Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Precision Agriculture

 JANUARY 1984 - JUNE 1996
 88 citations from AGRICOLA
 by
 Joe Makuch
 Water Quality Information Center
 
 **************************************************************
 This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide
 awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic.
 Coverage is not in-depth and exhaustive. The inclusion or
 omission of a particular publication or citation should not be
 construed as endorsement or disapproval.
 
 Send suggestions for electronic bibliographies on water-related
 topics to wqic@ars.usda.gov
 
 PLEASE NOTE:  Information on document delivery services,
 interlibrary loan requests and copyright restrictions is appended
 to this bibliography.  If this bibliography is copied and/or
 distributed, please include this information in all copies.  
 **************************************************************
 
 PRECISION AGRICULTURE
 
 1. Aggregate analysis of site-specific pollution problems: the
 case of groundwater contamination from agriculture.
 Opaluch, J. J.; Segerson, K. 
 
 Northeast-J-Agric-Resour-Econ v.20, p.83-97. (1991).
 Paper submitted in response to call for papers on the theme "The
 Effects of Agricultural Production on Environmental Quality.".
 Descriptors: groundwater-; contamination-; water-pollution;
 agricultural-sector; agricultural-policy; microeconomic-analysis;
 aggregate-data; site- factors; spatial-distribution;
 information-systems; mathematical-models;
 microparameter-distribution-models;
 geographical-information-systems-gis; nonpoint-pollution
 NAL Call No.: HD1773.A2N6
 ***************************************************************
 
 2. Airborne video for near-real-time vegetation mapping.
 Graham, L. A. 
 
 J-For v.91, p.28-32. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: vegetation-; mapping-; aerial-photography; arizona-;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: 99.8-F768
 **************************************************************
 
 3. Assessing the spatial variability of organic matter.
 McCauley, J. D.; Engel, B. A.; Scudder, C. E.; Morgan, M. T.;
 Elliott, P. W. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-1531/93-1560) 14 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 13- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: soil-organic-matter; sensors-; field-tests;
 variation-; site-factors; site-specific-farming
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 **************************************************************
 
 4. Bringing technology down to earth: a GPS consumer's guide.
 Lance, K. 
 
 J-For v.91, p.17-19. (1993).
 Descriptors: remote-sensing; technology-; computer-software;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: 99.8-F768
 *************************************************************
 
 5. Cell size selection for site-specific crop management.
 Han, S.; Hummel, J. W.; Goering, C. E.; Cahn, M. D. 
 
 Trans-ASAE v.37, p.19-26. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: site-factors; crop-management; soil-properties;
 linear-models; mathematics-; mean-correlation-distance
 Abstract: For site-specific crop management (SSCM), fields are
 viewed as collections of small regions (cells) in which soil
 properties are nearly  uniform.  Inputs to the field are adjusted
 on a cell-by-cell basis.  The selection of cell size is an
 important step in SSCM.  In this article, a mean  correlation
 distance (MCD) is developed by geostatistical analysis.  The MCD
 can be used as the upper limit of cell size.  A lower limit of
 cell  size is also considered A sample MCD determination for soil
 moisture and nitrate of one particular field is included.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 **************************************************************
 
 6. Concepts of variable rate technology with considerations for
 fertilizer application.
 Sawyer, J. E. 
 
 J-prod-agric v.7, p.195-201. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: crop-production; fertilizers-; application-rates;
 variation-; optimization-; efficiency-; profitability-
 NAL Call No.: S539.5.J68
 **************************************************************
 
 7. Economics of direct seeding cabbage to a stand using precision
 cultural systems.
 Bergeron, P. E.; Parish, R. L.; Bracy, R. P.; Hinson, R. A.;
 Boudreaux, J. E. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (921074) 9 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24,  1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: cabbages-; farming-systems; economic-impact
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 8. Electromagnetic induction as a mapping aid for precision
 farming.
 Jaynes, D. B. 
 
 Clean water, clean environment, 21st century  team agriculture,
 working to protect water resources  conference proceedings, March
 5-8,  1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, Mich. : ASAE,
 c1995.. v. 3 p. 153-156. 
 Descriptors: low-input-agriculture; farming-; fields-; maps-;
 mapping-; mapping-units; soil-analysis; electrical-conductivity;
 atrazine-; sorption-; iowa-; soil-mapping; soil-capability-maps
 NAL Call No.: TD365.C54-1995
 *************************************************************
 
 9. Environmentally sound agricultural production systems through
 site-specific farming.
 Engel, B. A.; Gaultney, L. D. 
 
 PAP-AMER-SOC-AGRIC-ENG. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society. Winter
 1990. (90-2566) 7 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1990 International Winter Meeting",
 December 18-21, 1990, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: agricultural-production; environmental-protection;
 information-systems; environmental-impact;
 geographic-information-systems
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32P
 *************************************************************
 
 10. Evaluation of the NAVCORE-1 global positioning system.
 Jasumback, A. E. 
 
 Eng-Field-Notes-U-S-Dep-Agric-For-Serv-Eng-Staff. Washington,
 D.C. : The Staff. Jan/Feb 1989. v. 21 p. 7-19. ill. 
 Descriptors: satellites-; canopy-; position-; longitude-;
 latitude-; position-locating-equipment; course;
 acquisition-code-receiver
 NAL Call No.: aSD388.A1U52
 *************************************************************
 
 11. External flute seed metering evaluation related to site
 specific farming.
 Bashford, L. L. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-8517) 15 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: sowing-rates; seed-drills; soybeans-; wheat-;
 metering-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 12. Farm by the foot.
 Reichenberger, L.; Russnogle, J. 
 
 Farm-J v.113, p.11-15. ill., maps. (1989).
 Descriptors: soil-types; fertilizer-requirement-determinatio;
 fertilizer-application; fields-; soil-survey-and-mapping;
 farming-systems; economic- evaluation; prescription-farming
 NAL Call No.: 6-F2212
 *************************************************************
 
 13. Farming soils, not field: a strategy for increasing
 fertilizer profitability.
 Carr, P. M.; Carlson, G. R.; Jacobsen, J. S.; Nielsen, G. A.;
 Skogley, E. O. 
 
 J-prod-agric v.4, p.57-61. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; fields-; soil-fertility;
 crop-yield; soil-variability; fertilizers-; application-rates;
 variation-; profitability-; montana-; precision-farming
 Abstract: Farm fields are traditionally fertilized as one
 homogeneous soil unit. Most fields, however, contain two or more
 soils with different crop  yield potentials. This study was
 conducted to (i) measure crop yield differences between
 contrasting soils within fields, and (ii) compare the  economics
 of "farming soils, not fields," where contrasting soils in a
 field receive different vs. uniform rates and formulations of
 fertilizer. Crop  yield variability studies were conducted along
 1600 ft transects across several soil units in each of four
 fields during 1987. Grain yield, test  weight, and returns over
 variable costs varied greatly among soil units in each field (P
 <0.05). Soil fertility studies also revealed differences in 
 grain yield, test weight, and returns among soil units in five
 fields during 1987 and 1988. Fertility studies indicated yields
 were similar for small  grains when recommended fertilizer
 treatments were applied as soil unit treatments rather than as a
 field treatment. Returns were $2.06 to $5.14  greater per acre
 for the soil treatment than for the field treatment in three of
 five fields, but overall, the returns were not significantly
 different.  A recommended fertilizer treatment was not always the
 optimum treatment, however. In two fields, additional returns of
 $21.68 to $23.51/acre  resulted when optimum soil treatments were
 applied rather than the field treatment. The data reveal the
 importance of appropriate crop yield  goals, accurate soil tests,
 and reliable fertilizer recommendations when developing a
 strategy for generating greater returns by farming soil, not 
 fields. Given these caveats, our work suggests that farming
 soils, not fields will increase fertilizer profitability.
 NAL Call No.: S539.5.J68
 *************************************************************
 
 14. Feasibility of site-specific nutrient and pesticide
 applications.
 Hayes, J. C.; Overton, A.; Price, J. W. 
 
 Environmentally sound agriculture  proceedings of the second
 conference  20-22 April 1994 / p.62-68. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; fertilizers-; pesticides-;
 application-methods; application-rates; spatial-variation;
 geographical-information-systems; systems-; feasibility-;
 economic-evaluation; prescription-farming;
 global-positioning-systems; precision-application
 NAL Call No.: S589.7.E57-1994
 *************************************************************
 
 15. Field experience with differential GPS.
 Shropshire, G.; Peterson, C.; Fisher, K. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (931073) 12 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers and
 The  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering, June 20-23,
 1993, Spokane, Washington.
 Descriptors: wheat-; remote-sensing; yields-; soil-properties;
 fertilizers-; application-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 16. A field information system for site-specific crop management.
 Han, S.; Goering, C. E. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (923608) 27 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 Descriptors: crop-management; information-systems
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 17. Field navigation using the global positioning system (GPS).
 Larsen, W. E.; Tyler, D. A.; Nielsen, G. A. 
 
 Am-Soc-Agric-Eng-Microfiche-Collect. St. Joseph, Mich. : The
 Society. 1988. (fiche no. 88-1604) 10 p. ill. 
 Paper presented at the 1988 Winter Meeting of the American
 Society of Agricultural Engineers. Available for purchase from:
 The  American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Order Dept.,
 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085. Telephone the Order
 Dept. at (616)  429-0300 for information and prices.
 Descriptors: farm-machinery; field-trips; position-; sensors-;
 satellites-; automatic-guidance; geography-; information-services
 NAL Call No.: FICHE-S-72
 *************************************************************
 
 18. Field soil sampling density for variable rate fertilization.
 Franzen, D. W.; Peck, T. R. 
 
 J-prod-agric v.8, p.568-574. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: fields-; soil-testing; phosphorus-; potassium-;
 nutrient-availability; representative-sampling; determination-;
 samples-; density-; soil- variability; soil-fertility;
 fertilizers-; application-rates; variation-; alternative-farming;
 precision-farming
 Abstract: Variable rate fertilizer application being commercially
 performed today is most often based on a soil test map. The
 sampling density used  to develop a map is often selected without
 background information regarding field soil test variability. The
 objective of this study was to  determine how many samples should
 be taken from a field in order to locate and describe major areas
 of fertility affecting variable rate fertilizer  applications.
 Two 40 acre fields were sampled in an 82.5 ft grid each fall from
 1989 to 1992. Soil pH, Bray P1, and available K levels were 
 determined on each sample and maps were made using inverse
 distance squared estimates. Data were taken from the samplings to
 represent a  165 ft and 330 ft grid pattern. Maps were developed
 from these less dense grids and compared with the 82.5 ft grid
 values. In 1992, a separate  220 ft grid sampling was taken. The
 220 ft grid estimates were more highly correlated with the 82.5
 ft grid values than were the 330 ft grid  estimates, however,
 membership of 220 ft and 330 ft grid estimates within soil test
 categories were similar. Fertilizer P and K applications were 
 made in one field following the 1992 sampling. Spring 1993
 sampling showed the success of the 220 ft grid in directing a
 variable rate  application of P and K. Comparisons to theoretical
 P and K applications directed by a 330 ft grid map showed the
 superiority of the 220 ft grid  compared with the 330 ft grid.
 NAL Call No.: S539.5.J68
 *************************************************************
 
 19. A fuzzy logic yield simulator for prescription farming.
 Ambuel, J. R.; Colvin, T. S.; Karlen, D. L. 
 
 Trans-ASAE v.37, p.1999-2009. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: farming-; farming-systems; simulation-models;
 optimization-; low-input-agriculture; farm-inputs; fertilizers-;
 seeds-; agricultural- chemicals; application-methods; fields-;
 spatial-variation; expert-systems; soil-properties; crop-yield;
 yield-response-functions; soil-fertility; site-spectific-farming;
 optimal-application-methods
 Abstract: Interest in prescription farming has grown as the
 technology necessary for its implementation has become available.
 The central concept of  prescription farming is that materials
 (chemicals, fertilizers, seeds) are optimally applied as a
 function of position within the field. Therefore,  profits are
 maximized and potential adverse environmental effects are
 minimized. Our objective was to describe how fuzzy logic could be
 used  to develop a crop yield simulator for assessing spatial
 variability with sufficient accuracy for optimizing application
 rates. The method is based  on predictive yield models developed
 using field-scale research techniques. Two conceptual, expert
 system models were developed using fuzzy  logic rules. In one
 model, chemical and physical characteristics of the soil were
 measured and combined with local meteorological data as input 
 parameters. In the other model, soil properties were estimated
 rather than measured. The fuzzy logic rule sets were implemented
 using a  spreadsheet. Rule sets were developed to simulate yields
 for two 16-ha fields in central Iowa. Predicted yields were then
 compared with  measured yields for those fields. Our results
 indicate that on a relative basis, predicted yields generally
 agreed with measured yields.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 *************************************************************
 
 20. Geographic information systems in agronomy.
 Petersen, G. W.; Bell, J. C.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, G. A.;
 Robert, P. C. 
 
 Adv-agron. San Diego, Calif. : Academic Press. 1995. v. 35 p.
 67-111. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: agronomy-; geographical-information-systems;
 remote-sensing; farmland-; farming-; fields-;
 low-input-agriculture; landscape-; mapping-; literature-reviews;
 site-specific-farming; soil-mapping
 NAL Call No.: 30-Ad9
 *************************************************************
 
 21. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS).
 Kruger, G.; Springer, R.; Lechner, W. 
 
 Comput-electron-agric v.11, p.3-21. (1994).
 In the special issue: Global positioning systems in agriculture /
 edited by H. Auernhammer.
 Descriptors: satellites-; radar-; automatic-guidance;
 technology-; position-; usa-; ussr-; global-positioning-systems;
 navstar-; glonass-
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 *************************************************************
 
 22. Global positioning application.
 Kincheloe, S. 
 
 Proc-annu-meet-Fert-Ind-Round-Table p.99-101. (1994).
 Meeting held November 7-9, 1994, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
 Descriptors: fertilizers-; placement-; optimization-; mapping-;
 computer-techniques; fertilizer-requirement-determination;
 farming-systems; sustainability-; best-management-practices
 NAL Call No.: 57.09-F41
 *************************************************************
 
 23. Global positioning satellites: signals from space to the
 field.
 Leslie, J. 
 
 S-D-farm-home-res v.45, p.13-14. (1994).
 Descriptors: satellites-; satellite-surveys; farming-; costs-;
 computer-techniques
 NAL Call No.: 100-So82S
 *************************************************************
 
 24. Global positioning system applications for site-specific
 farming research.
 Harrison, J. D.; Birrell, S. J.; Sudduth, K. A.; Borgelt, S. C. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (923615) 14 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
 Descriptors: soil-testing; grain-crops; harvesting-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 25. Global positioning systems: a guide for land managers and
 consultants.
 Lass, L. W.; Callihan, R. H. 
 
 Bull-Univ-Ida,-Coll-Agric. Moscow : Idaho Agricultural Experiment
 Station, 1953-. May 1994. (EXT 761) 8 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: telemetry-; radio-; transmission-; satellites-;
 mapping-; computer-software; data-processing; data-collection;
 accuracy-
 NAL Call No.: 100-Id14
 *************************************************************
 
 26. GPS and GIS for weed surveys and management.
 Lass, L. W.; Callihan, R. H. 
 
 Weed-technol v.7, p.249-254. (1993).
 Paper presented at the "Symposium on Geographic Information
 Systems," February 11, 1992, Orlando, Florida.
 Descriptors: weeds-; satellite-surveys; infestation-;
 geographical-information-systems; weed-control;
 satellite-imagery; global-positioning-systems; delimiting-surveys
 NAL Call No.: SB610.W39
 *************************************************************
 
 27. GPS and vertical control.
 Mahon, T. 
 
 Eng-ext-ser. West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue University, Dept. of
 Engineering Extension. 1994. (165) p. 57-65. 
 Proceedings of the 80th Annual Road School held March 1-3, 1994,
 West Lafayette, Indiana.
 Descriptors: physical-geography; altitude-; satellites-;
 mapping-; computer-techniques; information-systems; indiana-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-P972
 *************************************************************
 
 28. GPS for yield mapping on combines.
 Auernhammer, H.; Demmel, M.; Muhr, T.; Rottmeier, J.; Wild, K. 
 
 Comput-electron-agric v.11, p.53-68. (1994).
 In the special issue: Global positioning systems in agriculture /
 edited by H. Auernhammer.
 Descriptors: crop-yield; mapping-; combine-harvesters;
 detection-; technology-; computer-techniques; automatic-guidance;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 *************************************************************
 
 29. GPS in a basic rule for environmental protection in
 agriculture.
 Auernhammer, H.; Muhr, T. 
 
 Automated agriculture for the 21st century  proceedings of the
 1991 symposium, 16-17 December 1991, Chicago, Illinois. St.
 Joseph,  Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 c1991.. p. 394-402. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: agriculture-; environmental-protection;
 farm-equipment; computer-techniques; germany-;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: S671.3.A97-1991
 *************************************************************
 
 30. High-precision agriculture is an excellent tool for
 conservation of natural resources.
 Wallace, A. 
 
 Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal v.25, p.45-49. (1994).
 In the special issue devoted to perspectives on relationships
 between sustainability of soil and the environment / edited by A.
 Wallace.
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; low-input-agriculture;
 farm-inputs; efficiency-; agricultural-production;
 environmental-impact; sustainability-; resource-conservation
 NAL Call No.: S590.C63
 *************************************************************
 
 31. Improving fertilizer and chemical efficiency through "high
 precision farming".
 Munson, R. D.; Runge, C. F. C. F. 
 
 St. Paul, Minn. : Center for International Food and Agricultural
 Policy, University of Minnesota, [1990] viii, 96 p. : ill., maps.
 "September 10, 1990.".
 Descriptors: Fertilizers-; Agricultural-chemicals;
 Farm-management
 NAL Call No.: S633.M85
 *************************************************************
 
 32. Improving fertilizer and chemical efficiency through "high
 precision farming".
 Munson, R. D.;  Runge, C. F. C. F.; University of Minnesota.
 Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy. 
 
 St. Paul, Minn. : Center for International Food and Agricultural
 Policy, University of Minnesota, [1990] viii, 96 p. : ill..
 "September 10, 1990.".
 Descriptors: Fertilizers-; Agricultural-chemicals;
 Farm-management
 NAL Call No.: NBU S633-M84-1990
 *************************************************************
 
 33. Improving site-specific fertilizer distribution in peasant
 agriculture in Zimbabwe.
 Weil, R. R.; Mukurumbira, L. M.; Butai, P. C. 
 
 Trop-Agric v.68, p.186-190. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: zea-mays; fertilizer-requirement-determination;
 foliar-diagnosis; plant-nutrition; site-factors; soil-fertility;
 soil-properties; spreading-; zimbabwe-
 NAL Call No.: 26-T754
 *************************************************************
 
 34. In-field location using GPS for spatially variable field
 operations.
 Stafford, J. V.; Ambler, B. 
 
 Comput-electron-agric v.11, p.23-36. (1994).
 In the special issue: Global positioning systems in agriculture /
 edited by H. Auernhammer.
 Descriptors: soil-properties; spatial-variation; location-theory;
 evaluation-; position-; satellites-; automatic-guidance;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 *************************************************************
 
 35. Index for describing spatial variability in prescription
 farming.
 McCauley, J. D.; Whittaker, A. D. 
 
 Trans-ASAE v.36, p.691-693. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: fertilizers-; application-to-land; mechanization-;
 spatial-variation
 Abstract: A scalar descriptor of the spatial variability of
 fertilizer application maps is presented. It was designed with
 regard to the degree of  difficulty an applicator may have in
 matching prescribed rates for site-specific application and m be
 useful for comparative studies of field  scenarios.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 *************************************************************
 
 36. Integration of airborne video, global positioning system and
 geographic information system technologies for detecting and
 mapping two  woody legumes on rangelands.
 Everitt, J. H.; Escobar, D. E.; Villarreal, R.; Alaniz, M. A.;
 Davis, M. R. 
 
 Weed-technol v.7, p.981-987. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: acacia-farnesiana; acacia-rigidula; rangelands-;
 woody-weeds; brush-control; detection-; remote-sensing;
 video-recordings; geographical- information-systems; mapping-;
 range-management; imagery-; texas-
 NAL Call No.: SB610.W39
 *************************************************************
 
 37. LEPA irrigation management for corn.
 Howell, T. A.; Yazar, A.; Schneider, A. D.; Dusek, D. A.;
 Copeland, K. S. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-2091/94-2119) 23 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1994 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 20-23,  1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 Descriptors: zea-mays; crop-management; center-pivot-irrigation;
 soil-water-content; crop-yield; yield-components;
 water-use-efficiency; clay-loam- soils;
 low-energy-precision-application-irrigation
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 38. Living mulch options for precision management of
 horticultural crops.
 William, R. D. 
 
 Ext-Circ-Oreg-State-Univ-Ext-Serv. Corvallis, Or. : The Service.
 July 1987. (1258) 6 p. 
 Descriptors: horticultural-crops; crop-management; live-mulches;
 grass-barriers; oregon-
 NAL Call No.: 275.29-OR32C
 *************************************************************
 
 39. Micronutrient focus in modern farming.
 Stephen, R. M. 
 
 Proc-annu-meet-Fert-Ind-Round-Table p.62-65. (1994).
 Meeting held November 7-9, 1994, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; crops-;
 trace-element-fertilizers; application-rates; soil-test-values;
 crop-yield; correlation-; fertilizer-requirement- determination;
 illinois-; precision-agriculture
 NAL Call No.: 57.09-F41
 *************************************************************
 
 40. Opinion: the need for site-specific legal research on
 sustainable farming practices and systems: can law and goverment
 institutions become  more effective by consulting with farmers
 and their land.
 Wilder, J. R. 
 
 J-sustain-agric v.4, p.91-102. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: farming-systems-research; sustainability-; law-;
 government-
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.S86S8
 *************************************************************
 
 41. Origins of GPS surveying.
 Counselman, C. C.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
 
 Cambridge, MA : Massachusetts Institute of Technology, [1991] 24
 p. : ill..
 "26 April 1991.".
 Descriptors: Geodesy-; Hyperbolic-navigation; Interoferometers-
 NAL Call No.: QB301.C68-1991
 *************************************************************
 
 42. PC-MAPS: A tool for site specific crop management.
 Motz, D. S.; Searcy, S. W.; Neuhaus, P. E. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-3556) 28 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 14- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: crop-management; computer-software; data-analysis
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 43. Plant movement and seed dispersal of Russian thistle (Salsola
 iberica).
 Stallings, G. P.; Thill, D. C.; Mallory Smith, C. A.; Lass, L. W. 
 
 Weed-sci v.43, p.63-69. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: salsola-iberica; weed-biology; seed-dispersal;
 spatial-distribution; movement-;
 geographical-information-systems; herbicide-resistance;
 chlorsulfuron-; biotypes-; washington-;
 global-positioning-systems
 Abstract: Russian thistle plant movement and seed dispersal were
 studied in 1991 and 1992 by placing Russian thistle plants in the
 center of wheat  fields in eastern Washington. Three adjacent
 site treatments, with 24 plants on each site, were used each
 year; wheat stubble, summerfallow  planted to winter wheat, and a
 "stationary" site. Plants in the "stationary" site were anchored
 to the ground to prevent tumbling. Plants in the  stubble and
 summerfallow sites were allowed to tumble naturally. Individual
 plant movement was monitored and recorded weekly by satellite 
 global positioning systems technology. Average estimated seed
 number per plant at the beginning of the experiment was 57,400 in
 1991 and  66,000 in 1992. The direction plants moved correlated
 highly with wind direction. Some plants moved a maximum distance
 of 4069 m in 6 wks,  while other plants moved only 60 m because
 of variable winds and being compressed by snow or frozen into
 wheat stubble. Average percentage  seed loss in 1991 and 1992 for
 stationary plants was 15 and 26%, and for tumbling plants was 48
 and 66%, respectively.
 NAL Call No.: 79.8-W41
 *************************************************************
 
 44. A precision cultural system for vegetables in Louisiana.
 Parish, R. L.; Bracy, R. P.; Mulkey, W. A. 
 
 PAP-AMER-SOC-AGRIC-ENG. St. Joseph, Mich. : The Society. Winter
 1989. (89-1566) 12 p. 
 Paper presented at the 1989 International Winter Meeting,
 December 12-15, 1989, New Orleans, Louisiana.
 Descriptors: vegetables-; cultural-methods; crop-production;
 commercial-farming; louisiana-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-AM32P
 *************************************************************
 
 45. Precision farming.
 Emmert, B.; Gates, J.; Makuch, J. 
 
 Agri-top. Beltsville, Md. : National Agricultural Library, 1990-.
 Jan 1994. (95-01) 19 p. 
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; crop-management;
 sustainability-
 NAL Call No.: aZ5073.A37
 *************************************************************
 
 46. Precision farming: an introduction.
 Blackmore, S. 
 
 Outlook-agric. Oxon : C.A.B. International. 1994. v. 23 (4) p.
 275-280. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: farming-systems; farm-management;
 information-systems; technology-
 NAL Call No.: 10-Ou8
 *************************************************************
 
 47. Precision farming: an overview.
 Blackmore, S. 
 
 Agric-eng v.49, p.86-88. (1994).
 Descriptors: cropping-systems; geographical-information-systems;
 expert-systems; farm-machinery; computer-techniques; crop-yield;
 fields-
 NAL Call No.: 58.9-In7
 *************************************************************
 
 48. Precision farming data management using geographic
 information systems.
 Usery, E. L.; Pocknee, S.; Boydell, B. 
 
 Photogramm-eng-remote-sensing v.61, p. 1383-1391. (1995).
 Special Issue: GIS.
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; sustainability-;
 information-processing; geographical-information-systems
 NAL Call No.: 325.28-P56
 *************************************************************
 
 49. Precision farming: farmers using satellites, computers, and
 soils tests to protect ground water.
 Horsley, S. W. 
 
 Ground-water-monit-remediat. Dublin, OH : Ground Water Pub. Co.,
 c1993-. Fall 1995. v. 15 (4) p. 66. 
 Descriptors: farming-; agricultural-chemicals; farm-inputs;
 pollutants-; groundwater-; soil-testing; computer-analysis;
 geographical-information- systems; satellites-
 NAL Call No.: GB1001.G76
 *************************************************************
 
 50. Precision farming: harnessing technology.
 Christensen, L.; Krause, K. 
 
 Agric-outlook p.18-19. (1995).
 Descriptors: farm-management; crop-production;
 environmental-protection; crop-yield; field-size; usa-;
 site-specific-farming
 NAL Call No.: aHD1751.A42
 *************************************************************
 
 51. Precision farming technology: application to claypen soils.
 Sudduth, K. A.; Birrell, S. J.; Borgelt, S. C.; Hughes, D. F. 
 
 Clean water, clean environment, 21st century  team agriculture,
 working to protect water resources  conference proceedings, March
 5-8,  1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St. Joseph, Mich. : ASAE,
 c1995.. v. 3 p. 267-270. 
 Descriptors: low-input-agriculture; crop-management;
 claypan-soils; crop-yield; data-collection; spatial-variation;
 fields-; sensors-; combine-harvesters; glycine-max; zea-mays;
 sorghum-bicolor; phosphorus-; soil-fertility; soil-depth;
 topsoil-; pilot-farms; research-projects; missouri-;
 site-specific-crop-management; management-systems;
 evaluation-areas
 NAL Call No.: TD365.C54-1995
 *************************************************************
 
 52. Precision irrigation with solar energy.
 Furuta, T.;  Martin, W. C.; Perry, F. B. F. B. 
 
 Auburn : Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University,
 1963. 11 p. : ill..
 Cover title.
 Descriptors: Solar-energy-in-agriculture; Irrigation-efficiency
 NAL Call No.: 100-AL1S-2-no.146
 *************************************************************
 
 53. Precision navigation with GPS.
 Larsen, W. E.; Nielsen, G. A.; Tyler, D. A. 
 
 Comput-electron-agric v.11, p.85-95. (1994).
 In the special issue: Global positioning systems in agriculture \
 edited by H. Auernhammer.
 Descriptors: tractors-; automatic-guidance; position-; models-;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 *************************************************************
 
 54. A preliminary assessment of the economics of variable rate
 technology for applying phosphorus and potassium in corn
 production.
 Hertz, C. A.; Hibbard, J. D. 
 
 Farm-econ-facts-opin. Urbana, ILL. : Cooperative Extension
 Service, University of Illinois,. Oct 1993. (93-14) 6 p. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: zea-mays; crop-production; phosphorus-fertilizers;
 potassium-fertilizers; application-rates; technology-
 NAL Call No.: 281.8-F2226
 *************************************************************
 
 55. Prescription agriculture.
 Wink, L. 
 
 Future-Mich-State-Univ-Agric-Exp-Stn v.5, p.14-17. ill. (1986).
 Descriptors: crop-enterprises; farm-management; decision-making;
 simulation-models
 NAL Call No.: S75.F87
 *************************************************************
 
 56. Prescription maps for spatially variable herbicide
 application in no-till corn.
 Brown, R. B.; Steckler, J. P. G. A. 
 
 Trans-ASAE v.38, p.1659-1666. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: zea-mays; weeds-; weed-control; remote-sensing;
 aerial-methods; aerial-photography; photointerpretation-;
 identification-; mapping-; geographical-information-systems;
 computer-techniques; microcomputers-; decision-making; models-;
 herbicides-; formulations-; application- rates;
 spatial-variation; low-input-agriculture; ontario-;
 herbicide-application-decision-models; weed-maps
 Abstract: Weed maps for fields of no-till corn (Zea mays L.) were
 prepared from image analysis of digitized low-altitude aerial
 photographs. These  weed maps were imported into a Geographic
 Information System (GIS) and divided into independent subunits
 for spatially variable herbicide  prescription. A decision model
 was designed for pre-plant and post-emergence weed control
 recommendations. Each subunit of the field weed  map was
 submitted to this decision model to determine the optimum
 herbicide mix and application rate. The resulting prescription
 maps would  be used to control a field sprayer and to apply the
 appropriate herbicide combination to each weedy area. Results
 indicate that herbicide use  would have been reduced by more than
 40% with this approach. This demonstrates a means to
 significantly reduce herbicide usage in crop  production without
 sacrificing weed control or crop yield.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 *************************************************************
 
 57. Proceedings of site-specific management for agricultural
 systems : second international conference, March 27-30, 1994
 Thunderbird Hotel,  2201 East 78th St., Minneapolis, MN :
 conducted by the Department of Soil Science and Minnesota
 Extension Service, University of  Minnesota.  Site-specific
 management for agricultural systems.
 Robert, P. C. P. C.;  Rust, R. H. R. H. 1.;  Larson, W. E. 1.;
 University of Minnesota. Dept. of Soil Science. 
 
 Madison, WI, USA : American Society of Agronomy : Crop Science
 Society of America : Soil Science Society of America, c1995.
 xvii,  993 p. : ill., maps.
 "The proceedings of the Second International Conference on
 Site-Specific Management for Agricultural Systems, held in
 Minneapolis  (Bloomington), March 28-30, 1994, a first conference
 was held in Minneapolis in April 1992"--P. xiii.
 Descriptors: Land-capability-for-agriculture-Congresses;
 Agricultural-mapping-Congresses; Soil-science-Congresses;
 Agriculture-Technology-transfer- Congresses;
 Agricultural-systems-Congresses
 NAL Call No.: S590.2.P762--1995
 *************************************************************
 
 58. Professional schools for agriculture.
 Wallace, A. 
 
 HortScience v.27, p.10. (1992).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: agriculture-; agricultural-colleges;
 college-curriculum; usa-; doctor-of-high-precision-agriculture
 NAL Call No.: SB1.H6
 *************************************************************
 
 59. The promise of precision agriculture.
 Vanden Heuvel, R. M. 
 
 J-soil-water-conserv v.51, p.38-40. (1996).
 Commentary.
 Descriptors: alternative-farming; low-input-agriculture;
 sustainability-; agricultural-development
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-J822
 *************************************************************
 
 60. A proposed GPS geodetic high accuracy reference network for
 the state of Indiana.
 Findorff, D. D.; Van Gelder, B. H. W.; Johnson, S. D. 
 
 Eng-ext-ser. West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue University, Dept. of
 Engineering Extension. 1994. (165) p. 40-56. 
 Proceedings of the 80th Annual Road School held March 1-3, 1994,
 West Lafayette, Indiana.
 Descriptors: satellites-; data-communication;
 telecommunications-; indiana-; kentucky-;
 naustar-navigation-system-with-time-and-ranging;
 us-department-of-defense
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-P972
 *************************************************************
 
 61. A prototype design of a computer-controlled spreader system
 for prescription farming technology.
 Tsui, T. L.; Smith, D. A. 
 
 Proc-N-D-Acad-Sci. Grand Forks, N.D. : The Academy. Apr 1992. v.
 46 p. 64. 
 Descriptors: spreaders-; fertilizer-distributors;
 computer-software; bigwin-software
 NAL Call No.: 500-N813
 *************************************************************
 
 62. Reducing the nitrogen requirement of vegetable crops by
 precision fertilizer injection.
 Stone, D. A.; Rowse, H. R. 
 
 Asp-appl-biol p.399-402. (1992).
 In the series analytic: Nitrate and farming systems / edited by
 J.R. Archer, K.W.T. Goulding, S.C. Jarvis, C.M. Knott, I. Lord,
 S.E. Ogilvy,  J. Orson, K.A. Smith, and B. Wilson.
 Descriptors: allium-cepa; lactuca-sativa; ammonium-nitrate;
 ammonium-phosphates; urea-; soil-injection; broadcasting-;
 low-input-agriculture; nutrient- requirements; application-rates;
 seedbed-preparation; west-midlands-of-england
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 *************************************************************
 
 63. Regression models for estimating soil properties by landscape
 position.
 Brubaker, S. C.; Jones, A. J.; Frank, K.; Lewis, D. T. 
 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. Nov/Dec 1994. v. 58 (6) p. 1763-1767. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-properties; soil-variability; landscape-;
 topography-; sloping-land; correlation-; regression-analysis;
 models-; alternative-farming; nebraska-; prescription-farming
 Abstract: Slope geometry and the associated variation in soil
 properties influence runoff, drainage, soil temperature, the
 extent of soil erosion and  deposition, and crop yields. With the
 current emphasis on prescription farming, approaches are needed
 to more effectively match inputs to  production system needs
 while accounting for variation in soil and water resources within
 a field. The objectives of the study was to develop  simplified
 regression models to predict soil properties on different
 landscape positions from observed values on the nearly level
 upper  interfluve. Soil samples were taken from the upper and
 lower interfluve, shoulder, upper and lower linear, and footslope
 at each of four sites in  eastern Nebraska. Predictive equations
 were developed for 20 soil properties using multiple linear
 regression. Independent variables included  were observed values
 of the property being modeled from the upper interfluve, sampling
 depth, and an irrigation code. Of the 100 models  developed, only
 eight included significant contributions from all three
 independent variables. Models for pH, organic matter, electrical 
 conductivity, exchangeable K, base saturation percentage, and
 available P and K consistently had R2 values greater than O.50.
 The upper  interfluve contributed significantly to the prediction
 of each of these properties except electrical conductivity. A
 comparison between average  observed and predicted values for
 each soil property at each sampling depth revealed that the
 observed values generally fell within a 95%  confidence interval
 about the predicted values. The confidence interval half-width
 was generally <10% of the mean for the observed values.  Further
 evaluation with independent data sets could.
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 *************************************************************
 
 64. Requirements for a fully integrated fertilizer program.
 Larson, T. 
 
 Proc-annu-meet-Fert-Ind-Round-Table p.52-57. (1995).
 Meeting held October 23-25, 1995, Raleigh, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: farm-management; farm-inputs; fertilizers-;
 decision-making; sustainability-; precision-agriculture
 NAL Call No.: 57.09-F41
 *************************************************************
 
 65. A robust method for estimating soil properties in unsampled
 cells.
 Han, S.; Goering, C. E.; Cahn, M. D.; Hummel, J. W. 
 
 Trans-ASAE v.36, p.1363-1368. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-properties; kriging-; statistical-analysis;
 site-specific-crop-management; data-blocking; median-polishing
 Abstract: For site-specific crop management (SSCM), fields are
 viewed as collections of small regions cells)   in which soil
 properties are nearly  uniform.  A field information system (FIS)
 can be used to   store soil fertility data and to create
 application rate maps on a cell-by-cell basis.  A  data  blocking
 procedure was developed to convert soil sample data into a new
 data set in which one value   represents the soil property in
 each  cell A nonparametric distance-weighting algorithm was  
 developed which produced about the same estimation errors as a
 kriging method, but  was much   faster.  Example applications of
 the data blocking procedure to KC1 extractable nitrate and soil  
 organic matter data are included.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 *************************************************************
 
 66. Runoff and leaching of alachlor under conventional and
 soil-specific management.
 Khakural, B. R.; Robert, P. C.; Koskinen, W. C. 
 
 Soil-use-manage v.10, p.158-164. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: alachlor-; application-rates; environmental-impact;
 runoff-; leaching-; losses-from-soil; catenas-; landscape-;
 topography-; drainage-; soil- variability; alternative-farming;
 minnesota-; precision-farming; landscape-position;
 soil-specific-application-rates; uniform-application-rates
 Abstract: The influence of conventional and soil-specific
 management on leaching and runoff losses of soil-applied alachlor
 (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl- N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide) was
 studied across a soil catena (landscape) with varied slope and
 drainage characteristics. The catena  consisted of: a
 well-drained Ves (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Udic Haplustoll) soil
 on the backslope (1-4%), a Ves soil on the sideslope (6-12%), 
 and a poorly drained Webster (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic
 Haplaquoll) soil on the toeslope (0-3%). In general, the
 concentration of  alachlor in runoff water was greater in the Ves
 soil than in the Webster. In 1992 alachlor concentrations in
 runoff (water, sediment + water)  were less for soil-specific
 rates (2.20 or 2.80 kg/ha) than for a uniform rate (3.36 kg/ha)
 in both Ves soils. There was no significant difference in 
 alachlor concentration related to application rates
 (soil-specific rate 3.66 kg/ha) in the runoff from the Webster
 soil. Averaged across soils and  events, the concentrations of
 alachlor in runoff (water, sediments + water) were less for
 soil-specific rates than for the uniform rate. Alachlor  was not
 detected in soil samples obtained from depths greater than 15 cm
 in any soil or treatment after the first sampling. At the first
 sampling  in 1992 (7 days after application) alachlor was
 detected down to 45 and 90 cm in the Ves and Webster soils,
 respectively. Detectable amounts  (less than or equal to 0.1
 micrograms/l) of alachlor were observed in soil water samples
 extracted from all three soils during some sampling  dates. No
 particular trends were observed with soils or application rates.
 NAL Call No.: S590.S68
 *************************************************************
 
 67. Satellites key to new farming aids.
 Becker, H.; Senft, D. 
 
 Agric-Res-U-S-Dep-Agric-Res-Serv v.40, p.4-8. (1992).
 Descriptors: agricultural-research; satellites-; technology-;
 innovation-adoption; fertilizer-requirement-determination;
 soil-salinity; measurement-; global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: 1.98-AG84
 *************************************************************
 
 68. Selection of cell size for site-specific crop management.
 Han, S.; Goering, C. E.; Hummel, J. W.; Cahn, M. D. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1992. (927007) 16 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1992 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 June 21-24,  1992, Charlotte, North Carolina.
 Descriptors: crop-management; site-selection
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 69. Sensing soil nitrogen for site specific crop management
 (SSCM).
 Upadhyaya, S. K.; Shafii, S.; Slaughter, D. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1994. (94-1039/94-1074) 19 p. 
 Paper presented at the 1994 International Summer Meeting
 sponsored by the ASAE, June 19-22, 1994, Kansas City, Missouri.
 Descriptors: crop-management; soil-; nitrogen-; soil-water;
 soil-water-content; sensing-; radiation-; sensors-; measurement-
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 70. Small-grain precision planter for dryland experimental plots.
 Botha, A. H.; Purchase, J. L.; Wilkins, D. E. 
 
 Agron-j v.86, p.359-362. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: dry-farming; experimental-equipment;
 experimental-plots; planters-; design-; gramineae-; cereal-grains
 Abstract: Small-grain stand establishment in research plots of
 the summer rainfall region of South Africa is a problem because
 of dry surface soil. A  vacuum system plot planter was developed
 to meet these requirements. The planter has simple adjustments
 for changes in species, cultivars,  seeding rate, row spacing,
 and fertilizer rate. The precision planter has fertilizer tines
 and modified planter units. Uniform stands are achieved  with
 most species at seeding rates varying from 5 to 100 kg ha-1
 (4.5-89.0 lb acre-1), with no restriction in plot length. The
 unit is easily  transported and can plant in excess of 80 5-m
 (16.5 ft) plots h-1.
 NAL Call No.: 4-AM34P
 *************************************************************
 
 71. A soil analysis sampling method to determine pH, P, K, and Mg
 fertiliser application using variable rate technology.
 Budden, A. L. 
 
 Asp-appl-biol p.281-282. (1994).
 In the series analytic: Sampling to make decisions / edited by P.
 Brain, S.H. Hockland, P.D. Lancashire, and L.C. Sim.
 Descriptors: soil-fertility; soil-ph; phosphorus-; potassium-;
 magnesium-; mapping-; sampling-; soil-analysis; spatial-variation
 NAL Call No.: QH301.A76
 *************************************************************
 
 72. Soil nutrient mapping implications using GPS.
 Delcourt, H.; Baerdemaeker, J. de. 
 
 Comput-electron-agric v.11, p.37-51. (1994).
 In the special issue: Global positioning systems in agriculture /
 edited by H. Auernhammer.
 Descriptors: soil-management; nutrient-availability;
 spatial-variation; soil-properties; position-; mapping-;
 automatic-guidance; global-positioning-systems
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 *************************************************************
 
 73. Spatial analysis of soil fertility for site-specific crop
 management.
 Cahn, M. D.; Hummel, J. W.; Brouer, B. H. 
 
 Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
 America. July/Aug 1994. v. 58 (4) p. 1240-1248. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-fertility; soil-variability;
 soil-organic-matter; carbon-; nitrate-nitrogen; nitrogen-content;
 phosphates-; phosphorus-; potassium-; nutrient-content;
 soil-water-content; spatial-variation; statistical-analysis;
 size-; boundaries-; patterns-; crop-management; illinois-;
 variography-
 Abstract: Spatial patterns of soil properties and nutrient
 concentrations need to be characterized to develop site-specific
 farming practices that match  agricultural inputs with regional
 crop needs. The spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), soil
 water content (SWC), NO3-N, PO4-P, and K  were evaluated in the
 0- to 15-cm layer of a 3.3-ha field (Typic Haplaquoll and
 Argiaquic Argialboll) cropped with maize (Zea mays L.) and 
 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The range of spatial
 correlation was determined from semivariance analyses of the data
 and was found to  vary among and within fertility parameters.
 Nitrate had the shortest correlation range (< 5 m) and SOC had
 the longest (> 180 m), whereas  SWC, PO4-P, and K had
 intermediate spatial correlation ranges. In addition, SOC was
 found to have small-scale spatial variation nested within 
 large-scale spatial variation. The spatial pattern of NO3-N
 changed with time. Frequency distributions of SOC and SWC were
 close to normal,  whereas the distributions of NO3-N, K, and
 PO4-P data were skewed. Median polishing detrending and trimming
 of outlying data were useful  methods to remove the effects of
 nonstationarity and non-normality from the semivariance analysis.
 The results suggest that reducing sampling  intervals from 50 to
 1 m would reduce the variance of SWC, SOC, NO3-N, PO4-P, and K
 estimates by 74, 95, 25, 64, and 58%, respectively. A  useful
 sampling pattern for characterizing the spatial variation of
 several soil properties-nutrients and scales should be random
 with sample  spacing as close as 1 m and as far apart as the
 longest dimension of the field.
 NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
 *************************************************************
 
 74. Spatially-variable fertilizer and pesticide application with
 GPS and DGPS.
 Schueller, J. K.; Wang, M. W. 
 
 Comput-electron-agric v.11, p.69-83. (1994).
 In the special issue: Global positioning systems in agriculture /
 edited by H. Auernhammer.
 Descriptors: fertilizers-; pesticides-; application-methods;
 spatial-variation; position-; technology-; automatic-guidance;
 global-positioning-system;
 differential-global-positioning-system; location-technology
 NAL Call No.: S494.5.D3C652
 *************************************************************
 
 75. Specifications for differential GPS coordinate data
 submission to the Geometronics Service Center.
 Warburton, T. 
 
 Eng-field-notes. Washington, D.C. : United States Department of
 Agriculture, Forest Service, Engineering Staff. July/Aug 1993. v.
 25 p.  49-53. 
 Descriptors: mapping-; satellites-; specifications-;
 globally-positioned-satellite
 NAL Call No.: aSD388.A1U52
 *************************************************************
 
 76. Timeliness and precision-key factors in dryland agriculture.
 Singh, R. P. R. P. 1.;  Das, S. K.; All India Coordinated
 Research Project for Dryland Agriculture. 
 
 Hyderabad : All India Coordinated Research Project for Dryland
 Agriculture, 1984. 29 p. : ill., 
 Descriptors: Dry-farming-India
 NAL Call No.: SB110.S56
 *************************************************************
 
 77. Tools to aid management: the use of site specific management.
 Kincheloe, S. 
 
 J-soil-water-conserv v.49, p.43-45. (1994).
 In the special issue: Nutrient management. Paper presented at a
 conference held on April 20-22, 1993, St. Louis, Missouri.
 Descriptors: farming-systems; sustainability-; management-;
 environmental-protection
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-J822
 *************************************************************
 
 78. Use of aerial photographs to identify suitable GPS survey
 stations.
 Adkins, K. F.; Lyon, J. G. 
 
 Photogramm-Eng-Remote-Sensing v.57, p. 933-936. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: cadasters-; aerial-photography
 NAL Call No.: 325.28-P56
 *************************************************************
 
 79. Use of the global positioning system in soil survey.
 Long, D. S.; DeGloria, S. D.; Galbraith, J. M. 
 
 J-soil-water-conserv v.46, p.293-297. (1991).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: soil-surveys; satellite-surveys
 NAL Call No.: 56.8-J822
 *************************************************************
 
 80. Using airborne video, global positioning system, and
 geographical information system technologies for detecting and
 mapping citrus  blackfly infestations.
 Everitt, J. H.; Escobar, D. E.; Summy, K. R.; Davis, M. R. 
 
 Southwest-entomol v.19, p.129-138. (1994).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: citrus-; aleurocanthus-woglumi; sooty-molds;
 detection-; geographical-distribution; remote-sensing;
 video-recordings; aerial-surveys; texas-; capnodium-citri
 NAL Call No.: QL461.S65
 *************************************************************
 
 81. Using the GPS satellites for precision navigation.
 Larsen, W. E.; Tyler, D. A.; Nielsen, G. A. 
 
 Automated agriculture for the 21st century  proceedings of the
 1991 symposium, 16-17 December 1991, Chicago, Illinois. St.
 Joseph,  Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
 c1991.. p. 201-208. 
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: farm-equipment; automatic-guidance; satellites-;
 global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: S671.3.A97-1991
 *************************************************************
 
 82. Using the United States Global Positioning System to map the
 location of apiaries.
 Erickson, E. H.; Buchmann, S. L. 
 
 Am-bee-j v.136, p.124-126. (1996).
 Descriptors: apiaries-; apiary-sites; mapping-;
 satellite-surveys; remote-sensing
 NAL Call No.: 424.8-Am3
 *************************************************************
 
 83. Variable planting density and fertilizer rate application
 system.
 Neuhaus, P. E.; Searcy, S. W. 
 
 Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
 Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1993. (93-1531/93-1560) 21 p. 
 Paper presented at the "1993 International Winter Meeting
 sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
 December 13- 17, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
 Descriptors: crop-management; site-factors;
 site-specific-crop-management
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
 *************************************************************
 
 84. Variable rate fluid technology arrives for dealers.
 Peitscher, A. 
 
 Solutions v.36, p.31-34. (1992).
 Descriptors: fertilizers-; fertilizer-distributors; application-;
 equipment-; prescription-farming
 NAL Call No.: 57.8-SO4
 *************************************************************
 
 85. The view from above: an overview of GPS and remote sensing
 options.
 Greer, J. D. 
 
 J-For v.91, p.10-14. (1993).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: remote-sensing; satellites-; aerial-photography;
 resource-management; geographical-information-systems
 NAL Call No.: 99.8-F768
 *************************************************************
 
 86. Weed control in sugar beet by precision guided implements.
 Zuydam, R. P. v.; Sonneveld, C.; Naber, H. 
 
 Crop-prot v.14, p.335-340. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: beta-vulgaris-var; -saccharifera;
 seedbed-preparation; drilling-; spraying-; application-methods;
 fertilizers-; hoeing-; implements-; automatic-guidance; lasers-;
 weed-control; low-input-agriculture
 Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in sugar beet with a
 wide-span (12.2 m) tractor and laser guided implements. By means
 of a side-shift  facility, implements were mounted on this
 vehicle for seedbed preparation, drilling, fertilizing, spraying
 and hoeing. Automatic laser guidance  was possible with an
 accuracy of 0.6 cm on a track length of 220 m on arable land. No
 inputs (soil cultivation, fertilizer, herbicide) were made  at
 places where they were not needed, or even would potentially
 pollute the environment. The aim of the experiment, which was
 carried out in 2  successive years on fields of the same farm,
 was to investigate the influence on weed occurrence and
 efficiency of weed control. Leaving out  seedbed preparation
 between the future crop rows left already germinated weeds alive.
 In 1 year pre-emergence application of paraquat-diquat  was
 necessary to stop growing of well developed weed plants. A
 crumbling operation had to be carried out to break the clods,
 otherwise inter- row hoeing was impossible. From the viewpoint of
 weed control restricting seedbed preparation to the future sugar
 beet rows was not of  advantage. Precision guidance allowed
 enlargement of mechanical weed control, i.e. inter row hoeing to
 80% (40 cm wide at a row distance to  50 cm). Savings on
 herbicides were 75%, because little overlap was necessary of
 chemically and mechanically treated areas. The absence of 
 fertilizers in these inter-row bands did not diminish the number
 of weeds, and speed of emergence of weeds. The effect of seedbed
 preparation  and drilling the sugar beet crop in complete
 darkness (at night), made possible by the automatic guidance, on
 weed infestation was not different  from daylight treatments. In
 these.
 NAL Call No.: SB599.C8
 *************************************************************
 
 87. Weed eradication using geographic information systems.
 Prather, T. S.; Callihan, R. H. 
 
 Weed-technol v.7, p.265-269. (1993).
 Paper presented at the "Symposium on Geographic Information
 Systems," February 11, 1992, Orlando, Florida.
 Descriptors: weed-control; crupina-vulgaris;
 geographical-information-systems; infestation-;
 satellite-surveys; satellite-imagery; global-positioning-system
 NAL Call No.: SB610.W39
 *************************************************************
 
 88. Yield and water use efficiency of corn in response to LEPA
 irrigation.
 Howell, T. A.; Yazar, A.; Schneider, A. D.; Dusek, D. A.;
 Copeland, K. S. 
 
 Trans-ASAE v.38, p.1737-1747. (1995).
 Includes references.
 Descriptors: zea-mays; center-pivot-irrigation; grain-; biomass-;
 crop-yield; yield-components; yield-correlations; water-use;
 water-use-efficiency; clay- loam-soils; climatic-factors;
 evapotranspiration-; leaf-area-index; soil-water-content;
 crop-management; texas-; low-energy-precision-application
 Abstract: Center-pivot sprinklers are rapidly expanding on the
 Southern High Plains, and LEPA (low energy precision application)
 application  methods are widely used in this region to reduce
 water application losses, to use the relatively low well yields,
 and to reduce energy  requirements for pressurization. This study
 was conducted to evaluate LEPA irrigation response of corn (Zea
 mays L.) on slowly permeable  Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed,
 thermic Torrertic Paleustoll). The effects of irrigation amount
 were investigated in afield study during the 1992  and 1993
 cropping seasons at Bushland, Texas. In 1992, a wetter than
 normal season, grain yields varied from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/m2 while in
 1993,  which was a season with slightly less than normal rain,
 grain yields varied from 0.4 to over 1.5 kg/m2 as irrigations
 increased from no-post plant  irrigations to fully meeting the
 crop water use. Irrigation amounts for the full irrigation varied
 from only 279 mm for the wet year to over 640  mm for the more
 normal year. A significant relationship was found between grain
 yield and water use for the two years described as GY  (kg/m2) =
 0.00169 [WU (mm)-147] with an r2 of 0.882 and a Sy/x of 0.10
 kg/m2. Deficit irrigation of corn, even with LEPA, reduced yields
 by  affecting both seed mass and kernels per ear. Generally, the
 grain yield was in proportion to dry matter yield. LEPA
 irrigation was shown to be  efficient in terms of partitioning
 the applied water into crop water use. Irrigation amounts should
 not exceed 25 mm for alternate furrows (0.76- m rows) LEPA on the
 Pullman-type soils with furrow dike basins.
 NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
 *************************************************************
 
 NAL DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICES 
                                                                  
 June 1993
 
 United States Department of Agriculture
 National Agricultural Library
 Public Services Division
 Document Delivery Services Branch
 Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 
 The National Agricultural Library has established document
 delivery service policies for three user categories.  They are 1)
 individuals; 2) libraries, other information centers, and
 commercial organizations; and 3) foreign libraries, information
 centers, and commercial organizations.  Available services for
 each user category are given below.  For information
 on electronic access for interlibrary loan requests, the
 "Interlibrary Loan" file.
 
 1)  DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICES TO INDIVIDUALS
 
 The National Agricultural Library (NAL) supplies agricultural
 materials not found elsewhere to other libraries.
 
 Filling requests for materials readily available from other
 sources diverts NAL's resources and diminishes its ability to
 serve as a national source for agricultural and agriculturally
 related materials.  Therefore, NAL is viewed as a library of last
 resort. SUBMIT REQUESTS FIRST TO LOCAL OR STATE LIBRARY SOURCES
 PRIOR TO SENDING TO NAL. In the United States, possible sources
 are public libraries, land-grant university or other large
 research libraries within a state.  In other countries submit
 requests through major university, national, or provincial
 institutions.
 
 If the needed publications are not available from these sources,
 submit requests to NAL with a statement indicating their
 non-availability.  Submit one request per page following the
 instructions for libraries below.
 
 
 NAL'S DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICE INFORMATION FOR THE LIBRARY
 
 The following information is provided to assist your librarian in
 obtaining the required materials.
 
 LOAN SERVICE -- Materials in NAL's collection are loaned only to
 other U.S. libraries.  Requests for loans are made through local
 public, academic, or special libraries.
 
 The following materials are not available for loan: serials
 (except USDA serials); rare, reference, and reserve books;
 microforms; and proceedings of conferences or symposia. 
 Photocopy or microform of non-circulating publications may be
 purchased as described below.
 
 DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICE -- Photocopies of articles are
 available for a fee.  Make requests through local public,
 academic, or special libraries.  The library will submit a
 separate interlibrary loan form for each article or item
 requested.  If the citation is from an NAL database
 (CAIN/AGRICOLA, "Bibliography of Agriculture,"
 or the NAL Catalog) and the call number is given, put that call
 number in the proper block on the request form.  Willingness to
 pay charges must be indicated on the form.  Include compliance
 with copyright law or a statement that the article is for
 "research purposes only" on the interlibrary loan form or letter. 
 Requests cannot be processed without these statements. Please
 read copyright notice below.
 
 CHARGES:
 
 *    Photocopy, hard copy of microfilm and microfiche - $5.00 for
      the first 10 pages or fraction copied from a single article      or publication.  $3.00 for each additional 10 pages or           fraction.
 
 *    Duplication of NAL-owned microfilm - $10.00 per reel.
 
 
 *    Duplication of NAL-owned microfiche - $ 5.00 for the first
      fiche and $ .50 for each additional fiche per title.
 
 BILLING -- Charges include postage and handling, and are subject
 to change.  Invoices are issued quarterly by the National
 Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road,
 Springfield, VA 22161. Establishing a deposit account with NTIS
 is encouraged.  
 DO NOT SEND PREPAYMENT.
 
 SEND REQUESTS TO: 
 
           USDA, National Agricultural Library
           Document Delivery Services Branch, PhotoLab
           10301 Baltimore Blvd., NAL Bldg.
           Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 Contact the Head, Document Delivery Services Branch in writing or
 by calling (301) 504-5755 with questions or comments about this
 policy.
 
 
 2)   DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICES AVAILABLE TO LIBRARIES, OTHER
      INFORMATION CENTERS AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS.
 
 The National Agricultural Library (NAL) accepts requests from
 libraries and other organizations in accordance with the national
 and international interlibrary loan code and guidelines.  In its
 national role, NAL supplies copies of agricultural materials not
 found elsewhere.  Filling requests for materials readily
 available from other sources diverts NAL's resources and
 diminishes its ability to serve as a national source for
 agricultural and agriculturally related materials.  Therefore,
 NAL is viewed as a library of last resort.
 
 Submit requests to state/region/network sources prior to sending
 to NAL.  Within the United States, possible sources are public
 libraries, land-grant university libraries or other large
 research libraries within a state.  In other countries submit
 requests to major university, national or provincial
 institutions.  If the needed publications are not available from
 these sources, submit requests to NAL with a statement indicating
 their non-availability.
 
 REQUESTS -- Submit on the American Library Association (ALA) or
 the International Federation of Library Associations and
 Institutions (IFLA) interlibrary loan form or via electronic mail
 or telefacsimile (see over for more details).  Include the
 complete name of the person authorizing the request on each form;
 the standard bibliographic source which lists the title as owned
 by NAL; and the call number if the citation is from an NAL
 database (CAIN/AGRICOLA, "Bibliography of Agriculture," or the
 NAL catalog).
 
 LOAN SERVICE -- Materials in the NAL collection are loaned only
 to U.S. libraries.  The loan period is one month.
 
 The following materials are not available for loan:  serials
 (except for USDA serials); rare, reference, and reserve books;
 microforms; and proceedings of conferences or symposia. 
 Photocopy or microform of the non-circulating publications is
 supplied automatically (as described below) when the requesting
 organization indicates that photocopy is acceptable on the loan
 form.
 
 AUDIOVISUALS (AVs) -- Order at least 3-4 weeks before the
 intended show date.  Give show date and alternate show date when
 requesting specific titles.  Request specific format needed if
 more than one format is given in the citation.
 
 DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICE -- Submit a separate completed
 interlibrary loan form for each article required.  Indicate
 willingness to pay charges on the form and compliance with
 copyright law or include a statement that the article is for
 "research purposes only."  Requests are not processed without
 these statements.  Please read copyright notice below.
 
 CHARGES:
 
 *    Photocopy, hard copy of microfilm and microfiche - $5.00 for
      the first 10 pages or fraction copied from a single article      or publication.  $3.00 for each additional 10 pages or           fraction.
 
 *    Duplication of NAL-owned microfilm - $10.00 per reel.
 
 *    Duplication of NAL-owned microfiche - $5.00 for the first
      fiche and $ .50 for each additional fiche per title.
 
 BILLING - Charges include postage and handling, and are subject
 to change.  Invoices are issued quarterly by the National
 Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road,
 Springfield, VA 22161.  Establishing a deposit account with NTIS
 is encouraged.  DO NOT SEND PREPAYMENT.
 
 Send Requests to:
      USDA, National Agricultural Library
      Document Delivery Services Branch, ILL, PhotoLab
      10301 Baltimore Blvd.,  NAL Bldg.
      Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 Contact the Head, Document Delivery Services Branch in writing or
 by calling (301) 504-5755 with questions or comments about this
 policy.
 
 
 3)   DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICES AVAILABLE TO FOREIGN LIBRARIES,
      INFORMATION CENTERS AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS.
 
 The National Agricultural Library (NAL) accepts requests from
 libraries and other organizations in accordance with the national
 and international interlibrary loan code and guidelines.
 
 In its national role, NAL supplies copies of agricultural
 materials not found elsewhere.  Filling requests for materials
 readily available from other sources diverts NAL's resources and
 diminishes its ability to serve as a national source for
 agricultural and agriculturally related materials.  Therefore,
 NAL is viewed as a library of last resort.
 
 Submit requests to major university libraries, national or
 provincial institutions or network sources prior to sending
 requests to NAL.  If the needed publications are not available
 from these sources, submit requests to NAL with a statement
 indicating their non-availability.
 
 AGLINET -- Requesters in countries with an AGLINET library are
 encouraged to make full use of that library and its networking
 capabilities.  As an AGLINET participant, NAL provides free
 document delivery service for materials published in the United
 States to other AGLINET participants.
 
 REQUESTS -- Submit requests on the American Library Association
 (ALA) or the International Federation of Library Associations and
 Institutions (IFLA) interlibrary loan form or via electronic mail
 or telefacsimile (see over for more details).  Include the
 complete name of the person authorizing the request on each form;
 the standard bibliographic source which lists the title as owned
 by NAL; and the call number if the  citation is from an NAL
 database(CAIN/AGRICOLA, "Bibliography of Agriculture", or the NAL
 catalog).
 
 DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICE -- Submit a separate completed
 interlibrary loan form for each article requested.  Indicate
 willingness to pay charges on the form, and compliance with
 copyright law or include a statement that the article is for
 "research purposes only".  Requests cannot be processed without
 these statements. Please read copyright notice below.
 
 CHARGES:
 
 *    Photocopy, hard copy of microfilm and microfiche - $5.00 for
      the first 10 pages or fraction copied from a single article      or publication.  $3.00 for each additional 10 pages or           fraction.
 
 *    Duplication of NAL-owned microfilm - $10.00 per reel.
 
 *    Duplication of NAL-owned microfiche - $5.00 for the first
      fiche and $ .50 for each additional fiche per title.
 
 BILLING - Charges include postage and handling, and are subject
 to change.  Invoices are issued quarterly by the National
 Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road,
 Springfield, VA 22161.  Establishing deposit account with NTIS is
 encouraged. Annual billing is available to foreign institutions
 on request by contacting NAL at the address below.  DO NOT SEND
 PREPAYMENT.
 
 Send Requests to: 
      USDA, National Agricultural Library
      Document Delivery Services Branch, ILL, PhotoLab
      10301 Baltimore Blvd., NAL Bldg.
      Beltsville, Maryland  20705-2351
 
 Contact the Head, Document Delivery Services Branch at (301)
 504-5755 with questions or comments about this policy.
 
 
 ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCESS FOR INTERLIBRARY LOAN (ILL) REQUESTS
                                                                  
 June 1993
 
 
 The National Agricultural Library (NAL), Document Delivery
 Services Branch accepts ILL requests from libraries via several
 electronic services.  All requests must comply with established
 routing and referral policies and procedures.  The transmitting
 library will pay all fees incurred during the creation of
 requests and communication with NAL.  A sample format for
 ILL requests is printed below along with a list of the required
 data/format elements.
 
 ELECTRONIC MAIL  -  (Sample form below)
 
      SYSTEM            ADDRESS CODE
      ====================================================
      INTERNET. . . . . LENDING@NALUSDA.GOV
      EASYLINK. . . . . 62031265
      ONTYME. . . . . . NAL/LB
      TWX/TELEX . . . . Number is 710-828-0506 NAL LEND.
                        This number may only be used for
                        ILL requests.
      FTS2000 . . . . . A12NALLEND 
      OCLC  . . . . . . NAL's symbol AGL need only be entered
                        once, but it must be the last entry in
                        the Lender string.  Requests from USDA
                        and Federal libraries may contain AGL
                        anywhere in the Lender String.
 
 
 SAMPLE ELECTRONIC MAIL REQUEST
 =================================================================| AG University/NAL    ILLRQ 231     4/1/93     NEED BY:  6/1/93
 |
 |                                                               
 |
 | Interlibrary Loan Department                                  
 |
 | Agriculture University                                        
 |
 | Heartland, IA  56789                                          
 |
 |                                                               
 |
 | Dr. Smith   Faculty   Ag School                               
 |
 |                                                               
 |
 | Canadian Journal of Soil Science 1988 v 68(1):  17-27         
 |
 | DeJong, R.  Comparison of two soil-water models under         
 |
 | semi-arid growing conditions                                  
 |
 | Ver:  AGRICOLA                                                
 |
 | Remarks:  Not available at IU or in region.                   
 |
 | NAL CA:  56.8 C162                                            
 |
 |                                                               
 |
 | Auth:  C. Johnson      CCL     Maxcost: $15.00                
 |
 |                                                               
 |
 | MORE                                                          
 |
 |                                                               
 |
 =================================================================
 
 TELEFACSIMILE - Telephone number is 301-504-5675.  NAL accepts
 ILL requests via telefacsimile.  Requests should be created on
 standard ILL forms and then faxed to NAL.  NAL does not fill
 requests via Fax at this time.
 
 REQUIRED DATA ELEMENTS/FORMAT
 
 1.   Borrower's address must be in block format with at least two
      blank lines above and below so form may be used in window        envelopes.
 2.   Provide complete citation including verification, etc.
 3.   Provide authorizing official's name (request will be             rejected if not included).
 4.   Include statement of copyright compliance if applicable.
      Please read copyright notice below.
 5.   Indicate willingness to pay applicable charges.
 6.   Include NAL call number if available. Contact the Document       Delivery Services Branch at (301) 504-6503 if additional
         information is required.
 
 
  ****************************************************************
 Photocopy Warning:
 
         NOTICE WARNING CONCERNING COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS
 
 The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States
 Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of
 copyrighted material.
 
 Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and
 archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other
 reproduction.  One of these specific conditions is that the
 photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used for any purpose
 other than private study, scholarship, or research."  If a user
 makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction
 for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for
 copyright infringement.
 
 This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying
 order if, in its judgement, fulfillment of the order would
 involve violation of copyright law.
 
 37 C.F.R. 201.14
 
 ****************************************************************
 
 The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits
 discrimination in its programs on the
 basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age,
 disability, political beliefs, and marital or
 familial status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all
 programs.)
 
 Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for
 communication of program information
 (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDA
 Office of Communications at (202)
 720-5881 (voice) or (202) 720-7808 (TDD).
 
 To file a complaint of discrimination, write the Secretary of
 Agriculture, U.S. Department of
 Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, or fax the complaint to
 (202)720-8046 or call (202)
 720-4107 (TDD). USDA is an equal employment opportunity employer. 
 


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