Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Cryptosporidium: Water Quality, Agriculture
and Health Effects

 January, 1992 - December, 1995
 127 Citations from AGRICOLA
 by
 Diane Doyle
 Water Quality Information Center
 
  **************************************************************
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 CRYPTOSPORIDIUM: WATER QUALITY, AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH EFFECTS 
 
 1. A 2359-base pair DNA fragment from Cryptosporidium parvum
 encoding a repetitive oocyst protein.
 Lally, N. C.; Baird, G. D.; McQuay, S. J.; Wright, F.; Oliver, J.
 J. 
 
 Mol-Biochem-Parasitol v.56, p.69-78. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; oocysts-; protein-; dna-; genes-;
 nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences;
 molecular-sequence-data
 Abstract: A Cryptosporidium parvum lambda gt11 expression library
 was constructed using EcoRI-digested genomic DNA extracted from
 in vitro- excysted oocysts. Screening of this library with rat
 anti-Cryptosporidium antiserum led to the isolation of a clone
 containing a 2359-bp EcoRI  fragment. When this fragment was
 ligated into the EcoRI site of plasmid vector pMS1S, the
 resulting clone expressed a 200-kDa beta- galactosidase fusion
 protein. Western blot analysis using serum raised against this
 fusion protein indicated that the EcoRI fragment represented 
 part of a gene encoding a 190-kDa oocyst wall protein of C.
 parvum. Sequencing of the fragment revealed a continuous open
 reading frame  encoding 786 amino acids. The DNA sequence is
 relatively low in G + C (39.1%), and the third codon position
 contains only 17.9% G + C. The  deduced peptide sequence has
 unusually high proportions of cysteine, proline, glutamine and
 histidine. Another striking feature of the amino  acid sequence
 is the presence of distinctly repetitive regions based on
 conserved cysteine residues.
 NAL Call No.: QL757.M6
 *****************************************************************
 2. Age-related resistance in ovine cryptosporidiosis: patterns of
 infection and humoral immune repair.
 Ortega Mora, L. M.; Wright, S. E. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Nov 1994. v. 62 (11) p. 5003-5009. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: lambs-; cryptosporidium-parvum; disease-resistance;
 age-differences; experimental-infections; oocysts-;
 antibody-formation; diarrhea-; humoral-immunity; igg-; iga-;
 protozoal-infections
 Abstract: The phenomenon of age-related resistance to infection
 with Cryptosporidium parvum has been well characterized in rodent
 models, and  its existence has been demonstrated in calves. To
 determine whether this is a genuine age effect in a fully
 susceptible animal model or the result  of infection with related
 pathogens inducing a nonspecific immunity, and to examine several
 parameters associated with severity of clinical  diseases, lambs
 maintained in a parasite-free environment were infected with C.
 parvum oocysts at increasing ages. A marked decrease in the 
 severity of clinical symptoms was observed as the age at
 infection increased, though the kinetics of both fecal and serum
 antibody responses  were similar in all age groups, suggesting
 that mechanisms other than humoral response may play an important
 role in the development of age- related resistance. This study
 demonstrates the first experimental evidence for age-related
 resistance to ovine cryptosporidiosis and examines  parameters
 which may influence the acquisition of resistance to infection.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 3. Analysis of humoral immune response in chickens after
 inoculation with Cryptosporidium baileyi or Cryptosporidium
 parvum.
 Naciri, M.; Mancassola, R.; Reperant, J. M.; Yvore, P. 
 
 Avian-dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists Inc. Oct/Dec 1994. v. 38 (4) p. 832-838. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: chickens-; cryptosporidium-; cryptosporidium-parvum;
 oocysts-; experimental-infections; antigens-; molecular-weight;
 antigen-antibody- reactions; antibody-formation; cross-reaction;
 igg-; iga-; protozoal-infections; cryptosporidiosis-
 Abstract: White leghorn chickens aged 14 days were orally
 inoculated with 1 X 10(6) oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi or
 C. parvum to compare  the specific immune responses.
 Cross-reactions were evaluated using homologous or heterologous
 antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent  assay (ELISA) and
 Western blot to determine the occurrence of an antigenic homology
 between these two species. Blood, bile, whole intestine,  bursa
 of Fabricius, and feces were collected daily from the day of
 inoculation (day 0) to day 22 postinoculation (PI). Eight control
 chickens  remained negative up to day 22 PI. Chickens inoculated
 with C. baileyi did not express clinical symptoms but shed
 oocysts from days 6 to 21  PI. Chickens inoculated with C parvum
 exhibited no clinical signs, no oocysts in feces, and no
 developmental stages of the parasite. However, a  specific immune
 response to both antigens appeared on day 9 PI. ELISA using
 homologous or heterologous antigens showed that anti-C baileyi 
 and anti-C parvum antibodies in serum or bile were detectable
 using C. baileyi or C. parvum oocysts as antigen, but the
 intensity of the response  was significantly higher when C.
 baileyi was used. Cross-reactions in immunoblot analysis
 confirmed ELISA results, revealing a greater number  of bands
 using C. baileyi as antigen but showing that epitopes recognized
 on the protein with a molecular weight of 15,000-17,000 were 
 different.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
 *****************************************************************
 4. Arginine aminopeptidase, an integral membrane protein of the
 Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite.
 Okhuysen, P. C.; DuPont, H. L.; Sterling, C. R.; Chappell, C. L. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Oct 1994. v. 62 (10) p. 4667-4670. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; sporozoites-;
 aminopeptidases-; arginine-; enzyme-activity; oocysts-;
 cell-membranes
 Abstract: Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were studied for the
 expression of aminopeptidase by using amino acids bound to the
 synthetic  fluorescent substrate 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl
 coumarin. After 1 h of incubation, intact oocysts showed no
 activity, however, homogenization  and solubilization with Triton
 X-114 followed by phase separation yielded a 22-fold increase in
 aminopeptidase activity in the detergent  fraction. With
 arginyl-6-amino-2-styrylquinoline as a substrate, aminopeptidase
 activity was observed in permeabilized oocysts and freshly 
 excysted sporozoites but not on intact oocysts or empty oocyst
 membranes after excystation. These results suggest that C. parvum
 expresses an  arginine aminopeptidase that is an integral protein
 of the sporozoite membrane.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 5. Attachment of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to MDCK cells
 in vitro.
 Hamer, D. H.; Ward, H.; Tzipori, S.; Pereira, M. A.; Alroy, J.
 P.; Keusch, G. T. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. June 1994. v. 62 (6) p. 2208-2213. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; sporozoites-; adhesion-;
 in-vitro; kidneys-; cells-; host-parasite-relationships;
 disease-models; time-; temperature-; ph-;
 madin-darby-canine-kidney-cells
 Abstract: Abstract: The initial attachment of Cryptosporidium
 parvum sporozoites to host cells in vivo may be a critical event
 in the pathogenesis of  this infection. The molecular basis of
 attachment and the conditions influencing this host-parasite
 interaction have not been studied  systematically. Therefore, we
 have developed a sporozoite attachment model by using
 paraformaldehyde-fixed Madin-Darby canine kidney  (MDCK) cells.
 Attachment of sporozoites to fixed MDCK cells was quantitated by
 indirect immunofluorescence and confirmed by transmission 
 electron microscopy. Attachment in this system was time,
 temperature (37 degrees C), and pH (7.2 to 7.6) dependent.
 Dose-response studies  demonstrated that the attachment of
 sporozoites to fixed MDCK cells was a saturable process.
 Attachment was enhanced in the presence of  10mM manganese, 1 mM
 calcium, and 1 to 10 mM zinc. Attachment of sporozoites to MDCK
 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner  by polyclonal
 anti-Cryptosporidium antisera and by purified immunoglobulin G
 (IgG). This model will be useful for the study of parasite and 
 host cell molecules involved in the initial interaction of C.
 parvum sporozoites with their target cell.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 6. Better treatments for a "new" disease.
 Utah-Sci-Utah-Agric-Exp-Stn v.54, p.13-14. (1993).
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; intestinal-diseases; parasites-;
 infection-; medical-treatment; cryptosporidiosis-
 NAL Call No.: 100-UT1F
 *****************************************************************
 7. Biopathological data of goat kids with cryptosporidiosis.
 Molina, J. M.; Rodriguez Ponce, E.; Ferrer, O.; Gutierrez, A. C.;
 Hernandez, S. 
 
 Vet-rec v.135, p.67-68. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: kids-; cryptosporidium-; oocysts-; feces-;
 blood-picture; blood-composition; pathology-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
 *****************************************************************
 8. Bovine antibody against Cryptosporidium parvum elicits a
 circumsporozoite precipitate-like reaction and has
 immunotherapeutic effect  against persistent cryptosporidiosis in
 SCID mice.
 Riggs, M. W.; Cama, V. A.; Leary, H. L. Jr.; Sterling, C. R. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. May 1994. v. 62 (5) p. 1927-1939. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; cows-; colostral-immunity;
 immunotherapy-; mice-; immunological-deficiency; immune-serum;
 surface- antigens
 Abstract: Control of cryptosporidiosis is currently hampered by
 the absence of drugs or vaccines proven consistently effective
 against  Cryptosporidium parvum.  On the basis of observations
 that anti-C parvum antibody has therapeutic effect against
 cryptosporidiosis, cows were  immunized with C parvum to produce
 hyperimmune colostral antibody. An antibody-rich fraction was
 prepared and differentiated from control  (nonhyperimmune)
 antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence
 assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and in vitro  neutralizing
 titer against DEAE-cellulose-isolated C parvum sporozoites.
 Oocyst, purified sporozoite, and merozoite antigens recognized by 
 hyperimmune antibody were defined by Western blot (immunoblot). 
 Hyperimmune antibody recognized antigens common to oocysts, 
 sporozoites, and merozoites, as well as stage-specific antigens.
 Upon incubation with hyperimmune antibody, sporozoites underwent
 distinct  morphologic changes characterized by progressive
 formation and eventual release of membranous sporozoite surface
 antigen-antibody  complexes, similar to the malaria
 circumsporozoite precipitate reaction. The infectivity of
 sporozoites having undergone this reaction was  neutralized. The
 reaction was minimal or absent on sporozoites incubated with
 control antibody. To determine therapeutic effect in vivo, 
 persistent C. parvum infection was established in adult severe
 combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice by oral inoculation with
 10(7) oocysts.  At 5 weeks postinfection, infected mice were
 treated for 10 days with hyperimmune or control antibody by
 inclusion in drinking water and daily  gavage. Fecal oocyst
 shedding and infection scores in the.  control antibody-treated
 mice. Hyperimmune bovine antibody prepared against C parvum may
 provide a first-generation therapy for control of 
 cryptosporidiosis.  Additionally, the defined antigens can be
 evaluated as subunit immunogens to produce better-characterized
 polyclonal  antibody for control of cryptosporidiosis or as
 targets for monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 9. Bovine gastric and intestinal cryptosporidiosis: present
 situation.
 Anderson, B. C. 
 
 Proc-Annu-Conv-Am-Assoc-Bovine-Pract. Stillwater, Okla. : The
 Association. Jan 1992. (24) p. 15-18. 
 Meeting held on September 18-21, 1991, Orlando, Florida.
 Descriptors: cattle-; cryptosporidium-
 NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
 *****************************************************************
 10. Bovine humoral immune response to Cryptosporidium parvum.
 Mosier, D. A.; Kuhls, T. L.; Simons, K. R.; Oberst, R. D. 
 
 J-Clin-Microbiol. Washington, D.C. : American Society for
 Microbiology. Dec 1992. v. 30 (12) p. 3277-3279. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-; serum-; igg-;
 experimental-infection; immune-response; humoral-immunity;
 age-differences
 Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominately
 affecting cattle and humans. Sera from experimentally infected
 calves and calves of  various ages with no histories of exposure
 were evaluated for immunoglobulin G to Cryptosporidium parvum. An
 age-associated increase in  immunoglobulin G was present in
 experimental calves and in calves with no histories of infection
 from 1 to 3, but not > 3, months of age.
 NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
 *****************************************************************
 11. A brief review of cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves.
 Vassilev, G. D.; Madzima, W. N. 
 
 Zimbabwe-Vet-J v.21, p.159-165. (1990).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-
 NAL Call No.: SF601.R5
 *****************************************************************
 12. A case-control study of selected pathogens including
 veroxytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in calf diarrhea on an Ontario
 veal farm.
 Wilson, J. B.; McEwen, S. A.; Clarke, R. C.; Leslie, K. E.;
 Waltner Toews, D.; Gyles, C. L. 
 
 Can-J-Vet-Res-Rev-Rev-Can-Rech-Vet v.56, p.184-188. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: veal-calves; diarrhea-; escherichia-coli;
 feces-composition; moisture-content; cryptosporidium-; ontario-
 NAL Call No.: SF601.C24
 *****************************************************************
 13. Characterization and immunolocalization of a Cryptosporidium
 protein containing repeated amino acid motifs.
 Ranucci, L.; Muller, H. M.; La Rosa, G.; Reckmann, I.; Gomez
 Morales, M. A.; Spano, F.; Pozio, E.; Crisanti, A. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. June 1993. v. 61 (6) p. 2347-2356. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; nucleotide-sequences;
 amino-acid-sequences; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; z22537-
 Abstract: The oocyst wall is one of the components that permits
 cryptosporidia both to survive in the environment and to retain
 infectivity. With the  aim of identifying Cryptosporidium
 proteins specifically expressed at the oocyst stage, we screened
 lambda gt11 genomic libraries of  Cryptosporidium parvum with
 both an oocyst antiserum and a specific genetic probe. We
 isolated, from distinct libraries, two overlapping  clones
 containing an open reading frame encoding a 1,252-amino-acid
 polypeptide. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence
 revealed  unusually high contents of cysteine, proline, and
 histidine. The sequence was also characterized by two distinct
 amino acid motifs, each  repeated several times. The DNA
 sequences coding for the amino acid repeats showed a high
 frequency of synonymous mutations, a result  suggesting that the
 repeated motifs may be functionally and/or structurally important
 to the parasite. Antisera and monoclonal antibodies  developed
 against a recombinant polypeptide encompassing the first 786
 amino acids revealed that the corresponding protein in C. parvum
 had  an apparent molecular weight of 190,000. Moreover, confocal
 microscopy analysis with immunofluorescence indicated that the
 protein was  localized on the oocyst wall as a uniform stain and
 within the oocyst itself as bright granules in close association
 with the residual body.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 14. Characterization and immunolocalization of an oocyst wall
 antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum (Protozoa: Apicomplexa).
 Bonnin, A.; Dubremetz, J. F.; Camerlynck, P. 
 
 Parasitology. New York, N.Y. : Cambridge University Press. Oct
 1991. v. 103 (pt.2) p. 171-177. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; antigens-; oocysts-;
 glycoproteins-; monoclonal-antibodies
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-P21
 *****************************************************************
 15. Characterization of bovine cellular and serum antibody
 responses during infection by Cryptosporidium parvum.
 Whitmire, W. M.; Harp, J. A. 
 
 Infect-Immun. Washington, D.C. : American Society for
 Microbiology. Mar 1991. v. 59 (3) p. 990-995. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-; antigens-; antibodies-;
 t-lymphocytes; immune-serum; antibody-formation;
 cell-mediated-immunity; humoral- immunity; experimental-infection
 Abstract: Cellular and serum antibody responses of calves were
 monitored for 23 days after oral inoculation of the calves with
 oocysts of  Cryptosporidium parvum. In vitro blastogenic
 responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes were assessed after
 stimulation with a C. parvum  preparation. Specific lymphocyte
 blastogenic responses to the parasite were detected 2 days after
 inoculation. Parasite-specific antibody titers  were demonstrable
 7 days after inoculation with oocysts and achieved peak levels 9
 days after inoculation, coinciding with oocyst shedding at 5  to
 10 days after inoculation. Both lymphocyte and antibody responses
 remained elevated until the termination of the experiment. 
 Immunoblotting the C. parvum preparation with serum from an
 infected calf revealed six major parasite antigens. Five of these
 antigens reacted  on immunoblots from 7 to 14 days after
 inoculation with oocysts. A parasite antigen of approximately
 11,000 molecular weight demonstrated  intense reactivity on
 immunoblots from 7 to 23 days after inoculation. The
 11,000-molecular-weight antigen also reacted on immunoblots with 
 parenterally raised antioocyst and antisporozoite rabbit sera.
 These results indicate that cell-mediated as well as humoral
 immune responses are  initiated by cryptosporidial infection in
 calves and that the 11,000-molecular-weight parasite antigen is
 immunodominant.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 16. Chronic cryptosporidiosis in Australian elapid snakes:
 control of an outbreak in a captive colony.
 Carmel, B. P.; Groves, V. 
 
 Aust-vet-j. Brunswick, Vic. : Australian Veterinary Association,
 1927-. Aug 1993. v. 70 (8) p. 293-295. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: snakes-; cryptosporidium-; chronic-infections;
 disease-control; outbreaks-; histopathology-; notechis-ater;
 notechis-scutatus
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Au72
 *****************************************************************
 17. Clinical and pathological findings in young Georgia broiler
 chickens with oculofacial respiratory disease ("so-called swollen
 heads").
 Goodwin, M. A.; Waltman, W. D. 
 
 Avian-dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists Inc. Apr/June 1994. v. 38 (2) p. 376-378. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: broilers-; respiratory-diseases; head-; swelling-;
 symptoms-; histopathology-; vaccination-; case-reports; georgia-
 Abstract: Chickens with swollen heads generally are said to have
 swollen head syndrome. In this retrospective study 16 accessions
 of young  chickens during 1992 had "swollen heads." Clinical
 signs and lesions were accompanied by infection with multiple
 viruses, bacteria, and  Cryptosporidium baileyi. The fact that
 almost half of the cases of chickens with swollen heads occurred
 in one broiler-producing company and  predictably within 14 days
 post-vaccination suggests that management factors might be
 instrumental in inducing the incidence of swollen heads.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
 *****************************************************************
 18. Cloning and analysis of a Cryptosporidium parvum gene
 encoding a protein with homology to cytoplasmic form Hsp70.
 Khramtsov, N. V.; Tilley, M.; Blunt, D. S.; Montelone, B. A.;
 Upton, S. J. 
 
 J-eukaryot-microbiol. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of
 Protozoologists, c1993-. July/Aug 1995. v. 42 (4) p. 416-422. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; structural-genes;
 heat-shock-proteins; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences;
 genetic-code; molecular-sequence-data; genbank; u11761-
 NAL Call No.: QL366.J67
 *****************************************************************
 19. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding epitopes shared by
 15- and 60-kilodalton proteins of Cryptosporidium parvum
 sporozoites.
 Jenkins, M. C.; Fayer, R.; Tilley, M.; Upton, S. J. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. June 1993. v. 61 (6) p. 2377-2382. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; antigenic-determinants
 Abstract: A cDNA (CP15/60) encoding epitopes of Cryptosporidium
 parvum 15- and 60-kDa sporozoite proteins was isolated and
 expressed in  Escherichia coli toward the goal of developing an
 immunogen for producing high-titer anticryptosporidial colostrum.
 Antisera prepared in rats  to native C. parvum 15-kDa protein and
 used to identify the CP15/60 bacteriophage clone recognized both
 15- and 60-kDa in vitro translation  products derived from
 sporozoite RNA. Antisera specific for recombinant CP15/60 antigen
 recognized native 15- and 60-kDa C. parvum  sporozoite proteins
 by immunoblotting and identified both surface and internal
 antigens on C. parvum sporozoites by immunofluorescence 
 staining. Northern (RNA) and Southern blot hybridization
 experiments using sporozoite RNA and DNA indicated that CP15/60
 DNA is  transcribed as a single 1.4-kb RNA species from a
 single-copy gene. Recombinant CP15/60 antigen was recognized by
 hyperimmune colostrum  from cows immunized with C. parvum
 oocyst-sporozoite protein and by convalescent-phase sera from C.
 parvum-infected calves.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 20. Coccidia of mule ducks: preliminary survey in three farms of
 the south-west region of France.  Les coccidies du canard mulard.
 Bilan d'une premiere enquete realisee dans trois elevages du
 sud-ouest de la France.
 Chauve, C. M.; Gounel, J. M.; Reynaud, M. C. 
 
 Avian-Pathol-J-W-V-P-A v.20, p.713-719. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: ducks-; coccidia-; eimeria-; cryptosporidium-;
 tyzzeria-; new-species; new-geographic-records; incidence-;
 france-
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 21. Coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis in sheep and goats.
 Foreyt, W. J. 
 
 Vet-Clin-North-Am-Food-Anim-Pract. Philadelphia, Pa. : W.B.
 Saunders Company. Nov 1990. v. 6 (3) p. 655-670. 
 In the series analytic: Advances in sheep and goat medicine /
 edited by M. C. Smith.
 Descriptors: sheep-; goats-; digestive-system-diseases; eimeria-;
 coccidiosis-; protozoal-infections; epidemiology-;
 cryptosporidium-; diagnosis-; control-methods; disease-control;
 toxoplasmosis-; life-cycle; treatment-; prevention-;
 cryptosporidium-parvum
 NAL Call No.: SF601.V535
 *****************************************************************
 22. Coincident enteric cryptosporidiosis and lymphosarcoma in a
 cat with diarrhea.
 Lent, S. F.; Burkhardt, J. E.; Bolka, D. 
 
 J-Am-Anim-Hosp-Assoc. Lakewood, Colo. : The Association. Nov/Dec
 1993. v. 29 (6) p. 492-496. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: diarrhea-; cryptosporidium-; oocysts-; feces-;
 diagnostic-techniques; lymphosarcoma-; intestines-; cats-
 NAL Call No.: SF601.A5
 *****************************************************************
 23. Common pathogens that cause foodborne disease: can they be
 controlled on the dairy.
 Cullor, J. S. 
 
 Vet-med. Lenexa, Kan. : Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co. Feb
 1995. v. 90 (2) p. 185-186, 188, 190, 192-194. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: foodborne-diseases; dairies-; escherichia-coli;
 listeria-monocytogenes; salmonella-; campylobacter-jejuni;
 cryptosporidium-; dairy-cattle; disease-control; food-safety
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-M69
 *****************************************************************
 24. A comparative study of lipid compositions of Cryptosporidium
 parvum (Apicomplexa) and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.
 Mitschler, R. R.; Welti, R.; Upton, S. J. 
 
 J-eukaryot-microbiol. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of
 Protozoologists, c1993-. Jan/Feb 1994. v. 41 (1) p. 8-12. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: goats-; cryptosporidium-parvum; cell-culture;
 lipids-; fatty-acids; analysis-
 NAL Call No.: QL366.J67
 *****************************************************************
 25. Comparison of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium
 wrairi by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and ability to
 infect severe  combined immunodeficient mice.
 Chrisp, C. E.; Mason, P.; Perryman, L. E. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Jan 1995. v. 63 (1) p. 360-362. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: mice-; guinea-pigs; immunological-deficiency;
 cryptosporidium-parvum; cryptosporidium-; monoclonal-antibodies;
 immunotaxonomy-; antigen-antibody-reactions;
 experimental-infections; oocysts-; infectivity-; scid-mice
 Abstract: Twenty-three monoclonal antibodies raised to
 Cryptosporidium parvum and 12 raised to C. wrairi reacted with
 equal intensity with the  heterologous species. Despite
 demonstration of a close immunologic relationship between these
 two species, C. wrairi did not induce persistent  infection in
 severe combined immunodeficient mice as did C. parvum.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 26. Comparison of the host ranges and antigenicity of
 Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium wrairi from guinea
 pigs.
 Chrisp, C. E.; Suckow, M. A.; Fayer, R.; Arrowood, M. J.; Healey,
 M. C.; Sterling, C. R. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists.
 May/June 1992. v. 39 (3) p. 406-409. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; antigens-; host-range; calves-;
 guinea-pigs; mice-; monoclonal-antibodies; protozoal-infections
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 27. Concurrent cryptosporidiosis and chicken anaemia virus
 infection in broiler chickens.
 Dobos Kovacs, M.; Varga, I.; Bekesi, L.; Dren, C. N.; Nemeth, I.;
 Farkas, T. 
 
 Avian-pathol v.23, p.365-368. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: broilers-; mixed-infections; cryptosporidium-;
 chicken-anemia-agent; outbreaks-; mortality-; growth-; symptoms-;
 case-reports; hungary-; cryptosporidium-baileyi
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 28. Correlation of circulating antibody and cellular immunity
 with resistance against Cryptosporidium baileyi in broiler
 chickens.
 Hatkin, J.; Giambrone, J. J.; Blagburn, B. L. 
 
 Avian-dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists. July/Sept 1993. v. 37 (3) p. 800-804. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: broilers-; cryptosporidium-; disease-resistance;
 susceptibility-; antibody-formation; cell-mediated-immunity;
 body-weight; histopathology- ; morbidity-; mortality-
 Abstract: The correlation of circulating antibody and
 cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with resistance to Crytosporidium
 baileyi was studied using  hormonal and chemical bur sectomy in
 the one experiment and cyclosporin A in a second experiment. In
 Expt. 1, there was no correlation  between antibody (confirmed by
 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and resistance to infection as
 measured by body weight, gross lesions,  morbidity, and
 mortality. Bursectomy altered antibody production, but not CMI,
 as measured by the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction. 
 In Expt. 2, cyclosporin A reduced CMI, but not antibody
 production. Chicks treated with cyclosporin A were more
 susceptible to C baileyi  (more severe respiratory disease) than
 untreated controls. Results suggested that CMI is more important
 in resistance to C baileyi than  circulating antibody.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
 *****************************************************************
 29. Cross-reactivity of polyclonal serum antibodies generated
 against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.
 Ortega Mora, L. M.; Troncoso, J. M.; Rojo Vazquez, F. A.; Gomez
 Bautista, M. 
 
 Infect-Immun. Washington, D.C. : American Society for
 Microbiology. Aug 1992. v. 60 (8) p. 3442-3445. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: lambs-; cryptosporidium-; eimeria-; oocysts-;
 toxoplasma-; sarcocystis-; developmental-stages; antibodies-;
 antigens-; antigenic- determinants; cross-reaction; serum-;
 cystozoites-
 Abstract: Polyclonal antibodies raised against Cryptosporidium
 parvum oocysts were found to cross-react with Eimeria spp. oocyst
 antigens in an  indirect immunofluorescence assay, and sera from
 Eimeria spp.-infected lambs reacted with some antigens from
 sonicated C. parvum oocysts  (between 29 to 30 and 66 to 69 kDa)
 by Western blot (immunoblot). No cross-reaction was observed with
 cystozoites of Toxoplasma and  Sarcocystis spp. These results
 show the existence of epitopes common to C. parvum and various
 Eimeria spp.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 30. Cryptosporidiosis: a coccidiosis of calves.
 Corwin, R. M. 
 
 Compend-Contin-Educ-Pract-Vet. Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary
 Learning Systems Company, Inc. July 1992. v. 14 (7) p. 1005-1007. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-; coccidiosis-; symptoms-;
 diagnosis-; staining-; disease-transmission; therapy-;
 cryptosporidium-parvum; cryptosporidium-muris
 NAL Call No.: SF601.C66
 *****************************************************************
 31. Cryptosporidiosis--a zoonotic problem.
 Palmer, S. R. 
 
 Proc-Meet-Soc-Vet-Epidemiol-Prev-Med p.46-52. (1991).
 Meeting held on April 17-19, 1991, London.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; zoonoses-
 NAL Call No.: SF780.9.S63
 *****************************************************************
 32. Cryptosporidiosis in four cockatoos with psittacine beak and
 feather disease.
 Latimer, K. S.; Steffens, W. L. I.; Rakich, P. M.; Ritchie, B.
 W.; Niagro, F. D.; Kircher, I. M.; Lukert, P. D. 
 
 J-Am-Vet-Med-Assoc. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association. Mar 1,
 1992. v. 200 (5) p. 707-710. 
 Corrects AGRICOLA accession number IND92017411 in which the
 publication year was incorrectly entered as 1991.
 Descriptors: psittaciformes-; cryptosporidium-; feathers-;
 histopathology-; case-reports; viral-diseases; predisposition-;
 cacatua-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Am3
 *****************************************************************
 33. Cryptosporidiosis in newborn red deer (Cervus elaphus).
 Simpson, V. R. 
 
 Vet-Rec-J-Br-Vet-Assoc v.130, p.116-118. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: red-deer; cryptosporidium-; newborn-animals;
 outbreaks-; disease-transmission; predisposition-; vitamin-e;
 intrauterine-infection
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
 *****************************************************************
 34. Cryptosporidiosis in suckling laboratory rats.
 Moody, K. D.; Brownstein, D. G.; Johnson, E. A. 
 
 Lab-Anim-Sci. Cordova, Tenn. : American Association for
 Laboratory Animal Science. Dec 1991. v. 41 (6) p. 625-627. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: rats-; pups-; cryptosporidium-; symptoms-;
 diagnosis-; protozoal-infections
 NAL Call No.: 410.9-P94
 *****************************************************************
 35. Cryptosporidium.
 United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water
 Health Advisory. 
 
 Washington, D.C. : The Advisory, [1993?] 19 p. : ill..
 Caption title.
 Descriptors: Cryptosporidium-; Cryptosporidiosis-;
 Drinking-water-Contamination; Protozoan-diseases
 NAL Call No.: QL368.C59C79--1993
 *****************************************************************
 36. Fayer, R. & United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Video, T. &.
 R. C. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis : the parasite and
 the disease.  Cryptosporidium and USDA. [Washington, D.C.?] : The
 Center, [1995?] 1 videocassette (25 min., 14 sec.) : sd., col..
 Dr. Ron Fayer presents the life cycle of Cryptosporidium. He also
 discusses the geographic distribution, groups at risk from 
 cryptosporidiosis, the infective dose, and clinical signs of the
 disease itself.
 Videocassette--no.2173.
 Cryptosporidium-/ Cryptosporidiosis-.
 37. Cryptosporidium and giardia as agents of foodborne disease.
 Smith, J. L. 
 
 J-Food-Prot v.56, p.451-461. (1993).
 Literature review.
 Descriptors: foodborne-diseases; giardia-; cryptosporidium-;
 food-safety; literature-reviews; disease-course
 Abstract: Infections by the protozoan parasites of the genera
 Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be asymptomatic or cause
 gastroenteritis in  immunocompetent people. However, in
 immunocompromised individuals, the infections can be more severe
 and even life threatening. Both  parasites are common waterborne
 pathogens, but on occasion they may be foodborne or transmitted
 by body contact. In this review, several  aspects of
 Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed including their life
 cycles, resistance to physical and chemical agents, routes of 
 transmission to humans, the nature of the disease caused by the
 parasites, and detection of the organisms in water, feces, and
 food. Documented  incidents in which Cryptosporidium or Giardia
 contaminated foods were implicated as cause of gastroenteritis
 are discussed to illustrate  conditions leading to foodborne
 outbreaks and to suggest means of prevention and control of the
 parasites when present in foods.
 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 38. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in beef calves.
 National Animal Health Monitoring System (U.S.). 
 
 Fort Collins, Colo. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant
 Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, [1994] 1 sheet :
 ill..
 Caption title.
 Descriptors: Calves-Diseases-United-States;
 Cryptosporidium-United-States; Giardia-United-States
 NAL Call No.: aSF961.C792--1994
 *****************************************************************
 39. Cryptosporidium and the food supply.
 Petersen, C. 
 
 Lancet. North American ed. New York, NY : The Lancet. May 6,
 1995. v. 345 (8958) p. 1128-1129. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: apples-; cryptosporidium-; food-contamination;
 disease-vectors; disease-transmission; immune-response;
 disease-course; human-feces
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-L22
 *****************************************************************
 40. Cryptosporidium in water supplies.
 Badenoch, J.; Great Britain. Group of Experts on Cryptosporidium
 in Water Supplies. 
 
 London : H.M.S.O., 1990. xi, 230 p. : ill. (some col.).
 Chairman: Sir John Badenoch.
 Descriptors: Cryptosporidiosis-Great-Britain;
 Water-supply-Quality-control-Great-Britain;
 Swindon-England-Water-supply; Oxford-England-Water- supply
 NAL Call No.: RC136.5.C79-1990
 *****************************************************************
 41. Cryptosporidium infection in cats: prevalence of infection in
 domestic and feral cats in the Glasgow area.
 Mtambo, M. M. A.; Nash, A. S.; Blewett, D. A.; Smith, H. V.;
 Wright, S. 
 
 Vet-Rec-J-Br-Vet-Assoc v.129, p.502-504. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cats-; cryptosporidium-; protozoal-infections;
 disease-prevalence; wild-animals; diarrhea-; feline-oncovirus;
 feline-immunodeficiency- virus; scotland-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
 *****************************************************************
 42. Cryptosporidium infection in farm cats in the Glasgow area.
 Nash, A. S.; Mtambo, M. M. A.; Gibbs, H. A. 
 
 Vet-rec v.133, p.576-577. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cats-; cryptosporidium-; scotland-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
 *****************************************************************
 43. Cryptosporidium is common in dairy calves : National Dairy
 Heifer Evaluation Project.
 National Animal Health Monitoring System. 
 
 Fort Collins, Colo. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant
 Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, [1993] 1 sheet :
 ill..
 Caption title.
 Descriptors: Dairy-cattle-Parasites-United-States;
 Calves-Parasites-United-States; Cryptosporidium-United-States;
 Cryptosporidiosis-United-States
 NAL Call No.: aSF967.P3C79--1993
 *****************************************************************
 44. Cryptosporidium merozoite isolation and purification using
 differential centrifugation techniques.
 Regan, S.; Cama, V.; Sterling, C. R. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 202S-204S. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: bulls-; calves-; holstein-friesian-;
 cryptosporidium-; isolation-; purification-; methodology-;
 monoclonal-antibodies; proteins-; cryptosporidium-parvum
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 45. Cryptosporidium muris in adult mice: adoptive transfer of
 immunity and protective roles of CD4 versus CD8 cells.
 McDonald, V.; Robinson, H. A.; Kelly, J. P.; Bancroft, G. J. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. June 1994. v. 62 (6) p. 2289-2294. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: mice-; cryptosporidium-; disease-models;
 t-lymphocytes; immunity-; disease-resistance; cd4-lymphocytes;
 cd8-lymphocytes; scid-mice; balb; c-mice
 Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of
 the CD4 and CD8 T cells in immunity to cryptosporidia by using
 Cryptosporidium  muris and a mouse model of infection. Two
 approaches were used, each involving the use of rat anti-T-cell
 surface marker monoclonal  antibodies (MAbs). In the first, the
 adoptive transfer of immunity was studied by using the CB.17 SCID
 mouse (which lacks T and B cells) as  the host; in the second,
 the effect on susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection was
 examined following depletion of T cells or subsets of T  cells.
 In adoptive immunity experiments, the conditions which
 differentiated between resistance associated with reconstitution
 of SCID mice  with naive BALB/c lymphocytes and the transfer of
 immunity with primed lymphocytes from infected animals were
 determined. Primed spleen  or mesenteric lymph node cells
 conferred better protection to recipeints than naive cells when
 obtained from donors which had developed  resistance to
 infection. Adoptive immunity was abrogated when Thy.1 cells or
 CD-4 cells were depleted from primed cells, whele depletion of 
 CD8 cells could reduce the level of protection. In the study of
 C. muris in BALB/c mice, treatment with either anti-Thy.1 plus
 anti-Lyt.1 or anti- CD4 MAbs increased susceptibility to a
 primary infection as determined by the size and duration of
 oocyst production, but an anti-CD8 MAb  produced an increase only
 in oocyst shedding. Thus, both CD4 and, to a lesser extent, CD8
 cells appeared to be involved in resistance to  primary and
 secondary C. muris infection.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 46. Cryptosporidium muris: prevalence, persistency, and
 detrimental effect on milk production in a drylot dairy.
 Esteban, E.; Anderson, B. C. 
 
 J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association. May 1995. v. 78 (5) p. 1068-1072. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: dairy-cows; feces-; cryptosporidium-; oocysts-;
 dry-lot-feeding; zero-grazing; disease-prevalence; milk-yield;
 latent-infections; california-
 Abstract: A total of 1746 individual fecal samples were obtained
 from milking cows during three separate visits to a drylot dairy
 farm. In addition,  1240 fecal samples were also obtained from
 cows in four additional farms. Cryptosporidium muris was
 prevalent in all five herds sampled.  Cows that were sampled more
 than once invariably remained in the same shedding category. Cows
 shedding C. muris oocysts produced  significantly less milk
 (approximately 3.2 kg/d). After corrections for the effects of
 age, parity, pen, and DIM in a logistic regression model,  mean
 daily milk production was significantly associated with shedding
 status.
 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
 *****************************************************************
 47. Cryptosporidium parvum in calves: kinetics and immunoblot
 analysis of specific serum and local antibody responses
 (immunoglobulin A  [IgA], IgG, and IgM) after natural and
 experimental infections.
 Peeters, J. E.; Villacorta, I.; Vanopdenbosch, E.; Vandergheynst,
 D.; Naciri, M.; Ares Mazas, E.; Yvore, P. 
 
 Infect-Immun. Washington, D.C. : American Society for
 Microbiology. June 1992. v. 60 (6) p. 2309-2316. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-; feces-; serum-;
 antigens-; antibodies-; iga-; igg-; igm-; immune-response;
 experimental-infection; reinfection-; kinetics-;
 natural-infection
 Abstract: Fecal and serum anti-Cryptosporidium parvum
 immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG were monitored by an
 enzyme-linked  immunosorbent assay after experimental and natural
 infection of calves with C. parvum. Although all experimentally
 infected calves showed  high levels of colostral antibodies in
 the feces, they acquired C. parvum infection. Three of five
 animals died. Calves which acquired natural  infection showed
 only diarrhea. levels of colostral coproantibodies dropped
 quickly. Experimental infection was followed by a rise in local
 anti- C. parvum IgM levels from day 5 postinfection (p.i.). IgM
 peaked at day 14 p.i. and then disappeared quickly. Anti-C.
 parvum IgA levels rose  between days 7 and 14 p.i. and decreased
 slowly. Rising levels of coproantibodies coincided with failing
 oocyst output. Fecal anti-C. parvum  IgG levels rose slightly
 during oocyst output, and IgG disappeared 3 weeks p.i. Similar
 kinetics were established in naturally infected calves.  Although
 fecal anti-C. parvum IgA levels declined slowly, reinfections
 were established 5, 7, and 14 weeks after the primary contact.
 Serum  anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose during maximal oocyst
 excretion, whereas serum anti-C. parvum IgA levels peaked later
 than did local IgA  levels. Challenge reinfection of naturally
 infected calves at day 112 was not followed by clinical signs or
 oocyst output or by a secondary  antibody response. Sequential
 Western immunoblotting with fecal extracts revealed up to 32
 different parasite antigens. Convalescent-phase  sera recognized
 up to 23 antigens. Fecal IgA reacted intensely with antigens with
 relative molecular weights (Mr) of approximately 11,000 and 
 15,000. These antigens were not recognized by convalescent-phase
 serum IgG. Both local IgA and serum IgG also showed strong
 reactions with  23,000- and 44,000-Mr antigens and with several
 antigens of between 66,200 and 200,000 Mr. Most bands remained
 detectable for at least 16  weeks p.i.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 48. Cryptosporidium parvum infection of Caco-2 cell monolayers
 induces an apical monolayer defect, selectively increases
 transmonolayer  permeability, and causes epithelial cell death.
 Griffiths, J. K.; Moore, R.; Dooley, S.; Keusch, G. T.; Tzipori,
 S. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Oct 1994. v. 62 (10) p. 4506-4514. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; cell-lines; epithelium-;
 in-vitro; infection-; permeability-; viability-
 Abstract: Caco-2 cells were grown on permeable filters and
 infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Infection rates exceeded
 50% of target cells  with a sufficient inoculum dose of
 parasites. Infection induced a dose- and time-dependent fall in
 transmonolayer resistance, which was closely  related to both the
 inoculum dose and the number of parasites detected by
 immunofluorescence. Caco-2a, MDBK, and MDBK subclone F5D2 
 evidenced similar declines in resistance when grown and infected
 under similar circumstances. Caco-2 monolayers became permeable
 to  molecules of less than or equal to 1,000 Da but continued to
 remain impermeable to exogenously added, or endogenously
 produced, proteins of  greater than or equal to 1.881 Da. We
 found that infected monolayers released up to 50% of the total
 cellular lactase dehydrogenase into apical  media, but not basal
 media, and that the vital dye propidium iodide avidly stained
 infected cells, and often parasites, when added to the apical 
 reservoir. Cryptosporidium infection of Caco-2 monolayers
 increases transmonolayer permeability, induces an apical cellular
 and monolayer  defect, and causes cell death.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 49. Cryptosporidium parvum: investigation of sporozoite
 excystation in vivo and the association of merozoites with
 intestinal mucus.
 Hill, B. D.; Blewett, D. A.; Dawson, A. M.; Wright, S. 
 
 Res-Vet-Sci v.51, p.264-267. (1991).
 First of a series.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; intestinal-mucosa; merozoites-;
 sporozoites-; ileum-; collection-; mice-
 Abstract: Enteric cryptosporidiosis was studied in the small
 intestine of five-day-old sucking mice after infection with 10(6)
 Cryptosporidium  parvum oocysts. It was shown that excystation
 and the majority of subsequent endogenous stages occurred
 predominantly in the ileum. During  the first three days of
 infection the number of merozoites collected in ileal washings
 increased over 100-fold to approximately 10(6) merozoites  per
 mouse on the third day. In contrast to control mice, wash fluid
 from infected mice contained numerous strands of dislodged mucus. 
 Estimates of mucus in the ileal washings of infected mice were
 similar to those made in controls until day 4 after infection
 when they increased  and remained high throughout the remainder
 of the experiment. This study describes a method whereby ileal
 mucus washings from C parvum  infected infant mice could be used
 as a rich source of merozoites.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
 *****************************************************************
 50. Cryptosporidium parvum literature review.
 Garber, L. 
 
 Animal-health-insight p.3-11. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cattle-; cryptosporidium-parvum; life-cycle;
 disease-prevalence; symptoms-; colostral-immunity; spread-;
 disease-control; zoonoses-; geographical-distribution;
 diagnostic-techniques; literature-reviews
 NAL Call No.: SF623.A64
 *****************************************************************
 51. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst shedding in Florida dairy
 calves.
 McCluskey, B. J. 
 
 Animal-health-insight p.1-5. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; dairy-cattle; cryptosporidium-parvum;
 oocysts-; feces-; age-differences; disease-prevalence; florida-;
 point-prevalence; period-prevalence
 NAL Call No.: SF623.A64
 *****************************************************************
 52. Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak.
 United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
 Veterinary Services. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. 
 
 Fort Collins, Colo. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant
 Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, [1993] 1 sheet :
 1 ill..
 Caption title.  Wisconsin Veterinary Services' Area Office, April
 1993"--P. [2].
 Descriptors: Cryptosporidium-parvum-United-States;
 Cattle-Diseases-United-States
 NAL Call No.: aSF961.C79--1993
 *****************************************************************
 53. Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite staining by propidium
 iodide.
 Cozon, G.; Cannella, D.; Biron, F.; Piens, M. A.; Jeannin, M.;
 Revillard, J. P. 
 
 Int-J-Parasitol v.22, p.385-389. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; sporozoites-; staining-; stains-;
 oocysts-; iodides-; dna-; feces-
 Abstract: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) acid-fast stain is the
 usual method for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in feces.
 Propidium iodide  permitted us to stain free or intra-oocyst
 sporozoites. With the ZN method only 3-5% of the oocysts purified
 from three human and one  experimentally infected lamb
 dichromate-preserved feces were stained by carbol fuchsin. These
 fuchsin-stained oocysts were free of intact  sporozoites as
 identified by propidium iodide staining. Treatment with 10%
 formalin or 0.5% sodium hypochlorite increased the percentage of 
 acid-fast stained oocysts and thus the sensitivity of acid-fast
 staining. Treatment with sodium hypochlorite induced intra-oocyst
 sporozoite  alterations as demonstrated by flow cytometric
 analysis of the oocysts' DNA content. Propidium iodide staining
 of fixed oocysts is a simple and  rapid method to visualize
 sporozoites and to assess oocyst preservation after different
 treatments.
 NAL Call No.: QH547.I55
 *****************************************************************
 54. A Cryptosporidium sp in an ostrich.
 Penrith, M. L.; Burger, W. P. 
 
 J-South-Afr-Vet-Assoc v.64, p.60-61. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: ostriches-; cryptosporidium-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-SO8
 *****************************************************************
 55. Cryptosporidium sp. infection in the proventriculus of an
 Australian diamond firetail finch (Staganoplura bella:
 Passeriformes, Estrildidae).
 Blagburn, B. L.; Lindsay, D. S.; Hoerr, F. J.; Atlas, A. L.;
 Toivio Kinnucan, M. 
 
 Avian-dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists Inc. Oct/Dec 1990. v. 34 (4) p. 1027-1030. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: passeriformes-; ornamental-birds; cryptosporidium-;
 fatal-infections; proventriculus-; diarrhea-; histopathology-;
 pathogenesis-; case- reports; protozoal-infections
 Abstract: An Australian diamond firetail finch died following the
 acute onset and development of severe diarrhea. The bird was
 purchased from a  wholesaler and was housed in a pet store aviary
 with 12 other birds. Necropsy, histologic evaluation, and
 electron microscopic evaluation  revealed organisms in the
 proventriculus (surface, ductal, and glandular epithelium)
 compatible in site of development, size, and morphology  with
 Cryptosporidium spp. Lesions in the proventriculus were focal
 cuboidal metaplasia of glandular epithelial cells and deposition
 of amyloid  in the perivascular interstitial tissues at the base
 of the glands. Amyloid also was present in the duodenum, liver,
 spleen, pancreas, and kidney.  Inability to recover other
 organisms suggested that Cryptosporidium was the primary cause of
 diarrhea and death. The affected bird likely  suffered
 dehydration as a result of acute gastrointestinal disturbance,
 concomitant with renal amyloidosis and urate nephrosis.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
 *****************************************************************
 56. Cryptosporidium species in imported ostriches and
 consideration of possible implications for birds in Canada.
 Gajadhar, A. A. 
 
 Can-vet-j v.34, p.115-116. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: ostriches-; cryptosporidium-; canada-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R3224
 *****************************************************************
 57. Crytosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in man and animals.
 O'Donoghue, P. J. 
 
 Int-j-parasitol v.25, p.139-195. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; protozoal-infections;
 animal-diseases; disease-transmission; diagnosis-; drug-therapy;
 molecular-biology; literature- reviews
 NAL Call No.: QH547.I55
 *****************************************************************
 58. Detection and species identification of Cryptosporidium
 oocytes using a system based on PCR and endonuclease restriction.
 Awad el Kariem, F. M.; Warhurst, D. C.; McDonald, V. 
 
 Parasitology v.109, p.19-22. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; cryptosporidium-parvum; oocysts-;
 species-differences; identification-; detection-;
 polymerase-chain-reaction; restriction-endonuclease-analysis;
 cryptosporidium-muris; cryptosporidium-baileyi
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-P21
 *****************************************************************
 59. Determination of lactose and xylose malabsorption in
 preruminant diarrheic calves.
 Nappert, G.; Hamilton, D.; Petrie, L.; Naylor, J. M. 
 
 Can-j-vet-res. [Ottawa, Ont. : Canadian Veterinary Medical
 Association, 1986-. July 1993. v. 57 (3) p. 152-158. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; beef-cattle; diarrhea-; physiopathology-;
 lactose-; xylose-; malabsorption-; breath-; hydrogen-;
 excretion-; blood-sugar; blood- plasma; calf-feeding;
 coronavirus-; calf-diarrhea-rotavirus; cryptosporidium-;
 acid-base-imbalance; intestinal-microorganisms
 NAL Call No.: SF601.C24
 *****************************************************************
 60. Disaster in Milwaukee: complacency was the root cause.
 Smith, V. 
 
 Epa-j. Washington, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Summer
 1994. v. 20 (1/2) p. 16-18. 
 Descriptors: drinking-water; cryptosporidium-; water-supply;
 contamination-; urban-areas; public-health; wisconsin-
 NAL Call No.: TD171.U5
 *****************************************************************
 61. DNA probe hybridization and PCR detection of Cryptosporidium
 compared to immunofluorescence assay.
 Johnson, D. W.; Pieniazek, N. J.; Rose, J. B. 
 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.77-84. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Health-related water microbiology 1992 /
 edited by R.W. Morris, W.O.K. Grabow and A.P. Dufour. Proceedings
 of  an International Symposium, Water Quality International '92,
 Sixteenth Biennial Conference and Exposition, International
 Association on  Water Pollution Research and Control, May 24-30,
 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptors: animal-diseases; cryptosporidium-; detection-;
 dna-probes; hybridization-; polymerase-chain-reaction;
 immunofluorescence-; assays-
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 *****************************************************************
 62. The effect of dietary energy concentration on calf
 performance.
 Kuehn, C. S.; Otterby, D. E.; Linn, J. G.; Olson, W. G.; Chester
 Jones, H.; Marx, G. D.; Barmore, J. A. 
 
 J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association. Sept 1994. v. 77 (9) p. 2621-2629. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; dietary-fat; milk-substitutes; feed-intake;
 weaning-; liveweight-gain; energy-intake; diarrhea-;
 cryptosporidium-; salmonella-; calf- diarrhea-rotavirus;
 blood-chemistry; calf-diseases; blood-sugar; fatty-acids
 Abstract: At three locations, 120 calves were fed a high fat milk
 replacer at 10% of birth weight from d 5 through 13. On d 14,
 calves were assigned  randomly within sex and date of birth to a
 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were (on a
 DM basis) high fat milk replacer  (21.6%) and high fat starter
 (7.3%), high fat milk replacer (21.6%) and low fat starter
 (3.7%), low fat milk replacer (15.6%) and high fat starter 
 (7.3%), and low fat milk replacer (15.6%) and low fat starter
 (3.7%). Milk replacer was fed at 8% of birth weight/d from d 14
 to 35 and at 4%  of birth weight/d from d 36 to 42. High fat
 replacer depressed DMI before and after weaning. High fat starter
 depressed DMI after weaning.  Before weaning, calves gained more
 BW when fed low fat replacer. Calves fed low fat starter gained
 more BW after weaning. On d 56, BW  were highest for calves fed
 low fat replacer and starter and lowest for those fed high fat
 replacer and starter. Growth or health of calves was not 
 improved by fat addition to the diet.
 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
 *****************************************************************
 63. Effect of high temperature on infectivity of Cryptosporidium
 parvum oocysts in water.
 Fayer, R. 
 
 Appl-environ-microbiol v.60, p.2732-2735. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; oocysts-; infectivity-;
 heat-; heat-treatment; experimental-infections; mice-;
 sterilizing-
 Abstract: Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts suspended in 0.5 ml of
 distilled water were pipetted into plastic vials which were
 inserted into wells in  the heated metal block of a thermal DNA
 cycler.  Block temperatures were set at 5 degrees C incremental
 temperatures from 60 to 100 degrees  C.  At each temperature
 setting four vials containing C. parvum oocysts were placed into
 wells and held for 15 s before time was recorded as  zero, and
 then pairs of vials were removed 1 and 5 min later.  Upon
 removal, all vials were immediately cooled on crushed ice.  Also,
 at each  temperature interval one vial containing 0.5 ml of
 distilled water was placed in a well and a digital thermometer
 was used to record the actual  water temperature at 30-s
 intervals.  Heated oocyst suspensions as well as unheated control
 suspensions were orally inoculated by gavage into 7-  to
 10-day-old BALB/c mouse pups to test for infectivity.  At 96 h
 after inoculation the ileum, cecum, and colon from each mouse
 were removed  and prepared for histology.  Tissue sections were
 examined microscopically.  Developmental-stage C. parvum was
 found in all three gut  segments from all mice that received
 oocysts in unheated water and in water that reached temperatures
 of 54.4, 59.9, and 67.5 degrees C at 1  min when vials were
 removed from the heat source.  C. parvum was also found in the
 ileum of one of six mice that received oocysts in water  that
 reached a temperature of 59.7 degrees C at 5 min.  These data
 indicated that when water containing C. parvum oocysts reached 
 temperatures of 72.4 degrees C or higher within 1 min or when the
 temperature was held at 64.2 degrees C or higher for 2 min of a
 5-min  heating cycle, infectivity was lost.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
 *****************************************************************
 64. Effect of sodium hypochlorite exposure on infectivity of
 Crytosporidium parvum oocysts for neonatal BALB/c mice.
 Fayer, R. 
 
 Appl-environ-microbiol v.61, p.844-846. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; oocysts-; disinfection-;
 sodium-hypochlorite; infectivity-; experimental-infections;
 mice-; newborn-animals
 Abstract: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum suspended in 5.25,
 2.63, or 1.31% aqueous sodium hypochlorite (Clorox laundry
 bleach) for 10, 30,  60, or 120 min at 21 degrees C were
 administered by gastric intubation to neonatal BALB/c mice.
 Microscopic examination of intestinal tissue  sections revealed
 developmental stages of C. parvum in all of the mice.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
 *****************************************************************
 65. Effect of spleen cell populations on resolution of
 Cryptosporidium parvum infection in SCID mice.
 Perryman, L. E.; Mason, P. H.; Chrisp, C. E. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Apr 1994. v. 62 (4) p. 1474-1477. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; spleen-cells; t-lymphocytes;
 mice-; immunological-deficiency
 Abstract: Persistent infection was established in SCID mice given
 10(7) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.  Nine groups of infected
 SCID mice  were inoculated with 10(6), 10(5), or 10(4) total
 spleen cells, CD8-depleted spleen cells, or CD4-depleted spleen
 cells from naive BALB/c  donors. Infection was significantly
 reduced in all treatment groups.  The most profound effect
 occurred with spleen cell preparations containing  CD4 T
 lymphocytes but depleted of CD8 T lymphocytes.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 66. The effect of varying levels of DECCOX on experimental
 Cryptosporidia infections in Holstein bull calves.
 Redman, D. R.; Fox, J. E. 
 
 Proc-annu-conv-Am-Assoc-Bovine-Pract,-Conv. Stillwater, Okla. :
 The Association,. Jan 1994. (26th) p. 157-159. 
 Meeting held September 16-19, 1993, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 Descriptors: calves-; decoquinate-; cryptosporidium-; dosage-
 NAL Call No.: SF961.A5
 *****************************************************************
 67. Effects of cryptosporidiosis on feed utilization by yearling
 steers.
 Goss, L. A.; Thomson, J. U.; Pritchard, R. H. 
 
 S-D-Beef-Rep-Anim-Range-Sci-Dep-Agric-Exp-Stn-Coop-Ext-Serv-S-D-State-Univ. [Brookings, S.D.] : Animal and Range Sciences 
 Department. Sept 1991. (91-20) p. 78-80. 
 Descriptors: steers-; cryptosporidium-; feeds-; utilization-
 NAL Call No.: SF207.S68
 *****************************************************************
 68. Effects of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on lymphocyte
 phenotype and reactivity in calves.
 Harp, J. A.; Franklin, S. T.; Goff, J. P.; Nonecke, B. J. 
 
 Vet-immunol-immunopathol v.44, p.197-207. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-parvum;
 protozoal-infections; lymphocytes-; lymphocyte-transformation;
 t-lymphocytes; phytolacca-americana; mitogens-; antigens-;
 spleen-; blood-; lymph-nodes; suppressor-cells; null-lymphocytes;
 cd8+-lymphocytes; cd4+-lymphocytes; pokeweed-mitogen
 NAL Call No.: SF757.2.V38
 *****************************************************************
 69. Effects of housing and colostrum feeding on the prevalence of
 selected infectious organisms in feces of Jersey calves.
 Quigley, J. D. I.; Martin, K. R.; Bemis, D. A.; Potgieter, L. N.
 D.; Reinemeyer, C. R.; Rohrbach, B. W.; Dowlen, H. H.; Lamar, K.
 C. 
 
 J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association. Oct 1994. v. 77 (10) p. 3124-3131. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; calf-housing; pens-; colostrum-; suckling-;
 birth-weight; body-weight; feces-; cryptosporidium-; eimeria-;
 giardia-; mortality-; calf- diarrhea-rotavirus; coronavirus-;
 blood-serum; igg-; igm-; dairy-cattle; jersey-; hutches-
 Abstract: Neonatal Jersey calves (n = 96) were used to evaluate
 effects of housing (individual hutches or wooden pens in a barn)
 and colostrum  feeding (calves were separated from the dam and
 fed 2 L of colostrum in nipple-bottles or allowed to nurse the
 dam for 3 d) on the prevalence  of selected organisms in feces.
 Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria were reduced, and
 prevalence of rotavirus tended to be reduced,  when calves were
 housed in hutches. Prevalence of coronavirus was unaffected by
 treatment. Weekly prevalence of Giardia was increased when 
 calves were left to nurse the dam for 3 d. Mean prevalence of
 Cryptosporidia (wk 1 to 4), Eimeria (wk 4 to 5), Giardia.
 rotavirus, and  coronavirus (wk 1 to 5) were 34.7, 20.6, 27.1,
 15.8, and 4.9%, respectively. Escherichia coli (K99 positive)
 were observed in 3 of 174 samples  cultured. Methods of housing
 and colostrum feeding affected acquisition of enteropathogens in
 this study.
 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
 *****************************************************************
 70. Epidemiology of equine Cryptosporidium and Giardia
 infections.
 Xiao, L.; Herd, R. P. 
 
 Equine-vet-j v.26, p.14-17. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: horses-; cryptosporidium-; giardia-
 NAL Call No.: SF955.E6
 *****************************************************************
 71. An episode of diarrhea in calves of a well-managed dairy
 herd.
 Wright, A. K.; Giger, R.; Arnold, T. M.; Janzen, E. D. 
 
 Can-vet-j v.36, p.36-38. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; dairy-cattle; cryptosporidium-; diarrhea-;
 colostral-immunity; cow-colostrum; igg-; vitamin-e; selenium-;
 immunological- deficiency; saskatchewan-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R3224
 *****************************************************************
 72. Evaluation of recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts
 using membrane filtration.
 Dawson, D. J.; Maddocks, M.; Roberts, J.; Vidler, J. S. 
 
 Lett-appl-microbiol v.17, p.276-279. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; oocysts-;
 isolation-techniques; filtration-; filters-; membrane-filters
 NAL Call No.: QR1.L47
 *****************************************************************
 73. Excretion of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by a herd of beef
 suckler cows.
 Scott, C. A.; Smith, H. V.; Gibbs, H. A. 
 
 Vet-rec v.134, p.172. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: beef-cows; cryptosporidium-parvum; epidemiology-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-V641
 *****************************************************************
 74. Experimental infection in mice of Cryptosporidium muris
 isolated from a camel.
 Anderson, B. C. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 165-175. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: camels-; cryptosporidium-; experimental-infection;
 mice-; feces-; histopathology-; smears-
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 75. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water supplies.
 LeChevallier, M. W.; AWWA Research Foundation. 
 
 Denver, CO : The Foundation : American Water Works Association,
 c1991. xvi, 99 p. : ill..
 "1P-7.5C-90583-4/91-JP"--P. [4] of cover.
 Descriptors: Water-Purification-Filtration-Evaluation;
 Giardia-lamblia-Control-United-States;
 Cryptosporidium-parvum-Control-United-States
 NAL Call No.: TD441.G52-1991
 *****************************************************************
 76. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water
 supplies.
 LeChevallier, M. W.; Norton, W. D.; Lee, R. G. 
 
 Appl-Environ-Microbiol. Washington, D.C. : American Society for
 Microbiology. Sept 1991. v. 57 (9) p. 2617-2621. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: drinking-water; giardia-; cryptosporidium-;
 water-systems; filtration-; surface-water-treatment-rule
 Abstract: Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by
 using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking
 water samples  collected from 66 surface water treatment plants
 in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected
 in 17% of the 83 filtered  water effluents. Cryptosporidium
 oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples.
 Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of  the treated
 effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in
 drinking water, microscopic observations of the cysts and oocysts 
 suggested that most of the organisms were nonviable. Compliance
 with the filtration criteria outlined by the Surface Water
 Treatment Rule of  the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency did
 not ensure that treated water was free of cysts and oocysts. The
 average plant effluent turbidity  for sites which were parasite
 position was 0.19 nephelometric turbidity units. Of sites that
 were positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium spp.,  78% would
 have been able to meet the turbidity regulations of the Surface
 Water Temperature Rule. Evaluation of the data by using a risk 
 assessment model developed for Giardia spp. showed that 24% of
 the utilities examined would not meet a 1/10,000 annual risk of
 Giardia  infection. For cold water conditions (0.5 degrees C),
 46% of the plants would not achieve the 1/10,000 risk level.
 NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
 *****************************************************************
 77. Hyperimmune hens as a novel source of anti-Cryptosporidium
 antibodies suitable for passive immune transfer.
 Cama, V. A.; Sterling, C. R. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 425-435. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: hens-; hyperimmunization-; cryptosporidium-;
 antibodies-; mice-; passive-immunity; cryptosporidium-parvum
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 78. The immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone administered
 in drinking water to C57BL/6N mice infected with Cryptosporidium 
 parvum.
 Yang, S. U.; Healey, M. C. 
 
 J-parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of
 Parasitologists, 1914. Aug 1993. v. 79 (4) p. 626-630. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: mice-; cryptosporidium-parvum; disease-models
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 79. Immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis in immunodeficient animal
 models.
 Perryman, L. E.; Bjorneby, J. M. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 985-100S. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: animal-models; cryptosporidium-; foals-;
 immunological-deficiency; immunotherapy-; mice-;
 monoclonal-antibodies; cryptosporidium-parvum
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 80. In vitro excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum.
 Robertson, L. J.; Campbell, A. T.; Smith, H. V. 
 
 Parasitology. New York, N.Y. : Cambridge University Press. Jan
 1993. v. 106 (pt.1) p. 13-19. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; in-vitro;
 biological-development
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-P21
 *****************************************************************
 81. In vitro proliferation and production of gamma interferon by
 murine CD4+ cells in response to Cryptosporidium parvum antigen.
 Harp, J. A.; Whitmire, W. M.; Sacco, R. 
 
 J-parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of
 Parasitologists, 1914. Feb 1994. v. 80 (1) p. 67-72. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; spleen-cells; cytokines-;
 mice-
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 82. Incidence of respiratory cryptosporidiosis in Georgia
 broilers: 1987-92.
 Goodwin, M. A.; Brown, J. 
 
 Avian-dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists Inc. Apr/June 1994. v. 38 (2) p. 358-360. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: broilers-; cryptosporidium-; respiratory-diseases;
 temporal-variation; disease-prevalence; disease-distribution;
 geographical-distribution; environmental-temperature; cold-;
 georgia-
 Abstract: The temporal incidence of respiratory cryptosporidiosis
 in Georgia broilers was established for 1987-92. Analyzed data
 showed that, for  some years, the incidence of respiratory
 cryptosporidiosis was higher in southern Georgia than in northern
 Georgia. The incidence of respiratory  cryptosporidiosis was
 never higher in northern Georgia than in southern Georgia.
 Because there was a significant (Z[rho] = 3.02, P= 0.003) 
 relationship between the number of days at less than or equal to
 0 C and the diagnostic frequency of respiratory cryptosporidiosis
 in the present  study, we concluded that as the number of days
 below freezing increases, the diagnostic frequency of respiratory
 cryptosporidiosis in broilers  decreases.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
 *****************************************************************
 83. Infective dose size studies on Cryptosporidium parvum using
 gnotobiotic lambs.
 Blewett, D. A.; Wright, S. E.; Casemore, D. P.; Booth, N. E.;
 Jones, C. E. 
 
 Water-Sci-Technol-J-Int-Assoc-Water-Pollut-Res-Control v.27,
 p.61-64. (1993).
 In the series analytic: Health-related water microbiology 1992 /
 edited by R.W. Morris, W.O.K. Grabow and A.P. Dufour. Proceedings
 of  an International Symposium, Water Quality International '92,
 Sixteenth Biennial Conference and Exposition, International
 Association on  Water Pollution Research and Control, May 24-30,
 1992, Washington, D.C.
 Descriptors: gnotobiotic-animals; lambs-; infection-;
 dosage-effects; cryptosporidium-parvum; waterborne-diseases;
 water-pollution; oocysts-; disease- transmission
 NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
 *****************************************************************
 84. Intestinal cryptosporidiosis and reovirus isolation from
 young pen-raised Bobwhite quail with severe diarrhea and high
 mortality.
 Ley, D. H.; Lowenstine, L.; Turrel, J. M. 
 
 Proc-West-Poult-Dis-Conf. Davis, Calif. : University of
 California. 1985. (34th) p. 93-95. 
 Meeting held on March 3-6, 1985, Davis, California.
 Descriptors: colinus-virginianus; cryptosporidium-; reovirus-;
 diarrhea-; poultry-; farming-; north-carolina
 NAL Call No.: SF995.W4
 *****************************************************************
 85. An intestinal xenograft model for Cryptosporidium parvum
 infection.
 Thulin, J. D.; Kuhlenschmidt, M. S.; Rolsma, M. D.; Current, W.
 L.; Gelberg, H. B. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Jan 1994. v. 62 (1) p. 329-331. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; xenografts-; animal-models
 Abstract: Paired segments of near-term fetal rabbit small
 intestine were transplanted subcutaneously into   athymic nude
 mice.  At 5 weeks  postsurgery, the xenografts were inoculated
 intraluminally with   Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. 
 Parasites rapidly and reliably infected  the xenograft mucosal  
 epithelium.  Lesions typical of cryptosporidiosis were readily
 apparent by light microscopy and   scanning and  transmission
 electron microscopy. Xenografts are well suited to the study of
 the   early events of C. parvum infection and are of potential
 value  in the evaluation of   anticryptosporidial
 chemotherapeutic agents.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 86. Intractable diarrhea associated with intestinal
 cryptosporidiosis in a domestic cat also infected with feline
 leukemia virus.
 Goodwin, M. A.; Barsanti, J. A. 
 
 J-Am-Anim-Hosp-Assoc. Golden, Colo. : The Association. July/Aug
 1990. v. 26 (4) p. 365-368. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cat-diseases; cats-; diarrhea-; feline-oncovirus;
 cryptosporidium-; case-reports
 NAL Call No.: SF601.A5
 *****************************************************************
 87. Isolation and identification of cryptosporidium parvum
 oocysts with continuous percoll gradients and combined alcian
 blue-giemsa  staining.
 Rosales, M. J.; Lazcano, C. M.; Arnedo, T.; Castilla, J. J. 
 
 Acta-trop v.56, p.371-373. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-parvum; isolation-;
 identification-; giemsa-staining
 NAL Call No.: 475-Ac8
 *****************************************************************
 88. Kinetics of serum antibody responses in broiler chicks
 against Cryptosporidium baileyi.
 Hatkin, J. M.; Giambrone, J. J.; Blagburn, B. L. 
 
 Avian-pathol v.22, p.525-532. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: chicks-; cryptosporidium-; immune-response;
 age-differences; igm-; igg-; susceptibility-
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 89. Malabsorption of vitamin A in preruminating calves infected
 with Cryptosporidium parvum.
 Holland, R. E.; Boyle, S. M.; Herdt, T. H.; Grimes, S. D.;
 Walker, R. D. 
 
 Am-J-Vet-Res. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical
 Association. Oct 1992. v. 53 (10) p. 1947-1952. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-; retinol-; malabsorption-;
 retinyl-palmitate; blood-serum; jejunum-; ileum-; villi-;
 intestinal-mucosa
 Abstract: Serum retinol, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A
 concentrations, and jejunoileal morphology were examined in
 neonatal calves  infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Group-1
 calves served as noninfected controls and, after an adjustment
 period, were given 50 ml of  saline solution IV every 12 hours
 for 6 days. Group-2 calves were inoculated with 10(7) C parvum
 oocysts and, after the onset of diarrhea, were  given 50 ml of
 saline solution IV every 12 hours for 6 days. Group-3 calves were
 inoculated with 10(7) C parvum oocysts and, after the onset of 
 diarrhea, were treated with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, 200
 mg/kg of body weight IV, q 12 h) for 6 days. Group-4 calves were
 naturally  infected with C parvum. Jejunoileal biopsy specimens
 were excised from calves of groups 1-3 at 3 and again at 15 to 16
 days of age. During the  course of diarrhea and 3 days after
 saline or DFMO administration, water-miscible retinyl palmitate
 was administered orally (2,750  micrograms/kg) to each calf in
 each group. Cryptosporidium parvum infection was associated with
 significant (P < 0.05) reduction in  postadministration serum
 retinol, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations in
 calves of groups 2, 3, and 4. Cryptosporidium parvum  infection
 caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in villus height.
 Decreased villus height, villus blunting and fusion, and
 attenuation of the  intestinal mucosa were associated with
 reduced absorption of vitamin A, as indicated by lower peak
 postadministration retinyl palmitate  concentration in C
 parvum-infected calves. Intravenous administration of DFMO to
 group-3 calves did not improve retinol absorption. Vitamin  A
 should be provided parenterally to young calves with enteric
 cryptosporidiosis in an attempt to avoid depletion of concurrent
 low liver  vitamin A reserves.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-AM3A
 *****************************************************************
 90. Mathematical modelling of ammonia volatilization from slurry
 stores and its effects on Cryptosporidium oocyst viability.
 Ruxton, G. D. 
 
 J-agric-sci v.124, p.55-60. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: slurries-; ammonia-; volatilization-;
 cryptosporidium-; oocysts-; viability-; mathematical-models
 NAL Call No.: 10-J822
 *****************************************************************
 91. Milwaukee illness: a sick municipal water system's potential
 threat to lab animals.
 Dreeszen, P. H. 
 
 Lab-Anim. New York, N.Y. : Nature Publishing Company. Sept 1993.
 v. 22 (8) p. 36-40. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: laboratory-animals; cryptosporidium-;
 drinking-water; wisconsin-
 NAL Call No.: QL55.A1L33
 *****************************************************************
 92. Monoclonal antibodies identify a subset of dense granules in
 Cryptosporidium parvum zoites and gamonts.
 Bonnin, A.; Gut, J.; Dubremetz, J. F.; Nelson, R. G.; Camerlynck,
 P. 
 
 J-eukaryot-microbiol. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of
 Protozoologists, c1993-. July/Aug 1995. v. 42 (4) p. 395-401. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; oocysts-; sporozoites-;
 monoclonal-antibodies; antigens-; immunofluorescence-;
 antigenic-determinants; organelles-; cytoplasmic-inclusions;
 vacuoles-; membranes-; parasitophorous-vacuole-membrane
 NAL Call No.: QL366.J67
 *****************************************************************
 93. Natural infections by Crytosporidium sp. in farm-raised ducks
 and geese.
 Richter, D.; Wiegand Tripp, G.; Burkhardt, E.; Kaleta, E. F. 
 
 Avian-pathol v.23, p.277-286. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: ducklings-; goslings-; cryptosporidium-;
 protozoal-infections; disease-course; oocysts-; animal-tissues;
 disease-prevalence; disease- transmission; mice-; calves-
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 94. Neutralisation of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites by
 immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin components in serum.
 Hill, B. D.; Dawson, A. M.; Blewett, D. A. 
 
 Res-vet-sci v.54, p.356-360. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: igg-; lambs-; cryptosporidium-parvum; sporozoites-;
 immune-serum; infectivity-; rats-
 Abstract: Sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum were incubated in
 1:10 dilutions of immune or non-immune, heat-inactivated lamb
 serum  specimens or serum fractions. The infectivity of treated
 sporozoites was assessed by inoculating them, per rectum, into
 five-day-old rats  followed by histological examination of their
 intestines at either three or five days after infection. The
 infectivity of sporozoites treated with  heat-inactivated whole
 sera was greatly reduced. This neutralisation had both specific
 and nonspecific components. The former was associated  with the
 IgG fraction of hyperinunune serum raised against sporozoites and
 the latter with a heat-stable, non-dialysable component present
 in  both IgG-depleted hyperimmune serum and uninfected
 gnotobiotic serum.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-R312
 *****************************************************************
 95. Nonpoint pollution from animal sources and shellfish
 sanitation.
 Stelma, G. N. Jr.; McCabe, L. J. 
 
 J-Food-Prot v.55, p.649-656. (1992).
 Literature review.
 Descriptors: shellfish-; food-sanitation; water-pollution;
 fecal-flora; epidemiology-; foodborne-diseases;
 literature-reviews; zoonoses-
 Abstract: Many of the microorganisms pathogenic to both animals
 and man are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Most of these
 pathogens could  conceivably be transmitted through a shellfish
 vector. Bacteria potentially transmitted from animal to man via
 shellfish include most of the  salmonellae. Yersinia
 enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Escherichia coli
 0157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria  monocytogenes. The
 protozoa most likely to be transmitted this way are Giardia
 lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Because the enteric viruses  are
 highly species-specific, they are not likely to be transmitted
 from animals to humans. There are environmental data showing that
 bacterial  pathogens shed by both domestic and wild animals have
 been isolated from shellfish. However, there is little
 epidemiological evidence that  illness outbreaks have been caused
 by shellfish harvested from waters polluted by animals.
 Unfortunately, epidemiological observations are of  limited value
 because most illnesses are probably not recorded. In addition,
 more than half of the recorded outbreaks are of unknown etiology, 
 and more than half of the shellfish implicated in illness
 outbreaks cannot be traced to their points of origin. More
 lenient bacteriological  standards should not be established for
 waters affected only by animal pollution until health effects
 studies have been performed, and an  indicator that
 differentiates between human and nonhuman fecal pollution is
 available. Most of the pollution that originates from domestic 
 animals could be eliminated by simple and inexpensive measures.
 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 96. Occurrence of cryptosporidia in pet bird species.
 Munger, L. L.; Odom, A. 
 
 Proc-West-Poult-Dis-Conf. Davis, Calif. : University of
 California. 1990. (39th) p. 77-79. 
 Meeting held March 4-6, 1990, Sacramento, California.
 Descriptors: psittaciformes-; cryptosporidium-
 NAL Call No.: SF995.W4
 *****************************************************************
 97. Parasite-associated equine diarrhea.
 Love, S. 
 
 Compend-Contin-Educ-Pract-Vet. Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary
 Learning Systems Company, Inc. May 1992. v. 14 (5) p. 642-646,
 648-649,  663. 
 Literature review.
 Descriptors: horses-; diarrhea-; cyathostomum-; strongylus-;
 colon-; small-intestine; nematode-infections; histopathology-;
 feces-; diagnosis-; giardiasis-; cryptosporidium-;
 literature-reviews; fecal-flotation-test; strongyloides-westeri
 NAL Call No.: SF601.C66
 *****************************************************************
 98. Parasite control in sheep.
 Coles, G. 
 
 In-pract v.16, p.309-318. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: sheep-; coccidia-; eimeria-; cryptosporidium-;
 toxoplasma-gondii; benzimidazoles-; fasciola-hepatica;
 anthelmintics-; ovicides-and- larvicides;
 teladorsagia-circumcincta; nematodirus-battus; melophagus-ovinus;
 haemonchus-contortus; drug-therapy; lucilia-sericata; lucilia-
 caesar; oestrus-ovis; psoroptes-ovis; hydrotaea-irritans;
 ectoparasiticides-
 NAL Call No.: SF601.I4
 *****************************************************************
 99. Parasites of domesticated pet ferrets.
 Bell, J. A. 
 
 Compend-contin-educ-pract-vet. Trenton, N.J. : Veterinary
 Learning Systems Company. May 1994. v. 16 (5) p. 617-622. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: ferrets-; domestic-animals; parasitoses-;
 ectoparasites-; furbearing-animals; otodectes-cynotis;
 dirofilaria-immitis; isospora-; oocytes-; cryptosporidium-parvum;
 drug-therapy; anthelmintics-; literature-reviews
 NAL Call No.: SF601.C66
 *****************************************************************
 100. Paromomycin is effective as prophylaxis for
 cryptosporidiosis in dairy calves.
 Fayer, R.; Ellis, W. 
 
 J-parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of
 Parasitologists, 1914. Oct 1993. v. 79 (5) p. 771-774. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; paromomycin-; cryptosporidium-parvum
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 101. Pathobiology of cryptosporidiosis (C. baileyi) in broiler
 chickens.
 Blagburn, B. L.; Lindsay, D. S.; Hoerr, F. J.; Davis, J. F.;
 Giambrone, J. J. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 255-285. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: broilers-; cryptosporidium-; escherichia-coli;
 infectious-bronchitis-virus; infectious-bursal-disease-virus;
 respiratory-diseases; synergism-; pathology-
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 102. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the 18S
 rRNA genes and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the protozoan
 parasites  Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris.
 Cai, J.; Collins, M. D.; McDonald, V.; Thompson, D. E. 
 
 Biochim-Biophys-Acta-Int-J-Biochem-Biophys v.1131, p.317-320.
 (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; ribosomal-rna; genes-; cloning-;
 nucleotide-sequences; molecular-sequence-data; embl; x64340-;
 genbank; x64340-; embl; x64343-; genbank; x64343-
 Abstract: The genes encoding 18S rRNA and internal transcribed
 spacer 1 (ITS1) of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium
 muris were  amplified from oocysts by PCR utilizing primers
 complementary to conserved regions of the 5' end of 18S and 5.8S
 rRNA. PCR products were  cloned and the complete nucleotide
 sequences of two clones of each Cryptosporidium species were
 determined. The 18S RRNA genes of C.  parvum and C. muris showed
 more than 99% sequence identity.
 NAL Call No.: 381-B522
 *****************************************************************
 103. Periparturient rise in the excretion of Giardia sp. cysts
 and Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes as a source of infection for
 lambs.
 Xiao, L.; Herd, R. P.; McClure, K. E. 
 
 J-parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of
 Parasitologists, 1914. Feb 1994. v. 80 (1) p. 55-59. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: lambs-; ewes-; giardia-; cryptosporidium-parvum
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 104. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocyctis species from
 sheep, goats, cattle and mice based on ribosomal RNA sequences.
 Tenter, A. M.; Baverstock, P. R.; Johnson, A. M. 
 
 Int-J-Parasitol v.22, p.503-513. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: sarcocystis-; sarcocystis-capracanis;
 sarcocystis-cruzi; sarcocystis-tenella; ribosomal-rna;
 nucleotide-sequences; phylogeny-; comparisons- ; eimeria-;
 toxoplasma-gondii; cryptosporidium-; chemotaxonomy-;
 sarcocystis-arieticanis; molecular-sequence-data
 Abstract: Partial sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA of
 four species of Sarcocystis were obtained by reverse
 transcription of total  cellular RNA. The semi-conserved regions
 of these four species were aligned with homologous sequences of
 two other Sarcocystis species and  a range of other eukaryotes
 including Toxoplasma, Eimeria and Cryptosporidium. Parsimony
 analysis of the aligned sequences showed that  Sarcocystis and
 Toxoplasma had a more recent common ancestor with Eimeria than
 with Crptosporidium. The six Sarcocystis spp. did not  cluster
 together in this analysis; two monophyletic groups were observed,
 one formed by the two Sarcocystis spp. with felids as definitive
 hosts,  and another by the four Sarcocystis spp. with canids as
 definitive hosts. These two clades were segregated by Toxoplasma.
 An analysis of  nucleotide divergence suggests that the
 difference between the two groups of Sarcocystis spp. is similar
 to that between invertebrates and  vertebrates. The results
 obtained here question the validity of a separation of the genus
 Sarcocystis from Toxoplasma and refute classifications  that
 place these two genera into two different subfamilies of the
 Sarcocystidae.
 NAL Call No.: QH547.I55
 *****************************************************************
 105. Potential risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in
 dairy calves.
 Garber, L. P.; Salman, M. D.; Hurd, H. S.; Keefe, T.; Schlater,
 J. L. 
 
 J-Am-Vet-Med-Assoc. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association. July 1,
 1994. v. 205 (1) p. 86-91. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; dairy-cattle; cryptosporidium-; risk-;
 protozoal-infections; feces-; oocysts-; disease-prevalence;
 seasonal-variation; age- differences; usa-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Am3
 *****************************************************************
 106. The presence of Giardia and other zoonotic parasites of
 urban dogs in Hobart, Tasmania.
 Milstein, T. C.; Goldsmid, J. M. 
 
 Aust-vet-j. Brunswick, Vic. : Australian Veterinary Association,
 1927-. Apr 1995. v. 72 (4) p. 154-155. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: dogs-; giardia-; giardiasis-; zoonoses-;
 urban-areas; cryptosporidium-; toxocara-; hookworms-;
 trichuris-vulpis; strongyloides-; beaches-; parks-; incidence-;
 tasmania-
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Au72
 *****************************************************************
 107. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium muris-like oocysts among
 cattle populations of the United States: preliminary report.
 Anderson, B. C. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 145-155. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: beef-cattle; dairy-cattle; cryptosporidium-;
 disease-prevalence; disease-surveys; feces-; samples-;
 protozoal-infections; usa-
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 108. Progress being made toward controlling avian
 cryptosporidiosis.
 Hatkin, J. M.; Giambrone, J. J.; Blagburn, B. L. 
 
 Highlights-Agric-Res-Ala-Agric-Exp-Stn. Auburn University, Ala. :
 The Station. Winter 1991. v. 38 (4) p. 16. 
 Descriptors: broilers-; cryptosporidium-; alabama-;
 cryptosporidium-baileyi
 NAL Call No.: 100-AL1H
 *****************************************************************
 109. Prolapse of the phallus and cloaca in the ostrich (Struthio
 camelus).
 Bezuidenhout, A. J.; Penrith, M. L.; Burger, W. P. 
 
 J-S-Afr-Vet-Assoc v.64, p.156-158. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: ostriches-; cloaca-; prolapse-; cryptosporidium-;
 disease-prevalence; mortality-; drug-therapy
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-So8
 *****************************************************************
 110. Protection of calves with a vaccine against Cryptosporidium
 parvum.
 Harp, J. A.; Goff, J. P. 
 
 J-parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of
 Parasitologists, 1914. Feb 1995. v. 81 (1) p. 54-57. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-parvum;
 protozoal-infections; oral-vaccination; inactivated-vaccines;
 oocytes-; freeze-drying; experimental- infections; diarrhea-;
 vaccine-development; cryptosporidiosis-; lyophilized-oocysts
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 111. Quantitation of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in
 fecal samples by direct immunofluorescence assay.
 Xiao, L.; Herd, R. P. 
 
 J-clin-microbiol v.31, p.2944-2946. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; giardia-; feces-;
 immunofluorescence-
 Abstract: The lack of quick, simple, and sensitive quantitative
 tests has impeded studies on infection   patterns and treatment
 of Giardia spp. and  Cryptosporidium spp.  A quantitative direct  
 immunofluorescence assay (FA) using a commercial FA kit was
 developed and evaluated.  Recovery   rates of the FA for
 Cryptosporidium oocysts in calf feces seeded with 1,000, 10,000,
 100,000, and   1,000,000 oocysts per g were  14.8, 40.8, 84.2,
 and 78.2%, respectively.  Interassay coefficients   of variation
 were 10.6 to 47.1%.  Recovery rates of the FA for Giardia cysts 
 in feces seeded with   1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 cysts per g
 were 76.4, 96.9, and 89.6%, respectively.  Interassay 
 coefficients of variation  were 7.4 to 22.1%.  By comparison,
 recovery rates of Giardia cyst by   sucrose gradient flotation
 were only 20.5, 51.2, and 42.9%, respectively.  Counts of
 cysts-per-gram   obtained by sucrose gradient flotation with
 samples from calves, lambs, and ewes were only 49.1 to   54.8% of
 those  obtained by the FA.  Zinc sulfate flotation detected only
 36.4% of infections when  there were less than or equal to 1,000
 cysts per g. The  quantitative FA offers a useful technique   for
 epidemiological and control studies of these two parasites.
 NAL Call No.: QR46.J6
 *****************************************************************
 112. Resistance of severe combined immunodeficient mice to
 infection with Cryptosporidium parvum: the importance of
 intestinal microflora.
 Harp, J. A.; Chen, W.; Harmsen, A. G. 
 
 Infect-Immun. Washington, D.C. : American Society for
 Microbiology. Sept 1992. v. 60 (9) p. 3509-3512. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-; infection-; infectivity-;
 intestinal-microorganisms; disease-resistance; immune-response;
 histopathology-; immunological-deficiency; mice-
 Abstract: Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite which
 colonizes intestinal epithelium, causing transient diarrheal
 illness in  immunocompetent hosts and severe chronic disease in
 immunocompromised hosts. We examined the resistance of severe
 combined  immunodeficient mice, either bearing intestinal flora
 or germfree, to intestinal infection with C. parvum. Infection
 was not readily detected in  flora-bearing adult severe combined
 immunodeficient mice until 5 to 7 weeks following oral challenge
 with C. parvum. In contrast, germfree  adult severe combined
 immunodeficient mice were heavily infected 3 weeks following
 challenge. These data support the hypothesis that  resistance of
 adult mice to C. parvum infection does not require a specific
 immune response but can be mediated by nonspecific mechanisms 
 associated with the presence of intestinal flora.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 113. Respiratory cryptosporidiosis in a bovine.
 Mascaro, C.; Arnedo, T.; Rosales, M. J. 
 
 J-parasitol. Lawrence, Kan. : American Society of
 Parasitologists, 1914. Apr 1994. v. 80 (2) p. 334-336. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-; lungs-; intestines-;
 case-reports
 NAL Call No.: 448.8-J824
 *****************************************************************
 114. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of
 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates of bovine and human origin.
 Ortega, Y. R.; Sheehy, R. R.; Cama, V. A.; Oishi, K. K.;
 Sterling, C. R. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 405-415. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cattle-diseases; cryptosporidium-; human-diseases;
 oocytes-; restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 115. Review of equine Cryptosporidium infection.
 Xiao, L.; Herd, R. P. 
 
 Equine-vet-j v.26, p.9-13. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: horses-; cryptosporidium-
 NAL Call No.: SF955.E6
 *****************************************************************
 116. The role of breast milk in protecting urban Peruvian
 children against cryptosporidiosis.
 Sterling, C. R.; Gilman, R. H.; Sinclair, N. A.; Cama, V.;
 Castillo, R.; Diaz, F. 
 
 J-Protozool. Lawrence, Kan. : Society of Protozoologists. Nov/Dec
 1991. v. 38 (6) p. 235-255. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: child-nutrition; cryptosporidium-; epidemiology-;
 human-milk; immunology-; urban-areas; peru-
 NAL Call No.: 439.8-J82
 *****************************************************************
 117. The role of cell mediated immunity in mediating resistance
 in chicks to cryptosporidium baileyi infection.
 Hatkin, J. 
 
 Proc-West-Poult-Dis-Conf. Davis, Calif. : University of
 California. 1992. (41st) p. 30. 
 Meeting held on March 1-3, 1992, Sacramento, California.
 Descriptors: chicks-; cell-mediated-immunity; cryptosporidium-
 NAL Call No.: SF995.W4
 *****************************************************************
 118. Skeletal lesions associated with a naturally occurring poult
 enteritis.
 Perry, R. W.; Rowland, G. N.; Glisson, J. R.; Steffens, W. L.;
 Quinn, J. A. 
 
 Avian-Dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists. Jan/Mar 1991. v. 35 (1) p. 158-164. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: poults-; enteritis-; etiology-; lesions-; tibia-;
 tarsus-; calcium-; phosphorus-; mineral-metabolism; parathyroid-;
 rotavirus-; cryptosporidium-; growth-plate; metaphysis-
 Abstract: One-day-old poults were placed on contaminated litter
 on which poults previously had developed an enteric disease
 characterized by  diarrhea, increased mortality, and stunting.
 These exposed birds were examined for clinical signs and
 pathologic changes in bone and  parathyroid glands compared with
 controls. Intestinal and fecal samples were examined for
 potential pathogens. Exposed poults varied in size  as early as
 day 8 and had significantly decreased weight gains and reduced
 shank lengths on days 8, 12, 16, and 21. The proximal tibial
 growth  plate was narrowed. The mineralized hypertrophy zone was
 decreased in length and contained multiple non-mineralized bands
 on days 8, 12,  16, and 21. Metaphyseal trabeculae were reduced
 in amount on days 16 and 21. Parathyroid glands were hyperplastic
 on days 16 and 21. The  bone and parathyroid gland lesions
 indicated that mineral homeostasis was being maintained at the
 expense of the skeleton during the enteric  disease. A specific
 etiology, for the enteric disease was not determined.
 Cryptosporidium, rotavirus, paramyxovirus, and Salmonella were 
 identified in the exposed poults, and paramyxovirus and
 Salmonella were identified in the controls.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-AV5
 *****************************************************************
 119. Small-intestinal cryptosporidiosis in a young pigeon.
 Ozkul, I. A.; Aydin, Y. 
 
 Avian-pathol v.23, p.369-372. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: pigeons-; cryptosporidium-; symptoms-;
 small-intestine; case-reports; turkey-
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 120. Specific serum and local antibody responses against
 Cryptosporidium parvum during medication of calves with
 halofuginone lactate.
 Peeters, J. E.; Villacorta, I.; Naciri, M.; Vanopdenbosch, E. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Oct 1993. v. 61 (10) p. 4440-4445. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; cryptosporidium-parvum; halofuginone-
 Abstract: Fecal and serum anti-Cryptosporidium parvum
 immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG were monitored by an enzyme
 immunoassay in C.  parvum-infected calves after medication with
 halofuginone lactate. In a first experiment, four groups of five
 1-day-old colostrum-fed calves  were inoculated with 10(6)
 oocysts of C. parvum. They were medicated with 0, 30, 60, or 120
 microgram of halofuginone lactate per kg from  days 2 to 8
 postinfection (p.i.). Unmedicated calves passed large numbers of
 oocysts between 3 and 14 days p.i. Treatment with 30 
 microgram/kg did not completely inhibit oocyst output during
 medication, whereas 60 and 120 microgram/kg did. The latter
 groups passed only  a reduced number of oocysts when the drag was
 withdrawn. In a second experiment, 3- to 6-day-old colostrum-fed
 calves were divided into  three groups of 16 or 17 animals each.
 AH animals had acquired C. parvum infection before arrival at the
 fattening unit. They were medicated  with 0, 60, or 120
 microgram/kg for 7 days beginning on the day of arrival.
 Unmedicated calves passed large numbers of oocysts from 0 to 21 
 days. Medication stopped oocyst output at day 7, but some of the
 calves again passed low numbers of oocysts 7 days after
 withdrawal of the  drug. Experimental infection of unmedicated
 calves was followed by a rise in local anti-C. parvum IgA and IgM
 titers. Rising coproantibody  levels coincided with falling
 oocyst output. In halofuginone-medicated and experimentally
 infected calves, only specific anti-C. parvum IgM  levels rose
 during the first 5 days p.i. Specific IgA levels increased in
 association with oocyst output after withdrawal of the drug in
 the 60- and  120-microgram/kg groups. In naturally infected
 calves, on the other hand, both specific IgA and IgM levels rose
 further during medication.  Although titers.  protected from a
 challenge with 10(7) oocysts 16 weeks after the first contact
 with the parasite.
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 121. Susceptibility of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
 class I- and MHC class II-deficient mice to Cryptosporidium
 parvum infection.
 Aguirre, S. A.; Mason, P. H.; Perryman, L. E. 
 
 Infect-immun. Washington, D.C., American Society for
 Microbiology. Feb 1994. v. 62 (2) p. 697-699. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum;
 major-histocompatibility-complex
 Abstract: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class
 I-deficient and MHC class II-deficient mice lack functional CD8 T
 cells and CD4 T cells,  respectively. These mice were evaluated
 for infection following oral administration of 10(7)
 Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. MHC class II- deficient (but not
 MHC class I-deficient) mice dosed with C. parvum oocysts at 3 to
 5 days of age remained infected 8 weeks postexposure.  MHC class
 II-deficient mice exposed to C. parvum oocysts at 5 to 6 weeks of
 age were significantly more susceptible to infection than control 
 mice (P < 0.0001).
 NAL Call No.: QR1.I57
 *****************************************************************
 122. Three tandemly repeated 5S ribosomal RNA-encoding genes
 identified, cloned and characterized from Cryptosporidium parvum.
 Taghi Kilani, R.; Remacha Moreno, M.; Wenman, W. M. 
 
 Gene v.142, p.253-258. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cryptosporidium-parvum; ribosomal-dna;
 structural-genes; ribosomal-rna; nucleotide-sequences;
 repetitive-dna; molecular-conformation; molecular-sequence-data;
 genbank; l20049-; secondary-structure
 Abstract: We have characterized the 5S rRNA of Cryptosporidium
 parvum. The gene (rDNA) encoding this 5S rRNA was identified,
 mapped, the  primary and secondary structures determined, and the
 copy number estimated. Using a PCR-amplified 5S rDNA as a probe,
 it was shown that  this gene can specifically recognize C. parvum
 genomic DNA, but not other intestinal and environmental organisms
 tested. Three repeat units of  the 5S rDNA found in genomic C.
 parvum oocyst DNA are within the 2012-bp EcoRI-HindIII fragment
 and are identical in coding sequence,  but differ in flanking
 regions. Flanking regions are A + T rich (78-89%). The
 termination signal for polymerase III consists of five thymidine 
 residues at the 3' end of each of three units.
 NAL Call No.: QH442.A1G4
 *****************************************************************
 123. Tracheal aspergillosis in 6 1/2-week-old chickens caused by
 Aspergillus flavus.
 Barton, J. T.; Daft, B. M.; Read, D. H.; Kinde, H.; Bickford, A.
 A. 
 
 Avian-dis. Kennett Square, Pa. : American Association of Avian
 Pathologists. Oct/Dec 1992. v. 36 (4) p. 1081-1085. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: chickens-; aspergillus-flavus; trachea-;
 aspergillosis-; symptoms-; histopathology-; mortality-;
 case-reports
 Abstract: A case of localized tracheal aspergillosis in 6 and
 1/2-week-old single-comb white leghorn pullets caused by
 Aspergillus flavus is  documented. Yellow caseous plaques
 adherent to the mucosal surface of the tracheas were observed
 grossly. In several tracheas, the plaques  occluded the lumina,
 and the surrounding tracheal walls were reddened. Histologically,
 the mucosa was necrotic and infiltrated with  macrophages, and
 fibroplasia was evident in the subadjacent tracheal wall. The
 lumen of the trachea was almost completely occluded by a 
 combination of fungal mycelia and pyogranulomatous exudate.
 Portions of tracheal cartilage were elevated into the lumen of
 the trachea. Other  than a sudden increase in mortality to 0.5%
 per day, there was no evidence of disease in the flock. Depletion
 of bursal lymphocytes, with  concomitant cryptosporidiosis, was
 evident on histological examination. Acute infectious bursal
 disease was diagnosed in the succeeding flock  at this ranch
 based upon serology and typical histology.
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Av5
 *****************************************************************
 124. Ultrastructural changes of chick bursal epithelial cells
 experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp.
 Tadeja Simborio, L.; Itakura, C. 
 
 Avian-Pathol-J-W-V-P-A v.22, p.113-129. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: chickens-; cryptosporidium-; bursa-fabricii;
 epithelium-; histopathology-; cell-ultrastructure
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 125. Ultrastructural changes of tracheal epithelial cells of
 chicks experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp.
 Tadeja Simborio, L.; Ochiai, K.; Itakura, C. 
 
 Avian-Pathol-J-W-V-P-A v.22, p.363-381. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: chicks-; cryptosporidium-; cell-ultrastructure;
 histopathology-; experimental-infections; trachea-; epithelium-;
 host-parasite-relationships
 NAL Call No.: SF995.A1A9
 *****************************************************************
 126. Use of paromomycin for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in a
 cat.
 Barr, S. C.; Jamrosz, G. F.; Hornbuckle, W. E.; Bowman, D. D.;
 Fayer, R. 
 
 J-Am-Vet-Med-Assoc. Schaumburg, Ill. : The Association. Dec 15,
 1994. v. 205 (12) p. 1742-1743. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cats-; paromomycin-; drug-therapy; cryptosporidium-;
 drug-effects; case-reports
 NAL Call No.: 41.8-Am3
 *****************************************************************
 127. Whole milk and oral rehydration solution for calves with
 diararhea of spontaenous origin.
 Garthwaite, B. D.; Drackley, J. K.; McCoy, G. C.; Jaster, E. H. 
 
 J-dairy-sci. Champaign, Ill. : American Dairy Science
 Association. Mar 1994. v. 77 (3) p. 835-843. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: calves-; diarrhea-; oral-rehydration-therapy;
 oral-rehydration-solutions; milk-
 Abstract: Forty-two calves (mean 10 d of age) that spontaneously
 contracted diarrhea were used to test the therapeutic value of an
 oral rehydration  solution with or without whole milk. Therapy
 began on the first feeding after a fecal score was > 2
 (five-point scale). Amounts (percentages of  BW daily) of milk
 and oral rehydration solution on d 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, and
 7 for treatments 1, 2, and 3 were 1) 0 and 10, 5 and 5, 7.5  and
 2.5, 10 and 0% (in two feedings); 2) 2.5 and 10, 5 and 7.5, 7.5
 and 5, 10 and 0% in two feedings); 3) 10 and 10, 10 and 5, 10 and
 2.5, 10  and 0% (in three feedings). Oral rehydration solution
 was fed 15 min after milk. Fecal score, rectal temperature,
 packed cell volume of whole  blood, concentrations of glucose and
 electrolytes in serum, and strong ion difference of serum were
 unaffected by treatments. Calves given  treatment 3 gained BW
 throughout the experiment, whereas those given treatments 1 or 2
 lost BW during the first 3 d of therapy. Fecal cultures 
 indicated that 70% of calves were infected with Cryptosporidium
 on d 1 of therapy. No mortality occurred. Whole milk and oral
 rehydration  solution fed to calves did not adversely affect
 calves or prolong or worsen diarrhea but promoted gain of BW.
 NAL Call No.: 44.8-J822
 *****************************************************************
 


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