Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Researching Water Quality (II)

 96 citations from AGRICOLA
 Diane Doyle
 Water Quality Information Center
 This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide
 awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic and
 is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion or
 omission of a particular publication or citation should not be
 construed as endorsement or disapproval. 
 Send suggestions for electronic bibliographies related to water
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 To locate a publication cited in this bibliography, please
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 contact the National Agricultural Library (please see "Document
 Delivery Services" at http://www.nal.usda.gov/ddsb).
 1. Accuracy of nutrient runoff load calculations using
 time-composite sampling.
 Shih, G.; Abtew, W.; Obeysekera, J. 
 Trans-ASAE v.37, p.419-429. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: runoff-; phosphorus-; fertilizers-; drainage-;
 water-quality; watershed-management; sampling-;
 Abstract: The accuracy of time-composite sampling as a means to
 calculate phosphorus loads from agricultural runoff was evaluated
 analytically and numerically. It was shown that, when hydrographs
 and concentration graphs were positively correlated, computations
 using a time-composite sampling strategy resulted in load
 underestimation. Combinations of 11 synthetically generated and
 12 actual hydrographs and concentration graphs of agricultural
 runoff events were used for numerical analysis. The bias in load
 calculation with different sampling frequencies was determined.
 The influence of cross-correlation of hydrographs and
 concentration graphs on the direction and magnitude of bias was
 demonstrated. Although flow-composite sampling is theoretically
 correct for load computation, it is more expensive and, like
 other approaches, still involves uncertainties in both flow and
 concentration measurements. The dependence of the coefficient of
 variation (CV) of load on CV of flow rate, CV of concentration,
 and the cross-correlation between flow rate and concentration is
 presented analytically and graphically. To achieve load estimates
 comparable to the accuracy of flow-composite sampling, multiple
 time-composite sampling methods were investigated. This analysis
 indicates that with eight concentration values from eight
 time-composite samples of a runoff event, a reliable load
 estimation can usually be made.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 2. Adaptation of rapid bioassessment protocols for non-wadable
 Gaunt, G. A.; Thorpe, P. A. 
 Mich-acad v.25, p.363-381. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-quality; bioassays-; rapid-methods;
 aquatic-insects; sampling-; michigan-
 NAL Call No.: Q1.A3M5
 3. Application and performance characteristics of a novel ELISA
 for the quantitative analysis of the atrazine metabolite
 Wittmann, C.; Hock, B. 
 J-agric-food-chem v.41, p.1795-1799. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: atrazine-; metabolites-; elisa-; water-pollution;
 herbicide-residues; germany-
 Abstract: A highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
 (ELISA) was applied to the analysis of the  atrazine metabolite
 deethylatrazine in natural water samples. The ELISA, with a
 detection range  between approximately 10 ng/L and 10
 micrograms/L, was performed and validated in microtiterplates;
 120 environmental water samples were analyzed with the ELISA. A
 close correspondence wasfound between the results of the ELISA
 and those from GC or HPLC measurements. The correlation  
 coefficient between ELISA and HPLC, based upon 70 water samples,
 was 0.98 and between ELISA and GC, based upon 50 water samples,
 NAL Call No.: 381-J8223
 4. Assessing phosphorus bioavailability in agricultural soils and
 Sharpley, A. N. 
 Fertil-res v.36, p.259-272. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: phosphorus-; bioavailability-; estimation-;
 agricultural-soils; runoff-; analytical-methods; iron-oxides;
 water-quality; eutrophication-; risk-; no-tillage-; tillage-;
 watershed-management; algae-; nutrient-availability;
 conventional-tillage; iron-oxide-strips
 Abstract: Bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) transported in
 agricultural runoff can accelerate surface water eutrophication.
 Although several algal assays and chemical extractions have been
 proposed to estimate BAP, procedural and theoretical limitations
 have restricted widespread BAP measurement. Thus, a routine
 method was developed to estimate BAP, which uses iron
 oxide-impregnated paper strips (Fe-oxide strips) as a P-sink for
 BAP in runoff. In the proposed method BAP is determined by
 shaking 50 mL of unfiltered runoff with one Fe-oxide strip for 16
 h. Phosphorus is removed from the strip by 0.1 M H2SO4 and
 measured. The BAP content of runoff from 20 agricultural
 watersheds in the Southern Plains was related to the growth of
 P-starved algae incubated for 29 d with runoff as the sole source
 of P. Acting as a P sink, Fe-oxide strips may have a stronger
 theoretical basis than chemical extraction in estimating BAP. The
 method may also have potential use as an environmental soil P
 test to indicate soils liable to enrich runoff with sufficient P
 to accelerate eutrophication. Bioavailable P loss in runoff was
 lower from no till (438 g ha-1 yr-1) than from conventional till
 (1288 g ha-1 yr-1). Kinetic and enrichment ratio approaches
 accurately predicted (r2 of 0.93) BAP transport in runoff during
 1988 to 1990. Use of the Fe-oxide strip method will facilitate
 estimation of BAP transport in runoff and thereby, improve
 assessment of the resultant impact on the biological productivity
 of receiving surface waters.
 NAL Call No.: S631.F422
 5. An assessment of ground water quality at two Texas High Plains
 Sweeten, J. M.; Marek, T. H.; McReynolds, D.; Wyatt, A. W.;
 Mollhangen, T.; Pennington, H. D.; Urban, L.; McDonald, T. 
 PR-Tex-Agric-Exp-Sta p.75-79. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cattle-; feedlots-; groundwater-; water-quality;
 assessment-; sampling-
 NAL Call No.: 100-T31P
 6. Background water quality at Ames Plantation.
 Yoder, R. E.; Essington, M. E.; Mote, C. R.; Mueller, T. C. 
 Tenn-farm-home-sci p.26-28. (1994).
 Descriptors: groundwater-; field-tests; water-quality; wells-;
 sampling-; tennessee-
 NAL Call No.: 100-T25F
 7. Chemical species.
 Jensen, J. N.; Dietrich, A. M. 
 Water-environ-res v.66, p.279-291. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; pollutants-; analytical-methods;
 biological-techniques; literature-reviews
 NAL Call No.: TD419.R47
 8. Combining computer simulation with physical simulation: an
 attempt to validate turf runoff models.
 Lin, J. C.; Graney, R. L. 
 Weed-Technol-J-Weed-Sci-Soc-Am v.6, p.688-695. (1992).
 Paper presented at a Symposium on the, "Role of Modeling in
 Regulatory Affairs," at the Weed Science Society of America,
 February 4, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky.
 Descriptors: agricultural-chemicals; pesticides-;
 simulation-models; runoff-; risk-; aquatic-environment;
 calibration-; field-tests; prediction-;
 environmental-risk-assessment; model-validation
 NAL Call No.: SB610.W39
 9. Comparison of lysimeter types in collecting microbial
 constituents from sewage effluent.
 Krejsl, J.; Harrison, R.; Henry, C.; Turner, N.; Tone, D. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Jan/Feb 1994. v. 58 (1) p. 131-133. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: septic-tank-effluent; sewage-effluent-disposal;
 soil-water; sampling-; efficiency-; lysimeters-; comparisons-;
 water-quality; coliform-bacteria; fecal-flora; bacterial-count;
 groundwater-pollution; microbial-contamination
 Abstract: There are no standard methods of determining the impact
 of septic systems on contamination of groundwater aquifers.
 Sampling of water for microbiological properties in unsaturated
 soil is particularly difficult. Successful water sampling devices
 should collect large amounts of percolating water with minimal
 change in chemical and biological properties of the water. This
 laboratory study compared the effectiveness of four types of soil
 water sampling devices for qualitative sampling of water, using
 total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus as the
 primary indicators of water quality. The devices tested were: (i)
 high-flow ceramic tension lysimeter, (ii) high-flow fritted glass
 tension lysimeter, (iii) sand-filled lysimeters, and (iv)
 perforated-tube wells. A constant source of vacuum (0.01 MPa) was
 applied to all devices to collect water samples. High-flow
 ceramic tension lysimeters collected adequate volumes of water
 (an average of 0.340 L after 6 h) but excessive filtering led to
 under-estimation of microbial numbers (only 6% of total coliform,
 2.2% of fecal coliform, and no fecal streptococcus were
 collected). Perforated-tube wells did not collect any water under
 partially saturated soil conditions; collection occurred only
 below the water table. Sand-filled lysimeters showed the best
 combination of volume collection (an average of 0.660 L after 6
 h) with good estimation of microbial numbers (90% for total
 coliform, 83% for fecal coliform, and 45% for fecal
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 10. Comparison of on-line solid-phase disk extraction to
 liquid-liquid extraction for monitoring selected pesticides in
 environmental waters.
 Chiron, S.; Fernandez Alba, A.; Barcelo, D. 
 Environ-sci-technol v.27, p.2352-2359. (1993).
 In the special issue: Southeast Asia: facing development
 Descriptors: pesticides-; water-pollution; monitoring-;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1E5
 11. A comparison of surface runoff and sediment yields from low-
 and high-severity site preparation burns.
 Robichaud, P. R.; Waldrop, T. A. 
 Water-resour-bull v.30, p.27-34. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: prescribed-burning; site-preparation; logging-;
 erosion-; runoff-; sediment-yield; rain-; quantitative-analysis;
 Abstract: Slash burning is a common site preparation technique
 used after timber harvest throughout the Southeastern United
 States. Little quantitative information exists on the hydrologic
 response to burn severity. This study compared the effects of
 low-severity and high-severity burns on runoff and sediment
 yields during rainfall simulation and during natural rainfall in
 the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Fire severity was largely
 determined by moisture conditions of the forest floor prior to
 ignition. Runoff and sediment yield variability was high between
 plots within the same treatment area due to differences in forest
 floor characteristics and infiltration rates. Conditions of
 high-severity resulted when burning was conducted with relatively
 dry fuels. Sediment yields were 40-times greater for the
 high-severity treatment areas than the low-severity treatment
 NAL Call No.: 292.9-Am34
 12. Comparison of two methods of sampling perched ground water
 for water quality.
 Fausey, N. R.; Logan, T. J.; Workman, S. R.; Ward, A. D. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (922082) 16 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: water-quality; drainage-; groundwater-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 13. A comparison of water quality information obtained from
 depth-integrated versus depth-specific groundwater monitoring
 Graham, W. D.; Downey, D. 
 Proc-Soil-Crop-Sci-Soc-Fla. [S.l.] : The Society. 1992. v. 51 p.
 Meeting held Sept 25-27, 1991, Orlando, Florida.
 Descriptors: groundwater-; water-quality; monitoring-; sampling-;
 depth-; monitors-; florida-
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So32
 14. A computer controlled drainage and water quality field
 experimental system.
 Tait, R.; Madramootoo, C. A.; Enright, P. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-3531) 16 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14-17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: water-quality; drainage-; subsurface-irrigation;
 runoff-; computer-simulation; computer-analysis; quebec-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 15. Conservation tillage a sustainable agricultural practice.
 Lakshminarayan, P. G.; Bouzaher, A.; Johnson, S. R. 
 Environmentally sound agriculture  proceedings of the second
 conference  20-22 April 1994 / p.139-146. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: zea-mays; glycine-max; continuous-cropping;
 rotations-; conservation-tillage; tillage-; environmental-impact;
 sustainability-; erosion-; erosion-control; nitrate-nitrogen;
 losses-from-soil; leaching-; runoff-; water-quality;
 simulation-models; statistical-analysis; conventional-tillage;
 NAL Call No.: S589.7.E57-1994
 16. Continuous flow protocatalytic degradation of carbaryl in
 aqueous media.
 Peris Cardells, E.; Terol, J.; Mauri, A. R.; De la Guardia, M.;
 Pramauro, E. 
 v.B28, p.431-445. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: carbaryl-; photolysis-; ph-; titanium-dioxide;
 irradiation-; analytical-methods; water-; treatment-;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.J61
 17. Design for a simulated nursery for water runoff research.
 Cole, J. C.; Stamback, V. L.; Gray, C. 
 HortScience v.28, p.952-953. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: runoff-water; experimental-plots;
 field-experimentation; nurseries-; design-; simulation-;
 detection-; water-pollution; contaminants-; water-management
 Abstract: Few data are available to indicate the chemical
 concentration of runoff from nursery operations,and, to our
 knowledge, no model systems have been developed to gain such
 data. This paperdescribes such a model system, in which
 nursery production beds have been designed to collect and  
 quantify runoff water and contaminant concentrations so that
 management practices may be identified to decrease potential
 pollution problems.
 NAL Call No.: SB1.H6
 18. Designing, installation, and performance of percolation
 lysimeters for water quality sampling.
 Klocke, N. L.; Todd, R. W.; Hergert, G. W.; Watts, D. G.;
 Parkhurst, A. M. 
 Trans-A-S-A-E v.36, p.429-435. (1993).
 Literature review.
 Descriptors: irrigation-; leachates-; lysimeters-; percolation-;
 water-quality; zea-mays; literature-reviews; nebraska-
 Abstract: Lysimeters are the primary research tool for measuring
 percolation and water quality. Monolithic percolation lysimeters
 were evaluated for measuring the quantity and quality of leachate
 from the root zone of irrigated crops. Six percolation lysimeters
 were installed in a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) cropping system
 near North Platte, Nebraska, during the fall of 1988 and spring
 1989. The lysimeters were 0.9 m in diameter and 2.4 m deep. They
 were filled with undisturbed soil using a hydraulic pull-down
 method. Porous stainless steel extractors were installed
 vertically upward into the lysimeter bottoms, and leachate was
 extracted from the unsaturated soil. Leachate volume, volumetric
 soil water content, soil temperature, and soil bulk density were
 measured. Isolation of a large soil monolith in the lysimeter did
 not significantly affect plant growth, soil bulk density, or
 temperature. Soil water content near the lysimeter bottoms was
 greater than in the surrounding field after a wet spring in 1991.
 However, extractors removed most excess water and adequately
 matched unsaturated drainage in the field. Though leachate varied
 among lysimeters, they behaved similarly over time. Results will
 help relate irrigation management and scheduling strategies to
 potential leaching of soil water and associated chemicals into
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32T
 19. Determination of different groups of organics in waste waters
 using test filters--relevance to drinking water production.
 Hobby, R.; Gimbel, R. 
 Water-sci-technol v.29, p.87-94. (1994).
 In the series analytic: Rehabilitation of the River Rhine /
 edited by J.A. van de Kraats. The Netherlands.
 Descriptors: pulp-mill-effluent; water-pollution; rivers-;
 pollutants-; organic-compounds; sampling-; filters-; germany-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 20. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water
 from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden
 large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
 Foster, G. D.; Gates, P. M.; Foreman, W. T.; McKenzie, S. W.;
 Rinella, F. A. 
 Environ-sci-technol v.27, p.1911-1917. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: surface-water; water-pollution; dissolving-;
 pesticides-; analytical-methods; washington-;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1E5
 21. Differences in results of analyses of concurrent and split
 stream-water samples collected and analyzed by the U.S.
 Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection
 Agency, 1985-91.  Analyses of concurrent and split stream-water
 samples collected and analyzed by the UGS and the IEPA, 1985-91.
 Melching, C. S.;  Coupe, R. H. R. H. 1.; Illinois. Environmental
 Protection Agency. 
 Urbana, Ill. : U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
 ; Denver, CO : U.S. Geological Survey-ESIC, Open-File Reports
 Section [distributor], 1995. iv, 46 p. : ill., map.
 Shipping list no.: 95-0118-P.
 Descriptors: Water-quality-Illinois-Measurement;
 NAL Call No.: GB701.W375--no.94-4141
 22. Dry deposition and canopy leaching rates in deciduous and
 coniferous forests of the Georgia Piedmont: an assessment of a
 regression model.
 Cappellato, R.; Peters, N. E. 
 J-hydrol v.169, p.131-150. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: deciduous-forests; coniferous-forests; deposition-;
 sulfate-; nitrogen-; hydrogen-; canopy-; leaching-; calcium-;
 magnesium-; potassium-; chloride-; throughfall-;
 regression-analysis; mathematical-models; georgia-
 Abstract: Simple and multiple linear regression models were used
 to estimate dry deposition and canopy leaching sources of
 constituents in throughfall and stemflow for adjacent deciduous
 and coniferous forests at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed
 (PMRW), Georgia. The models were evaluated for their
 comparability and statistical significance, and model fluxes were
 compared with fluxes derived from field collection and a dry
 deposition inferential model. i.e. field-interred fluxes. The
 multiple regression model used antecedent dry period and event
 quantity as independent variables. Field-inferred fluxes
 indicated that dry deposition was a major source of SO4(-2),
 NO3(-) and H+ in throughfall, and canopy leaching was the major
 source of Ca2(+), Mg2(+), K+ and Cl- in both deciduous and
 coniferous forests. The canopy leaching flux predicted by the
 multiple linear regression model
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-J82
 23. Early investigations dealing with water runoff and soil
 Miller, M. F. 
 J-Am-Soc-Agron v.38, p.657-660. (1946).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: erosion-; runoff-water; rain-; measurement-;
 field-experimentation; missouri-
 NAL Call No.: 4-Am34P
 24. The effects of ground water sampling devices on water
 quality: a literature review.
 Parker, L. V. 
 Ground-water-monit-remediat. Dublin, OH : Ground Water Pub. Co.,
 c1993-. Spring 1994. v. 14 (2) p. 130-141. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: groundwater-; water-quality; sampling-;
 Abstract: This paper reviews both field and laboratory studies
 that tested or compared the ability of various types of sampling
 devices to deliver representative ground water samples.  Several
 types of grab samplers, positive displacement devices, and
 suction-lift devices were evaluated.  Gas-lift and inertial-lift
 pumps were also evaluated.  This study found that most of thise
 devices can, under certain circumstances, alter the chemistry of
 ground water samples.  Gas-lift pumps, older types of submersible
 centrifugal pumps, and suction-lift devices are not recommended
 when sampling for sensitive constituents such as volatile
 organics and inorganics, or inorganics that are subject to
 oxidation/precipitation reactions.  In general, of the devices
 reviewed in this paper, bladder pumps gave the best recovery of
 sensitive constituents.  However, better performance could be
 achieved for several devices if improved operational guidelines
 were developed by additional testing, especially at lower flow
 rates.  Clearly, further research is warranted.  Future studies
 should focus on pumping rate, flow control mechanisms, and
 dedication of decontamination of sampling devices.
 NAL Call No.: GB1001.G76
 25. Effects of management practices on surface water quality from
 rice fields.
 Feagley, S. E.; Sigua, G. C.; Bengston, R. L.; Bollich, P. K.;
 Linscombe, S. D. 
 La-Agric-La-Agric-Exp-Stn v.36, p.8-10. (1993).
 Descriptors: oryza-sativa; water-pollution; weed-control;
 cultural-control; fertilizers-; field-tests; no-tillage-;
 cultivation-; water-quality; louisiana-
 NAL Call No.: 100-L939
 26. Effects of poultry litter application on surface water
 quality. 1. A field experiment.
 Huhnke, R. L.; Storm, D. E.; Brown, G. O.; Smolen, M. D. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (92-2121/92-3010) 14 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: poultry-manure; soil-chemistry; pastures-;
 runoff-water; tillage-; plant-height; water-quality;
 water-pollution; waste-utilization; rain-; oklahoma-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 27. Element-selective detection of pesticides by gas
 chromatography-atomic emission detection and solid-phase
 Eisert, R.; Levsen, K.; Wunsch, G. 
 J-chromatogr-A v.683, p.175-183. (1994).
 Paper presented at the "Third International Symposium on
 Hyphenated Techniques in Chromatography," February 22-25, 1994,
 Antwerp, Belgium.
 Descriptors: pesticides-; organophosphorus-pesticides;
 pesticide-residues; extraction-; gas-chromatography;
 analytical-methods; water-pollution
 NAL Call No.: QD272.C4J68
 28. Environmental soil and groundwater assessment using high
 resolution passive soil-gas samplers--PETREX method: methodology
 and results of a case study performed in Brazil.
 Gomes, D. C.; Alarsa, M.; Salvador, M. C.; Kupferschmid, C. 
 Water-sci-technol v.29, p.161-172. (1994).
 In the series analytic: Waste management in the chemical and
 petrochemical industries / edited by F. Fontes Lima, F. Alves,
 Pereira and S.A.S. Almeida.
 Descriptors: volatile-compounds; pollutants-; soil-air;
 sampling-; gas-chromatography; mass-spectrometry; soil-pollution;
 groundwater-pollution; polluted-soils; brazil-;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 29. Erratum: What do significance tests really tell us about the
 McBride, G. B.; Loftis, J. C.; Adkins, N. C. 
 Environ-manage. New York, Springer-Verlag. Mar/Apr 1994. v. 18
 (2) p. 317. 
 Descriptors: pastures-; groundwater-; water-quality;
 statistical-analysis; regulations-; soil-ph; usa-
 NAL Call No.: HC79.E5E5
 30. Evaluating nitrate recovery by ion-exchange resin bags.
 Wyland, L. J.; Jackson, L. E. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Sept/Oct 1993. v. 57 (5) p. 1208-1211. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: agricultural-soils; soil-analysis; nitrate-;
 leaching-; losses-from-soil; analytical-methods; evaluation-;
 anion-exchange-resins; recovery-; adsorption-;
 nitrogen-retention; nitrate-nitrogen; anion-exchange-capacity
 Abstract: Ion-exchange resin (IER) bags were tested as traps for
 leached soil NO3(-)-N. In laboratoryexperiments, IER bags
 recovered 84.7% of the NO3(-)-N from solutions containing 0.09 to
 40.74 g  NO3(-)-N kg-1 resin, but recovery decreased at higher
 concentrations. In soil columns, NO3(-)-Nrecovery was poor
 (36.2%) when NO3(-)N moved slowly through the soil profile after
 a rapid singlepulse, but improved (87.1%) when higher flow was
 sustained. In the field, estimates of leachedNO3(-)-N using
 IER bags fell within the range of values estimated from soil
 cores and suctionlysimeters. Advantages of IER bags are
 attributed to cumulative recovery of NO3(-)-N during passive
 interception of gravitational water flow.
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 31. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and
 water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving
 plant site at Jackson, Tennessee.
 Parks, W. S.;  Carmichael, J. K.;  Mirecki, J. E.; Geological
 Survey (U.S.). Division. North Superfund Remedial Branch. 
 Memphis, Tenn. : U.S. Geological Survey ; Denver, Colo. : Books
 and Open-File Reports Section [distributor], 1993. v, 22 p. :
 ill., maps.
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 21-22).
 Descriptors: Creosote-Environmental-aspects-Tennessee-Jackson;
 NAL Call No.: GB701.W375-no.93-4108
 32. Factors controlling phosphorous loading to lakes in Maine : A
 statistical analysis.  GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES - 1992.
 Nieratko, D. P. 1. 
 Orono, Me., 1992. vii, 82 leaves : ill..
 Includes vita.
 Descriptors: Eutrophication-Maine; Lakes-Maine;
 Water-quality-Maine-Measurement; Phosphates-Environmental-aspects
 NAL Call No.: MeU Univ.-1992-N54
 33. Fate of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the vadose zone
 and ground water.
 Barbee, G. C. 
 Ground-water-monit-remediat. Dublin, OH : Ground Water Pub. Co.,
 c1993-. Winter 1994. v. 14 (1) p. 129-140. 
 Volume number given as IX on spine of this issue.
 Descriptors: soil-pollution; groundwater-pollution;
 hydrocarbons-; organochlorine-compounds;
 physicochemical-properties; movement-in-soil; transformation-;
 persistence-; sampling-; usa-
 Abstract: The large-scale production and use of chlorinated
 aliphatic hydrocarbons (CHC) in the United States has resulted in
 numerous documented cases of soil and ground water contamination.
 Potential chronic exposure from contaminated soil and ground
 water, as well as from products used in the home, is sufficient
 reason to develop a thorough understanding of the environmental
 fate of these known and possible human carcinogens. Most CHCs are
 very mobile in the subsurface environment, either as volatilized
 Constituents in the vadose zone due to their high vapor pressure
 and low water solubility; as dissolved constituents in ground
 water since they are not strongly adsorbed by aquifer materials;
 and as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in ground water,
 primarily because they have low water solubility and densities
 greater than water. As free-phase chemicals (i.e., DNAPLs), CHCs
 may pool on low-permeability subsurface stratum and cause
 shrinkage and cracking of clay minerals, thereby significantly
 increasing the stratum's hydraulic conductivity and allowing
 rapid CHC breakthrough and migration. Although laboratory and
 field studies have demonstrated this effect, additional
 investigations are needed to determine the impact CHC DNAPLs have
 on low-permeability in situ sediments. CHCs are persistent
 environmental contaminants because they resist chemical and
 biological degradation. The average half-life for CHC abiotic
 transformations ranges from two months to greater than 10(10)
 years. Chlorinated ethenes are the most resistant CHCs to abiotic
 degradation. Biodegradation half-lives for CHCs may vary
 considerably but range from about two weeks to eight months or
 more. Anaerobic reductive. ground water, although aerobic CHC
 biodegradation may be a significant process in the shallow
 subsurface. Technological applications of remedial processes for
 stimulating in situ CHC biodegradation in soils and ground water
 need to be developed, particularly with regard to CHCs entrained
 as residual saturation.
 NAL Call No.: GB1001.G76
 34. Field instrumentation of a depression focused recharged site.
 Brown, J. W.; Wilson, B. N.; Nieber, J.; Hansen, B.; Brooks, E.;
 Sanda, M. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-2156/94-2185) 17 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1994 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 19-22, 1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 Descriptors: groundwater-recharge; groundwater-pollution;
 water-quality; groundwater-flow; landscape-; instrumentation-;
 usa-; morainal-landscapes
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 35. Field measurements for estimating leaching flux in free
 draining soils.
 Thorburn, A. A. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.81-84. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E. Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptors: leaching-; nutrients-; nitrate-; pesticides-;
 lysimeters-; lysimetry-; sampling-; soil-solution; drainage-;
 groundwater-pollution; drainage-water; soil-solution-sampling
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 36. Field sampling methods for remedial investigations.
 Byrnes, M. E.;  Leydorf, D. M.; Smet, D. B. 
 Boca Raton : Lewis, c1994. 254 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references and index.
 Descriptors: Soil-pollution-Measurement-Technique;
 Water-Pollution-Measurement-Technique; Soils-Sampling-Technique;
 Water-Sampling-Technique; Groundwater-Sampling-Technique;
 NAL Call No.: TD878.B96--1994
 37. Field-scale testing of a two-stage bioreactor for removal of
 creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: chemical and
 biological assessment.
 Middaugh, D. P.; Lantz, S. E.; Heard, C. S.; Mueller, J. G. 
 Arch-environ-contam-toxicol. New York, Springer-Verlag. Apr 1994.
 v. 26 (3) p. 320-328. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: groundwater-pollution; creosote-;
 pentachlorophenol-; groundwater-; treatment-; bioreactors-;
 microbial-activities; pseudomonas-; performance-appraisals;
 toxicity-; tests-; menidia-; ceriodaphnia-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.A7
 38. Field-testing of nonpoint source monitoring efficiency.
 Yoder, R. E.; Mote, C. R.; Yoder, D. C.; Ammons, J. T.; Tyler, D.
 D.; Wilson, G. V.; Sanders, W. L. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-2091/94-2119) 17 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1994 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 20-23, 1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; water-quality; flow-; wells-;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 39. Freshwater field tests for hazard assessment of chemicals.
 Hill, I. R. 
 Boca Raton : Lewis Publishers, 1994. xxxvii, 561 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
 Descriptors: Water-quality-bioassay; Water-Pollution-Toxicology;
 NAL Call No.: QH96.8.B5F78--1994
 40. Gas chromatographic/electron capture detection method for
 determination of chlorinated acids in water: collaborative study.
 Edgell, K. W.; Erb, E. J.; Wesselman, R. J.; Longbottom, J. E. 
 J-AOAC-Int v.76, p.1098-1112. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; pesticide-residues; detection-;
 quantitative-analysis; analytical-methods; evolution-
 NAL Call No.: S583.A7
 41. Gas chromatographic/nitrogen-phosphorus detection method for
 determination of ethylene thiourea in finished drinking waters:
 collaborative study.
 Longbottom, J. E.; Edgell, K. W.; Erb, E. J.; Lopez Avila, V. 
 J-AOAC-Int v.76, p.1113-1120. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; drinking-water; monitoring-;
 contaminants-; pesticide-residues; thiourea-; determination-;
 NAL Call No.: S583.A7
 42. Geometrically incremental volume sampling for ephemeral ditch
 Tremwel, T. K.; Campbell, K. L.; Miller, L. W. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1991. (912007) 16 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 23-26, 1991, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 Descriptors: runoff-; pollution-; sampling-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 43. Groundwater quality : 17th special report. 1st ed.
 Nash, H. H.; McCall, G. J. H. G. J. H. 1. 
 London ; New York : Chapman & Hall, 1995. xv, 204 p. : ill.,
 Includes bibliographical references and index.
 Descriptors: Groundwater-Quality-Measurement;
 NAL Call No.: TD403.G78--1995
 44. Hydrologic measurements on Little River experimental
 watershed in Georgia.
 Mills, W. C.; Sheridan, J. M.; Ferreira, V. A. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (932137) 32 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers and
 The Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; instrumentation-; rain-; runoff-;
 water-table; georgia-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 45. An inexpensive device for multi-level sampling of groundwater
 quality in shallow cohesionless aquifers.
 Graham, W.; Downey, D. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1991. (912568) 21 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 December 17-20, 1991, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: groundwater-; sampling-; nitrates-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 46. Input and dynamic behavior of the organic pollutants
 tetrachloroethene, atraazine, and NTA in a lake: a study
 combining mathematical modeling and field measurements.
 Ulrich, M. M.; Muller, S. R.; Singer, H. P.; Imboden, D. M.;
 Schwarzenbach, R. P. 
 Environ-sci-technol v.28, p.1674-1685. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: lakes-; polluted-water; pollutants-; atrazine-;
 computer-simulation; environmental-degradation; watersheds-;
 mathematical-models; field-experimentation; switzerland-;
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1E5
 47. An instrumented, field-scale research facility for drainage
 and water quality studies.
 Tait, R.; Madramootoo, C. A.; Enright, P. 
 Comput-electron-agric v.12, p.131-145. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: drainage-; irrigation-systems; water-quality;
 nitrogen-fertilizers; field-experimentation; cropping-systems;
 computer-software; runoff-; nitrates-; data-collection; quebec-;
 subirrigation-; soulanges-county,-quebec
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 48. Interlaboratory comparison of iron oxide-impregnated paper to
 estimate bioavailable phosphorus.
 Sharpley, A. N.; Indiati, R.; Ciavatta, C.; Rossi, N.; Sequi, P. 
 J-environ-qual v.23, p.14-18. (1994).
 Technical Reports from the Symposium, "Minimizing Agricultural
 Nonpoint-Source Impacts", November 2, 1992, Minneapolis,
 Descriptors: phosphorus-; bioavailability-; estimation-; runoff-;
 sediment-; analytical-methods
 Abstract: The transport of bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) in
 agricultural runoff can accelerate the eutrophication of
 receiving water bodies.  However, procedural and theoretical
 limitations of algal bioassays and chemical extractants have
 restricted widespread measurement of BAP.  Thus, a simple method
 using iron oxide-impregnated paper (Fe-oxide strips) as a sink
 for BAP in runoff samples has been developed. As the method has
 potential application for BAP extraction at one location and
 analysis at another, Fe-oxide strips were sent to Bologna and
 Rome, Italy, for P extraction of runoff samples and BAP
 determined. These BAP estimates were not significantly different
 (p < 0.001) from values determined on duplicate strips returned
 to the USA for BAP analysis. The close agreement in BAP measured
 in Italian and U.S. laboratories indicates that the simplicity of
 the proposed method can give highly reproducible BAP estimates. 
 Prepared Fe-oxide strips may be sent to a location and BAP
 extracted using only a 100- to 500-mL bottle in which a strip and
 runoff sample are shaken overnight. The Fe-oxide strip may then
 be air-dried and returned to an analytical laboratory for
 subsequent P removal and measurement.  Storage of these strips
 for up to 60 d had no effect on the amounts of P released.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 49. A laboratory analysis of the effect of macropores on solute
 Wildenschild, D.; Jensen, K. H.; Villholth, K.; Illangasekare, T.
 Ground-water. Dublin, Ohio : Ground Water Pub. Co. May/June 1994.
 v. 32 (3) p. 381-389. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-; macropores-; flow-; groundwater-pollution;
 agricultural-chemicals; pollutants-; laboratory-methods;
 laboratory-tests; clay-soils; moraine-soils; denmark-;
 undisturbed-soil-monoliths; unsaturated-zone
 NAL Call No.: TD403.G7
 50. Leaching potential of turf care pesticides: a case study of
 Long Island golf courses.
 Primi, P.; Surgan, M. H.; Urban, T. 
 Ground-water-monit-remediat. Dublin, OH : Ground Water Pub. Co.,
 c1993-. Summer 1994. v. 14 (3) p. 129-138. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: lawns-and-turf; golf-courses; pesticides-;
 metabolites-; leaching-; sandy-soils; groundwater-;
 groundwater-pollution; monitoring-; simulation-models;
 analytical-methods; case-studies; new-york
 Abstract: Pesticides used to maintain golf course turf can
 threaten ground water.  This concern is particularly important in
 most of New York's Long Island, where generally sandy soils
 overlie a sole source aquifer.  This study uses two methods to
 evaluate the potential for pesticides that are commonly used on
 Long Island's golf courses to leach to ground water. Adapting the
 Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Release 1, for dense turf and
 applying site-specific soil data, certain pesticides, including
 metalaxyl and trichlorfon, are identified as potential problem
 leachers.  PRZM simulations also identify the Long Island soils,
 including the sandy Plymouth and Carver soils, which are most
 vulnerable to leaching. When adequate input data for PRZM is
 unavailable, the ground water ubiquity score (GUS) method may be
 useful.  GUS leachability classifications of pesticides commonly
 applied on Long Island golf courses, and of pesticides actually
 detected in ground water samples taken on Long Island, agree with
 PRZM predictions and the field data.  The GUS method is applied
 to the evaluation of the leaching potential of pesticide
 degradation products (DCPA, maneb, and mancozeb metabolites), and
 the degradation products are shown to be a greater threat to
 ground water than their parent compounds. These methods are
 potentially useful in designing ground water monitoring programs
 and for guiding the pesticide use and selection decisions of golf
 course managers.
 NAL Call No.: GB1001.G76
 51. Leaching water flow paths during wick sampling.
 Kohl, R. A.; Carlson, C. G.; Wangemann, S. G. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (922070) 9 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: leaching-; water-erosion
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 52. Low-cost vacuum lysimeters for soil moisture sampling.
 McBurnie, J. C. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (922067) 8 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24, 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: water-quality; nitrates-; leaching-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 53. Lysimeters bridge lab and field tests.
 Senft, D. 
 Agric-res v.42, p.22. (1994).
 Descriptors: lysimeters-; design-; solutes-; movement-in-soil;
 soil-analysis; water-pollution; aboveground-lysimeters
 NAL Call No.: 1.98-Ag84
 54. Measuring and sampling surface runoff and subsurface drain
 outflow volume.
 Soultani, M.; Tan, C. S.; Gaynor, J. D.; Neveu, R.; Drury, C. F. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (932136) 12 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers and
 The Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 Descriptors: measurement-; meters-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 55. Measuring and sampling surface runoff and subsurface drain
 outflow volume.
 Soultani, M.; Tan, C. S.; Gaynor, J. D.; Neveu, R.; Drury, C. F. 
 Appl-eng-agric v.9, p.447-450. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: runoff-; subsurface-drainage; measurement-;
 sampling-; automation-; water-quality
 Abstract: An instrumentation system for automatically measuring
 and sampling surface runoff and subsurfacedrain outflow from
 experimental plots was developed. Surface runoff and subsurface
 drain outflowwere channeled to a central collection building
 where volumes were measured and recorded bydatalogger.  The
 data stored in the datalogger were automatically transmitted to
 an IBM-compatiblecomputer at Harrow Research Station every 24
 h. Laboratory calibration and field verification ofthe system
 showed excellent agreement between actual and measured volume.
 The digital output fromthe water-measuring device was used to
 activate a water sampler at selected volumes.
 NAL Call No.: S671.A66
 56. Measuring water quality.
 Felsot, A. S. 
 Ill-res v.34, p.4-10. (1992-1993).
 Descriptors: water-quality; measurement-; testing-; sampling-;
 NAL Call No.: 100-Il64
 57. Methodology and instrumentation for assessing the water
 quality impacts of a dairy waste land application system.
 Vellidis, G.; Henry, S.; Perry, C.; Hubbard, R. K. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1991. (912598) 9 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 17-20, 1991, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: water-quality; dairy-wastes; evaluation-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 58. Methods for sampling fish communities as part of the National
 Water-Quality Assessment Program.
 Meador, M. R. M. R. 1.;  Cuffney, T. F. 1.;  Gurtz, M. E.;
 Geological Survey (U.S.). 
 Raleigh, N.C. : U.S. Geological Survey ; Denver, Colo. : U.S.
 Geological Survey, Books and Open-File Reports [distributor],
 1993. iv, 40 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 37-40).
 Descriptors: Water-quality-United-States;
 NAL Call No.: QL627.M42--1993
 59. Microcontrollers in recirculating aquaculture systems.
 Fowler, P.; Baird, D.; Bucklin, R.; Yerlan, S.; Watson, C.;
 Chapman, F. 
 EES. Gainesville, Fla. : Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
 Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
 Florida,. Apr 1994. (326) 7 p. 
 Descriptors: aquaculture-; closed-systems; water-quality;
 monitoring-; sensors-; instrumentation-; automatic-control;
 NAL Call No.: TJ163.4.U6E36
 60. Monitoring drainage solution concentrations and solute flux
 in unsaturated soil with a porous cup sampler and soil moisture
 McGuire, P. E.; Lowery, B. 
 Ground-water. Dublin, Ohio : Ground Water Pub. Co. May/June 1994.
 v. 32 (3) p. 356-362. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-solution; application-; samples-; sampling-;
 vertical-movement; potassium-bromide; solutes-; discharge-;
 concentration-; soil-water; tension-; tensiometers-;
 drainage-water; water-quality; unsaturated-zone; distilled-water;
 soil-column; content-gradients; soil-water-sensors
 NAL Call No.: TD403.G7
 61. Monitoring for selected degradation products following a
 spill of VAPAM into the Sacramento River.
 Rosario, A. d.; Remoy, J.; Soliman, V.; Dhaliwal, J.; Dhoot, J.;
 Perera, K. 
 J-environ-qual v.23, p.279-286. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-fumigants; accidents-; river-water;
 water-quality; drinking-water; water-pollution;
 spatial-distribution; metabolites-; analytical-methods;
 public-health; california-; pesticide-spill; contaminant-plume
 Abstract: Following a rail accident that spilled the soil
 fumigant VAPAM into the Sacramento River on 14 July 1991, a
 special study was carried out to assess the extent of
 contamination in Lake Shasta.  A total of 32 river water samples
 collected on 18 July and another 316 samples collected from 22
 July through 30 August were analyzed.  Data obtained clearly
 showed the presence of the degradation products of Metham,
 namely, methyl isothiocyanate, carbonyl sulfide, methyl sulfide,
 and traces of methylamine.  However, due to the emergency nature
 of the incident that required quick analytical turnaround times,
 as well as the unavailability of a satisfactory analytical
 method, the presence of Metham could not be demonstrated with
 certainty initially. Nonetheless, the laboratory's timely
 response to the crisis assisted public health officials in
 assessing the extent of the contamination and assuring the
 community-at-large that their drinking water was safe to consume. 
 None of the degradation products analyzed were detected 1 wk
 after the spill.
 NAL Call No.: QH540.J6
 62. Monitoring pesticide and nitrate in Virginia's groundwater--a
 pilot study.
 Bruggeman, A. C.; Mostaghimi, S.; Holtzman, G. I.; Shanholz, V.
 O.; Shukla, S.; Ross, B. B. 
 Trans-ASAE v.38, p.797-807. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: groundwater-; water-quality; wells-; pesticides-;
 groundwater-pollution; monitoring-; aquifers-; nitrate-;
 sampling-; virginia-
 Abstract: Between October 1992 and February 1993, a total of 359
 private wells in Northampton County were sampled and data on
 water-quality variables (temperature, pH, and conductivity), well
 construction, and site characteristics were collected. The
 groundwater samples were analyzed for aldicarb, alachlor,
 atrazine, carbofuran, linuron, methomyl, metolachlor, metribuzin,
 napropamide, pendimethalin, pronamide, simazine, and nitrate. The
 wells were stratified into shallow wells, withdrawing water from
 the unconfined aquifer, and deep wells, withdrawing water from
 the deeper confined aquifers. The study was undertaken as a pilot
 study to demonstrate the applicability of a recently developed
 framework for evaluating the extent of pesticide contamination in
 Virginia's groundwater. Pesticides were detected in 14% of the
 shallow wells and in 7% of the deep wells sampled. Pesticide
 detection was associated with the well depth, with a higher
 probability of detecting a pesticide in the shallow unconfined
 aquifer than in the deeper aquifers. Nitrate above the U.S. EPA
 drinking water standard of 10 mg/L was found in 17% of the
 shallow and 1% of the deep wells. Pesticide and nitrate
 detections were not significantly related to well and site
 characteristics, such as crop type, location of well head, and
 distance to the nearest water body.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 63. Monitoring, sampling, and automated analysis.
 Goo, R. 
 Water-environ-res v.66, p.298-301. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-pollution; monitoring-; sampling-;
 chemical-analysis; automation-; literature-reviews
 NAL Call No.: TD419.R47
 64. Nitrate leaching under furrow irrigation as affected by crop
 sequence and tillage.
 Meek, B. D.; Carter, D. L.; Westermann, D. T.; Wright, J. L.;
 Peckenpaugh, R. E. 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Jan/Feb 1995. v. 59 (1) p. 204-210. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: medicago-sativa; phaseolus-vulgaris; zea-mays;
 triticum-aestivum; winter-wheat; rotations-; no-tillage-;
 tillage-; furrow-irrigation; nitrate-nitrogen; leaching-;
 determination-; soil-depth; sampling-; soil-solution;
 soil-water-balance; idaho-; conventional-tillage
 Abstract: The potential for NO3-N leaching after alfalfa
 (Medicago sativa L.) in irrigated crop production depends on
 cropping sequence and tillage practices. A 2-yr field experiment
 in south-central Idaho compared the NO3-N leached following
 alfalfa of a conventional tillage bean-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris
 L.) rotation with a silage corn (Zea mays L.)-winter wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation in a conventional tillage or
 no-till system. Nitrate leaching was determined by: (i) sampling
 the soil solution below the root zone (1.2 and 1.5 m) using
 ceramic-tipped samplers and calculating the N movement from the
 water balance, and (ii) measuring the change in soil NO3-N at
 1.35 to 4.5 m from soil samples taken in the fall and spring to
 4.5 m. During the second growing season, average soil solution
 NO3-N concentrations (below the root zone) were 28, 4, and 10 mg
 L-1 for the bean-bean, corn-wheat no-till, and corn-wheat tilled
 treatments, respectively. The soil NO3-N in 1.35 to 3.3 m at the
 end of the study was 80 kg N ha-1 higher for the bean-bean
 treatment than for the corn-wheat treatments. The NO3-N that
 moved below 1.35 m during the 2 yr was 53 4 ha-1 higher for the
 bean-bean than for the corn-wheat treatments. The soil NO3-N in
 the 1.35 to 3.3 m depth after 2 yr was 21 kg ha-1 higher for the
 corn-wheat under conventional tillage than under the no-till
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 65. On-farm nitrogen tests improve fertilizer efficiency, protect
 Hartz, T. K.; Smith, R. F.; Schullbach, K. F.; LeStrange, M. 
 Calif-agric v.48, p.29-32. (1994).
 Descriptors: nitrogen-fertilizers; efficiency-;
 groundwater-pollution; field-tests; sap-; soil-testing;
 NAL Call No.: 100-C12Cag
 66. Open channel mass flow measurement system.
 Yoder, D. C.; Wilkerson, J. B.; Yoder, R. E.; Hamilton, D. W. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-3532) 9 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14-17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: runoff-; instrumentation-; water-flow; tennessee-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 67. Passive sampling of water and coastal air via semipermeable
 membrane devices.
 Prest, H. F.; Jacobson, L. A.; Huckins, J. N. 
 Chemosphere v.30, p.1351-1361. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: organochlorine-pesticides;
 organochlorine-insecticides; chlordane-; hch-;
 insecticide-residues; sampling-; air-pollution; water-pollution;
 samplers-; membranes-; coastal-areas; california-; dde-
 NAL Call No.: TD172.C54
 68. Predicting nitrate concentration in surface waters in
 Northern Ireland.
 Smith, R. V.; Foy, R. H.; Jordan, C.; Smyth, D. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.439-443. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E. Ogilvy, J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptors: nitrate-; surface-water; water-quality; prediction-;
 mathematical-models; regression-analysis; water-pollution;
 rivers-; agricultural-land; northern-ireland
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 69. Prediction of pesticide behavior in soil by means of simple
 field tests.
 Blume, H. P.; Ahlsdorf, B. 
 Ecotoxicol-environ-saf v.26, p.313-332. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: pesticide-residues; soil-; biodegradation-;
 volatilization-; temperature-; meteorological-factors;
 soil-pollution; groundwater-pollution; risk-
 NAL Call No.: QH545.A1E29
 70. Private well testing.
 Liukkonen, B.; Minnesota Extension Service. 
 [Duluth, Minn.?] : Minnesota Extension Service, [1993] 1 sheet :
 Caption title. Barbara Liukkonen"--P. [2].
 Descriptors: Groundwater-Minnesota-Sampling;
 NAL Call No.: TD224.M6L58--1993
 71. Randomized intervention analysis of the response of the West
 Bear Brook Watershed, Maine to chemical manipulation.
 Uddameri, V.; Norton, S. A.; Kahl, J. S.; Scofield, J. P. 
 Water-air-soil-pollut v.79, p.131-146. (1995).
 In the special issue: Biogeochemical monitoring in small
 catchments / edited by J. Cerny, M. Novak, T. Paces and R.K.
 Weider. Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments," held
 September 18-20, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic.
 Descriptors: watersheds-; ammonium-sulfate; acid-rain;
 simulation-; streams-; water-quality; chemical-composition;
 anions-; cations-; acidification-; autocorrelation-;
 statistical-analysis; maine-; water-chemistry
 NAL Call No.: TD172.W36
 72. Research on the little Washita River watershed: past,
 present, future.
 Starks, P.; Garbrecht, J.; Daniel, J. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-2156/94-2185) 9 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1994 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 19-22, 1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 Descriptors: watershed-management; catchment-hydrology;
 remote-sensing; instrumentation-; water-quality; monitoring-;
 agricultural-research; history-; oklahoma-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 73. The rewetting of partially dried grass swaths by rain. 4.
 Measurement of leaching losses.
 McGechan, M. B. 
 J-Agric-Eng-Res v.55, p.57-67. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: windrowing-; windrowers-; windrows-; wilting-;
 rain-; wetting-; rainfall-simulators; laboratory-methods;
 runoff-; water-; nutrients-; leaching-; losses-; models-;
 Abstract: Runoff water collected in laboratory experiments with
 simulated rainfall on partially dried grass samples was analysed
 to estimate the extent of leaching losses which occur when rain
 falls on partially dried swaths in the field. Loss levels varied
 between grass samples, and between runoff water samples taken at
 different stages of rewetting on the same grass. Results showed a
 tendency towards higher losses from initially drier grass swaths,
 and higher losses from conditioned compared to unconditioned
 grass, but not in a very consistent manner. The distributed model
 of the rewetting process was used to attempt to explain
 variations in losses over time. A leaching loss relationship for
 use in Operational Research models of forage conservation is
 suggested; this represents the main trends shown in the results
 with regard to variation in loss with swath moisture content and
 conditioning, but not the random variation arising for unknown
 NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
 74. Roughness coefficients for selected residue materials.
 Gilley, J. E.; Kottwitz, E. R.; Wieman, G. A. 
 J-Irr-Drain-Eng v.117, p.503-514. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: runoff-; overland-flow; crop-residues; pine-needles;
 surface-roughness; hydraulics-; upland-areas; regression-analysis
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM3PS-IR
 75. Sampling of non-point source contamination in high-capacity
 Zlotnik, V. A.; Spalding, R. F.; Exner, M. E.; Burbach, M. E. 
 Water-sci-technol v.28, p.409-413. (1993).
 Paper presented at the IAWQ First International Conference on
 "Diffuse (Nonpoint) Pollution: Sources, Prevention, Impact,
 Abatement." September 19-24, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: irrigation-; wells-; groundwater-pollution;
 nitrates-; atrazine-; concentration-; sampling-; nebraska-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 76. Sampling your irrigation water.
 Neufeld, J.; Balliette, J.; Adams, V. D.; Wheeler, G. 
 Fact-sheet-Max-C-Fleischmann-Coll-Agric,-Coop-Ext-Serv. [Reno,
 Nev.] : The College,. 1994. (94-28) 2 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: irrigation-water; water-quality; salinity-; sodium-;
 boron-; chloride-; ions-; ph-; bicarbonates-; nitrogen-;
 hazards-; samples-
 NAL Call No.: S544.3.N3C66
 77. Sealing of cone penetrometer testing holes for ground water
 Collette, D. A. 1. 
 1992. xx, 303 leaves : ill..
 Descriptors: Water,-Underground-Louisiana-Sampling;
 Water,-Underground-Louisiana-Quality; Aquifers-Louisiana
 NAL Call No.: LU 378.76-L930-1992-coll
 78. Shallow ground water and surface runoff instrumentation for
 small watersheds.
 Cullum, R. F.; Schreiber, J. D.; Smith, S. Jr.; Grissinger, E. H. 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1991. (912541) 9 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1991 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 17-20, 1991, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: groundwater-; watersheds-; runoff-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 79. Similarity analysis of runoff generation processes in
 real-world catchments.
 Larsen, J. E.; Sivapalan, M.; Coles, N. A.; Linnet, P. E. 
 Water-resour-res v.30, p.1641-1652. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: runoff-; watersheds-; agricultural-land;
 quantitative-analysis; prediction-; rain-; simulation-models;
 western-australia; rainfall-runoff-models;
 Abstract: This paper addresses the question of similarity of
 runoff generation processes between catchments in the eastern
 wheat belt of Western Australia, and the use of dimensionless
 parameterizations to quantify this similarity.  A spatially
 distributed rainfall-runoff model, simulating runoff generation
 by both the infiltration excess (Horton type) and saturation
 excess (Dunne type) mechanisms, was developed for catchments in
 the region.  Seven small experimental catchments, with
 field-measured soil hydraulic properties and topography, were
 used in the study.  Following on from the similarity theory
 developed by Sivapalan et al. (1987), a number of dimensionless
 similarity parameters were constructed using the field-measured
 soil and topographic properties, a characteristic length scale,
 and a characteristic flow velocity. The objective was to
 determine whether the dominant runoff generation mechanism on a
 catchment could be reliably predicted by these similarity
 parameters.  This was achieved through sensitivity analyses
 carried out with the rainfall-runoff model.  Two dimensionless
 parameters, K(*/0) and f*, were found to be critical for
 characterizing the similarity or dissimilarity of the runoff
 generation responses between the seven experimental catchments. 
 Within the assumptions of the analysis, two catchments in the
 wheat belt region can be considered to be hydrologically similar,
 in terms of their runoff responses, if K(*/0) and f* are
 identical in both catchments.  The dominant mechanism of runoff
 generation on any catchment can be reliably predicted, provided
 that the values of K(*/0) and f* are known.  A partial
 quantification of the Dunne diagram. and saturation excess
 mechanisms, was achieved by artificially varying K(*/0) and f* in
 the rainfall-runoff model to explore the full range of possible
 runoff generation responses.
 NAL Call No.: 292.8-W295
 80. A simple analytical methodology for multiresidue pollutant
 Tilio, R.; Krishnan, K.; Kapila, S.; Nam, K. S.; Facchetti, S. 
 Chemosphere v.29, p.1849-1858. (1994).
 In the series analytic: Chlorinated dioxins and related compounds
 1993 / edited by H. Fieldler, V.G. Ahlborg, R.E. Clement, O.
 Hutzinger, A. Riss, S. Safe and L. Stieglitz. Austria.
 Descriptors: organochlorine-pesticides;
 polychlorinated-dibenzofurans; organochlorine-compounds;
 polychlorinated-biphenyls; polycyclic-hydrocarbons;
 organothiophosphate-insecticides; chemical-analysis; extraction-;
 pollutants-; sediment-; water-pollution; rivers-;
 insecticide-residues; missouri-; supercritical-fluid-extraction;
 NAL Call No.: TD172.C54
 81. Soil-gas signatures from volatile chlorinated solvents:
 borden field experiments.
 Rivett, M. O. 
 Ground-water. Dublin, Ohio : Ground Water Pub. Co. Jan/Feb 1995.
 v. 33 (1) p. 84-98. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: polluted-soils; volatile-compounds;
 organochlorine-compounds; solvents-; soil-air;
 groundwater-pollution; chloroform-; trichloroethylene-; ontario-;
 NAL Call No.: TD403.G7
 82. Soil science research: in the plant science department: 1991
 annual report.
 TB-Agric-Exp-Stn-S-D-State-Univ. Brookings, S.D. : The Station.
 Oct 1992. (99) 248 p. 
 Descriptors: crop-production; soil-science; farm-management;
 fertilizers-; crop-yield; soil-testing; plant-nutrition;
 conservation-tillage; erosion-; field-tests; rotations-;
 groundwater-pollution; south-dakota
 NAL Call No.: 100-SO82-3
 83. Solar photocatalytic treatment of groundwater at Tyndall AFB:
 field test results.
 Goswami, D. Y.; Klausner, J.; Mathur, G. D.; Martin, A.; Schanze,
 K.; Wyness, P.; Turchi, C.; Marchand, E. 
 Proc-annu-conf-Am-Solar-Energy-Soc p.235-239. (1993).
 Meeting held April 25-28, 1993, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptors: groundwater-pollution; detoxification-;
 solar-radiation; treatment-; florida-; air-force-base
 NAL Call No.: TJ810.A54
 84. Statistical methods for groundwater monitoring.
 Gibbons, R. D. 1. 
 New York : Wiley, c1994. xii, 286 p. : ill..
 Includes bibliographical references (p. 272-279) and index.
 NAL Call No.: TD426.G52--1994
 85. Statistical methods for the analysis of lake water quality
 trends : technical supplement to The lake and reservoir
 restoration guidance manual.  Water quality trends.
 United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water. 
 Washington, DC : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
 Water, 1993. 1 v. (various pagings) : ill.  1 computer disk (3
 1/2 in.).
 " ... prepared by the Terrene Institute and Duke University,
 School of the Environment under EPA Cooperative Agreement No.
 CX-814969 ... "--P. ii.
 Descriptors: Water-quality-management-Statistical-methods;
 Lake-renewal-Statistical-methods; Eutrophication-
 NAL Call No.: TD365.S74--1993
 86. Statistical techniques for assessing water-quality effects of
 Walker, J. F. 
 J-irrig-drain-eng v.120, p.334-347. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: farm-management; watersheds-; water-quality;
 trends-; statistical-analysis; illinois-;
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM3Ps-IR
 87. Statistics for the environment 2 : water-related issues. 
 Statistics for the environment two.
 Barnett, V.;  Turkman, K. F.; Commission of the European
 Chichester ; New York : Wiley, c1994. xiv, 391 p. : ill., maps.
 "Proceedings of SPRUCE II, the second SPRUCE Conference held in
 Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, UK, 13-16 September
 NAL Call No.: GE45.S73S833--1994
 88. A test of procedures for determining the ground water
 protection list.
 Johnson, B. R.; California Environmental Protection Agency.
 Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. 
 Sacramento, Calif. : Environmental Hazards Assessment Program,
 State of California, Environmental Protection Agency, Dept. of
 Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring and Pest
 Management Branch, [1992] v, 42 p. : map.
 "August, 1992"--Cover.
 Descriptors: Groundwater-California-Sampling;
 Water-quality-California-Measurement; Wells-California
 NAL Call No.: GB1001.72.S3T469--1992
 89. A test of procedures for determining the ground water
 protection list : appendix to report EH 92-06.
 Johnson, B. R.; California Environmental Protection Agency.
 Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. 
 Sacramento, Calif. : Environmental Hazards Assessment Program,
 State of California, Environmental Protection Agency, Dept. of
 Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring and Pest
 Management Branch, [1992] 126 p. : ill..
 Cover title.
 Descriptors: Groundwater-California-Sampling;
 Water-quality-California-Measurement; Wells-California
 NAL Call No.: GB1001.72.S3T47--1992
 90. Tillage effects on agrichemical movement through the Vadose
 Wilson, G. V.; Tyler, D. D.; Storck, N. J.; Essington, M. E.;
 Mueller, T. G. 
 Tenn-farm-home-sci p.34-39. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-analysis; water-quality; macropores-;
 conservation-tillage; groundwater-; infiltration-; leachates-;
 field-tests; tennessee-
 NAL Call No.: 100-T25F
 91. Use and abuse of sample surveys in agroecology.
 Sparks, T. H.; Firbank, L. G. 
 Asp-appl-biol p.161-170. (1994).
 In the series analytic: Sampling to make decisions / edited by P.
 Brain, S.H. Hockland, P.D. Lancashire, and L.C. Sim.
 Descriptors: sampling-; land-improvement; drainage-;
 soil-management; flood-control; plantations-; agricultural-land;
 weed-control; watersheds-; runoff-; runoff-water; nitrate-
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 92. Water quality monitoring on a 2500-acre agricultural
 watershed at Ames Plantation.
 Yoder, R. E.; Mote, C. R. 
 Tenn-farm-home-sci p.15-18. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-quality; water-pollution; groundwater-;
 surface-water; runoff-water; erosion-; conservation-tillage;
 sampling-; contaminants-; tennessee-; nonpoint-source-pollution;
 NAL Call No.: 100-T25F
 93. Water quality sampling and analysis instruments and
 Taylor, L. A.; Izuno, F. T.; Bottcher, A. B. 
 Circ-Fla-Coop-Ext-Serv. Gainesville, Fla. : The Service. Oct
 1992. (1040) 10 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-quality; sampling-; instruments-; ph-;
 electrical-conductivity; hardness-; nitrogen-; phosphorus-
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-F66C
 94. Well sampling for agrichemicals in high capacity systems.
 Zlotnik, V. A.; Burbach, M. E.; Exner, M. E.; Spalding, R. F. 
 J-soil-water-conserv v.50, p.95-101. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: groundwater-pollution; point-sources; nitrate-;
 atrazine-; contamination-; irrigated-sites; wells-; sampling-;
 aquifers-; nebraska-; non-point-source-pollution;
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-J822
 95. Well-water quality data from a volunteer sampling program:
 Audubon County, Iowa.
 Seigley, L. S.; Hallberg, G. R.; Walther, P. R.; Miller, G. A. 
 J-Iowa-Acad-Sci-J-I-A-S v.100, p.15-20. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: water-quality; wells-; coliform-count;
 contaminants-; nitrate-nitrogen; sampling-; volunteers-;
 water-pollution; iowa-
 NAL Call No.: Q11.J68
 96. What do significance tests really tell us about the
 McBride, G. B. 
 Environ-Manage v.17, p.423-432. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: pastures-; groundwater-; water-quality;
 statistical-analysis; regulations-; soil-ph; usa-
 NAL Call No.: HC79.E5E5

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