lagoon-stabilization; cell-free-synthetic-media
 Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to determine the
 effects of the continuous mesophilic anaerobic digestion of raw
 pig manure in two  types of enteropathogenic microorganisms,
 bacterial and viral. Faecal coliforms (indigenous to pig manure)
 and coliphage f2 (ATCC 15766 B1)  were used as a model for some
 indigenous enteropathogenic microorganisms. The study was
 completed with laboratory survival experiments in  lagoon
 stabilization of raw pig manure, for both models. Experiments for
 f2 survival in cell-free synthetic medium were also carried out.
 The  results show that the anaerobic digestion process is more
 effective in eliminating viral than bacterial particles. Some
 parameters related to the  ultimate biogas yield and kinetics
 were also determined. Lagoon stabilization of raw pig manure
 provides a more suitable environment for the  removal of faecal
 coliforms than does anaerobic digestion. Finally, it was
 concluded that volatile fatty acids appeared to be responsible
 for the  elimination of faecal coliforms. The agent that causes
 f2 inactivation is not well identified, although in some cases it
 could be NH3 that seems  to act as a viricidal agent.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.E9
 77.  Equipment for application of animal slurry in field
 Petersen, J. 
 J-agric-eng-res v.59, p.97-109. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: slurry-spreaders; cattle-slurry; pig-slurry;
 experimental-equipment; experimental-plots; band-placement;
 soil-injection; slurry-pumps
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 78.  Estimated seepage losses from established swine waste
 lagoons in the lower coastal plain of North Carolina.
 Huffman, R. L.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Trans-ASAE v.38, p.449-453. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; lagoons-; waste-water; seepage-;
 coastal-plains; groundwater-; water-pollution; north-carolina
 Abstract: Eleven well-established, swine waste lagoon systems in
 the lower coastal plain of North Carolina were examined for
 evidence of seepage  losses to the superficial aquifer. The sites
 were selected to represent three major soil systems in the areas
 of North Carolina with the highest  swine populations. Elevated
 ammonium concentration was the strongest indicator of seepage.
 Estimated seepage losses were small on 45% of  the systems
 studied. On the remaining sites, estimates of total nitrogen
 export indicated moderate to severe seepage losses. Several of
 these  were near surface waters that probably served as discharge
 points, minimizing the likelihood of extensive impact on
 groundwater quality. No  assessment was made of effect on the
 receiving surface waters. There was no apparent relationship
 between seepage loss rates and major soil  system or style of
 construction. Rather, the dominant factor appeared to be the soil
 materials used in construction.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 79.  Estimating lagoon size for swine waste management.
 Nordstedt, R. A.; Baldwin, L. B. 
 Agric-Eng-Fact-Sheet-Fla-Coop-Ext-Serv. Gainesville, Fla. : The
 Service. 1990. (75) 2 p. 
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-disposal; lagoons-; size-; volume-;
 estimation-; florida-
 NAL Call No.: S671.A38
 80.  Evaluation of denitrification losses by the acetylene
 inhibition technique in a permanent ryegrass field (Lolium
 perenne L.) fertilized with  animal slurry or ammonium nitrate.
 Schwarz, J.; Kapp, M.; Benckiser, G.; Ottow, J. C. G. 
 Biol-fertil-soils v.18, p.327-333. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: cattle-slurry; pig-slurry; mixtures-;
 ammonium-nitrate; denitrification-; dicyandiamide-;
 losses-from-soil; ammonium-nitrogen; nitrate- nitrogen;
 soil-water-content; soil-temperature; lolium-perenne;
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 81.  Evaluation of overland flow treatment for swine lagoon
 Hawkins, G. L.; Hill, D. T.; Rochester, E. W.; Wood, C. W. 
 Trans-ASAE v.38, p.397-402. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; lagoons-; effluents-; waste-water-treatment;
 overland-flow; application-to-land; slopes-; runoff-;
 percolation-; leaching-; usa-
 Abstract: Overland flow, on slopes of 5 and 11%, was used as a
 means of treating wastewater effluent from the second cell of a
 swine waste  anaerobic lagoon system. Wastewater samples from
 both surface runoff and soil percolate (depths of 0.3, 0.9, and
 1.5 m) were collected and  analyzed for TKN-N, NH4-N, ON-N,
 NO3-N, pH, COD, K, EC, and TP-P. Using these data, along with the
 hydraulic loading rates and  quantitative runoff collection, mass
 balances on the above parameters were calculated to determine the
 surface treatment of the lagoon effluent.  These mass balances
 suggest that overland flow is an excellent treatment system for
 liquid lagoon effluents with mass reductions of greater than  60%
 for all parameters on both slopes, except NO3-N, which had an
 approximate increase of 1.7 times on the 11% slope. Samples
 collected  from the three lysimeter depths (soil percolate)
 suggest that NO3-N leaching from the plots may be a concern over
 an extended period of use.  The runoff from overland flow systems
 of this type will require further treatment.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 82.  The evaluation of sawdust swine waste compost on the soil
 ecosystem, pollution and vegetable production.
 Kao, M. M. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.123-131. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Appropriate waste management technologies
 / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew. Proceedings of the International 
 Conference, held November 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.
 Descriptor: composts-; pig-slurry; sawdust-; mixtures-;
 soil-pollution; zinc-; copper-; brassica-pekinensis; crop-yield;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 83.  Evaluation of swine waste composting in vertical reactors.
 Lau, A. K.; Liao, P. H.; Lo, K. V. 
 J-Environ-Sci-Health-Part-A-Environ-Sci-Eng v.A28, p.761-777.
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; pig-slurry; composting-; waste-treatment;
 moisture-content; height-; temperature-;
 particle-size-distribution; shrinkage-; compaction-;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J6
 84.  Evaluation of the stabilization level of pig organic waste:
 influence of humic-like compounds.
 Govi, M.; Ciavatta, C.; Sitti, L.; Gessa, C. 
 Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal v.26, p.425-439. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; sludges-; pig-manure; straw-;
 composting-; composts-; maturation-; decomposition-;
 humification-; humic-acids; fulvic-acids; organic-matter;
 isoelectric-focusing; degradation-; degree-of-humification
 NAL Call No.: S590.C63
 85.  Evaluation of various flocculants for the recovery of algal
 biomass grown on pig-waste.
 Buelna, G.; Bhattarai, K. K.; De La Noue, J.; Taiganides, E. P. 
 Biol-Wastes v.31, p.211-222. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; wastes-; biological-treatment;
 chlorella-; ponds-; biomass-production; flocculants-;
 sedimentation-; singapore-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 86.  Exogenous isolation of mobilizing plasmids from polluted
 soils and sludges.
 Top, E.; Smet, I. de.; Verstraete, W.; Dijkmans, R.; Mergeay, M. 
 Appl-environ-microbiol v.60, p.831-839. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: polluted-soils; activated-sludge; plasmids-;
 genetic-transformation; escherichia-coli; alcaligenes-;
 gene-transfer; mating-; agricultural-soils; pig-manure;
 sandy-loam-soils; conjugative-plasmids; alcaligenes-eutrophus;
 Abstract: Exogenous plasmid isolation was used to assess the
 presence of mobilizing plasmids in several soils and activated
 sludges.  Triparental  matings were performed with Escherichia
 coli (a member of the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria) as
 the donor of an IncQ plasmid  (pMOL155, containing the heavy
 metal resistance genes czc: Co(r), Zn(r), and Cd(r)), Alcaligenes
 eutrophus (a member of the beta subgroup of  the Proteobacteria)
 as the recipient, and indigenous microorganisms from soil and
 sludge samples as helper strains.  We developed an assay to 
 assess the plasmid mobilization potential of a soil ecosystem on
 the basis of the number of transconjugants obtained after
 exogenous isolations.  After inoculation into soil of several
 concentrations of a helper strain (E. coli CM120 harboring IncP
 [IncP1] mobilizing plasmid RP4), the log  numbers of
 transconjugants obtained from exogenous isolations with different
 soil samples were a linear function of the log numbers of helper 
 strain CM120(RP4) present in the soils.  Four soils were analyzed
 for the presence of mobilizing elements, and mobilizing plasmids
 were  isolated from two of these soils.  Several sludge samples
 from different wastewater treatment plants yielded much higher
 numbers of  transconjugants than the soil samples, indicating
 that higher numbers of mobilizing strains were present.  The
 mobilizing plasmids isolated from  Gent-O sludge and one plasmid
 isolated from Eislingen soil hybridized to the repP probe,
 whereas the plasmids isolated from Essen soil did not  hybridize
 to a large number of rep probes (repFIC, repHI1, repHI2, repL/M,
 repN, repP, repT, repU, repW, repX).  This indicates that in
 Essen  soil, broad-host-range mobilizing.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
 87.  Fate of biological and chemical contaminants from on-site
 disposal of liquid piggery wastes: results from a soil column
 Lam, K. C.; Ng, S. L.; Neller, R. J. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.63-75. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Appropriate waste management technologies
 / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew. Proceedings of the International 
 Conference, held November 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.
 Descriptor: pig-housing; waste-disposal-sites; liquid-wastes;
 application-to-land; hong-kong
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 88.  The fate of nitrogen from 15N-labeled straw and green manure
 in soil-crop-domestic animal systems.
 He, D. Y.; Liao, X. L.; Xing, T. X.; Zhou, W. J.; Fang, Y. J.;
 He, L. H. 
 Soil-sci v.158, p.65-73. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: oryza-sativa; paddy-soils; pigs-; goats-; rice-straw;
 green-manures; application-to-land; feeds-; animal-manures;
 nitrogen-; recovery-; nutrient-availability; nitrogen-cycle
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
 89.  Fate of residuals in nitrification-denitrification treatment
 of piggery wastewaters.
 Germirli, F.; Bortone, G.; Orhon, D.; Tilche, A. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1993.  v. 45 (3) p. 205-211. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; nitrification-; denitrification-;
 waste-water-treatment; chemical-oxygen-demand; italy-;
 Abstract: A careful appraisal of piggery wastewaters should be
 made mainly because of their high content of organic constituents
 together with the  nitrogen and stringent effluent limitations
 involved. Specific emphasis should be given to the COD of the
 wastewater as it contains, aside from a  biodegradable portion, a
 residual fraction which persists throughout the treatment
 process. Experimental evaluations indicated that the effluent  of
 a laboratory-scale SBR contained significant amounts of
 non-biodegradable COD. Since SBR was primarily operated to
 achieve nitrification- denitrification, a method previously
 developed for the assessment of the influent soluble inert COD,
 S(I) was modified in a way to reflect the  possible impact of the
 nitrification and denitrification processes. The paper also
 summarizes the performance of SBR with respect to its nitrogen 
 removal potential from piggery wastewaters.
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 90.  Feedlot runoff control--demonstration site: swine and beef
 lot--Location: Delaware County.
 AE. Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State U
 niversity. Nov 1993. (3077h) 2 p. 
 Descriptor: pigs-; beef-cattle; feedlots-; runoff-;
 feedlot-wastes; waste-disposal
 NAL Call No.: S671.A22
 91.  Feedlot runoff control--Demonstration site: swine
 lot--location: Pocahontas County.
 AE. Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State U
 niversity. Dec 1993. (3077k) 2 p. 
 Descriptor: pigs-; feedlots-; feedlot-wastes; runoff-;
 NAL Call No.: S671.A22
 92.  Feedlot runoff control--demonstration site: swine
 lot--Marshall County.
 Lorimor, J. 
 AE. Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State U
 niversity. Sept 1993. (3077f) 2 p. 
 Descriptor: pigs-; feedlots-; feedlot-effluent; feedlot-wastes;
 NAL Call No.: S671.A22
 93.  Feedlot runoff control demonstration site: swine
 lot--Pottawattamie County.
 Lorimor, J. 
 AE. Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State
 University. Feb 1994. (3077n) 2 p. 
 Descriptor: pig-farming; feedlot-wastes; runoff-;
 farm-management; demonstration-farms; iowa-
 NAL Call No.: S671.A22
 94.  Feedlot runoff control--demonstration site: swine
 lot--Washington County.
 AE. Ames, Iowa : Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State U
 niversity. Sept 1993. (3077e) 2 p. 
 Descriptor: pigs-; feedlots-; feedlot-effluent; feedlot-wastes;
 waste-disposal; demonstration-farms
 NAL Call No.: S671.A22
 95.  The fertilizer value of agricultural manure: simple rapid
 methods of assessment.
 Piccinini, S.; Bortone, G. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.49, p.197-208. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; dairy-cattle; cattle-manure;
 chemical-analysis; analytical-methods; equations-; accuracy-;
 instruments-; italy-
 Abstract: This paper presents the results of a series of
 analytical tests performed on pig and dairy cattle manure in
 order to establish the extent of  the correlation between: dry
 matter (TS) and specific gravity (SG); TS and total Kjeldhal
 nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (Pt); SG and  TKN and Pt. In
 addition, two N-meters for field use were also used to estimate
 the ammonium (NH4-H) content. All the variables (TS, SG,  TKN,
 Pt, NH4-N) show a high index of correlation for both the pig and
 dairy cattle slurry and the linear relations applied proved
 adequate in all  cases. Though the precision of the equations is
 not very high, the estimate for TKN and Pt content, obtained from
 the relationship between the  SG and these elements is
 nevertheless acceptable for practical farm use of animal manure.
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 96.  Iowa State University. Cooperative Extension Service. First
 steps : moving toward sustainability : livestock management
 (hogs).  First steps; moving toward sustainability. [Ames, Iowa?]
 : Extension, [1990?] 1 videocassette (28 min.) : sd., col..
 "Program was prepared with the support of USDA Agreement
 Presents three hog producers who have made changes in their
 production methods, based on sustainable agricultural decisions
 involving  productivity, high volume, and environmental concerns
 and effects. The changes range from a totally pasture farrowing
 and finishing process to  a drug-free finishing process to having
 hogs pastured on a corn stubble field to provide manure to the
 field while they feed off the corn stubble  and fallen cobs.
 Swine-/ Swine-farrowing-facilities/ Manure-handling/
 97.  Flat bottom gravity drain gutters for swine manure.
 Meyer, V. M. 
 PM-Iowa-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. Ames, Iowa : Iowa State
 University, Cooperative Extension Service. Aug 1992. (1377,rev.)
 4 p. 
 Descriptor: pig-manure; pig-housing; piggery-effluent;
 drainage-systems; design-
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-IO9PA
 98.  Flooring for swine.
 Harmon, J. D.; Muehling, A. J. 
 Pork industry handbook -- p.1-6. (1993).
 Descriptor: pigs-; floors-; floor-type; defecation-; pig-housing;
 feet-; lesions-; sanitation-; pig-manure
 NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 99.  Fly control on swine.
 Williams, R. E. 
 E-Purdue-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. West Lafayette, Ind. : The Service.
 July 1992. (9,rev.) 2 p. 
 In subseries: Livestock Insects.
 Descriptor: diptera-; pigs-; insect-control; insecticides-;
 spraying-; ovicides-and-larvicides; pig-manure
 NAL Call No.: SB844.I6P8
 100.    Free and immobilized cultures of Spirulina maxima for
 swine waste treatment.
 Canizares, R. D.; Dominguez, A. R.; Rivas, L.; Montes, M. C.;
 Travieso, L.; Benitez, F. 
 Biotechnol-Lett v.15, p.321-326. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: spirulina-; pigs-; excreta-; biological-treatment;
 immobilization-; ammonium-nitrogen
 Abstract: We have analyzed the behavior of Spirulina maxima at
 increasing concentration of ammonium nitrogen present in swine
 waste when it is  either growing in suspension or immobilized in
 polymeric supports. We compared the response of Spirulina maxima
 growth to different  concentrations of aeration stabilized swine
 waste (total phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen) as a way to determine
 the treatment efficiency of both  systems. At a dilution of 50%
 of swine waste, the suspended system reached the best results for
 biomass concentration and nutrient removal. In  the immobilized
 system at dilutions of 25 and 50% of swine waste, more than 90%
 ammonium nitrogen removal was obtained, and the optimal  cell
 concentration for immobilization was 2 g/l (wet basis).
 NAL Call No.: QR53.B56
 101.    Gravity drain gutter systems.
 Meyer, D. J. 
 Pork industry handbook. West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative
 Extension Service, Purdue University, [1978?-1990].. 8 p. 
 Waste Management, (PIH-95) revised Dec 1990.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; pig-housing; waste-disposal; pig-manure;
 sewerage-; gravity-; drainage-equipment
 NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 102.    Gravity drain gutter systems.
 Meyer, D. J. 
 Ext-Bull-E-Coop-Ext-Serv-Mich-State-Univ. East Lansing, Mich. :
 The Service. June 1991. (1800, major rev.) 8 p. 
 In subseries: Pork Industry Handbook. Waste Management.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-disposal; drainage-systems
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-M58B
 103.    Growth of Spirulina maxima on swine waste.
 Canizares, R. O.; Dominguez, A. R. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.45, p.73-75. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; aeration-; stabilizing-; waste-treatment;
 spirulina-; nutrient-uptake; biomass-production
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 104.    Headspace analysis of malodorous compounds from swine
 wastewater under aerobic treatment.
 Chen, A.; Liao, P. H.; Lo, K. V. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 49 (1) p. 83-87. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; aerobic-treatment;
 waste-water-treatment; volatile-compounds; aeration-;
 microbial-activities; acetic-acid; degradation-;
 gas-chromatography; headspace-gas-chromatography
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 105.    Hog-raising county cleans up.
 Cribb, D. 
 Soil-Water-Conserv-U-S-Dep-Agric-Soil-Conserv-Serv v.11, p.6-7.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; animal-wastes; treatment-;
 NAL Call No.: aS622.S6
 106.    Ice effects on model manure tank walls.
 Godbout, S.; Marquis, A.; Masse, D. 
 Appl-eng-agric v.10, p.95-99. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; cold-storage; tanks-; stresses-; ice-;
 Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the pressure
 exerted by frozen manure caps on the walls   of concrete manure
 tanks.  The  research is aimed at improving design criteria for
 concrete manure   tanks for cold climates. Scale models were used
 to determine the pressures  exerted by ice caps   resulting from
 2% and 4% solids swine manures and to compare them to that
 exerted by a fresh water   ice cap. For typical  Quebec
 conditions, the highest mean ice pressure measured in laboratory
 tests   was equivalent to 72 +/- 13 kPa from liquid manure.  The 
 circumferential stress was influenced by   the liquid type but
 not by the filling methods and was significantly lower for the
 manure ice caps    than for water ice.  However, no significant
 differences in stresses were attributable to the two   levels of
 solids content of the manures.  This  implies that the stress
 differences observed   between water and manure ice are mainly
 due to the presence of urea which would have an effect  on   the
 thermal expansion.
 NAL Call No.: S671.A66
 107.    Identification and biological activity of
 germination-inhibiting long-chain fatty acids in animal-waste
 Marambe, B.; Nagaoka, T.; Ando, T. 
 Plant-Cell-Physiol. Kyoto, Japanese Society of Plant
 Physiologists. June 1993. v. 34 (4) p. 605-612. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: sorghum-bicolor; seed-germination; water-uptake;
 atp-; alpha-amylase-; enzyme-activity; long-chain-fatty-acids;
 composts-; poultry- droppings; pig-slurry; cattle-dung;
 Abstract: Long-chain fatty acids in germination-inhibiting
 animal-waste composts were identified by gas chromatography-mass
 spectrometry as  myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic,
 and linolenic acids. These acids were found at concentrations
 greater than 0.25 mg (g dry compost)-1.  The identified acids,
 together with lauric acid, and five kinds of short- and
 medium-chain fatty acid, were tested for their effects on the 
 germination process of sorghum seeds. The authentic long-chain
 fatty acids, which were dissolved in a 1 : 9 (v/v) mixture of
 methanol and  distilled water at 40 mg liter-1, significantly
 reduced the alpha-amylase activity, physiological water uptake,
 and ATP content of the  germinating seeds during the first 24 h
 of imbibition, as well as the rate of germination of seeds. Among
 the tested fatty acids, myristic and  palmitic acids were the
 most potent inhibitors of germination. The inhibitory effects of
 long-chain fatty acids were stronger than those of the  phenolic
 acids. The short- and medium-chain fatty acids did not have any
 significant germination-inhibitory effects at 40 mg liter-1. The
 results  indicate that the long-chain fatty acids are the
 dominant inhibitors of germination in animal-waste composts, and
 that the inhibition of the alpha- amylase activity in germinating
 sorghum seeds is one aspect of the mode of action of these
 long-chain fatty acids.
 NAL Call No.: 450-P699
 108.    The impact of pollution controls on livestock--crop
 Schnitkey, G. D.; Miranda, M. J. 
 J-Agric-Resour-Econ v.18, p.25-36. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: phosphorus-; runoff-; soil-pollution;
 pollution-control; livestock-enterprises; agricultural-land;
 crop-production; farmyard-manure; commercial-soil-additives;
 environmental-policy; livestock-numbers; application-methods;
 returns-; mathematical-models; pig-farming; maize-;
 discrete-time,-continuous-space-model; commercial-fertilizers;
 NAL Call No.: HD1750.W4
 109.    Improved utilisation of slurry nitrogen for arable
 Smith, K. A.; Chambers, B. J. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.127-134. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E.  Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; cattle-slurry; application-date; spring-;
 nitrogen-; nutrient-uptake; cereals-; top-dressings; ammonia-;
 volatilization-; england-
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 110.    In situ inactivation of animal viruses and a coliphage
 in nonaerated liquid and semiliquid animal wastes.
 Pesaro, F.; Sorg, I.; Metzler, A. 
 Appl-environ-microbiol v.61, p.92-97. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: bacteriophages-; bovine-parvovirus;
 encephalomyocarditis-virus; bovine-herpesvirus; rotavirus-;
 bovine-adenovirus; inactivation-; cattle- slurry; cattle-manure;
 pig-manure; liquid-manures; risk-; application-to-land;
 coliphage-f2; bovine-rotaviurs; bovine-rotavirus
 Abstract: The persistence of five animal viruses, representing
 picorna-, rota-, parvo-, adeno-, and herpesviruses, and the
 coliphage f2 was  determined in the field by exposing the viruses
 to different animal wastes and by adopting an established filter
 sandwich technique. This  technique allows us to copy the natural
 state of viruses in the environment, where adsorption onto or
 incorporation into suspended solids may  prolong virus survival.
 Using filter sandwiches either equipped with porous (15 nm in
 diameter) or poreless polycarbonate (PC) membranes, it  was
 possible to differentiate between overall virus inactivation and
 the effect of virucidal agents that act through poreless PC
 membranes.  Depending on ambient temperature, pH, and type of
 animal waste, values for time, in days, required for a 90%
 reduction of virus titer varied  widely, ranging from less than 1
 week for herpesvirus to more than 6 months for rotavirus. Virus
 inactivation progressed substantially faster in  liquid cattle
 manure, a mixture of urine and water (pH > 8.0), than in
 semiliquid wastes that consisted of mixtures of feces, urine,
 water, and  bedding materials (pH < 8.0). Hitherto unidentified
 virucidal agents that permeate poreless PC membranes contributed
 substantially to the  overall inactivation. On the other hand,
 substances that protect rotavirus and possibly other viruses from
 inactivation may be present in animal  wastes. Together, the
 study showed that viruses contained in manure may persist for
 prolonged periods of time if stored under nonaerated  conditions.
 At times of land application, this may lead to environmental
 contamination with pathogens.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
 111.    Inactivation of poliovirus type 1 in mixed human and
 swine waste and by bacteria from swine manure.
 Deng, M. Y.; Cliver, D. O. 
 Appl-Environ-Microbiol v.58, p.2016-2021. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; septic-tank-effluent; polioviruses-;
 inactivation-; bacteria-; antiviral-properties; temperature-;
 field-experimentation; laboratory- tests; enzymes-
 Abstract: The persistence of poliovirus type 1 (PO1) in mixed
 septic tank effluent and swine manure slurry was determined, and
 the antiviral effects  of several bacterial cultures isolated
 from swine manure slurry were demonstrated. In two field
 experiments, PO1 was consistently inactivated  more rapidly in
 the mixed waste than in the control Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered
 saline (D-PBS). D values (time [in days] for a 90%  reduction of
 virus titer) were 18.7 and 29.9 for the mixed waste and 56.5 and
 51.8 for the D-PBS control, respectively. The virus inactivation
 in  the mixed waste was temperature dependent. A comparison of
 PO1 inactivation in raw mixed waste, autoclaved mixed waste, and
 bacterium- free filtrate of raw mixed waste at the same pH and
 temperatures provided an initial demonstration that the virus
 inactivation in the mixed waste  is related, at least in part, to
 microbial activity. At 25 degrees C, the D value was 6.8 for the
 mixed waste, 11.2 for the autoclaved mixed waste,  and 10.5 for
 the bacterium-free filtrate of raw mixed waste. At 37 degrees C,
 D values were 1.3, 3.9, and 3.1 for these three suspending media, 
 respectively. Three bacterial isolates which had shown antiviral
 effects in a screening test each caused virus inactivation in
 autoclaved mixed  waste, in which the effect of other
 microorganisms was excluded. Inhibition of PO1 inactivation by
 protease inhibitors suggests that the virus  inactivation in the
 mixed waste was due in part to proteolytic enzymes produced by
 bacteria in the waste.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
 112.    The influence of pig slurry fertilisation on the mineral
 content of horticultural crops grown in calcareous soils.
 Bernal, M. P.; Roig, A. 
 J-sci-food-agric v.62, p.129-135. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; capsicum-annuum; lactuca-sativa;
 lycopersicon-esculentum; mineral-content; calcareous-soils
 Abstract: The influence of pig slurry applications on the
 nutrient composition of three horticultural crops (pepper, tomato
 and lettuce) grown on two  calcareous soils under irrigated
 conditions was studied. The optimum dose of pig slurry for
 nitrogen nutrition of the crops was found to be 100  m3 ha-1 and
 was independent of the number of previous applications. Soil
 characteristics had a great influence on the amount of phosphorus 
 taken up by the plants. This is due to the large amount of
 phosphorus added in the slurry which remained in the soil in a
 plant-available form.  As the number of applications increased,
 the amount of slurry required to satisfy the phosphorus
 requirement of the crops decreased. Amounts  of slurry within
 100-150 m3 ha-1 were required for adequate potassium plant
 nutrition. However, soil characteristics, particularly the amount
 of  clay and thus its exchange capacity, had a significant
 influence on the plant potassium uptake.
 NAL Call No.: 382-So12
 113.    Influence of population densities on growth and
 reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andrei on pig manure.
 Reeh, U. 
 Soil-Biol-Biochem v.24, p.1327-1331. (1992).
 In the special issue ISEE 4. Proceedings of the "4th
 International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology", June 11-15, 1990,
 Avignon,  France / edited by A. Kretzschmar.
 Descriptor: eisenia-; earthworms-; population-density;
 pig-manure; ingestion-; growth-; size-; biomass-; reproduction-;
 intraspecific-competition; population-dynamics
 Abstract: The development of groups of 3, 6 or 12 individuals of
 the earthworm Eisenia andrei fed with fresh solid pig manure was
 studied in 1 litre  vol. The resulting populations were described
 in numbers and biomasses by cocoon production, different size
 classes and fertility stage during a  period of 230 days. The
 total number of clitellate worms and cocoon production reached
 their summit after ca 175 days, with worms from the  F1
 generation becoming clitellate for a period of <60 days, which is
 a very short period compared to a clitellate period of at least
 150 days for  the parental generation. Cocoon production and net
 recruitment had nearly ceased at the end of the period. The group
 of 12 individuals initially  showed a more restrained development
 than the smaller groups as the F1 generation peak was much more
 pronounced than the F2 generation  peak was. The growth of the
 total number of worms in the largest group was evolving lineary,
 while the less dense groups were growing more  unrestrained,
 sigmoidally. All of the monitored groups of worms in the limited
 volume seemed to approach a high constant density with a 
 homogeneous population composed of nonfertile worms > 100 mg,
 originating from both smaller slow-growing worms and degenerating 
 clitellate worms. The relative growth was related to time in an
 exponential decreasing way and the conversion ratio was
 decreasing from 10 to  4% during the growth period. At the peak
 of the first generation the worms were ingesting about their own
 weight every day, but soon they were  only ingesting their own
 weight once every week.
 NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
 114.    The influence of surface and sub-surface application
 methods for pig slurry on herbage yields and nitrogen recovery.
 Rees, Y. J.; Pain, B. F.; Phillips, V. R.; Misselbrook, T. H. 
 Grass-forage-sci v.48, p.38-44. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: grasslands-; pig-slurry; application-to-land;
 soil-injection; subsurface-application; application-methods;
 nitrogen-cycle; recovery-; crop- yield; herbage-;
 organic-amendments; organic-fertilizers; nitrogen-fertilizers;
 uk-; soil-surface-application
 NAL Call No.: 60.19-B773
 115.    Integrated hog farming and market gardening for small
 farmers in tropical areas of the western region.
 Fleming, K. 
 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE or
 Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research
 projects. [1988-.  1993. [6] 9 p. 
 SARE Project Number: LWE 92-2. Reporting period for this report
 is October 1992 to September 1993.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; composting-; agricultural-wastes;
 market-gardens; tree-fruits; sustainability-; economic-analysis;
 small-farms; demonstration- farms; tropics-; hawaii-
 NAL Call No.: S441.S855
 116.    Intensification and ecological aspects of methane
 fermentation of agricultural wastes.
 Beker, M. J.; Grinbergs, A. P.; Davids, V. E.; Labane, L. J.;
 Blumbergs, J. E.; Marauska, M. K. 
 Stud-Environ-Sci p.287-296. (1991).
 In the series analytic: Environmental biotechnology / edited by
 A. Blazej and V. Privarova. Proceedings of the International
 Symposium  on Biotechnology, June 27-29, 1990, Bratislava,
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; anaerobic-digestion; methane-production;
 biogas-; crop-residues; agricultural-wastes
 NAL Call No.: QH540.S8
 117.    Isolation of hydrolytic bacteria from biogas digesters.
 Siman'kova, M. V.; Nozhevnikova, A. N. 
 Appl-Biochem-Microbiol v.27, p.179-183. (1991).
 Translated from: Prikladnaia Biokhimiia i Mikrobiologiia, v. 27
 (2), 1991, p. 228-234. (385 P93).
 Descriptor: cattle-manure; pig-manure; sewage-sludge; bacteria-;
 hydrolysis-; methane-production; methanobacteriaceae-;
 microbial-degradation; organic-wastes; waste-disposal;
 NAL Call No.: QH345.A1P73
 118.    ISU research finds higher nutrient values in manure.
 Carver, N. 
 Inside-Edge v.3, p.2. (1993).
 Descriptor: pig-manure; nutritive-value; fertilizers-;
 agricultural-research; iowa-
 NAL Call No.: S561.6.I8I572
 119.    A laboratory study of struvite precipitation after
 anaerobic digestion of piggery wastes.
 Wrigley, T. J.; Webb, K. M.; Venkitachalm, H. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.41, p.117-121. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; anaerobic-digestion;
 chemical-precipitation; slow-release-fertilizers; biogas-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 120.    Lagoon management.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Fulhage, C. D.; Huhnke, R. L.; Jones, D. D. 
 Ext-tech-bull. [Fayetteville, Ark.?] : UA Cooperative Extension
 Service, [1988-. Apr 1994. (E-1341) 8 p. 
 In subseries: manure management.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; lagoons-; waste-disposal; management-;
 NAL Call No.: S561.6.A82E96
 121.    Lagoon management.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Fulhage, C. D.; Huhnke, R. L.; Jones, D. D. 
 Pork industry handbook. West Lafayette, Ind. : Cooperative
 Extension Service, Purdue University, [1978?-1990].. 8 p. 
 In subseries: Manure Management (PIH-62), revised June 1993.
 Descriptor: lagoons-; pig-manure; waste-treatment; design-;
 construction-; sludges-; application-to-land
 NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 122.    A land-limited and energy-saving treatment system for
 dilute swine wastewater.
 Yang, P. Y.; Chen, H. 
 Metab-clin-exp. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Co. 1994. v. 49
 (2) p. 129-137. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; piggery-effluent; waste-water;
 waste-water-treatment; biological-treatment; anaerobic-digestion;
 biological-fixed-film-systems; salvinia-molesta; ponds-
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-M56
 123.    A land limited and energy saving treatment system for
 dilute swine wastewater.
 Yang, P. Y.; Chen, H. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (934038) 16 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers," and
 The  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; waste-water; anaerobic-treatment;
 tropical-climate; land-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 124.    Legal guidelines for swine manure management.
 Geyer, L. L.; Findley, M. 
 Ext-bull-Coop-Ext-Serv,-Mich-State-Univ. East Lansing : Michigan
 State University, Cooperative Extension Service,. Apr 1994. (E-
 1160) 4 p. 
 In the subseries: Pork Industry Handbook: Manure Management.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; regulations-; environmental-legislation;
 water-pollution; odor-emission; livestock-enterprises; permits-;
 legal-liability; legal- systems; clean-water-act; clean-air-act;
 best-management-practices; runoff-control-systems; cost-sharing;
 nuisance-; lawsuits-
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-M58B
 125.    Legal guidelines for swine manure management.
 Geyer, L. L.; Findley, M. 
 Pork industry handbook -- p.1-4. (1993).
 Descriptor: pigs-; pig-manure; regulations-;
 environmental-legislation; legal-liability; nuisance-
 NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 126.    Loss of nitrogen during sprinkler irrigation of swine
 lagoon liquid.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Barker, J. C.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.40, p.7-15. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: fertigation-; sprinkler-irrigation; pig-slurry;
 anaerobic-treatment; lagoons-; nitrogen-; losses-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 127.    Loss of nitrogenous compounds during composting of
 animal wastes.
 Martins, O.; Dewes, T. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.42, p.103-111. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: composting-; mixtures-; chopping-; straw-;
 liquid-manures; poultry-manure; pig-manure; cattle-manure;
 nitrogen-; losses-; leachates-; gases-; emission-; ph-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 128.    Low temperature digestion of dairy and swine manure.
 Safley, L. M. Jr. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (92-6589/92-6618) 17 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting of the
 American Society of Agricultural Engineers," December 15-18,
 1992,  Nashville, Tennessee.
 Descriptor: cattle-manure; pig-manure; methane-production;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 129.    Low-temperature digestion of dairy and swine manure.
 Safley, L. M. Jr.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (2) p. 165-171. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: cattle-manure; dairy-cattle; pig-manure;
 anaerobic-digestion; methane-production; temperature-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 130.    Manure anda fertilizer effects on alfalfa plant nitrogen
 and soil nitrogen.
 Schmitt, M. A.; Sheaffer, C. C.; Randall, G. W. 
 J-prod-agric v.7, p.104-109. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: medicago-sativa; pig-manure; cattle-manure;
 phosphorus-fertilizers; potassium-fertilizers; application-rates;
 preplanting-treatment; herbage-; roots-; plant-composition;
 nitrogen-; nitrogen-content; nitrate-nitrogen; soil-;
 seasonal-fluctuations; losses-from-soil; removal-;
 nitrogen-cycle; water-pollution; risk-; minnesota-;
 NAL Call No.: S539.5.J68
 131.    Manure management : practices for the Minnesota pork
 Schmidt, D.;  Jacobson, L.; Minnesota Extension Service. 
 St. Paul, MN : Minnesota Extension Service, University of
 Minnesota, c1994. 32 p. : ill..
 Cover title.
 Descriptors: Agricultural-wastes-Environmental-aspects-Minnesota;
 Farm-manure-Environmental-aspects- Minnesota
 NAL Call No.: TD930.S35--1994
 132.    Manure management survey summary: Minnesota pork
 Schmidt, D. R.; Jacobson, L. D.; Clanton, C. J.; Goodrich, P. R.;
 Schmitt, M. A.; Lazarus, W. F. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-4545/93-4579) 10 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; management-; regional-surveys; minnesota-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 133.    Membrane separation of raw and anaerobically digested
 pig manure.
 Bilstad, T.; Madland, M.; Espedal, E.; Hanssen, P. H. 
 Water-sci-technol v.25, p.19-26. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Mexico technology in wastewater
 management / edited by O.O. Hart and C.A. Buckley. Proceedings of
 the  International Specialized Conference, March 2-5, 1992, Cape
 Town, South Africa.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-treatment; anaerobic-digestion;
 membranes-; separation-; reverse-osmosis; organic-fertilizers;
 nutrients-; norway-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 134.    Methods for evaluating odor from swine manure.
 Riskowski, G. L.; Chang, A. C.; Steinberg, M. P.; Day, D. L. 
 Appl-Eng-Agric v.7, p.248-253. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; odor-emission; odors-; evaluation-
 Abstract: Two odor evaluation methods were tested during a
 12-week dynamic experiment on the effects of a commercial
 additive on swine manure  in anaerobic storage. One method was a
 rating method which combined many of the best features of past
 research methods. The other method  was a ranking method which
 was designed to limit the effects of odor fatigue. Manure was
 collected daily from growing-finishing pigs and  added to barrels
 at a rate corresponding to the volume of manure that would fall
 on the barrel area in a typical swine pit. Odors were analyzed 
 weekly by human sniffers and detector tubes were used to measure
 ammonia, amines, and hydrogen sulfide. The manure was also
 analyzed for  total solids content. Results showed that the
 magnitude estimation rating method could distinguish between odor
 levels when there was a  significant difference in odor levels.
 The ranking method distinguished a difference between the highest
 treatment level and untreated manure  which may indicate that it
 is a more precise method but was of limited use on its own
 because it did not give the magnitude of the difference.
 NAL Call No.: S671.A66
 135.    Microbiological aspects of ammonia oxidation of swine
 St Arnaud, S.; Bisaillon, J. G.; Beaudet, R. 
 Can-J-Microbiol v.37, p.918-923. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; ammonia-; oxidation-; nitrosomonas-;
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-C162
 136.    Microbiological aspects of anaerobic digestion of swine
 slurry in upflow fixed-bed digesters with different packing
 Sorlini, C.; Ranalli, G.; Merlo, S. 
 Biol-Wastes v.31, p.231-239. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; waste-treatment; anaerobic-digestion;
 biodegradation-; bacteria-; anaerobic-digestion; biogas-;
 methane-production; media-matrices
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 137.    Modeling the effects of swine diet formulation on
 nitrogen waste production.
 Turner, L. W.; Bridges, T. C.; Usry, J. L. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (927038) 10 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24,  1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptor: animal-feeding; environment-; pollution-; nitrogen-;
 waste-disposal; pigs-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 138.    Modelling the performance of a non-steady state
 continuous aeration plant for the treatment of pig slurry.
 Burton, C. H. 
 J-agric-eng-res v.59, p.253-262. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; waste-treatment; aeration-;
 chemical-oxygen-demand; mathematical-models
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 139.    New industrially produced biogas technology for
 developing countries.
 Zubr, J. 
 Energy-Sources v.15, p.135-143. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; cattle-slurry; plants-; biogas-;
 gas-production; bioreactors-; fermentation-; anaerobic-treatment;
 industrial-applications; developing-countries; sichuan-;
 denmark-; methanogenic-fermentation
 NAL Call No.: QC73.6.E5
 140.    A new process to treat strong biological waste.
 Henry, D. P.; Thomson, R. H. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.213-218. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Appropriate waste management technologies
 / edited by G. Ho and K. Mathew. Proceedings of the International 
 Conference, held November 27-28, 1991, Perth, Australia.
 Descriptor: brewery-effluent; waste-treatment; pig-slurry;
 fermentation-; organic-acids; yeasts-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 141.    Nitrification and denitrification in an activated-sludge
 system for supernatant from settled sow manure with molasses as
 an extra carbon  source.
 Have, P. J. W. t.; Willers, H. C.; Derikx, P. J. L. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 47 (2) p. 135-141. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; sows-; deposition-; molasses-; mixtures-;
 activated-sludge; bioreactors-; nitrification-; denitrification-;
 ratios-; carbon-source
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 142.    Nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphate
 removal in sequencing batch reactors treating piggery wastewater.
 Bortone, G.; Gemelli, S.; Tambaldi, A.; Tilche, A. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.26,
 p.977-985. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Water Quality International '92. Part 3 /
 edited by M. Suzuki, et al. Proceedings of the Sixtennth Biennial 
 Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution
 Research and Control, held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; treatment-; bioreactors-;
 nitrification-; denitrification-; phosphates-; italy-;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 143.    Nitrification/denitrification in an intermittent
 aeration process for swine wastewater.
 Liao, C. M.; Maekawa, T. 
 New York, Marcel Dekker. 1994. v. B29 (5) p. 1053-1078. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; waste-water-treatment; aerobic-treatment;
 nitrification-; denitrification-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J61
 144.    Nitrite plus nitrate recoveries in piggery slurry by
 direct distillation and modified Kjeldahl methods.
 Dimmock, S. J.; Martinez, J. 
 Bioresour-technol. Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied
 Science ; New York, NY : Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1991-.
 1994.  v. 48 (1) p. 21-24. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; treatment-; aerobic-treatment;
 nitrites-; nitrates-; recovery-; distillation-; kjeldahl-method;
 nitrogen-content; organic- fertilizers
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 145.    Nitrogen and phosphorus forms in soils receiving manure.
 Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, S. J. 
 Soil-sci v.159, p.253-258. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: agricultural-soils; pig-slurry; poultry-manure;
 cattle-manure; application-to-land; application-rates; nitrogen-;
 phosphorus-; nutrient- availability; inorganic-compounds;
 organic-compounds; movement-in-soil; losses-from-soil;
 land-productivity; long-term-experiments; oklahoma-; texas-
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
 146.    Nitrogen efficiency of autumn, winter and spring
 applications of organic manures on winter cereals and its effect
 on grain yield and  quality.
 Hayward, C. F.; Jackson, D. R.; Smith, K. A. 
 Asp-appl-biol. Wellesbourne, Warwick : The Association of Applied
 Biologists. 1993. v. 36 p. 301-310. 
 In the series analytic: Cereal quality III / edited by P.S.
 Kettlewell, J.K. Gorstang, C.M. Duffus, N. Magan, W.T.B. Thomas
 and N.D.  Paveley.
 Descriptor: triticum-aestivum; winter-wheat; hordeum-vulgare;
 cattle-slurry; pig-slurry; animal-manures; application-date;
 autumn-; spring-; crop- yield; crop-quality; protein-content;
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 147.    Nitrogen leaching losses from pig slurry applied to a
 shallow soils.
 Pandey, S. P.; Cameron, K. C.; Dakers, A. J. 
 Bioresource-Technol. . 1992. v. 41 (3) p. 251-258. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; application-to-land; lysimeters-;
 leachates-; nitrogen-; losses-; ammonium-nitrogen; nitrogen-;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 148.    Nitrogen transformations in calcareous soils amended
 with pig slurry under aerobic incubation.
 Bernal, M. P.; Roig, A. 
 J-Agric-Sci v.120, p.89-97. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; soil-amendments; mineralization-;
 nitrification-; waste-disposal; aerobic-treatment;
 calcareous-soils; spain-
 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
 149.    A note on the effect of deep-litter housing on growth
 performance of growing-finishing pigs.
 Matte, J. J. 
 Can-j-anim-sci v.73, p.643-647. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; deep-litter-housing; growth-rate; manures-;
 enzymes-; ventilation-; temperature-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
 150.    Nutrient balances in calcareous soils after application
 of different rates of pig slurry.
 Bernal, M. P.; Roig, A.; Garcia, D. 
 Soil-use-manage v.9, p.9-14. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: capsicum-annuum; calcareous-soils; pig-slurry;
 waste-utilization; application-to-land; application-rates;
 nitrogen-; potassium-; phosphorus-; iron-; manganese-; zinc-;
 copper-; nutrient-content; nitrogen-content;
 nutrient-availability; nutrient-uptake; nutrient-retention;
 losses-from-soil; fixation-; soil-organic-matter; soil-ph;
 clay-fraction; cation-exchange
 Abstract: Changes in amounts of macro- (N, P, K) and
 micro-nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were determined in two
 calcareous sods amended over  an eight-month period with pig
 slurry applications ranging from 0 to 500 m3/ha, and planted in
 containers with green pepper (Capsicum  annuum). Total N and
 exchangeable K increased after slurry applications of 300 m3/ha
 or more, and available P increased after the smallest 
 application rate (100 m3/ha). Maximum crop nutrient uptakes of
 41, 40 and 91% for N, P and K occurred with the smallest dose of
 slurry.  Large losses of N, ranging from 27 to 74% (mean 55%) of
 N added to soil, occurred with all slurry treatments. From 41 to
 71% (mean 55%) of  the total P added in pig slurry was fixed in
 nonassimilable forms. Most of the K from the pig slurry was
 available to the plants. Most of the  micro-nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn
 and Cu) from the slurry were immobilized in the soil, probably
 because of the high pH and the small amounts of  organic matter
 in both the slurries and soils tested.
 NAL Call No.: S590.S68
 151.    Observations on an outbreak of anthrax in pigs in north
 Williams, D. R.; Rees, G. B.; Rogers, M. E. 
 Vet-Rec-J-Br-Vet-Assoc v.131, p.363-366. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; anthrax-; public-health; risk-; pig-slurry;
 disposal-; disinfection-; legislation-; history-;
 disease-control; wales-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
 152.    Observations on the life history of Onthophagus
 Hunter, J. S. I.; Fincher, G. T.; Lancaster, J. L. Jr. 
 Southwest-Entomol v.16, p.205-213. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: onthophagus-; cattle-dung; pig-manure; life-history;
 oviposition-; biological-development; pitfall-traps; surveys-;
 habitats-; morphology-; arkansas-; texas-
 NAL Call No.: QL461.S65
 153.    Odor control in liquid hog manure by added amendments
 and aeration.
 Al Kanani, T.; Akochi, E.; MacKenzie, A. F.; Alli, I.;
 Barrington, S. 
 J-Environ-Qual v.21, p.704-708. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; liquid-manures; odors-; odor-abatement;
 odor-emission; aeration-; sphagnum-; mosses-; calcium-phosphates;
 sulfates-; phosphates-; sulfur-; carbon-; carbonate-;
 calcium-oxide; monocalcium-phosphate-monohydrate;
 hydrogen-sulfate; hydrogen-phosphate
 Abstract: A reduction in the emission of malodorous gases from
 liquid hog manure (LHM) would represent an advantage for LHM use
 in  agricultural systems. Procedures for the reduction of
 disagreeable odors during storage of LHM (Sus scrofa domesticus)
 were studied in the  laboratory. Sphagnum peat moss (Sphagnum
 moss species), 1.5 M H2SO4, 1.7 M H3PO4, monocalcium phosphate
 monohydrate (MCPM),  elemental S, CaCO3, and CaO were used to
 reduce odors. Amended and nonamended LHM was incubated with and
 without aeration for  periods ranging from 2 to 720 h at 23 +/-
 0.4 degrees C. Odor measurements of emitted air were carried out
 using a sensory panel. Gas  chromatography-mass spectrometry
 (GC-MS) was used to identify specific odor-producing compounds.
 The GC-MS analysis revealed that  added Sphagnum moss (SM)
 prevented the release of 1,2-ethanediamine, N-methyl methanamine,
 3-methyl 2-butanamine, methyl hydrazine,  ethanethioic acid, and
 methanethiol from LHM. Aeration as a treatment, in general,
 resulted in a greater reduction of odor presence and 
 offensiveness than nonaeration. In nonaerated LHM treatments, SM
 at levels of 4 or 8% (w/w) or a combined treatment of 2% CaCO3
 plus 1%  SM resulted in a significant reduction in odor presence
 and offensiveness. Little odor reduction was observed with H2SO4,
 H3PO4, MCPM,  and CaO, and no odor reduction was found with
 elemental S.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 154.    Olfactometric characterization of odour generation
 potential of pigery manure samples.
 Wassenhove, F. v.; Vanrolleghem, P.; Langenhove, H. v.;
 Verstraete, W. 
 Stud-Environ-Sci p.425-430. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Biotechniques for air pollution abatement
 and odour control policies / edited by A.J. Dragt and J. van Ham. 
 Proceedings of an International Symposium, October 27-29, 1991,
 Maastricht, The Netherlands.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; odors-; air-pollution; odor-emission;
 pig-housing; olfactometers-
 NAL Call No.: QH540.S8
 155.    Organic and inorganic amendments to reduce ammonia
 losses from liquid hog manure.
 Al Kanani, T.; Akochi, E.; MacKenzie, A. F.; Alli, I.;
 Barrington, S. 
 J-Environ-Qual v.21, p.709-715. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: hordeum-vulgare; pig-manure; liquid-manures;
 ammonium-nitrogen; volatilization-; losses-from-soil; nitrogen-;
 mosses-; sulfuric-acid; phosphoric-acid; calcium-phosphates;
 sulfur-; calcium-carbonate; ph-; incubation-duration;
 nitrogen-content; nutrient-availability; dry-matter; crop-yield;
 sphagnum-; monocalcium-phosphate-monohydrate
 Abstract: Liquid hog manure (Sus scrofa domesticus) is in common
 use as a fertilizer or a soil conditioner in agricultural
 production. Liquid hog  manure (LHM) suffers from N loss through
 volatilization of ammonia (NH3), however. Reduction of NH3 loss
 from 4% total solids LHM was  studied using added Sphagnum peat
 moss (Sphagnum fuscum peat), sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid,
 monocalcium phosphate monohydrate  (MCPM), elemental S, and
 calcium carbonate. Cumulative losses of NH3-N ranged between 0
 and 711 mg N kg-1 LHM applied. Elemental  Sulfur and calcium
 carbonate (CaCO3) treatments induced greater NH3 losses compared
 with the nonamended LHM, whereas acidic treatments  including
 Sphagnum peat moss (SM) reduced NH3 losses by at least 74.6%.
 Volatilization of NH3 from LHM increased as the pH of amended 
 LHM treatment increased. The relationships between cumulative (15
 d) NH3 volatilized and initial pH of amended LHM varied,
 depending on  the amendment. The nutrient values of amended LHM
 stored for 25 d under continuous aeration were assessed on two
 soils mapped as Chicot  (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic Typic
 Hapludoll) and Uplands (coarse loamy, mixed, nonacid, Typic
 Haplorthod) from eastern Canada.  Treatment of LHM with SM at
 greater than 1% (w/w) reduced NH3 volatilization. Added CaCO3
 increased NH3 loss. In general, amendments  did not reduce
 effectiveness of LHM-N for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth. An
 exception was the 1% SM + 2% CaCO3 amendment that  reduced plant
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 ************************************************************     156.      Organic and inorganic fertilizer effects on runoff
 Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C. 
 Ark-farm-res v.43, p.4-5. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: runoff-water; water-quality; poultry-manure;
 pig-manure; fertilizers-; inorganic-compounds;
 festuca-arundinacea; arkansas-
 NAL Call No.: 100-Ar42F
 157.    Performance of a modified anaerobic baffled reactor to
 treat swine waste.
 Boopathy, R.; Sievers, D. M. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.34, p.2573-2578. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; anaerobic-digesters; methane-production;
 methodology-; particles-; waste-disposal
 Abstract: Two laboratory scale, anaerobic baffled reactors (one
 with two chambers, a second with three chambers) were used to
 successfully treat  whole swine manure. COD reductions were 69%
 and 62%, respectively, with maximum methane production of 0.45
 and 0.50 L/g VS added at a  loading of 4 g VS/L.d. The baffled
 chambers did an excellent job of trapping the small diameter,
 methane containing particles of proteins,  cellulose,
 hemicellulose and lipids. Solids retention times of 22 and 25
 days were achieved with a corresponding hydraulic retention of 15
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 158.    Persistence of inoculated hepatitis A virus in mixed
 human and animal wastes.
 Deng, M. Y.; Cliver, D. O. 
 Appl-environ-microbiol v.61, p.87-91. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: hepatitis-a-virus; survival-; inactivation-;
 pig-slurry; septic-tank-effluent; mixtures-; risk-;
 Abstract: The persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) was
 determined both in mixtures of septic tank effluent (STE) with
 dairy cattle manure slurry  (DCMS) and in mixtures of STE with
 swine manure slurry (SMS). HAV was consistently inactivated more
 rapidly in the two types of mixed  wastes than in STE alone or in
 the control Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). At 5
 degrees C, the D values (time, in days, for a 90%  reduction of
 virus titer) were 34.6 for the mixed STE and DCMS, 48.5 for the
 mixed STE and SMS, 58.5 for STE, and 217.4 for the Dulbecco's 
 PBS control. At 22 degrees C, the D values were 23.0, 17.1, 35.1,
 and 90.1 for the four suspension media, respectively. A
 comparison of HAV  inactivation in mixed wastes subjected to
 different treatments at the same pH and temperatures showed that
 the virus inactivation in the mixed  wastes was related, at least
 in part, to microbial activity. In mixed STE and DCMS, the D
 values at 25 degrees C were 8.3 for raw mixed wastes,  15.1 for
 autoclaved mixed wastes, and 9.6 for bacterium-free filtrate of
 raw mixed wastes; D values at 37 degrees C were 6.8, 10.1, and
 7.0 for  these three suspension media, respectively. In mixed STE
 and SMS, the D values at 25 degrees C were 8.1 for raw mixed
 wastes, 14.3 for  autoclaved mixed wastes, and 9.1 for
 bacterium-free filtrate of raw mixed wastes; the D values at 37
 degrees C were 6.8, 9.4, and 6.9 for the  three suspensions,
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
 159.    Phosphorus forms in animal manure.
 Barnett, G. M. 
 Metab-clin-exp. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Co. 1994. v. 49
 (2) p. 139-147. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: cattle-; cattle-dung; dairy-cattle; beef-cattle;
 poultry-droppings; feces-; pigs-; phosphorus-;
 inorganic-phosphorus; organophosphorus- compounds; calf-feeding;
 phleum-pratense; phalaris-arundinacea; forage-
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-M56
 160.    Phosphorus leaching in soils amended with piggery
 effluent or lime residues from effluent treatment.
 Weaver, D. M.; Ritchie, G. S. P. 
 Environ-pollut v.84, p.227-235. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; leaching-; phosphorus-; lime-;
 liming-; sorption-; sandy-soils; nutrient-retention;
 water-pollution; eutrophication-
 NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E52
 ************************************************************     161.      Phosphorus removal from piggery effluents of
 varying quality using lime and physico-chemical treatment
 Weaver, D. M.; Ritchie, G. S. P. 
 Environ-pollut v.84, p.237-244. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; phosphorus-; removal-; lime-;
 waste-treatment; pollution-control
 NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E52
 162.    Physico-chemical properties and productivity of two
 tropical soils amended with dehydrated swine waste.
 Mbaguwu, J. S. C.; Unamba Oparah, I.; Nevoh, G. O. 
 Metab-clin-exp. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B. Saunders Co. 1994. v. 49
 (2) p. 163-171. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; dehydration-; application-rates;
 zea-mays; dry-matter-accumulation; seed-germination;
 tropical-soils; sandy-soils; clay-soils; soil-chemistry;
 exchangeable-cations; soil-ph; soil-organic-matter; soil-water;
 nutrient-content; nutrient-availability; nigeria-
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-M56
 163.  Use of bark filters for biological slurry treatment. 
 Freiburger bodenkundliche Abhandlungen ; 0344-2691 ; Heft 32.
 Freiburg im Breisgau : Im Selbstverlag des Instituts fur
 Bodenkunde und Waldernahrungslehre, 1993. 131 p. : ill. 
 LA:  German; Summary in: English, French, Spanish
 DE:  Swine-Housing-Waste-disposal. Swine-Manure-Handling.
 Trickling-filters. Bark-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.S33--1993
 164.    Pig slurry and cow manure effect on atrazine and
 metolachlor soil biodegradation in maize.
 Rouchaud, J.; Gustin, F.; Cappelen, O.; Mouraux, D. 
 Bull-environ-contam-toxicol v.52, p.568-573. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: zea-mays; metolachlor-; atrazine-; pig-slurry;
 cattle-manure; herbicide-residues; persistence-
 NAL Call No.: RA1270.P35A1; LNSU RA1270.P35A1
 165.    Pig-slurry composts as wheat fertilizers.
 Gonzalez, J. L.; Benitez, I. C.; Perez, M. I.; Medina, M. 
 Bioresource-Technol v.40, p.125-130. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: triticum-aestivum; pig-slurry; composts-;
 plant-analysis; crop-yield; spain-
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 166.    Pig waste management and recycling : the Singapore
 Taiganides, E. P. E. P. 1.; International Development Research
 Centre (Canada.). 
 Ottawa : International Development Research Centre, 1992. xiii,
 368 p. : ill..
 Includes index.
 Descriptors: Animal-waste-Singapore; Swine-Singapore;
 NAL Call No.: TD811.T35-1992
 167.    Pig wastewater treatment in water hyacinth ponds.
 Polprasert, C.; Kessomboon, S.; Kanjanaprapin, W. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.26,
 p.2381-2384. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Water Quality International '92. Part 5 /
 edited by M. Suzuki, et.al. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial 
 Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution
 Research and Control held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; waste-water-treatment; lagoons-;
 eichhornia-crassipes; organic-loading-rate;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 168.    Plugging effects from livestock waste application on
 infiltration and runoff.
 Roberts, R. J.; Clanton, C. J. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.35, p.515-522. (1992).
 Literature review.
 Descriptor: infiltration-; permeability-; rain-; runoff-;
 soil-water; dairy-wastes; pig-slurry; literature-reviews
 Abstract: A rainfall simulator was used on repacked Waukegan silt
 loam and Hubbard loamy sand soil columns to determine the
 combined effect of  rainfall and livestock waste application on
 infiltration and runoff. Dairy and swine waste slurries were
 either surface-applied or incorporated.  Livestock waste
 application noticeably reduced the amount of runoff during a
 series of artificial rainfall events for all cases with the
 exception  of swine waste incorporated into the silt loam soil.
 Loamy sand exhibited short-term plugging when both wastes were
 surface-applied with no  incorporation. Surface-application of
 dairy waste on the silt loam soil apparently prevented formation
 of a surface seal and improved the  infiltration capacity. of the
 soil. Less surface-scaling in waste-applied columns may be
 attributed to increased organic matter on the surface of  the
 soil that aided aggregate stability. Also. the waste particles
 protected the surface from the energy of the impacting raindrops.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 169.    Pollution among sewers of the pig-breeding complex. 
 Zagriaznenie sredy stokami svinovodcheskogo kompleksa.
 Karps, A. E.; Biolo'gijas instituts (Latvijas PSR Zinatnu
 Riga : Zinatne, 1990. 237 p. : ill..
 Summary in English.
 Descriptors: Animal-waste-Latvia;
 NAL Call No.: TD930.Z33-1990
 170.    Potential of biological and chemical control of
 bacterial wilt.
 Hartman, G. L.; Hong, W. F.; Hanudin.; Hayward, A. C. 
 ACIAR-proc p.322-326. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Bacterial wilt / edited by G.L. Hartman
 and A.C. Hayward.
 Descriptor: lycopersicon-esculentum; pseudomonas-solanacearum;
 wilts-; plant-disease-control; biological-competition;
 rhizosphere-; microbial- pesticides; pseudomonas-gladioli;
 pseudomonas-cepacia; pseudomonas-fluorescens; soil-inoculation;
 bactericides-; green-manures; crotalaria-; pig-slurry;
 inorganic-salts; terlai-
 NAL Call No.: S542.A8A34
 171.    Prevalence of npt II and Tn5 in kanamycin-resistant
 bacteria from different environments.
 Smalla, K.; Van Overbeek, L. S.; Pukall, R.; Van Elsas, J. D. 
 FEMS-microbiol-ecol v.13, p.47-58. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: agricultural-soils; pig-slurry; river-water; sewage-;
 bacteria-; kanamycin-; drug-resistance; transposable-elements;
 dna-; population- density
 Abstract: Kanamycin (Km)-resistant bacterial populations in
 different soil, river water, sewage and pig   manure slurry
 samples were enumerated  and their prevalence in the total
 populations determined.   About 350 Km-resistant Gram-negative
 colonies grown in the presence of kanamycin  were identified  
 using a rapid presumptive identification scheme. They were then
 screened for the presence of Tn5   and nptII sequences using 
 hybridizations of cells in dot blots, of Southern-blotted genomic
 DNA   extracts and of PCR amplification products. Colonies
 reacting  positively with a 2.7 kb probe of   the central region
 of Tn5, or with a 925 bp nptII specific probe were primarily
 obtained from   sewage  samples, whereas fewer were obtained from
 pig manure slurry, river water and soil. However,   in soil
 samples bacteria containing Tn5 or nptII  were not found.
 Transposon Tn5 carrying the   nptII gene could be unequivocally
 demonstrated in 3 isolates from sewage, identified as  Aeromonas  
 spp. (2x) and Escherichia coli. HindIII digests of chromosomal
 DNA obtained from these strains   were cloned and shown to 
 confer Km resistance to a sensitive E. coli strain. Further,
 various   strains revealed the presence of nptII homologous
 sequences in a non-Tn5  background. The  occurrence of Tn5 and
 nptII in the samples was also assessed via PCR analysis of total
 community   DNA extracts obtained  from the aforementioned
 environmental samples. Evidence for the occurrence   of nptII was
 obtained for sewage, pig manure slurry, for 2 (out  of 3) river
 water (Avon, Rhine).  environmental DNA extracts but it was found
 in Ede loamy   sand and Flevo silt loam samples taken from a
 field microplot 2 and 4 weeks after  release of a  
 Tn5-containing genetically modified organism.
 NAL Call No.: QR100.F45
 172.    Production of Schizosaccharomyces sp. HL biomass from
 supernatant of anaerobically fermented pig waste.
 Hong, S. S.; Lee, N. H.; Pack, M. Y. 
 Process-Biochem v.26, p.23-29. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: yeasts-; biomass-production; pig-slurry;
 anaerobic-conditions; fermentation-; culture-media;
 volatile-fatty-acids; assimilation-; ph-; dry-
 matter-accumulation; microbial-contamination; inhibition-;
 heat-treatment; chemical-analysis; amino-acids;
 nutritional-assessment; minerals-; vitamins-;
 biological-oxygen-demand; chemical-oxygen-demand; growth-;
 NAL Call No.: TP1.P7
 173.    Recirculating aquacultural system for waste treatment.
 Dontje, J. H.; Clanton, C. J. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (92-4529) 15 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-water-treatment; aquaculture-;
 hydroponics-; recirculation-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 174.    Relationship between concentration and intensity of
 odours for pig slurry and broiler houses.
 Misselbrook, T. H.; Clarkson, C. R.; Pain, B. F. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.55, p.163-169. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; poultry-housing; broilers-;
 odor-emission; measurement-; odor-abatement; odor-concentration;
 Abstract: Relationships were derived between odour concentration
 and odour intensity for odour emissions following land spreading
 of pig slurry  and emissions from broiler houses. Data were
 obtained from trials conducted between 1987 and 1990. Odour
 concentration measurements were  made by 50% threshold
 determination using a dynamic dilution olfactometer with a
 forced-choice type presentation to a panel of people. Odour 
 intensity measurements were made using the same equipment and
 required panelists scoring their perception of the intensity of
 an odour at a  range of concentrations according to a category
 scale ranging from 0 (no odour) to 6 (extremely strong odour).
 Intensity was related linearly to  the logarithm of
 concentration. Significant differences (p = 0.05) were found
 between relationships derived for odours from pig slurry and 
 odours from broiler houses. For odours from pig slurry the
 derived relationship was, Intensity = 1.61 (log10 Concentration)
 + 0.45 and for  broiler house odours, Intensity = 2.35 (log10
 Concentration) + 0.30 indicating higher intensity per unit
 concentration for the broiler house  odours. These relationships
 could be useful in estimating the reduction in odour
 concentration required to reduce the perceived intensity of the 
 odour to acceptable levels and, when used in conjunction with
 dispersion models, in determining minimum acceptable distances
 between the  odour source and potential complainants.
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 175.    Relationship between N immobilization and volatile fatty
 acids in soil after application of pig and cattle slurry.
 Kirchmann, H.; Lundvall, A. 
 Biol-Fertil-Soils v.15, p.161-164. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: cattle-slurry; pig-slurry; volatile-fatty-acids;
 application-to-land; decomposition-; carbon-; nitrogen-;
 mineralization-; microorganisms-; soil-biology; butyrates-;
 propionates-; sweden-
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 176.    Remodeling ideas for farrowing facilities.
 Jacobson, L. D.; Murphy, J. P.; Pohl, S. H. 
 Ext-bull-Coop-Ext-Serv,-Mich-State-Univ. East Lansing : Michigan
 State University, Cooperative Extension Service,. Apr 1994. (E-
 1531) 8 p. 
 In the subseries: Pork Industry Handbook: Housing.
 Descriptor: farrowing-houses; pigs-; farrowing-pens; pig-manure;
 waste-disposal; artificial-ventilation; insulation-;
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-M58B
 ************************************************************     177.      Remodeling ideas for farrowing facilities.
 Jacobson, L. D.; Murphy, J. P.; Pohl, S. H. 
 Pork industry handbook -- p.1-8. (1993).
 Descriptor: pigs-; farrowing-houses; design-; farrowing-pens;
 pig-manure; insulation-; artificial-ventilation; heating-
 NAL Call No.: SF395.P62
 178.    Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine wastewater
 by intermittent aeration processes.
 Liao, C. M.; Maekawa, T.; Chiang, H. C.; Wu, C. F. 
 v.B28, p.335-374. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; waste-water; waste-treatment;
 aerobic-treatment; nitrogen-; phosphorus-;
 biochemical-oxygen-demand; denitrification-; nitrification-;
 removal-efficiencies; total-organic-carbon
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J61
 179.    Removal of Salmonella, Streptococci and coliforms in pig
 breeding effluent by anaerobic mesophilic digestion.
 Duarte, E. A.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J. S. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.26,
 p.2169-2172. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Water Quality International '92. Part 5 /
 edited by M. Suzuki, et.al. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial 
 Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution
 Research and Control held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; anaerobic-digestion; bioreactors-;
 streptococcus-; salmonella-; removal-; methane-production;
 pollution-; control-; environmental-protection; biomethanization-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 180.    A review of the strategies in the aerobic treatment of
 pig slurry: purpose, theory and method.
 Burton, C. H. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.53, p.249-272. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; aerobic-treatment; animal-diseases;
 pathogens-; disease-control; odor-abatement; nitrification-;
 denitrification-; costs-; reviews- ; uk-; solids-removal
 Abstract: Aerobic treatment of piggery slurry can be used to
 tackle a range of slurry problems. Batch aeration (in particular
 at thermophilic  temperatures) is well suited to reducing
 pathogen numbers, offering a cheap and simple process. For other
 duties, continuous treatments are  more suitable. For odour
 control, short treatment times (1 to 2 d) are adequate if land
 spreading is intended within a few days. Longer treatment  times
 (3 to 5 d) enable up to 6 weeks subsequent storage of slurry
 without offensive odour; removal of solids after treatment can
 extend this  period. Nitrification can be encouraged by long
 treatments at a high level of aeration (i.e. dissolved oxygen
 concentration above 1% of  saturation). The nitrogen lost to the
 atmosphere as ammonia is thereby reduced. Denitrification in
 anoxic storage will remove nitrate as nitrogen  gas if nitrate
 leaching is a problem, but some nitrous oxide, which is a
 greenhouse gas, may also be produced. Depending on the extent of 
 treatment, costs can vary between 1.60 pounds sterling and 1O.50
 pounds sterling per pig produced, thus representing a high
 proportion of the  profit margin. There may be some benefits from
 slurry aeration resulting from the fertilizer value, possible
 heat extraction and easier disposal of  the slurry but
 developments are likely to remain legislation-led, with minimum
 cost being the principal criterion.
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 181.    Riparian forest buffer system research at the Coastal
 Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, GA.
 Hubbard, R. K.; Lowrance, R. R. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.77, p.407-432. (1994).
 In the special issue: Wetlands of the interior southeastern
 United States / edited by C.C. Trettin, W.M. Aust, and J.
 Wisniewski.  September 28-30, 1993, Knoxville, Tennessee.
 Descriptor: riparian-forests; riparian-vegetation; grasses-;
 vegetation-management; clearcutting-; selective-felling;
 wetlands-; biological-treatment; waste-water-treatment;
 dairy-wastes; pig-slurry; aldicarb-; insecticide-residues;
 nutrients-; removal-; nutrient-uptake; simulation-models;
 nitrate-; denitrification-; water-quality; runoff-; groundwater-;
 groundwater-pollution; water-pollution; georgia-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 182.    Runoff quality impacts of swine manure applied to fescue
 Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.36, p.81-86. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: festuca-; pig-manure; runoff-; water-quality;
 application-rates; rainfall-simulators; arkansas-
 Abstract: Runoff concentrations of animal manure constituents are
 much higher for the first runoff-producing storm after land
 application than for  subsequent storms. These concentrations are
 also inversely related to the interval between application and
 first runoff-producing storm. In terms  of runoff quality, the
 worst situation is generally when the first runoff-producing
 storm occurs soon after application. This study was conducted  to
 determine how potential first-storm runoff quality from fescue
 grass plots is affected by animal manure application rate and
 simulated rainfall  intensity. Swine manure slurry was used in a
 factorial experimental design with three levels [0, 217, and 435
 kg nitrogen (N)ha-1] of slurry  application rate and two levels
 (5 and 10 cm h-1) of simulated rainfall intensity. The slurry was
 applied during moist soil conditions. Simulated  rainfall was
 initiated 24 h following application. Runoff amounts and
 concentrations of slurry constituents (total Kjeldahl N, ammonia
 N, nitrate  N, total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphorus,
 chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and electrical
 conductivity) were  determined analyses of variance were
 performed to assess the influences of the variables on both
 concentrations and event mass losses of the  slurry constituents.
 Both runoff concentrations and event mass losses of all slurry
 constituents except nitrate N increased approximately linearly 
 with application rate. Runoff concentrations of all slurry
 constituents except nitrate N decreased with increasing rainfall
 intensity, but event  mass losses were unaffected.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 183.    Salinity risks on calcareous soils following pig slurry
 Bernal, M. P.; Roig, A.; Madrid, R.; Navarro, A. F. 
 Soil-Use-Manage v.8, p.125-130. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: aridisols-; calcareous-soils; semiarid-climate;
 pig-slurry; application-to-land; soil-degradation; soil-salinity;
 application-rates; electrical- conductivity; salts-in-soil;
 solubility-; leaching-; losses-from-soil; water-holding-capacity;
 cation-exchange-capacity; exchangeable-cations; clay-fraction;
 illite-; montmorillonite-; interstratified-minerals;
 Abstract: The electrical conductivity of pig slurry suggests that
 addition of this waste to soils in arid and semiarid areas could
 cause salinization.  Changes in electrical conductivity and
 soluble salt concentration in two calcareous soils indicated a
 salinity risk after 24 months of pig slurry  addition at rates of
 400 m3/ha/yr or more. Salinity risk increased with soil
 water-holding capacity. Water-soluble potassium concentrations 
 showed a greater increase than other cations in the soils because
 of the large amount present in the slurry. The proportion of
 soluble potassium  in the soil depended on the soil's cation
 exchange capacity and on the composition of the clay fraction.
 NAL Call No.: S590.S68
 184.    Scraper systems for removing manure from swine
 Vanderholm, D.; Melvin, S. 
 Publ-La-Coop-Ext-Serv. [Baton Rouge, La.?] : The Service. May
 1990. (2013-K) 6 p. 
 In subseries: Pork Industry Handbook. Waste Management.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; waste-disposal; scrapers-
 NAL Call No.: S67.P82
 185.    Seepage and electromagnetic terrain conductivity around
 new swine lagoons.
 Huffman, R. L.; Westerman, P. W. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1991. (914016) 16 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 23-26,  1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 Descriptor: lagoons-; pig-slurry; seepage-; groundwater-;
 water-quality; north-carolina
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 186.    Simulating corn yields over 16 years on three soils
 under inorganic fertilizer and hog manure fertility regimes.
 Parsons, R. L.; Pease, J. W.; Martens, D. C. 
 Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal v.26, p.1133-1150. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: zea-mays; silt-loam-soils; clay-loam-soils;
 sandy-loam-soils; crop-yield; estimation-; simulation-models;
 field-experimentation; comparisons-; organic-fertilizers;
 pig-manure; fertilizers-; virginia-;
 Abstract: Corn yields (Zea mays L.) on control treatments with
 inorganic fertilizer and on copper-enriched hog manure treatments
 with annual rates  up to 168 mt/ha from a 16-year study were
 modelled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC)
 simulation model. The field  research study was conducted on
 three diverse soils, a Guemsey silt loam, a Bertie fine sandy
 loam, and a Starr-Dyke clay loam. Results  indicated that EPIC
 simulated the manure and fertilizer treatments equally well. EPIC
 produced simulated yield means that were not different  from
 measured yield means for all treatments (p less than or equal to
 0.05). Goodness of fit tests indicate that simulated yields did
 not differ  from measured yields for all simulation models except
 the Bertie manure treatment (p less than or equal to 0.05). For
 control and manure  treatments, simulated yields explained 78%
 and 89% of variation in measured yields for the Guernsey soil,
 55% and 42% for the Bertie soil,  and 76% and 70% for the
 Starr-Dyke soil, respectively. Overall, these are reasonable
 yields estimates, but site-specific soil and other model 
 parameter respecification is critical. Yield modeling with heavy
 applications of animal manure or inorganic fertilizer is feasible
 and useful.
 NAL Call No.: S590.C63
 187.    Simultaneous high-biomass protein production and
 nutrient removal using Spirulina maxima in sea water supplemented
 with anaerobic  effluents.
 Olguin, E. J.; Hernandez, B.; Araus, A.; Camacho, R.; Gonzalez,
 R.; Ramirez, M. E.; Galicia, S.; Mercado, G. 
 World-j-microbiol-biotechnol v.10, p.576-578. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; piggery-effluent; sea-water; spirulina-;
 anaerobic-digestion; biomass-production; protein-content;
 ammonium-nitrogen; phosphates-; waste-utilization;
 NAL Call No.: QR1.M562
 188.    Soil metabolism of the herbicide isoxaben in winter
 wheat crops.
 Rouchaud, J.; Gustin, F.; Callens, D.; Himme, M. v.; Bulcke, R. 
 J-agric-food-chem v.41, p.2142-2148. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: isoxaben-; herbicide-residues; microbial-degradation;
 metabolism-; metabolites-; soil-flora; wheat-soils;
 green-manures; cattle-manure; pig-slurry
 Abstract: Winter wheat fields were treated with the herbicide
 isoxaben after sowing. Trials were made in 1990-1991 and
 1991-1992. The main  isoxaben soil metabolite was
 demethoxyisoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)
 isoxazol-5-yl]-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide), i.e., the 
 monodemethoxylation product of isoxaben. 5-Isoxazolone.
 NAL Call No.: 381-J8223
 189.    Soil mineral nitrogen arising from organic manure
 Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.135-143. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E.  Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; cattle-slurry; farmyard-manure;
 poultry-manure; soil-fertility; nitrogen-; ammonium-nitrogen;
 leaching-; winter-; nitrate-; west- midlands-of-england
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 190.    Soil tillage effects on ammonia volatilization from
 surface-applied or injected animal slurry.
 Sommer, S. G.; Ersboll, A. K. 
 J-environ-qual v.23, p.493-498. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: ammonia-; losses-from-soil; volatilization-;
 cattle-slurry; pig-slurry; harrowing-; air-temperature;
 wind-speed; soil-water-content; soil- water-potential;
 Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) losses from cattle (Bos sp.) and pig (Sus
 scrofa) slurry applied to a harrowed and unworked soil were
 studied in seven  field experiments from October 1990 to December
 1991. In one experiment slurry was directly injected into the
 soil and in six experiments  slurry was surface-applied. Ammonia
 losses mere measured with a wind tunnel system. From directly
 injected slurry applied to a recently  harrowed soil, NH3 losses
 were 30% of the losses from an unworked soil. Harrowing the soil
 immediately before surface application of the  slurry reduced
 losses to less than 50% of the losses from an unworked soil. The
 accumulated NH3 loss from slurry applied in the field was 
 described with a Michaelis-Menten-like equation, showing the NH3
 loss reaction modeled adequately as a first-order reaction. The
 effect of  treatment, soil conditions, or environmental
 conditions on NH3 loss pattern from slurry applied in the field
 may therefore be treated statistically  by comparing the
 parameters in the Michaelis-Menten equation.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 191.    Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) solubility and its application
 to a piggery effluent problem.
 Webb, K. M.; Ho, G. E. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.26,
 p.2229-2232. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Water Quality International '92. Part 5 /
 edited by M. Suzuki, et.al. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial 
 Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution
 Research and Control held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; waste-water-treatment; lagoons-;
 chemicals-; solubility-; chemical-precipitation;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 192.    Sustainable swine production in the U.S. corn belt.
 Honeyman, M. S. 
 Am-J-Alternative-Agric v.6, p.63-70. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; animal-production; sustainability-;
 alternative-farming; animal-husbandry; pig-feeding; feeds-;
 pig-manure; waste-utilization; cycling-; nutrients-;
 animal-housing; animal-health; animal-welfare; animal-behavior;
 genetic-variation; profitability-; environmental-impact; iowa-;
 fiberous-feeds; pasture-rearing
 Abstract: Swine production is a major component of Corn Belt
 agriculture: thus development of a sustainable Corn Belt
 agriculture depends on  sustainable swine production systems.
 Swine are versatile enough to adapt to sustainable concepts, and
 swine production raises several  opportunities to enhance
 sustainability. These include: 1) feeding with increased use of
 forages and by-product feeds; 2) nutrient cycling  through
 improved handling of manure; 3) low-capital housing systems that
 offer an improved environment for the operator and reduced 
 financial risk; 4) management systems suited to the swine's
 behavior; and 5) preventive approaches to swine health and a
 broader genetic base.  The challenge beyond identifying the
 opportunities is research and technology transfer and
 incorporation of sustainable concepts into  ecologically based
 swine production systems.
 NAL Call No.: S605.5.A43
 193.    Swine.
 Crenshaw, M.; Forrest, C.; Ferrell, K. 
 Inf-Sheet-Miss-State-Univ-Coop-Ext-Serv. [Starkville],
 Cooperative Extension Service, Mississippi State University. Mar
 1994. (1492) 2  p. 
 Descriptor: pig-farming; production-costs;
 reproductive-efficiency; pig-feeding; disease-prevention;
 animal-wastes; record-keeping; agricultural- prices; marketing-;
 mississippi-; corn-belt-states-of-usa; north-carolina
 NAL Call No.: S544.3.M7M5
 194.    Swine growing-finishing units.
 Meyer, V. M.; Driggers, L. B.; Ernest, K.; Ernest, D. 
 Ext-bull-Coop-Ext-Serv,-Mich-State-Univ p.7. (1994).
 In the subseries: Housing.
 Descriptor: pigs-; animal-production; growth-stages; pig-housing;
 temperature-; humidity-; ventilation-; dust-control;
 building-construction; pens-; nipple-drinkers; pig-manure;
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-M58B
 195.    Swine-lagoon seepage in sandy soil.
 Westerman, P. W.; Huffman, R. L.; Feng, J. S. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-2531/93-2550) 34 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 12- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptor: animal-wastes; pigs-; waste-disposal; lagoons-;
 sandy-soils; seepage-; groundwater-; water-quality;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 196.    Swine manure application rate and rain intensity effects
 on runoff.
 Edwards, D. R.; Daniel, T. C. 
 Ark-farm-res v.43, p.6-7. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; runoff-water; water-quality;
 application-rates; rain-; festuca-arundinacea; arkansas-
 NAL Call No.: 100-Ar42F
 197.    Swine manure as a fertilizer source.
 AG-N-C-Agric-Ext-Serv-N-C-State-Univ. Raleigh, N.C. : The
 Service. June 1993. (439-4, rev.) 5 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; nutrient-content; nutrient-availability;
 application-to-land; fertilizer-requirement-determination
 NAL Call No.: S544.3.N6N62
 198.    Swine manure characterization as affected by
 environmental temperature, dietary level intake,and dietary fat
 Clanton, C. J.; Nichols, D. A.; Moser, R. L.; Ames, D. R. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.34, p.2164-2170. (1991).
 Literature review.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; urine-; physicochemical-properties;
 diet-; dietary-fat; environmental-temperature; feed-intake;
 literature-reviews; kansas-
 Abstract: Physical, chemical, and energy characteristics of swine
 urine and feces were determined. Changes in urinary and fecal
 characteristics were  determined as pigs were exposed to changes
 in ambient temperature, feed intake, and dietary fat
 concentration as well as increases in body  mass. The data
 indicate a large variation in the characteristics of urine and
 feces when pigs are exposed to different environmental
 conditions.  Fecal total solids and total volatile solids
 concentrations decreased as pig mass increased. Urinary total
 solids and total volatile solids  concentrations decreased and
 urinary energy content increased as ambient temperature
 increased. Urinary NH3-N concentration was less in the  fat-added
 diet than in the non-fat diet.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 199.    Swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands.
 Hunt, P. G.; Humenik, F. J.; Szogi, A. A.; Rice, J. M.; Stone, K.
 C.; Sadler, E. J. 
 Environmentally sound agriculture  proceedings of the second
 conference  20-22 April 1994 / p.268-275. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; animal-wastes; waste-water-treatment;
 wetlands-; juncus-effusus; scirpus-; species-; sparganium-;
 typha-angustifolia; typha-latifolia; glycine-max; oryza-sativa;
 growth-; crop-yield; wetland-soils; redox-reactions; nitrogen-;
 phosphorus-; removal-
 NAL Call No.: S589.7.E57-1994
 200.    Theoretical and experimental study of a sequential batch
 reactor treatment of liquid swine manure.
 Fernandes, L.; McKyes, E. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.34, p.597-602. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: liquid-manures; pig-slurry; waste-disposal;
 waste-treatment; carbon-; nitrogen-; removal-; theory-;
 Abstract: A laboratory scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) was
 used to digest liquid swine manure containing 1 to 2% suspended
 solids. Hydraulic  retention time, biological solid retention
 time and influent concentration were varied during the tests. The
 treated effluent was analyzed for  suspended solids, chemical
 oxygen demand, ammonia, and nitrate plus nitrite. In addition, a
 mathematical model was developed to describe the  changes in
 concentration with time of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and
 nitrate plus nitrite in the SBR reactor. Results of the 
 experimental study showed that the single reactor SBR process is
 capable of reducing the potential polluting carbon and nitrogen
 components of  a concentrated wastewater to a high degree when it
 is operating at 7 to 9 days HRT and a BSRT around 20 days. THe
 mathematical model  developed followed quite closely the changes
 in COD, ammonia, and oxides of nitrogen on a laboratory scale,
 and should be useful for  assessment of SBR system designs for
 commercial swine manure treatment.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 201.    Thermophilic aerobic process for the treatment of
 slaughterhouse effluents with protein recovery.
 Couillard, D.; Zhu, S. 
 Environ-Pollut v.79, p.121-126. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: slaughterhouse-waste; pigs-; waste-treatment;
 waste-utilization; aerobic-treatment; thermophilic-bacteria;
 chemical-oxygen-demand; temperature-; biomass-; protein-;
 protein-quality; amino-acids; single-cell-protein
 NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E52
 202.    Treatment and application of swine waste.
 Fu, C. M.; Chen, S. Y.; Chow, H. M. 
 Taiwan-Sugar v.38, p.25-29. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pigs-; pig-slurry; animal-wastes; treatment-; taiwan-
 NAL Call No.: 65.8-T133
 203.    Treatment of animal manure and wastes for ultimate
 Winter, J.; Hilpert, R.; Schmitz, H. 
 Asian-Australasian-J-Anim-Sci v.5, p. 199-215. (1992).
 Literature review.
 Descriptor: animal-manures; chemical-composition;
 anaerobic-treatment; methanobacterium-; methane-production;
 antibiotics-; pig-slurry; fertilizer- technology; germany-
 NAL Call No.: SF55.A78A7
 204.    Treatment of dilute manure wastewaters by chemical
 Sievers, D. M.; Jenner, M. W.; Hanna, M. 
 Trans-ASAE v.37, p.597-601. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: poultry-; cattle-; pigs-; manures-;
 waste-water-treatment; coagulation-
 Abstract: Results from laboratory coagulation-settling
 experiments using five coagulants (one inorganic salt and four
 organic polymers) on four  dilute wastewaters (fresh manure from
 swine, poultry, and cattle and effluent from a swine anaerobic
 digester) are presented to provide  chemical coagulation data for
 designing treatment facilities for livestock and poultry.
 Adjustment of pH alone was generally ineffective in  promoting
 coagulation on all wastewaters. Values of pH above nine were
 effective for swine wastewater. Ferric chloride removed 60 to 70%
 of  the volatile solids (VS) for cattle and swine at
 concentrations of 300 to 450 mg/L, but was less effective on
 poultry wastewater. Addition of  organic polymers with iron salt
 did not improve coagulation from swine wastewater. Synthetic
 polymers and chitosan were excellent coagulants  for all manure
 wastewaters but not for digester effluent. Based upon the
 effective concentrations to remove suspended solids from the
 flush  waters of a 1,000-head swine finishing unit, synthetic
 polymers are the most cost-effective chemical coagulant, while
 chitosan is the least cost- effective.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 205.    Treatment of pig slurry using the pump-stirred aerator.
 Williams, D. W.; Cumby, T. R.; Scotford, I. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1991. (914002) 7 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 23-26,  1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 Descriptor: pig-slurry; pig-manure; aerobic-treatment; aeration-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 206.    Use of alkaline fly ash as an amendment for swine
 Vincini, M.; Carini, F.; Silva, S. 
 Bioresour-technol v.49, p.213-222. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; fly-ash; mixtures-; nutrient-content;
 mineral-content; phosphorus-; solubility-; boron-;
 microbial-degradation; carbon-dioxide; gas-production;
 respiration-; waste-utilization
 NAL Call No.: TD930.A32
 207.    Use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in
 upgrading small agroindustrial wastewater treatment plants.
 Yeoh, B. G. 
 Water-sci-technol v.28, p.207-213. (1993).
 Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on, "Design and
 Operation of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants," June 28-30,
 1993,  Trondheim, Norway / edited by H. Odegaard.
 Descriptor: eichhornia-crassipes; waste-water-treatment;
 palm-oil-mill-effluent; piggery-effluent; food-wastes;
 industrial-wastes; biological-treatment; efficiency-;
 biomass-production; chloride-; water-quality; pollution-control;
 malaysia-; sugary-refinery-effluent; natural-rubber-effluent
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 208.    Valorization of solid wastes from biomethanisation of
 pig breeding effluents.
 Duarte, E. A.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J. S. 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.26,
 p.2097-2100. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Water Quality International '92. Part 5 /
 edited by M. Suzuki, et.al. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial 
 Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution
 Research and Control held May 24-30, 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptor: piggery-effluent; waste-treatment;
 methane-production; effluents-; nutrient-content; coagulation-;
 flocculation-; protein-concentrates; feed- evaluation
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 209.    vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in
 Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry.
 Klare, I.; Heier, H.; Claus, H.; Reissbrodt, R.; Witte, W. 
 FEMS-micro-biol-lett v.125, p.165-171. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: streptococcus-faecium; avoparcin-; feed-additives;
 drug-resistance; genetic-resistance; genes-; bacterial-proteins;
 dna-; pig-manure; poultry-manure; chicken-meat;
 hospital-food-service; sewage-; waste-water; vana-gene;
 membrane-proteins; pig-farms; poultry-farms
 Abstract: Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains
 were isolated from a pig farm and a poultry farm both using
 avoparcin as a food  additive. Such organisms were not isolated
 in a hen's eggs-producing farm not using avoparcin.
 Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were also  detected in broiler
 chicken carcasses that were delivered to a hospital's kitchen.
 The resistance was determined by the vanA gene as indicated by 
 the detection of the inducible 39-kDa cytoplasmic membrane
 protein and of a vanA-specific DNA sequence amplified by
 polymerase chain  reaction. Genomic DNA fragment patterns of
 strains from animal sources were different from each other and
 also from those of strains isolated  in hospitals and from sewage
 treatment plants. This findings suggest the dissemination of the
 vanA determinant among different enterococcal  strains of
 distinct ecological origin.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.F44
 210.    Vermicomposting in the management of pig-waste in Hong
 Wong, S. H.; Griffiths, D. A. 
 World-J-Microbiol-Biotechnol. Oxford : Rapid Communications of
 Oxford Ltd. with UNESCO. Nov 1991. v. 7 (6) p. 593-595. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; pig-slurry; vermicomposting-; pheretima-;
 hong-kong; pheretima-asiatica
 NAL Call No.: QR1.M562
 211.    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza infection in cut
 grassland following long-term slurry application.
 Christie, P.; Kilpatrick, D. J. 
 Soil-Biol-Biochem v.24, p.325-330. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: lolium-perenne; agrostis-stolonifera; poa-;
 vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizas; glomus-tenue; endophytes-;
 grasslands-; cattle-slurry; pig- slurry; application-rates;
 application-to-land; long-term-experiments; roots-; infections-;
 assessment-; botanical-composition; temporal-variation; soil-ph;
 nutrient-availability; phosphorus-; copper-; zinc-; heavy-metals;
 grassland-management; northern-ireland
 Abstract: Herbage root samples from a long-term field experiment
 in which pig and cow slurries had been applied to cut grassland
 for 19 yr were  examined for vesicular-arbuscular (VA)
 mycorrhiza. There were fertilized and unfertilized controls and
 three application rates (50, 100 and 200  m(3) ha-1 yr-1) of both
 types of slurry, with six replicate plots in randomized blocks.
 Soil samples were analysed for pH (in water), "total" Cu  and Zn,
 EDTA-extractable Cu and Zn and NaHCO3-extractable P. The
 proportions of Lolium perenne, Agrostis stolonifera and Poa spp
 in the  herbage dry matter at the first cut of 1989 were also
 determined. Despite contrasting long-term effects of the two
 types of slurry on soil pH,  increasing application rate of both
 pig and cow slurries produced a marked decrease in overall
 mycorrhizal infection of plant roots in the sward  with a
 corresponding increase in infection by the fine endophyte, Glomus
 tenue. Calculated correlation coefficients showed that
 mycorrhizal  infection was related to soil extractable P, Cu, Zn
 and pH, and also to differences in sward botanical composition,
 especially the proportion of  L. perenne. Furthermore, stepwise
 multiple regression analysis identified soil chemical properties,
 especially total Zn and pH, as the more  important explanatory
 variables in preference to botanical composition.
 NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
 212.    Water-manure interactions on ammonia volatilization.
 Gordon, R.; Schuepp, P. 
 Biol-fertil-soils v.18, p.237-240. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: pig-manure; ammonia-; volatilization-; ph-;
 application-methods; surface-application
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
 213.    A waterwater treatment system for an industrialized pig
 Chin, K. K.; Ong, S. L. 
 Water-sci-technol v.28, p.217-222. (1993).
 In the special issue: Development and water pollution control in
 Asia / edited by R. Bhamidimarri, X. Li and S. Liu.  24, 1991,
 Shanghai, China.
 Descriptor: pig-farming; large-farms; waste-water-treatment;
 anaerobic-digestion; lagoons-; singapore-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 214.    Yield stability and fertilizer efficiency of long-term
 triple cereal cropping in paddy fields in China.
 Li, S. Y. 
 Biol-Fertil-Soils v.16, p.151-153. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptor: oryza-sativa; pig-manure; cropping-systems;
 crop-yield; hordeum-vulgare; triticum-aestivum; zea-mays;
 sustainability-; china-
 NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46

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