Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Soils

   JANUARY 1970 - JUNE 1996
   105 citations from AGRICOLA
   Joe Makuch
   Water Quality Information Center
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   Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Soils
   1. Additive and synergistic effects on plant growth from
   polymers and organic matter applied to soil simultaneously.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.334-342. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: lycopersicon-esculentum; triticum-aestivum;
   growth-; polyacrylamide-; organic-matter-in-soil;
   physical-properties-of-soil; manures-; application-methods;
   synergism-; utah-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   2. Adsorption isotherms of polyanions on soils using tritium
   labeled compounds.
   Nadler, A.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.53, p.1375-1378. (1989).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; guar-; tritium-;
   isotope-labeling; adsorption-; sorption-isotherms;
   aggregates-; stability-; physical-properties-of-soil
   Abstract: Although the effects of polymers on various soil
   physical properties have been investigated, adsorption of
   polymers by soils has not been  extensively studied.
   Adsorption isotherms were determined by the batch technique
   for three tritium-labeled polyanions on one soil which 
   received various pretreatments. Two polyacrylamide (PAM)
   compounds in which the NH2 was substituted with OH at 2% (2J)
   and 21% (21J),  rendering them negatively charged, were used.
   Additionally, a guar compound (4246) used in the study was
   negatively charged and had a lower  molecular weight than
   PAM. The soil was used without pretreatment and also with
   pretreatment to create a Ca soil, Na soil, organic matter-
   depleted soil, and high-pH soil. Polyanion type had a
   relatively greater effect than did soil pretreatment on
   adsorption, except for the Na soil,  which had very low
   adsorption as compared to the other soil pretreatments. The
   more negatively charged polyanions (21J and 4246) had linear 
   adsorption isotherms except for 21J on the Na soil. The 2J
   had adsorption isotherms that plateaued at higher
   concentrations. The amount of  adsorption was in the general
   order 21J > 4246 > 2J. The exception was for the Na soil in
   which adsorption for all polymers was low and in the  order
   4246 > 23 > 21J. Aggregate stability was determined by wet
   sieving on all the samples. No direct association between the
   amount of  adsorption and aggregate stability was found. The
   general effectiveness of the polyanions for improving
   aggregate stability of the natural soil  was in the order 2J
   > 21J > 4246. The reverse trend was observed for the Na soil.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   3. Adsorption of polyacrylamide and polysaccharide polymers
   on soil materials.
   Malik, M.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.55, p.380-383. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; polymers-; polysaccharides-;
   sampling-; soil-chemistry; soil-conditioners;
   soil-physical-properties; adsorption-; movement-in-soil
   Abstract: Knowledge of adsorptive behavior of polymers is
   useful in predicting their mobility in soil, depth of
   effective treatment, and other factors  related to soil
   physical conditions. Adsorption isotherms were determined by
   batch technique for six tritium labeled polymers on three
   soils, one  of which was pretreated to create a high
   exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 34, and on washed
   quartz sand of three size fractions. The  three anionic
   polyacrylamide (PAM) compounds had negative charge density of
   40J > 21J > 2J, and the three polysaccharide compounds (guar) 
   had a higher positive charge (T-4141), lower positive charge
   (CP-14), and a negative charge (T-4246). Adsorption of
   CP-14,21J, and T4246  was measured on montmorillonitic clay
   extracted from one soil and a specimen sample of
   montmorillonite clay. Adsorption of a given polymer  on the
   low ESP soils was not significantly different but was
   significantly higher on the high ESP soil. The adsorption
   isotherms were T-4141  greater than or equal to 21J > CP-14
   >> 40J greater than or equal to 2J > T-4246, and adsorption
   on sand was only a little less thin on soil. The  adsorption
   on clay was CP-14 >> T-4246 > 21J. The data suggest that the
   PAM and guar polymers studied do not penetrate the
   aggregates,  because adsorption was approximately the same
   for all soils of similar aggregate sizes. Molecular size,
   molecular conformation, and  electrostatic charge
   significantly affected the adsorption isotherms.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   4. Adsorption of polymers on clays as affected by clay charge
   and structure, polymer properties, and water quality.
   Ben Hur, M.; Malik, M.; Letey, J.; Mingelgrin, U. 
   Soil-Sci v.153, p.349-356. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-conditioners; guar-; polyacrylamide-;
   adsorption-; illite-; montmorillonite-; soil-structure;
   pore-size; surface-area; cation-exchange- capacity;
   charge-characteristics; charge-density; size-; water-quality;
   electrical-conductivity; electrolytes-; mineralogy-;
   soil-micromorphology; interactions-; ratios-;
   polymer-soil-interactions; sodium-adsorption-ratios;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   5. Aggregate stability and seal formation as affected by
   drops' impact energy and soil amendments.
   Shainberg, I.; Levy, G. J.; Rengasamy, P.; Frenkel, H. 
   Soil-Sci v.154, p.113-119. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: alfisols-; semiarid-soils; aggregates-;
   stability-; sealing-; surface-layers; soil-degradation;
   clay-; hydrodynamic-dispersion; rain-; kinetic- energy;
   exchangeable-sodium; ion-strength-effects; soil-solution;
   polyacrylamide-; infiltration-; permeability-;
   soil-organic-matter; smectites-; israel-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   6. Agricultural polymers polyacrylamide preparation,
   application and prospects in soil conditioning.
   Azzam, R. A. I. 
   Commun-Soil-Sci-Plant-Anal. New York, Marcel Dekker. 1980. v.
   11 (8) p. 767-834. 
   Literature review.
   NAL Call No.: S590.C63
   7. Amelioration of sodic soils with polymers.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A.; Abouzamzam, A. M. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.359-362. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sodic-soils; soil-conditioners; polymers-;
   polyacrylamide-; application-methods;
   lycopersicon-esculentum; particle-size; seedling- emergence;
   penetration-; physical-properties-of-soil
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   8. Roberts, G. P.; Leps, W. T.; Silver, L. E.; Brill, W. J.
   Applied-Environ-Microbiol. Washington, D.C., American Society
   for Microbiology. Feb 1980. v. 39 (2) p. 414-422. ill. 
   24 ref.
   NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
   9. Roberts, G. P.; Leps, W. T.; Silver, L. E.; Brill, W. J.
   Applied-Environ-Microbiol. Washington, D.C., American Society
   for Microbiology. Feb 1980. v. 39 (2) p. 414-422. ill. 
   24 ref.
   NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
   10. Biodegradation of naphthalene in
   montmorillonite/polyacryamide suspensions.
   Magdaliniuk, S.; Block, J. C.; Leyval, C.; Bottero, J. Y.;
   Villemin, G.; Babut, M. 
   Water-sci-technol v.31, p.85-94. (1995).
   In the series analytic: Biological degradation of organic
   chemical pollutants in biofilm systems / edited by E. Arvin.
   Descriptors: pseudomonas-cepacia; naphthalene-;
   microbial-degradation; montmorillonite-; polyacrylamide-;
   mixtures-; suspensions-; adsorption-; desorption-
   NAL Call No.: TD420.A1P7
   11. Birch seedling response to irrigation frequency and a
   hydrophilic polymer amendent in a container medium.
   Tripepi, R. R.; George, M. W.; Dumroese, R. K.; Wenny, D. L. 
   J-Environ-Hortic v.9, p.119-123. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: betula-pendula; container-grown-plants;
   growing-media; ornamental-woody-plants; gels-; polymers-;
   polyacrylamide-; absorbents-; plant- water-relations;
   irrigation-scheduling; transpiration-; water-stress;
   stomatal-resistance; hydrogels-
   NAL Call No.: SB1.J66
   12. Calcium inhibition of polyacrylamide gel hydration is
   partially reversible by potassium.
   Bowman, D. C.; Evans, R. Y. 
   HortScience v.26, p.1063-1065. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-amendments; hydrophilic-polymers;
   polyacrylamide-; gels-; hydration-; inhibition-;
   calcium-nitrate; potassium-nitrate; inorganic-salts;
   interactions-; hydrogels-
   Abstract: Hydration of a commercial hydrophilic
   polyacrylamide gel in 20 meq Ca(NO3)2/liter was reduced to
   <10% of the maximum hydration in  deionized water. Repeated
   soaking with deionized water to remove soluble salts restored
   hydration to approximately 30% of maximum.  Incorporating
   KNO3 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 meq liter-1 with
   the Ca(NO3)2 in the hydration solution partially reversed the
   Ca2+  inhibition of hydration following repeated soaking.
   Potential hydrogel hydration increased to 50% of maximum with
   40 meq K+/liter.  Potassium nitrate supplied separately
   following hydration in Ca(NO3)2 was much more effective at
   reversing Ca2+ inhibition of hydrogel  hydration than joint
   application. Potential hydrogel hydration (following repeated
   soaking) was doubled after treatment with 5 meq KNO3/liter 
   and reached 77% of maximum at 40 meq KNO3/liter.
   NAL Call No.: SB1.H6
   13. Characterization of soil humic matter by polyacrylamide
   gel electrophoresis in the presence of denaturating agents.
   Trubetskoj, O. A.; Kudryavceva, L. Yu.; Shirshova, L. T. 
   Soil-Biol-Biochem v.23, p.1179-1181. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: humus-; characterization-; fractionation-;
   podzolic-soils; grey-forest-soils; chestnut-soils;
   chernozems-; red-soils; soil-types-genetic;
   physicochemical-properties; sds-page-; optimization-; urea-;
   denaturation-; black-compact-soils
   Abstract: The humic materials displaced by a carboxylate
   resin from six genetically different soil samples were
   fractionated by electrophoresis in  10% polyacrylamide gel
   with urea and sodium dodecyl sulphate. As a buffer system 89
   mM Tris-borate buffer at pH 8.3 was used. The humic  material
   of each soil studied separated into four discrete bands which
   differ greatly in electrophoretic mobility. The
   electrophoregram scans at  480 nm revealed clear differences
   in correlation of peak heights corresponding to the humic
   matter fractions in the six soils.
   NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
   14. Characterization of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal
   fungi (Glomus spp) by selective enzyme staining following
   polyacrylamide gel  electrophoresis.
   Sen, R.; Hepper, C. M. 
   Soil-Biol-Biochem v.18, p.29-34. ill. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: glomus-; mycorrhizal-fungi; spores-; taxonomy-;
   enzyme-activity; identification-; electrophoresis-; forests-
   NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
   15. Chemical amendments for erosion control.
   Norton, L. D. 
   Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
   Agricultural Engineers,. Winter 1992. (92-2551/92-2570) 9 p. 
   Paper presented at the "1992 International Winter Meeting
   sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,"
   December 15- 18, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee.
   Descriptors: soil-amendments; polyacrylamide-; rill-erosion;
   interrill-erosion; infiltration-; losses-from-soil;
   disturbed-soils; gypsiferous-byproduct
   NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
   16. Comments on trends in structure, plant growth, and
   microorganism interactions in the soil by Arie Nadler and
   Yosef Steinberger.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   Soil-sci v.156, p.365-366. (1993).
   Comments on the article: Trends in structure, plant growth,
   and microorganism interactions in the soil, A. Nadler and Y.
   Steinberger, Soil  Science, 155(2), p. 114-122.
   Descriptors: zea-mays; sandy-soils; loam-soils; clay-soils;
   polyacrylamide-; application-rates; soil-structure;
   soil-water-retention; soil-flora; soil- invertebrates;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   17. Compound promises to curb soil erosion.
   Boettinger, J. 
   Utah-sci v.55, p.6-7. (1994).
   Descriptors: soil-; gypsum-; erosion-; particles-;
   polyacrylamide-; irrigation-water; organic-matter;
   soil-structure; erosion-control
   NAL Call No.: 100-Ut1F
   18. Control of soil erosion by polymeric soil conditioners.
   Wallace, G. A.; Wallace, A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.363-367. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: erosion-; erosion-control; polyacrylamide-;
   aggregates-; application-methods; soil-properties
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   19. Controlling nitrate leaching and erosion on irrigated
   Carter, D. L.; Westermann, D. T.; Sojka, R. E.; Meek, B. D.;
   Wright, J. L.; Brown, M. J.; Lehrsch, G. A. 
   Clean water, clean environment, 21st century  team
   agriculture, working to protect water resources  conference
   proceedings, March 5-8,  1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St.
   Joseph, Mich. : ASAE, c1995.. v. 2 p. 27-30. 
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: zea-mays; medicago-sativa; triticum-aestivum;
   phaseolus-vulgaris; nitrate-; nitrate-nitrogen;
   soil-fertility; leaching-; band-placement; erosion-;
   polyacrylamide-; straw-; whey-; water-erosion; irrigation-;
   no-tillage-; nutrient-uptake; sequential-cropping; idaho-
   NAL Call No.: TD365.C54-1995
   20. Desorption of polyacrylamide and polysaccharide polymers
   from soil materials.
   Nadler, A.; Malik, M.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Technol v.5, p.91-95. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: alfisols-; vertisols-; sand-; soil-treatment;
   polyacrylamide-; guar-gum; charge-density; adsorption-;
   desorption-; movement-in-soil; spatial- distribution;
   soil-depth; profiles-; aggregates-; stability-; wetting-;
   drying-; soil-water-content; polymer-treatment
   NAL Call No.: S590.S65
   21. Effect of a medium-incorporated hydrogel on plant growth
   and water use of two foliage species.
   Wang, Y. T.; Boogher, C. A. 
   J-Environ-Hortic. Washington, D.C. : Horticultural Research
   Institute. Sept 1987. .v. 5 (3) p. 127-130. 
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: nephrolepis-exaltata; chlorophytum-comosum;
   evapotranspiration-; growing-media; water-use;
   water-use-efficiency; irrigation-; transpiration-;
   container-grown-plants; polyacrylamide-; growth-
   NAL Call No.: SB1.J66
   22. Effect of diffusion on the kinetics of biodegradation:
   experimental results with synthetic aggregates.
   Scow, K. M.; Alexander, M. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.56, p.128-134. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: pseudomonas-; soil-bacteria;
   biological-activity-in-soil; microbial-degradation;
   p-nitrophenol-; phenol-; glutamates-; mineralization-;
   bioavailability-; kinetics-; polyacrylamide-; kaolinite-;
   aggregates-; particle-size; sorption-; diffusion-;
   diffusivity-; mass-transfer; population- density;
   spatial-distribution; deterministic-models;
   Abstract: The rates of biodegradation in soil often do not
   conform to the predictions of kinetic models, such as the
   first-order and Michaelis-Menten  models, developed to
   describe metabolic processes occurring in solutions in which
   microorganisms and their substrates are well mixed. To test 
   whether the kinetics of biodegradation in the presence of
   aggregates could be described by explicitly accounting for
   chemical diffusion, studies  were conducted in well-defined
   experimental systems. The kinetics of biodegradation of low
   concentrations of 14C-labeled phenol and  glutamate by
   Pseudomonas sp. Strain K in buffer containing spherical
   aggregates of kaolinite that exclude bacteria were
   significantly different  from the kinetics measured in the
   absence of aggregates. Both the biodegradation rate and the
   percentage of the initial compound degraded were  lower in
   the presence of aggregates than in their absence. Using
   measurements of biodegradation, diffusion rates, and physical
   properties of the  experimental system as input parameters,
   the diffusion-sorption-biodegradation (DSB) model simulated
   the biodegradation of phenol and  glutamate originating
   inside aggregates. The model also simulated the initial
   period of biodegradation of glutamate in an experimental
   system  containing gel-exclusion chromatography beads. Clay
   aggregates reduced the concentration of available
   p-nitrophenol sufficiently to lower the  apparent rate
   constant for its biodegradation. Microscopic mass-transfer
   processes, such as diffusion, may be important to consider in 
   quantitative descriptions of the biodegradation of organic
   chemicals in soil.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   23. The effect of gel-forming polymers on seed germination
   and establishment.
   Woodhouse, J. M.; Johnson, M. S. 
   J-Arid-Environ v.20, p.375-380. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: hordeum-vulgare; lactuca-sativa;
   trifolium-repens; seed-germination; establishment-;
   polymers-; polyvinyl-alcohol; polyacrylamide-; gels-;
   soil-amendments; water-binding-capacity; starch-copolymers
   NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
   24. Effect of latex, polyacrylamide and mulching of soil with
   a film on potato yields.
   Gil', A. F.; Konkin, P. I. 
   Agrokhimiia. Moskva, U.S.S.R., "Nauka" Feb 1982. (2) p.
   4 ref.
   NAL Call No.: 385-AG89
   25. Effect of polyacrylamide on seedling emergence in
   crust-forming soils.
   Cook, D. F.; Nelson, S. D. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.328-333. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: medicago-sativa; polyacrylamide-;
   seedling-emergence; crusts-; arid-soils;
   physical-properties-of-soil; aggregates-; resistance-to-
   penetration; zea-mays; utah-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   26. Effect of polyacrylamide on seedling emergence of three
   grass species.
   Rubio, H. O.; Wood, M. K.; Cardenas, M.; Buchanan, B. A. 
   Soil-Sci v.148, p.355-360. (1989).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; crusts-; infiltration-;
   shear-strength; soil-moisture; greenhouse-experimentation;
   bouteloua-curtipendula; sporobolus- airoides;
   eragrostis-chloromelas; seedling-emergence
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   27. Effect of polymers in solution culture on growth and
   mineral composition of tomatoes.
   Wallace, A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.395-396. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: lycopersicon-esculentum; growth-;
   plant-nutrition; leaf-analysis; nutrient-contents-of-plants;
   minerals-; polymers-; polyacrylamide-; polysaccharides-;
   guar-; nutrient-solutions; ph-; yields-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   28. Effect of soil surface treatments of runoff and wheat
   yields under irrigation.
   Stern, R.; Van Der Merwe, A. J.; Laker, M. C.; Shainberg, I. 
   Agron-J v.84, p.114-119. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: triticum-aestivum; irrigation-water; runoff-;
   infiltration-; clay-loam-soils; soil-treatment;
   polyacrylamide-; phosphogypsum-; surface- treatment; dikes-;
   soil-structure; irrigation-scheduling; water-use-efficiency;
   soil-water-content; crop-yield; grain-; growth-rate;
   Abstract: In arid and semi-arid regions, where soil structure
   is unstable, surface runoff due to seal formation reduces
   irrigation water use efficiency.  This study was conducted to
   determine the efficiency of surface treatments in reducing
   runoff and increasing wheat crop productivity. Surface 
   runoff from wheat plots on a non-sodic, silty clay loam soil
   (Rhodudalf silty clay loam), sprinkler irrigated with a good
   quality irrigation water,  was collected using flumes and
   collection boxes. Percentages runoff were 36.1% of the total
   irrigation during the growing season for the control  (Ct),
   12.8% for phosphogypsum (PG), 1.4% for polyacrylamide plus PG
   (PAM), and 1.1% for pitting plus PG (Pt) treatments. The
   mulching  effect of the growing canopy did not reduce runoff
   during consecutive irrigations as the season progressed.
   Water content in the profile was  correlated with the amount
   of water that infiltrated into the soil. The crop biomass
   production in the Pt and PAM treatments was significantly 
   higher than the PG and Ct treatments (8.81 and 7.91 vs. 6.41
   and 5.47 Mg ha-1, respectively). The Pt and PAM treatments
   also gave  significantly higher grain yield (3.66 and 3.02
   vs. 2.25 and 2.12 Mg ha-1, respectively). The Pt, PAM, and PG
   treatments resulted in  significantly higher irrigation water
   use efficiency (IWUE) than the Ct. The PAM is the least known
   treatment and is given special attention in  this study. In
   regions where water is scarce and costly, improving the
   efficiency of irrigation by tillage or soil ameliorants
   should be considered.
   NAL Call No.: 4-AM34P
   29. Effect of soluble salts on water absorption by
   gel-forming soil conditioners.
   Johnson, M. S. 
   J-Sci-Food-Agric v.35, p.1063-1066. (1984).
   Includes 4 references.
   Descriptors: soil-conditioners; water-absorption;
   solubility-; salts-; polyacrylamide-; polyvinyl-alcohol;
   NAL Call No.: 382-SO12
   30. The effect of synthetic soil conditioners on microbial
   Steinberger, Y.; Sarig, S.; Nadler, A.; Barnes, G. 
   Arid-soil-res-rehabil v.7, p.303-306. (1993).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-flora; biomass-; carbon-; sandy-soils;
   loam-soils; polyacrylamide-; application-rates;
   NAL Call No.: S592.17.A73A74
   31. The effect of two polymers and water qualities on dry
   cohesive strength of three soils.
   Aly, S. M.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.53, p.255-259. (1989).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sandy-loam-soils; sandy-soils; clay-loam-soils;
   crusts-; soil-conditioners; polymers-; guar-;
   polyacrylamide-; water-composition-and- quality; canals-;
   wells-; soil-strength; cohesion-; tensile-strength; rupture-;
   soil-hardness; california-; modulus-of-rupture; well-water;
   Abstract: The effects of two polymers, cationic guar (CP-14)
   and anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), and two water qualities on
   dry cohesive strength  of three soils were studied. The soils
   were Fallbrook sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Typic
   Haploxeralf), Bosanko sandy clay loam  (fine,
   montmorillonitic, thermic, Chromic Pelloxererts), and Hanford
   loamy sand (coarse-loamy, mixed, nonacid, thermic, Typic
   Xerorthents).  The two polymers were applied with synthesized
   Friant-Kern Canal or well water typical of the San Joaquin
   Valley of California (EC 0.05 and  0.7 dS m-1, respectively).
   The soil was used either directly (nonpretreated) or
   pretreated by spraying the waters containing polymers to
   create  concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg polymer per kg
   soil and then air-drying the soil. Soil briquets and soil
   cores of pretreated soil were  saturated with untreated water
   and nonpretreated soil was saturated with waters containing
   polymer concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg  L-1. The
   saturated soil was drained, dried at 60 degrees C for 48 h
   and then the dry cohesive strength was measured by modulus of
   rupture  (MR) of soil briquets and tensile strength (S) of
   soil cores. The rupture stress (RS) required for crushing
   three group sizes (2-4,4-5.66 and 5.66- 8 mm) of artificially
   prepared soil aggregates using the various solutions was also
   measured. Both polymers were effective in ameliorating soil 
   hardness, but PAM was more effective than CP-14 in either
   water. The degree to which MR, S and R decreased with polymer
   applications was  dependent upon the soil type, water
   quality, polymer concentration and method of polymer
   application. Pretreated Bosanko soil showed higher  MR values
   in canal water than in well water for both polymers.
   Fallbrook soil showed the same trend as Bosanko soil with
   CP-14 and opposite  results with PAM. Higher values of MR
   were obtained in nonpretreated soil than in pretreated soil
   for Bosanko soil in both canal and well  water. In general,
   differences in MR between pretreated and nonpretreated
   Fallbrook soil were not great. Reasonable agreement was found 
   between measured MR and RS of the three soils and predicted
   results based on flocculation and polymer adsorption on
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   32. The effects of gel-forming polyacrylamides on moisture
   storage in sandy soils.
   Johnson, M. S. 
   J-Sci-Food-Agric v.35, p.1196-1200. ill. (1984).
   Includes 8 references.
   Descriptors: soil-conditioners; polyacrylamide-;
   soil-moisture; sandy-soils; soil-water-relations;
   NAL Call No.: 382-SO12
   33. Effects of polyacrylamide and irrigation method on soil
   physical properties.
   Terry, R. E.; Nelson, S. D. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.317-320. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; irrigation-systems;
   clay-loam-soils; bulk-density; aggregates-; stability-;
   infiltration-; penetrometers-; resistance-to- penetration;
   physical-properties-of-soil; utah-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   34. Effects of polyacrylamide on establishment and growth of
   crested wheatgrass seedlings and sagebrush tubelings.
   Al Rowaily, S. L.; West, N. E. 
   Gen-tech-rep-INT p.275-280. (1994).
   Paper presented at the symposium on "Ecology, Management, and
   Restoration of Intermountain Annual Rangelands," May 18-22,
   1992,  Boise, Idaho.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; agropyron-desertorum;
   artemisia-tridentata; growth-; seedling-emergence; crusts-;
   utah-; soil-moisture
   NAL Call No.: aSD11.A48
   35. Effects of polyacrylamide soil conditioner on the iron
   status of soybean plants.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A.; Abouzamzam, A. M.; Cha, J. W. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.368-370. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: glycine-max; iron-; mineral-deficiencies;
   polyacrylamide-; chlorosis-; soil-aeration; drainage-;
   calcareous-soils; california-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   36. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of
   tomato, cotton, and lettuce seedlings.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.313-316. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: lycopersicon-esculentum; gossypium-hirsutum;
   lactuca-sativa; soil-conditioners; seedling-emergence;
   growth-; polyacrylamide-; polysaccharides-;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   37. Effects of very low rates of synthetic soil conditioners
   on soils.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.324-327. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-conditioners; application-methods;
   infiltration-; polymers-; polyacrylamide-; polysaccharides-;
   porosity-; cost-benefit-analysis
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   38. Enhancement of the effect of coal fly ash by a
   polyacrylamide soil conditioner on growth of wheat.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.387-389. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: triticum-aestivum; coal-; fly-ash;
   polyacrylamide-; growth-; dry-matter-accumulation;
   physical-properties-of-soil; waste-disposal; waste-
   utilization; clay-soils; calcareous-soils; california-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   39. The environmental crisis in the Sudan: the effect of
   water-absorbingh synthetic polymers on tree germination and
   early survival.
   Callaghan, T. V.; Abdelnour, H.; Lindley, D. K. 
   J-Arid-Environ v.14, p.301-317. (1988).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: woody-plants; plant-establishment; survival-;
   deserts-; desertification-; water-absorption;
   polyacrylamide-; polyvinyl-alcohol; soil- conditioners;
   rain-; irrigation-water; water-use-efficiency; sudan-
   NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
   40. Erosion takes a powder.
   Senft, D. 
   Agric-Res-U-S-Dep-Agric-Res-Serv v.41, p.16-17. (1993).
   Descriptors: erosion-control; polyacrylamide-;
   irrigation-water; runoff-
   NAL Call No.: 1.98-AG84
   41. Fertilizer salts reduce hydration of polyacrylamide gels
   and affect physical properties of gel-amended container
   Bowman, D. C.; Evans, R. Y.; Paul, J. L. 
   J-Am-Soc-Hortic-Sci v.115, p.382-386. (1990).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-amendments; polyacrylamide-; gels-;
   hydrophilic-polymers; hydration-; fertilizers-; salts-;
   Abstract: Hydration of three commercial hydrophilic
   polyacrylamide gels in deionized water ranged from 340 to 420
   g per gram of gel. Hydration  was progressively inhibited by
   fertilizer salt concentrations from 0 to 20 meq.liter-1.
   Hydration of the gels in the presence of divalent cations 
   (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and monovalent cations (K+ and NH4+) at 20
   meq.liter-1 was reduced to approximately 10% and 20% of
   maximum,  respectively. The valence of the accompanying anion
   did not affect hydration. Gel hydration was unaffected by
   urea over the range of 2 to 20  mM. Sequential rinses of the
   hydrated gels with deionized water completely reversed the
   inhibition due to the monovalent, but not the divalent, 
   cations. The electroconductivity (EC) of the external
   solution increased during gel hydration. In the presence of
   fertilizer salts, the physical  properties of a 2 redwood
   sawdust : 1 sand (v/v) container mix were unaffected by
   hydrophilic gel additions of 1.2 and 2.4 kg.m-3 (1 X and 2 X 
   the recommended rate, respectively).
   NAL Call No.: 81-SO12
   42. Field results using polyacrylamide to manage furrow
   erosion and infiltration.
   Lentz, R. D.; Sojka, R. E. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.274-282. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: irrigated-soils; furrow-irrigation;
   water-erosion; erosion-control; infiltration-;
   soil-treatment; polyacrylamide-; application-rates; runoff-;
   sediment-; phosphorus-; nitrate-; losses-from-soil
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   43. Field studies on effect of soil conditioners and mulch on
   runoff from kaolinitic and Illitic soils.
   Stern, R.; Laker, M. C.; Merwe, A. J. v. d. 
   Aust-J-Soil-Res v.29, p.249-261. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: clay-soils; kaolinite-; illite-; water-erosion;
   erosion-control; phosphogypsum-; polyacrylamide-; mulches-;
   runoff-; rain-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-AU7
   44. Flow of water containing additives of polyacrylamide in a
   duralumin pipe of UDS-25 sprinkler.
   Vasil'ev, B. A.; Grukolenko, V. K.; Shakirova, E. A. 
   Nauchno-Tekh-Biul-Agron-Fiz p.59-61. (1977).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sprinkler-irrigation; equipment-; water-; flow-;
   polyacrylamide-; additives-; hydraulic-resistance
   NAL Call No.: S589.A1A35
   45. Formation and properties of the kaolinite-polyacrylamide
   complex in aqueous media.
   Nabzar, L.; Carroy, A.; Pefferkorn, E. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.113-119. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: kaolinite-; soil-formation; soil-properties;
   culture-media; polyacrylamide-; adsorption-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   46. Frankia diversity in an alder stand as estimated by
   sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of
   whole-cell proteins  [Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with
   Benson, D. R.; Hanna, D. 
   Can-J-Bot-J-Can-Bot v.61, p.2919-2923. ill. (1983).
   Paper presented at the "International Conference on the
   Biology of Frankia," August 4-6, 1982, Madison, Wisconsin.
   NAL Call No.: 470-C16C
   47. Frankia diversity in an alder stand as estimated by
   sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of
   whole-cell proteins  [Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with
   Benson, D. R.; Hanna, D. 
   Can-J-Bot-J-Can-Bot v.61, p.2919-2923. ill. (1983).
   Paper presented at the "International Conference on the
   Biology of Frankia," August 4-6, 1982, Madison, Wisconsin.
   NAL Call No.: 470-C16C
   48. High-tech polyacrylamides as soil conditioners in the
   reclamation and stability of desert lands.
   Wallace, G. A.; Wallace, A. 
   p.58-63. (1989).
   Paper presented at a "Symposium on Shrub Ecophysiology and
   Biotechnology," June 30-July 2, 1987, Logan, Utah.
   Descriptors: land-reclamation; deserts-; polyacrylamide-;
   NAL Call No.: aSD11.A48
   49. Hydraulic flow and water quality characteristics in rill
   Shainberg, I.; Laflen, J. M.; Bradford, J. M.; Norton, L. D. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-j. [Madison, Wis.] Soil Science Society of
   America. July/Aug 1994. v. 58 (4) p. 1007-1012. 
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: hapludults-; rill-erosion; water-flow;
   exchangeable-sodium; water-quality; calcium-chloride;
   polyacrylamide-; erodibility-; surface-layers; stresses-;
   soil-sodicity; soil-detachment; shear-stresses; stream-power
   Abstract: The effects of interaction between water flow
   characteristics, soil sodicity, and water quality on the
   detachment of soil particles by flowing  water was studied in
   the laboratory. Specific objectives of this study were to
   evaluate: (i) the use of flow shear stress and stream power
   for  estimating soil detachment, (ii) the effect of low soil
   sodicity (exchangeable sodium percentage [ESP] < 10) and
   water quality (deionized water  [DW] and 0.005 M CaCl2
   solution [TW]) on soil detachment, and (iii) the effect of
   negatively charged polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer on soil 
   detachment. Detachment rates were measured in a small
   hydraulic fume. Several bed slopes and flow rates were
   studied. Detachment rate  increased linearly with both shear
   stress and stream power of the flow. The rill erodibility of
   the Miami soil (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic  Hapludalf)
   agreed well with field data. Water quality had no effect on
   rill erodibility for the soil tested when ESP < 3.0. Use of
   TW reduced the  erodibility of soils with ESP 5 and 10
   compared with DW. Surface treatment with PAM [0.05 g m(-2)]
   prevented soil detachment in flows with  high shear stress.
   The formation of a surface soil layer with high cohesion and
   aggregate stability prevented soil detachment. Soil surface 
   properties and not bulk soil properties determined soil
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-So3
   50. Hydrophilic polyacrylamide and fertilizer affect growth
   and water relations of Chlorophytum comosum and Plectranthus
   australis during  winter production.
   Wang, Y. T.; Boogher, C. A. 
   J-Rio-Grande-Val-Hortic-Soc. Weslaco, Tex. : The Society.
   1989. v. 42 p. 51-58. 
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: chlorophytum-comosum; plectranthus-parviflorus;
   winter-; cultivation-; shoots-; roots-; growth-; responses-;
   irrigated-conditions; irrigation-scheduling; water-relations;
   hydrophilic-polymers; slow-release-fertilizers; texas-
   NAL Call No.: 81-L95
   51. Identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
   in roots of leek (Allim porrum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on
   the basis of enzyme  mobility during polyacrylamide gel
   Hepper, C. M.; Sen, R.; Maskall, C. S. 
   New-Phytol v.102, p.529-539. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: allium-porrum; zea-mays; roots-;
   glomus-caledonicus; glomus-fasciculatus; glomus-mosseae;
   enzyme-activity; electrophoresis-
   NAL Call No.: 450-N42
   52. Impact of hydrogel on physical properties of
   coarse-structured horticultural substrates.
   Fonteno, W. C.; Bilderback, T. E. 
   J-Am-Soc-Hortic-Sci v.118, p.217-222. (1993).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: pine-bark; polyacrylamide-;
   soil-physical-properties; soil-water; water-availability;
   Abstract: Addition of a polyacrylamide hydrogel to pine bark
   and pine bark + sand substrates had no effect on total
   porosity, regardless of  incorporation rate. Container
   capacity was increased with increasing rate of hydrogel in
   both substrates. Air space in pine bark was slightly 
   increased at the lowest rate but was reduced with higher
   incorporation rates. Air space in pine bark + sand was
   reduced with all hydrogel  additions. The dry weight of
   hydrogel cubes recovered from both substrates was similar to
   amounts predicted. This result indicates that blending 
   hydrogel granules into the substrates was uniform and did not
   contribute to variability in hydrogel studies. After allowing
   dry hydrogel granules  to expand freely in distilled water
   for 24 hours, hydrogel granules expanded 317 and 372 times
   their dry weights at the lowest and highest rates, 
   respectively. Reduction of expansion (in water) at higher
   rates may have been due to physical restriction of expansion.
   Conversely, recovered  hydrogel cubes from substrates watered
   to drainage (approximately 10% excess) for 6 weeks absorbed
   25 to 55 times their dry weight while in  the container.
   Subsequent rehydration of extracted gels in distilled water
   was greater for hydrogel cubes from the pine bark + sand
   medium (104  to 130) than in pine bark alone (51 to 88).
   Because of anomalies in hydraulic conductivity and pressure
   plate contact, three techniques were  used to study
   unavailable water content in gels expanded in distilled
   water. Hydrogel cubes placed in direct contact with the
   pressure plate  released approximately 95% of their water at
   pressures less than or equalt to 1.5 MPa. Effectiveness of
   polyacrylamide gels in coarse-structured  substrates is
   influenced by physical restrictions to expansion in the
   substrate and hydraulic conductivity between the hydrogel
   cubes and the  surrounding substrate.
   NAL Call No.: 81-SO12
   53. Improving the bearing capacity of top soil layers by
   means of a polymer mixture grout.
   Impe, W. F. v.; Boodt, M. d.; Meyus, I. 
   Impact of water and external forces on soil structure :
   selected papers of the 1st Workshop on Soilphysics [sic] and
   Soilmechanics [sic],  Hannover 1986 / J. Drescher, R. Horn
   and M. de Boodt (Editors). Cremlingen-Destedt : Catena,
   c1988. p. 1-14. ill. 
   Descriptors: soils-; erosion-control; polymers-;
   polyacrylamide-; sodium-silicate; soil-stabilization;
   slopes-; glyoxal-
   NAL Call No.: S593.2.W6-1986
   54. Influence of gel additives on nitrate, ammonium, and
   water retention and tomato growth in a soilless medium.
   Bres, W.; Weston, L. A. 
   HortScience v.28, p.1005-1007. (1993).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: lycopersicon-esculentum; growing-media;
   soilless-culture; gels-; additives-; hydrophilic-polymers;
   polyacrylamide-; water-holding- capacity; ammonium-nitrate;
   nutrient-uptake; nitrate-nitrogen; ammonium-nitrogen;
   leaves-; seedling-growth
   Abstract: Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect
   of incorporated hydrogel amendments to a soilless   growth
   medium on ammonium,  nitrate, and water retention and tomato
   (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)   seedling growth.
   HydroSource and Agri-gel were incorporated into a  1 peat : 1
   perlite : 1   vermiculite soilless medium at rates of 1, 2,
   or 3 g.liter-1 with 0.88 g of ammonium nitrate   fertilizer.
   Water retention by  the growth medium increased linearly with
   gel application;   HydroSource generally was more effective
   than Agri-gel. Between 90% and 96%  of the applied  
   nitrate-N was recovered in the resulting leachate of the
   gel-amended media, while 33% to 55% of  the ammonium-N was 
   recovered. Nitrate-N and ammonium-N retention was higher when
   3 g.liter-1 of   either gel was added to the growth medium
   than when lower  amounts or no gel was added. Gel   amendment
   did not affect tomato seedling growth. Total foliar N
   concentration in tomato leaves   was  significantly higher in
   the Hydrosource treatments than in the control or Agri-gel 
   NAL Call No.: SB1.H6
   55. Interaction of FeSO4 with polyacrylamide and urea
   formaldehyde in aggregating light-textured soils.
   Sharma, P. K. 
   Soil-Sci v.146, p.185-191. (1988).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: light-textured-soils; ferric-sulfate;
   soil-conditioners; polyacrylamide-; urea-formaldehyde;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   56. Interactions between a polyacrylamide and a
   polysaccharide as soil conditioners when applied
   Wallace, A.; Abouzamzam, A. M.; Cha, J. W. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.374-376. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: lycopersicon-esculentum; polyacrylamide-;
   polysaccharides-; soil-conditioners; responses-; growth-;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   57. Interactions between polymer soil conditioners and
   organic amendments in the improvement of physical properties
   of soil.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   J-Plant-Nutr v.13, p.437-450. (1990).
   Paper published in "Interactions of Limiting Factors in Crop
   Production", a special issue devoted to research papers by
   Dr. Arthur  Wallace.
   Descriptors: triticum-aestivum; lycopersicon-esculentum;
   lactuca-sativa; seedlings-; dry-matter-accumulation;
   crop-yield; yield-response-functions; soil- treatments;
   polyacrylamide-; lignite-ash; poultry-manure; composts-;
   limiting-factors; interactions-; soil-properties;
   multiple-fraction-yield-plot; liebig-type-limiting-factor
   NAL Call No.: QK867.J67
   58. Interactions of certain polyacrylamides with soil
   Grula, M. M.; Huang, M. L.; Sewell, G. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.291-300. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-bacteria; pseudomonas-; strains-;
   sulfate-reducing-bacteria; growth-; culture-media;
   polyacrylamide-; nutrient-sources; biodegradation- ;
   viscosity-; interactions-;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   59. Interactions of soil conditioner with other limiting
   factors to achieve high crop yields.
   Wallace, A.; Abouzamzam, A. M. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.343-345. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: lycopersicon-esculentum; limiting-factors;
   soil-deficiencies; nitrogen-; phosphorus-; soil-conditioners;
   physical-properties-of-soil; polyacrylamide-; crop-yield;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   60. Isoelectric focusing of humic substances on ultrathin
   polyacrylamide gels: evidence of fingerprint performance.
   Kutsch, H.; Schumacher, B. 
   Biol-fertil-soils v.18, p.163-167. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: humus-; isoelectric-focusing; page-;
   NAL Call No.: QH84.8.B46
   61. Isolation, purification and some physico-chemical
   properties of soil humic substances fractions obtained by
   polyacrylamide gel  electrophoresis.
   Trubetskoj, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.; Khomutova, T. E. 
   Soil-Biol-Biochem v.24, p.893-896. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: humus-; isolation-; purification-;
   grey-forest-soils; physicochemical-properties
   Abstract: A method of preparative isolation and purification
   of humic substances (HS) fractions obtained by
   electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide  gel has been
   developed. For removal of admixture and concentration of HS
   fractions, eluted from the gel, precipitation by
   trichloroacetic acid  or ethanol has been used.
   Electrophoretic mobility of HS fractions after their eluation
   from the gel and purification does not change. Absorption 
   spectroscopic investigations in the u.v. and visible ranges
   have been carried out. Correlation between a gradual increase
   of E4/E6 of HS  fractions and an increase of their
   electrophoretic mobilities assumes distribution of fractions
   in the gel matrix according to molecular weights.  The
   differences obtained between some physico-chemical properties
   of HS fractions point out the possible differences in their
   structural  organization and chemical composition.
   NAL Call No.: S592.7.A1S6
   62. A laboratory method for investigating the stabilization
   of mole channels.
   Davies, R. S.; Adey, M. A. 
   J-Agric-Eng-Res v.48, p.303-314. ill. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: mole-drainage; channels-; soil-blocks;
   laboratory-methods; stabilizing-; polyacrylamide-;
   treatment-; mole-plows
   Abstract: A method has been devised to allow production of
   model mole channels in blocks of soil under laboratory
   conditions. Subsequently, the  channels were subjected to a
   combination of treatments including wetting and drying of the
   whole soil block and the passage of water down  through the
   soil to the channel and along the channel itself. Erosion
   from within the channel was monitored by measurement of
   sediment yield  and the structure of the channel was itself
   examined by use of an endoscope. Mole channels produced with
   polyacrylamide, had smoother walls  initially than those
   without and also after subsequent testing by water flow.
   Additionally, channels treated with polyacrylamide, also
   produced  less sediment than untreated channels. Such models
   were used to study the beneficial effects of polyacrylamide
   on mole channel stability but  could also be used to study
   other aspects of mole channel production and stability under
   varying controlled conditions.
   NAL Call No.: 58.8-J82
   63. Mixing of concentrated polyacrylamide solutions in
   Vasil'ev, B. A.; Grukolenko, V. K.; Shakirova, E. A. 
   Nauchno-Tekh-Biul-Agron-Fiz p.33-37. (1978).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: drainage-systems; irrigation-systems;
   pipelines-; polyacrylamide-; water-flow-resistance;
   NAL Call No.: S589.A1A35
   64. Modification of hydrophysical properties of a sandy loam
   soil with soil conditioners [Polyvinylalcohol,
   polyacrylamide, polyvinyl acetate,  India].
   Sundara Sarma, K. S.; Nagarajarao, Y. 
   Indian-J-Soil-Conserv v.11, p.19-27. ill. (1983).
   Includes 17 references.
   Descriptors: India-
   NAL Call No.: S625.I47S6
   65. Modification of hydrophysical properties of a sandy loam
   soil with soil conditioners [Polyvinylalcohol,
   polyacrylamide, polyvinyl acetate,  India].
   Sundara Sarma, K. S.; Nagarajarao, Y. 
   Indian-J-Soil-Conserv v.11, p.19-27. ill. (1983).
   Includes 17 references.
   Descriptors: India-
   NAL Call No.: S625.I47S6
   66. N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide-crosslinked polyacrylamide
   for controlled release urea fertilizer formulations.
   Abraham, J.; Rajasekharan Pillai, V. N. 
   Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal v.26, p.3231-3241. (1995).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: urea-; slow-release-fertilizers; acrylamides-;
   polyacrylamide-; coatings-; polyvinyl-acetate;
   polyvinyl-chloride; rubber-; polystyrenes-; formulations-;
   evaluation-; comparisons-
   Abstract: Controlled release urea fertilizers based on
   N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NNMBA)-crosslinked
   polyacrylamide soil conditioner are  described. Laboratory
   preparation and evaluation of coated urea fertilizers were
   conducted. Urea was initially coated with the co-polymer of 
   acrylamide and NNMBA. Ethylene vinylacetate (EVA), natural
   rubber (NR), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were compared with
   polystyrene  (PS) for their suitability to be used as sealant
   material in coating fertilizer urea with the co-polymer of
   acrylamide and NNMBA. The coated  system with EVA was found
   to have greater slow release character than that with PS
   while NR and PVC systems had a lesser slow release 
   NAL Call No.: S590.C63
   67. Negatively charged PAM efficacy as a soil conditioner as
   affected by the presence of roots.
   Nadler, A. 
   Soil-Sci v.156, p.79-85. (1993).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sandy-soils; loam-soils; clay-soils;
   polyacrylamide-; application-rates; efficacy-;
   soil-water-retention; soil-structure; zea-mays; roots-;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   68. Oil application of a hydrophilic conditioner in relation
   to moisture, irrigation frequency and crop growth.
   Baasiri, M.; Ryan, J.; Mucheik, M.; Harik, S. N. 
   Commun-Soil-Sci-Plant-Anal v.17, p.573-589. (1986).
   Includes 8 references.
   Descriptors: cucumis-sativus; soil-conditioners;
   semiarid-soils; hydrophilic-polymers; polyacrylamide-;
   crop-yield; irrigation-scheduling; growth-; soil- moisture;
   NAL Call No.: S590.C63
   69. Organic polyanions' effect on aggregation of structurally
   disrupted soil.
   Nadler, A.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci v.148, p.346-354. (1989).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: aggregates-; polyacrylamide-; polysaccharides-;
   guar-; stability-; sieving-; particle-size-distribution;
   adsorption-; soil-water-content; soil- ph; charge-density;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   70. Organic polymers and soil sealing in cultivated soils.
   Shainberg, I.; Levy, G. J. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.267-273. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: agricultural-soils; sealing-; surface-layers;
   soil-treatment; polymers-; soil-conditioners; aggregates-;
   stability-; clay-; dispersion-; infiltration-;
   soil-properties; soil-solution; electrolytes-;
   polyacrylamide-; erosion-control; residual-effects
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   71. PAM application techniques and mobility in soil.
   Nadler, A.; Magaritz, M.; Leib, L. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.249-254. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; viscosity-; soil-treatment;
   clay-soils; sandy-loam-soils; penetration-; movement-in-soil;
   application-rates; aggregates-; stability-;
   pore-size-distribution; soil-water-retention;
   water-holding-capacity; israel-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   72. Pesticide leaching under different irrigation systems.
   Singh, G.; Spencer, W. F.; Yates, S. R. 
   Clean water, clean environment, 21st century  team
   agriculture, working to protect water resources  conference
   proceedings, March 5-8,  1995, Kansas City, Missouri /. St.
   Joseph, Mich. : ASAE, c1995.. v. 2 p. 215-218. 
   Descriptors: trifluralin-; chlorpyrifos-; methamidophos-;
   dicofol-; pendimethalin-; herbicide-residues;
   insecticide-residues; leaching-; subsurface- irrigation;
   trickle-irrigation; furrow-irrigation; irrigation-;
   groundwater-pollution; polyacrylamide-; irrigation-water;
   runoff-water; sediment- yield; furrows-; california-;
   NAL Call No.: TD365.C54-1995
   73. Physical properties of sodium-treated soil as affected by
   two polymers.
   Aly, S. M.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.54, p.501-504. (1990).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-conditioners; polymers-; polyacrylamide-;
   guar-; aggregates-; stability-; flocculation-; soil-strength;
   physical-properties-of-soil; sodium-adsorption-ratio;
   Abstract: Increasing values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)
   lead to decreasing aggregate stability, increasing dry
   cohesive strength, and decreasing  flocculation of soil.
   Soils with high SAR values occur in many semiarid and add
   regions of the world. This research investigated the 
   effectiveness of an anionic polyacrylamide (40J) and a
   cationic guar (T-4141) polymer in increasing aggregate
   stability and flocculation and  decreasing the aggregate
   rupture stress of soils treated to have SAR values of 1, 5,
   and 15. The aggregate stability of soil at all three SAR
   values  increased with increasing concentrations of 40J but
   was not greatly affected by T-4141. Both polymers had similar
   effects on the rupture stress  of aggregates where the
   rupture stress (with one exception) decreased with increasing
   polymer concentration. Both polymers increased  flocculation,
   compared with the control, for the soil at SAR equal to 1 and
   5, whereas only T-4141 produced measurable increase in 
   flocculation of the soil with SAR equal to 15. The polymer
   40J was more effective than T-4141 in promoting flocculation
   at SAR equal to 1 and  5 at lower polymer concentrations but
   less effective at higher concentrations. The effects of
   polymers on one soil property such as flocculation  cannot be
   extrapolated to the effects on another soil property such as
   aggregate stability or rupture stress.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   74. Polyacrylamide application in irrigation water to
   increase infiltration.
   Mitchell, A. R. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.353-358. ill. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: gossypium-; polyacrylamide-; irrigation-water;
   application-methods; infiltration-; permeability-;
   arid-soils; clay-loam-soils; irrigated-soils; california-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   75. Polyacrylamide cel preparation by ionizing radiation for
   conditioning soil.
   Azzam, R.; Seyam, T. 
   Ann-Agric-Sci-Moshtohor. Moshtohor, Zagazig Univ., Faculty of
   Agricultural Science. 1980. v. 13 p. 215-223. ill. 
   Bibliography p. 219-222.
   NAL Call No.: S341.A5
   76. Polyacrylamide characteristics related to soil
   Barvenik, F. W. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.235-243. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-amendments; polyacrylamide-; chemistry-;
   characterization-; chemical-properties;
   industrial-applications; formulations-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   77. Polyacrylamide effect on furrow erosion and infiltration.
   Trout, T. J.; Sojka, R. E.; Lentz, R. D. 
   Pap-Am-Soc-Agric-Eng. St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of
   Agricultural Engineers,. Summer 1993. (932036) 10 p. 
   Paper presented at the "1993 International Summer Meeting
   sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
   and The  Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering," June
   20-23, 1993, Spokane, Washington.
   Descriptors: furrow-irrigation; polyacrylamide-; erosion-;
   NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32P
   78. Polyacrylamide effect on furrow erosion and infiltration.
   Trout, T. J.; Sojka, R. E.; Lentz, R. D. 
   Trans-ASAE v.38, p.761-766. (1995).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-; erosion-; irrigation-; furrows-;
   polyacrylamide-; sediment-; soil-stabilization;
   application-rates; infiltration-; erosion-control; idaho-
   Abstract: Erosion from furrow irrigated land is a serious
   problem in southern Idaho and elsewhere in the western United
   States. High molecular  weight anionic Polyacrylamide (a
   water soluble polymer), increases soil aggregate stability
   and flocculates suspended sediments, thereby  reducing
   sediment detachment and transport in irrigation furrows.
   Application of 0.7 kg/ha/irrigation of polyacrylamide in
   irrigation water has  reduced furrow erosion by 85 to 99%. In
   the present work, sediment movement and infiltration were
   measured in a recirculating furrow  infiltrometer with two
   polyacrylamide treatments. Mean erosion reduction was 70%.
   Polyacrylamide increased mean infiltration by 30%,  probably
   the result of reduced sediment movement and furrow surface
   seal formation. Infiltration was inversely related to maximum
   sediment  concentration in the flowing water for both treated
   and untreated furrows. Farmers who use polyacrylamide must
   adapt their irrigation  management to the higher infiltration
   to maintain desired irrigation efficiencies.
   NAL Call No.: 290.9-Am32T
   79. Polyacrylamide gel as a soil amendment for mulched,
   microirrigated bell-pepper, Capsicum annuum L., cv. Bell
   Csizinszky, A. A.; Stanley, C. D.; Clark, G. A. 
   Proc-annu-meet-Fla-State-Hort-Soc. [S.l.] : The Society,. May
   1992. v. 104 p. 234-237. 
   Meeting held Oct 29-31, 1991, Miami Beach, Florida.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; capsicum-annuum;
   trickle-irrigation; mulches-; gels-; crop-yield
   NAL Call No.: SB319.2.F6F56
   80. A polyacrylamide (guar) as a soil conditioner.
   Wallace, A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.371-373. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: cyamopsis-tetragonoloba; galactomannans-; guar-;
   soil-conditioners; flocculation-; aggregates-; growth-;
   lactuca-sativa; lycopersicon- esculentum; seedling-emergence;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   81. Polyacrylamide review: soil conditioning and
   environmental fate.
   Seybold, C. A. 
   Commun-soil-sci-plant-anal v.25, p.2171-2185. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-stabilization; polyacrylamide-;
   water-erosion; erosion-control; environmental-impact;
   toxicity-; soil-; interactions-; reviews-
   Abstract: The adoption of polyacrylamide (PAM) in reducing
   irrigation induced erosion in California's San Joaquin Valley
   has been stymied by the  lack of information about its
   toxicity and environmental fate.  A review of the literature
   was conducted to bring to the forefront knowledge of 
   polyacrylamide, its effectiveness in controlling erosion and
   its environmental fate.  Polyacrylamide is a water-soluble,
   high molecular weight  synthetic organic polymer that
   primarily interacts with the clay fraction of soils.  The
   degree of interaction depends on both the properties of the 
   polymer and properties of the soil.  It is effective in
   stabilizing soil aggregates, reducing soil erosion, and
   increasing water infiltration, and also  has an indirect
   significant impact upon crop growth and yield.  For the most
   part, polyacrylamide is resistant to microbial attack, and
   its  degradation is mainly through physical breakdown. 
   Polyacrylamide has been shown to be non-toxic to humans,
   animals, fish, and plants; the  only concern has been the
   toxicity of its residual monomer (acrylamide) content, which
   is a known neurotoxin to humans. The residual  monomer is
   bio-degradable and does not accumulate in soils.  The major
   source of acrylamide that is released into the environment if
   from the  use of polyacrylamide products, so the FDA
   regulates the residual monomer content of PAM used in food
   contact products.  If the acrylamide  content is kept to a
   minimum, PAM itself does not pose any environmental threat,
   and thus, can be used effectively as a soil conditioner.
   NAL Call No.: S590.C63
   82. Polyacrylamide to improve water flow and salt removal in
   a high shrink-swell soil.
   Malik, M.; Amrhein, C.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.55, p.1664-1667. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: montmorillonitic-soils; mollisols-;
   reclamation-; desalinization-; polyacrylamide-;
   soil-treatment; cracks-; stability-; hydraulic-conductivity;
   salts-in-soil; leaching-; exchangeable-cations; sodium-;
   calcium-; magnesium-; potassium-; exchangeable-sodium;
   wetting-; drying-; shrinkage-; swelling-; infiltration-;
   drainage-; irrigation-water; california-;
   wetting-and-drying-cycles; exchangeable-sodium-percentages
   Abstract: Reclamation of salt-affected high shrink-swell
   soils using chemical amendments combined with deep loosening
   and tile drainage is very  expensive. As an alternative, the
   utilization of cracks as pathways for water and salts is
   possible if these cracks could be stabilized by the 
   application of a polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer and their
   complete closure prevented upon rewetting. A laboratory
   column study was  conducted on two soil samples with
   exchangeable sodium percentages (ESP) of 8 and 25 from a
   heavy-textured, swelling soil. The soil samples  were packed
   into columns, ponded with irrigation water for 24 h, then
   drained and dried to create cracks. After drying, the soil
   samples were  ponded for 24 h with irrigation water
   containing 0, 25, 75, and 200 mg L-1 of an anionic
   polyacrylamide polymer, allowed to drain, and dried.  The
   treated soils were then ponded without drainage for 1, 6, 12,
   and 24 b to allow crack closure and the hydraulic
   conductivity (HC) and  effluent salinity were measured. The
   experiment was repeated except that the polymer solution was
   added to the soil without initially creating  the cracks. An
   additional study was carried out to test the durability of
   the polymer when subjected to wetting and drying cycles.
   Increasing the  amount of polymer significantly increased the
   HC and salt removal in the cracked soils. When the polymer
   solution was applied directly onto  soils without initially
   creating cracks, there was no increase in HC on the ESP 8
   soil and a small increase on the ESP 25 soil. The polymer had
   a  stabilizing effect on soil cracks, but the increase in HC
   did not persist through several wetting and drying cycles.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   83. Polymer effects on runoff and soil erosion from sodic
   Levy, G. J.; Levin, J.; Shainberg, I. 
   Irrig-sci v.16, p.9-14. (1995).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sodic-soils; erosion-control;
   irrigated-conditions; polyacrylamide-; application-rates;
   irrigation-water; water-quality; runoff-;
   physicochemical-properties; infiltration-
   Abstract: High levels of soil sodicity, resulting from
   intensive irrigation with saline-sodic waters, lead to an
   increased soil susceptibility to seal  formation and to
   severe problems of runoff and soil erosion. The objective of
   this study was to investigate the efficacy of the addition of
   small  amounts of an anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to the
   irrigation water in controlling seal formation, runoff and
   soil erosion. Two predominantly  montmorillonitic soils were
   studied, a grumusol (Typic Haploxerert) and a loess (Calcic
   Haploxeralf), having naturally occurring exchangeable  sodium
   percentage (ESP) >12. The soils were exposed to 60 mm of
   simulated irrigation with commonly used tap water (TW,
   electrical  conductivity=0.8 dS m-1; sodium adsorption ratio
   (SAR)=2), or saline water (SW, electrical conductivity=5.0 dS
   m-1; SAR>12). PAM  effectiveness in controlling runoff and
   erosion from the sodic soils was compared with runoff and
   erosion levels obtained from untreated soils  having low ESPs
   (<4). For both soils and for both water qualities and polymer
   concentrations in the irrigation water, PAM was efficient in 
   controlling runoff at low ESP levels and inefficient at high
   ESP levels. At moderate ESP levels, PAM's efficacy in
   controlling runoff was  inconsistent and varied with water
   quality and polymer concentration. Conversely, in general,
   soil loss originating from rill erosion, was  significantly
   and effectively reduced in moderate and high ESP soils by
   addition of PAM to the irrigation water, irrespective of
   water quality  and polymer concentration. PAM was more
   effective in reducing rill erosion than in reducing runoff in
   the moderate and high ESP samples,  because the energy
   involved in generating runoff is much.  formation and runoff
   production; but they were stable enough to resist the
   hydraulic shear exerted by the runoff flow.
   NAL Call No.: S612.I756
   84. Polymer effects on the hydraulic conductivity of saline
   and sodic soil conditions.
   El Morsy, E. A.; Malik, M.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci v.151, p.430-435. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sandy-loam-soils; saline-sodic-soils;
   semiarid-zones; hydraulic-conductivity; sodic-water;
   saline-water; irrigation-; polysaccharides-; guar-;
   polyacrylamide-; adsorption-; electrical-conductivity;
   sodium-adsorption-ratio; electrolyte-concentration
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   85. Polymer type and water quality effects on soil
   Helalia, A. M.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.52, p.243-246. (1988).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-structure; soil-treatments;
   polyacrylamide-; guar-; flocculation-; clay-; aggregates-;
   dispersion-; colloidal-properties-of-soil; water-
   composition-and-quality; electrolytes-; canals-; wells-;
   Abstract: Ten polyacrylamide (PAM) and derivatized guar
   compounds, with different charges were tested at 0, 10, and
   50 mg L-1 concentration  with low electrolyte solution (1
   mol(c) m-3) at 0, 5, and 20 sodium absorption ratio values
   for their ability to reduce dispersion of three soils. 
   Dispersion was determined by measuring the soil settling rate
   in solution. All compounds were effective in promoting clay
   flocculation at a  concentration of 10 mg L 1. When compared
   at comparable charge, the PAM compounds were more effective
   than the guar compounds. This  result is consistent with
   their higher molecular weight. The order of effectiveness of
   the compounds was cationic greater than nonionic greater 
   than anionic. No cationic PAM compounds were available and
   the cationic guar compound (CP-14) was comparable to the
   nonionic PAM.  Flocculation decreased very slightly as the
   SAR increased, suggesting that the effect of low electrolyte
   concentration was the prominent factor  in dispersion. The
   cationic guar "CP-14" was tested separately with low (0.05 dS
   m-1) and moderate (0.7 dS m-1) electrolyte concentrations 
   simulating canal and well waters from California. Its effect
   on flocculation was very high at 5 mg L-1 concentration in
   both waters after only  10-min settling. Increasing the
   concentration greater than 10 mg L 1 did not improve the
   flocculation results.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   86. Polymers as soil conditioners under consecutive
   irrigations and rainfall.
   Ben Hur, M.; Faris, J.; Letey, J. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.53, p.1173-1177. (1989).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; polysaccharides-; guar-; rain-;
   sprinkler-irrigation; crusts-; infiltration-;
   impact-strength; stability-; adsorption-; aggregates-;
   calcium-chloride; sandy-loam-soils;
   application-of-amendments; california-
   Abstract: Low water infiltration caused by crust formation
   during rain or sprinkler irrigation is a significant problem
   in some arid and semi-arid  regions. Polymers may be applied
   in irrigation water through a sprinkler system, but must be
   applied directly to the soil under rainfall  conditions. The
   objectives of this rainfall simulator study were to: (i)
   determine the effect of drying of crusted vermiculitic soil
   on the  subsequent crust properties and infiltration rate
   (IR) values, (ii) determine the effect of polymers applied at
   low concentration in irrigation water  of two qualities on
   the IR under consecutive water applications, and (iii)
   determine the effectiveness of polymer application to the
   soil as would  be required rainfall conditions. Two cationic
   polysaccharide guar derivatives having a higher (HCCP) and a
   lower (LCCP) charge density and a  polyacrylamide (PAM) with
   a low negative charge density were used in the study.
   Applications of polymers with the sprinkler water maintain 
   IR in the order HCCP greater than LCCP greater than PAM
   greater than untreated. Except for PAM, the polymer
   applications were relatively  ineffective in subsequent
   sprinkler applications with plain water applied with impact
   energy. The beneficial effects were preserved under water 
   application without impact energy. Spraying concentrated
   polymer solutions on the soil surface was not effective in
   preventing crust formation  by following rain events except
   for the case when LCCP was sprayed on in CaCL2 solution. The
   results are explained on the basis of polymer  adsorption and
   penetration into the soil surface layer and agregates.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   87. Polymers check furrow erosion, help river life.
   McCutchan, H.; Osterli, P.; Letey, J. 
   Calif-agric v.47, p.10-11. (1993).
   Descriptors: runoff-irrigation; sediment-;
   pesticide-residues; polyacrylamide-; irrigation-water;
   erosion-control; infiltration-; furrows-; furrow-irrigation
   NAL Call No.: 100-C12Cag
   88. Polymers' effects on infiltration and soil erosion during
   consecutive simulated sprinkler irrigations.
   Levy, G. J.; Levin, J.; Gal, M.; Ben Hur, M.; Shainberg, I. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.56, p.902-907. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: vertisols-; alfisols-; sprinkler-irrigation;
   runoff-; water-erosion; erosion-control; polyacrylamide-;
   polysaccharides-; comparisons-; infiltration-; aggregates-;
   Abstract: Impact energy of water drops from overhead
   sprinkler irrigation can cause seal formation, and an
   increase in runoff and in soil erosion.  The effects of low
   concentrations (5, 10, and 20 g m-3) of two polymers, an
   anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and a cationic polysaccharide 
   (PSD), on soil permeability and erosion from a grumusol
   (Typic Chromoxerert) and a loess (Typic Haploxeralf), were
   studied during live  consecutive irrigations of 60 mm each.
   The polymers were added to the irrigation water during the
   first three consecutive irrigations, and  thereafter the
   soils were subjected to two additional irrigations of water
   only. During the first three irrigations, the final
   infiltration rates (FIR)  of the soils were significantly
   higher than those of the untreated samples (control). In the
   subsequent two irrigations with water only, the FIR  values
   of the treated samples decreased to values similar to those
   of the control. The low residual effect of the polymers was
   explained by  erosion of the thin treated layer and an
   insufficient amount of the polymers. A lower concentration of
   PAM (10 g m-3) was needed for optimal  effect on the FIR and
   cumulative infiltration, compared with PSD (20 g m-3). For
   the optimal treatments, infiltration parameters were
   generally  higher in the PAM- than in the PSD-treated soils.
   Soil losses in all the PAM treatments were significantly
   lower than those in the PSD  treatments. Both polymers
   stabilized soil aggregates, but PAM also cemented aggregates
   together and increased their resistance to erosion.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   89. Possible use of high-molecular-weight polymers to
   flocculate soil in testing soils for available nutrients.
   Wallace, A.; Wallace, G. A. 
   Soil-Sci v.141, p.397. (1986).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: polymers-; polyacrylamide-;
   nutrient-availability; flocculation-; molecular-weight;
   soil-testing; test-procedure
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   90. Presumptive fecal streptococci in environmental samples
   characterized by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl
   sulfate-polyacrylamide gel  electrophoresis.
   Niemi, R. M.; Niemela, S. I.; Bamford, D. H.; Hantula, J.;
   Hyvarinen, T.; Forsten, T.; Raateland, A. 
   Appl-environ-microbiol v.59, p.2190-2196. (1993).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: streptococcus-; enterococcus-; fecal-flora;
   indicator-species; sds-page-; bacterial-proteins;
   identification-; fatty-acids; isolation-; feces-; cattle-;
   wild-birds; anas-; streams-; sewage-; pulp-mill-effluent;
   Abstract: The use of fecal streptococci as fecal indicators
   requires better knowledge of the ecology of these bacteria.
   We isolated 371 presumptive  fecal streptococci from
   environmental samples-domestic wastewater, forest industry
   wastewater, contaminated surface and seawater, well water, 
   cow dung, bird droppings, and pristine waters--and clustered
   them according to their protein profiles in one-dimensional
   sodium dodecyl  sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
   analysis. Some clusters could be tentatively identified with
   the help of reference strains. Samples  from each environment
   had a typical composition of streptococcus types.
   Enterococcus faecalis was present, but not as a dominating 
   enterococcal species, in samples in which fecal contamination
   was probable. Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans,
   Enterococcus hirae,  and Enterococcus mundtii had protein
   profiles that were difficult to distinguish from each other.
   These bacteria were found in a variety of  samples.
   Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum had
   identical protein profiles. On the basis of the maximum
   temperatures for  growth and pigment production, isolates of
   this protein profile group common in forest industry
   wastewaters were identified as E. casseliflavus.  Lactococcus
   lactis subsp. lactis was also found in this environment.
   Nearly all strains from pristine waters belonged to protein
   profile groups  which could not be identified with the aid of
   known Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, or Streptococcus
   strains. The maximum  temperatures for growth and the results
   of fatty acid analysis were in general agreement within each
   protein profile group.
   NAL Call No.: 448.3-Ap5
   91. Production of vegetable transplants for NFT in pure
   Paschold, P. J.; Kleber, J. 
   Acta-hortic p.297-304. (1995).
   Paper presented at the XXIVth International Horticultural
   Congress on Hydroponics and Transplant Production, August
   21-27, 1994,  Kyoto, Japan.
   Descriptors: lactuca-sativa; hydrophilic-polymers;
   polyacrylamide-; polyacrylic-acid; growing-media;
   transplanting-; nutrient-film-techniques
   NAL Call No.: 80-Ac82
   92. Rain energy and soil amendments effects on infiltration
   and erosion of three different soil types.
   Levin, J.; Ben Hur, M.; Gal, M.; Levy, G. J. 
   Aust-J-Soil-Res v.29, p.455-465. (1991).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-types; rain-; droplets-; impact-;
   soil-amendments; phosphogypsum-; polyacrylamide-; effects-;
   infiltration-; runoff-; erosion-; israel-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-AU7
   93. Reclamation of a saline sodic soil using synthetic
   polymers and gypsum.
   Zahow, M. F.; Amrhein, C. 
   Soil-Sci-Soc-Am-J v.56, p.1257-1260. (1992).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: clay-soils; sodic-soils; saline-soils;
   reclamation-; hydraulic-conductivity; exchangeable-sodium;
   polyacrylamide-; gypsum-; guar-gum; hydrodynamic-dispersion;
   swelling-; soil-slaking
   Abstract: The water infiltration rate of saline sodic soils
   often limits the rate of reclamation. Column leaching studies
   were conducted to determine if  water-soluble, synthetic
   polymers would be beneficial in improving the hydraulic
   conductivity and aid reclamation of a heavy-textured, salt-
   affected soil. Soil samples from a swelling soil (fine,
   montmorillonitic [caleareous] Thermic Vertic Haplaquoll) were
   collected from a field site  that had exchangeable sodium
   percentages (ESP) of 8, 12, 20, 25, 32, and 35. The air-dried
   soil samples were treated with polyacrylamide  polymers (one
   nonionic and two anionic) and one cationic guar-derivative
   polymer at a rate of 50 mg kg-1. Polymer treatments had a
   highly  significant effect on increasing the saturated
   hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples with ESP values <
   15, but had no significant effect on  the samples with values
   > 15. The addition of gypsum increased the hydraulic
   conductivity from 0.0 to 0.063 mm h-1 in the soil with an ESP
   of  32. When polymers were used in conjunction with gypsum,
   the hydraulic conductivity increased to 0.28 mm h-1. We
   attributed the  improvement in hydraulic conductivity with
   polymer treatment at low ESP values and in the gypsum-treated
   soil to a reduction in soil slaking  and dispersion. At ESP
   values > 15, an additional mechanism that may have been
   controlling the hydraulic conductivity was swelling, and none 
   of the polymers reduced soil swelling.
   NAL Call No.: 56.9-SO3
   94. Runoff, erosion, and polymer application in
   moving-sprinkler irrigation.
   Ben Hur, M. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.283-290. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: irrigated-soils; sprinkler-irrigation;
   soil-treatment; polyacrylamide-; polysaccharides-;
   soil-conditioners; water-erosion; erosion-control;
   infiltration-; runoff-; losses-from-soil; crop-production;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   95. Soil erosion and pesticide transport from an irrigated
   Singh, G.; Letey, J.; Hanson, P.; Osterli, P.; Spencer, W. F. 
   J-environ-sci-health,-Part-B,-Pestic-food-contam-agric-wastes. New York, Marcel Dekker. 1996. v. B31 (1) p. 25-41. 
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: dicofol-; polyacrylamide-; irrigated-conditions;
   runoff-; erosion-; losses-from-soil; pesticide-residues;
   NAL Call No.: TD172.J61
   96. Structure and function of water-storing agricultural
   Johnson, M. S.; Veltkamp, C. J. 
   J-Sci-Food-Agric v.36, p.789-793. ill. (1985).
   Includes 8 references.
   Descriptors: polyacrylamide-; ultrastructure-;
   scanning-electron-microscopy; water-holding-capacity
   NAL Call No.: 382-SO12
   97. Studies on the flocculation characteristics of pyrites
   cinder in dilute sulphuric acid with polyacrylamide
   Fertilizer manufacture.
   Kapoor, J. N.; Mathur, D. P. 
   Fert-Technol v.18, p.184-188. (1981).
   Includes references.
   NAL Call No.: TP963.A1T4
   98. Time for yet another look at soil conditioners.
   Sojka, R. E.; Lentz, R. D. 
   Soil-sci v.158, p.233-234. (1994).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: soil-conditioners; polyacrylamide-;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3
   99. Time responses of sugar beet germination, oxygen
   diffusion and redox potential to crust formation,
   polyacrylamide stabilization and  peroxide fertilization.
   Callebaut, F.; Gabriels, D.; Boodt, M. de. 
   Geoderma. Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific. May 1981. v. 25
   (3/4) p. 275-283. ill. 
   20 ref.
   NAL Call No.: S590.G4
   100. Trends in structure, plant growth, and microorganism
   interrelations in the soil.
   Nadler, A.; Steinberger, Y. 
   Soil-Sci v.155, p.114-122. (1993).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: zea-mays; sandy-soils; loam-soils; clay-soils;
   polyacrylamide-; application-rates; soil-structure;
   soil-water-retention; soil-flora; soil- invertebrates;
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-SO3
   101. Use of two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis to
   demonstrate that putative Rhizobium cross-inoculation mutants
   actually are  contaminants.
   Leps, W. T.; Roberts, G. P.; Brill, W. J. 
   Applied-Environ-Microbiol. Washington, D.C., American Society
   for Microbiology. Feb 1980. v. 39 (2) p. 460-462. ill. 
   7 ref.
   NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
   102. Use of two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis to
   demonstrate that putative Rhizobium cross-inoculation mutants
   actually are  contaminants.
   Leps, W. T.; Roberts, G. P.; Brill, W. J. 
   Applied-Environ-Microbiol. Washington, D.C., American Society
   for Microbiology. Feb 1980. v. 39 (2) p. 460-462. ill. 
   7 ref.
   NAL Call No.: 448.3-AP5
   103. Using hydrophilic polymers to improve uptake of
   manganese fertilizers by soybeans.
   Mikkelsen, R. L. 
   Fertil-res v.41, p.87-92. (1995).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: glycine-max; manganese-fertilizers;
   nutrient-sources; application-rates; polyacrylamide-;
   manganese-; nutrient-availability; nutrient-uptake;
   nutrient-content; leaves-; stems-; dry-matter-accumulation;
   Abstract: Manganese deficiency in soybeans (Glycine max (L.)
   Merr.) is a common problem in many parts of the world. Recent
   research has  demonstrated that the addition of gel-forming
   hydrophilic polymers with plant nutrients may enhance the
   availability and effectiveness of some  soil-applied
   nutrients. This greenhouse study was designed to determine if
   the addition of hydrated cross-linked polyacrylamide polymers
   could  increase plant recovery of commonly used Mn
   fertilizers by soybeans. Four Mn sources (MnO, MnSO4.4H2O,
   MnCl2, and MnEDTA) were  band applied at two concentrations
   to a low-Mn soil with and without one of two polymers.
   Addition of either polymer alone or MnO had no  effect on
   leaf or stem Mn concentration, but when MnSO4.4H2O, MnCl2, or
   MnEDTA were added with a polymer, leaf Mn accumulation  swere
   increased an average of 89%, compared with those Mn sources
   applied alone. Plant accumulation of Mn from MnO was no
   greater than  the control treatment and uptake was not
   increased following the addition of polymer. At the
   conclusion of the experiment, the polymers were  still
   hydrated and the fertilizer band contained an abundance of
   roots. The use of a hydrophilic polymer with soluble Mn
   fertilizers appears to  enhance the recovery by plants and
   may lead to lower Mn application rates or perhaps less
   frequent applications.
   NAL Call No.: S631.F422
   104. Water movement in a conditioner-treated sandy soil in
   Saudi Arabia.
   Sabrah, R. E. A. 
   J-arid-environ. London, New York, Academic Press. Aug 1994.
   v. 27 (4) p. 363-373. 
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: sandy-soils; soil-conditioners; polyacrylamide-;
   soil-water-movement; application-rates; saturated-flow;
   unsaturated-flow; water- conservation; evaporation-;
   saudi-arabia; hydro-grow-400
   NAL Call No.: QH541.5.D4J6
   105. Water quality and PAM interactions in reducing surface
   Shainberg, I.; Warrington, D. N.; Rengasamy, P. 
   Soil-sci v.149, p.301-307. (1990).
   Includes references.
   Descriptors: alfisols-; vertisols-; sealing-; surface-layers;
   infiltration-; polyacrylamide-; application-rates;
   water-quality; electrolytes-; concentration-; soil-solution;
   aggregates-; stability-
   NAL Call No.: 56.8-So3

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